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Sample records for health study ahs

  1. Recruiting black Americans in a large cohort study: the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30-109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities.

  2. Recruiting Black Americans in a Large Cohort Study: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R. Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Fraser, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. Design We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30–109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Results Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. Conclusion In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities. PMID:21305834

  3. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  4. RESPON PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN SYARIAH DI PAMEKASAN TERHADAP PEMBUKAAN PROGRAM STUDI PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three focuses becoming study in this research that is: a Response ( appresiation Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan, b Expectation of Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'Ah in Pamekasan to grad, c Elementary compentence which must be had by grad. This research uses the approach qualitative trying to watch closely the response of the head Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Moslem law in Pamekasan to opening of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Result of this research showing that: Response of Financial Institution and Syari’ah Banking in Pamekasan to opening the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan is very good, and they are also ready for cooperating in powering the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Expectation of Syari’ah Banking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan to grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking STAIN Pamekasan next, absolute mastering the conception of Syari’ah Banking supported with knowledge of conventional banking concept and domination of information Technology Skill. Elementary compentence which must be had by the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; some of responders assess is competent, and some of other assess still many conventional banking payload, less payload of syari’ah banking, and still less subjects which uplift the skill and practice because the next grad have to ready to work in banking area.

  5. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    the day, night, and in adverse weather through the use of nose-mounted, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pilotage and targeting sensors that provide a...sensor video and/or symbology to each crewmember via a helmet display unit (HDU). The HDU contains a 1-inch (in.) diameter cathode ray tube (CRT...American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12(4): 365–369. Sale, D. F., and Lund, G. J. 1993. AH-64 Apache program update

  6. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products.

  7. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  8. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  9. TAFSIR ALQUR’AN PARADIGMA INTEGRATIF: STUDI ATAS QIRA’AH ALTHANIYAH MUHAMMAD SYAHRUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes on the alternative reading (qira'ah altaniyah of Alqur’an proposed by Muhammad Shahrur, in his work “Alkitab wa Alqur’an: Qira'ah Almu'ashirah”. Through this work, Syahrur proposed an integrative-interpretation method which is built through combining analysis of natural science, social science, and tafsir. Based on the descriptive analysis approach to this works, this study found out two important things: (1 Syahrur using mathematical analysis to interpret the muhkamat’s verses and science analysis for mutasyabihat’s verses. (2 Hudud is a result of the integrative analysis interpretation based on the linguistic and mathematic analysis in understanding the Quranic verses about the law, while ta’wil ilmi is an understanding toward mutasyabihat verses, like the revelation, which is based on the analysis of natural science cognitive.

  10. ANALISIS POTENSI PENERIMAAN KUALITAS ALUMNI PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI SYARI’AH STAIN KUDUS DITINJAU DARI PERSPEKTIF STAKEHOLDER

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    Ekawati Rahayu Ningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GRADUATES RECEPTION QUALITYANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC STUDIES SYARI’AH IN STAIN KUDUS VIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE STAKEHOLDER. The first aim of  this study was to determine the potential reception of  graduates quality in Shariah Economic Studiesof  STAINKudus in the world of  work. Second, to determine the motivations and needs of  stakeholders on the acceptance of  the quality of  graduates in Economics   Shariah STAIN Kudus.And third, to determine what factors which are supporting and inhibiting the absorption of graduates of the Department of Shariah Economics STAIN Kudus in working world. The theory that was developed as a basis for the analysis is the pyramid theory of  motivation and needs of  Abraham Maslow. By using qualitative research approach, the analysis and discussion of this study are:First, the potential acceptance of  Shariah Economy graduates in the working world, especially in the banking and financial institutions Shari’ah is still very large and potentially growing along with the rapid growth in the number of  banking and financial institutions Shari’ah in Indonesia. Second, motivation and needs of  stakeholders for the graduates reception of Shariah Economic STAIN Kudus is because it is the only college in the state of  religion around the Pantura area having Shariah Economic Studies Program and easily accessible. In addition, in order to establish a more synergistic relationship with the STAIN kudus then either the shari’a banking and financial institutions are willing to accept graduates of  Shariah Economic Studies Program as employees, of course, with the various criteria established in the job requirements. Keywords:Potential,  Quality  Admissions,  Graduates, Economic Shariah, Stakeholder. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, untuk mengetahui potensi penerimaan kualitas alumni Program Studi Ekonomi Syari’ah STAIN Kudus di dunia kerja. Kedua, untuk mengetahui motivasi dan

  11. Effectiveness of the influenza a(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    Background: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59- adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09

  12. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Schooten, van F.J.; Kok, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for

  13. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

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    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Methods. We conducted Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI for A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Influenza virus sequences database search started from 1997 until 2015. Data pertinent to this study is PB1 gene of A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Influenza viruses. We conducted the multiple alignments to determine the various length and important mutation. Results. The PB1-F2 sequences from the 3262 Influenza A/H5N1 and 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 were studied. The analysis showed that all Influenza A/H5N1 carrying the full length 90 amino acids of PB2-F1 sequences, except the Influenza pandemic A/H1N1 2009, only 87 amino acids. In addition, the mutation indicates the presence of a significant correlation with the virulence shown by Serine at nucleotide number 66 which replaces Asparagines (N66S. The mutation occurs in 8.5% of Influenza A/H5N1 and 0.5% of Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Conclusion. Several varying length and important mutation of PB2-F1 sequences from different subtype of A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 were obtained which are indicating the positively selected in specific subtype due to introduction and adaptation into different host. The further studies are required to understanding this variability and contribution of PB1-F2 proteins in virulence and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Key Words : Pathogenesis, Influenza virus, PB-F2 Protein

  14. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Methods. We conducted Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI for A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Influenza virus sequences database search started from 1997 until 2015. Data pertinent to this study is PB1 gene of A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 Influenza viruses. We conducted the multiple alignments to determine the various length and important mutation.   Results. The PB1-F2 sequences from the 3262 Influenza A/H5N1 and 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 were studied. The analysis showed that all Influenza A/H5N1 carrying the full length 90 amino acids of PB2-F1 sequences, except the Influenza pandemic A/H1N1 2009, only 87 amino acids. In addition, the mutation indicates the presence of a significant correlation with the virulence shown by Serine at nucleotide number 66 which replaces Asparagines (N66S. The mutation occurs in 8.5% of Influenza A/H5N1 and 0.5% of Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Conclusion. Several varying length and important mutation of PB2-F1 sequences from different subtype of A/H5N1 and A/H1N1pdm09 were obtained which are indicating the positively selected in specific subtype due to introduction and adaptation into different host. The further studies are required to understanding this variability and contribution of PB1-F2 proteins in virulence and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. Key Words : Pathogenesis, Influenza virus, PB-F2 Protein

  15. Spinal Pain and Occupational Disability: A Cohort Study of British Apache AH Mk1 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    British RW community. 33 References Apache AH Mk1. 2012. Agusta Westland. http://www.agustawestland.com/ product /apache-ah- mk1-0. Ang, B., and...muscles Physical ex and stretching Continued pt and stretching exercises Use pt session included pumpkin bobs to stretch the neck. No effects noticed

  16. Numerical and experimental study on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Besufekad N.; Kumar, Vikash; Dixit, Uday S.; Echempati, Raghu

    2018-02-01

    Laser bending is a process of bending of plates, small sized sheets, strips and tubes, in which a moving or stationary laser beam heats the workpiece to achieve the desired curvature due to thermal stresses. Researchers studied the effects of different process parameters related to the laser source, material and workpiece geometry on laser bending of metal sheets. The studies are focused on large sized sheets. The workpiece geometry parameters like sheet thickness, length and width also affect the bend angle considerably. In this work, the effects of width and thickness on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips were studied experimentally and numerically. Finite element model using ABAQUS® was developed to investigate the size effect on the prediction of the bend angle. Microhardness and flexure tests showed an increase in the flexural strength as well as microhardness in the scanned zone. The microstructures of the bent strips also supported the physical observations.

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR) by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank). The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different...

  18. Penciptaan Lingkungan Edukatif dalam Pembentukan Karakter: Studi terhadap Aplikasi Pemikiran Ibnu Jama’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Noer Aly

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a rediscovery enterprise on educational thought of Ibn Jama’ah in his famous book, al-Tadhkirah. It is basically the book on  learning and teaching. But, much more  than a book on  technic and strategy ,  it  is  full of  moral message which conducts whole process of  learning and  teaching,  and  in  turn  creates an  educating environment. The significance of this study due to moral decadence among the nation. Corruption, for instance, is not only available among the leaders and bureaucrates, but also among the peoples. Delinquency  is not only the habit of  young generation, but now suffered by parents who can not give a good sample. That moral decadence is not deal with  the poverty of moral conduct; there  are  treasury  and haritage of  it, either from religous or traditional resource. But that old values available in many documents are not internalized yet, in additon to the fast-coming of foreign culture which is not in accord with Indonesian culture. Here we see that the issue is not the content of value education, but the strategy developed  in the process. So that, al-Tadhkirah will be studied with content analysis approach to find out the possibility of application of his thought in moral education. The study  finally discovered that the  thought of  Ibn  Jama’ah  is very possible  to be applied. The only precondition  is the commitment of all stakeholders to create educating environtment based on regulation formulated by themselves.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

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    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  20. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  2. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Teitler-Regev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel.

  3. Analisis Komparasi Pembentukan Gap Sensitivitas Sebagai Instrumen Manajemen Risiko (Studi Pada Bank Umum Konvensional Dan Bank Umum Syari`ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Akmalia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan studi komparatif yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi gap yang terbentuk pada Bank Umum Konvensional dan Bank Umum Syari`ah serta membadingkan dampaknya terhadap perubahan suku bunga sehingga dapat ditentukan gap terbaik. Posisi gap terbentuk oleh struktur gap dengan metode gap sensitivitas, Analisis korelasi dan volatilitas digunakan untuk mengetahui sejauhmana variabel-variabel suku bunga mempengaruhi suku bunga benchmark (SBI dan SWBI serta Uji F statistik untuk menguji hipotesis. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan Bank Umum Konvensional dan Bank Umum Syariah tahun 2004-2008 serta suku bunga domestic periode Januari 2004-Desember 2008. Hasil penelitian menujukkan bahwa Gap terbaik pada BUK terbentuk oleh Bank Mayapada, untuk BUS pada Bank Syari`ah Mandiri, sementara secara keseluruhan pembentukan gap terbaik adalah Bank Syari`ah Mandiri. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa bank syariah memiliki pembentukan posisi gap yang lebih baik dari pada bank konvensional selama periode 2004-2008.JEL Classification : E5, G21Kata Kunci : Manajemen Risiko, Gap Sensitivitas

  4. Influenza sentinel surveillance network: a public health-primary care collaborative action to assess influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case.   A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians' Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research.

  5. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  6. APICAL SEAL BETWEEN ADHESIVE ROOT CANAL OBTURATION SYSTEM AND GUTTA-PERCHA/AH-PLUS SEALER: AN IN VITRO COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Three dimensional obturation of the root canal is important for success of root canal treatment. Microleakage is one of the reason for root canal failure. Numerous materials have been used for obturation of which Gutta-percha is the most successful with variety of sealers. One of the recent material to further improve root canal treatment success rate is use of Resilon with Epiphany root canal sealer to apply adhesive concepts in to endodontics. An adhesive bond forms between Epiphany sealer, Resilon and dentin, making it monolithic hence less microleakage if any significantly. METHODS 60 single rooted mandibular premolars were dissected at cement enamel junction with diamond disc. Root canals were explored and working length measured using K file. Root canals of all 60 samples were prepared with ProTaper and irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA solution. Teeth were divided in to group A and B, each having 30 samples. Group A teeth obturated with Resilon Epiphany obturation system and group B with Gutta-percha and AH-plus sealer. All specimens were stored in incubator for 30 days. Clearing process of samples done with Robertson’s technique to make them transparent. All the specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 7 days. Specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope with 10x magnification to measure dye penetration in mm with image analysis software. The data collected were analysed statistically. RESULTS This study showed that Resilon Epiphany group has a mean leakage of 1.2307, while the Gutta-percha/AH-plus had a mean leakage of 3.6133. There was statistically significant differences between Resilon and Gutta-percha groups. CONCLUSIONS 1. Resilon Epiphany group showed less apical microleakage than Gutta-percha/AH-plus obturation. 2. Based on result obtained it is suggested that Resilon Epiphany can be recommended for root canal obturation.

  7. HealthLines: Quick Tips for Seasonal Health, Safety and Fun... "Ah, when the sun beats down…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues HealthLines: Quick Tips for Seasonal Health, Safety and Fun Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... and protect against reflected UV radiation (from sand, water, or snow). UV radiation ... and stress fractures. Remember safety gear. Depending on the sport, ...

  8. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%. The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated ("Yes, certainly", "Yes, probably". Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7% of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001; older age (p = .002; highest or lowest level of education (p = .016; non-clerical occupation (p = .011; having only one child (p = .008; and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001. Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9% and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8% (p = .002. Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively. In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001. Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat

  9. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students’ preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT)...

  10. Pandemic influenza (A/H1N1 vaccine uptake among French private general practitioners: a cross sectional study in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Verger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July, 2009, French health authorities, like those in many other countries, decided to embark on a mass vaccination campaign against the pandemic A(H1N1 influenza. Private general practitioners (GPs were not involved in this campaign. We studied GPs' pandemic vaccine (pvaccine uptake, quantified the relative contribution of its potential explanatory factors and studied whether their own vaccination choice was correlated with their recommendations to patients about pvaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected private GPs (N = 1431; response rate at inclusion in the panel: 36.8%; participation rate in the survey: 100%. The main outcome variable was GPs' own pvaccine uptake. We used an averaging multi-model approach to quantify the relative contribution of factors associated with their vaccination. The pvaccine uptake rate was 61% (95%CI = 58.3-63.3. Four independent factors contributed the most to this rate (partial Nagelkerke's R(2: history of previous vaccination against seasonal influenza (14.5%, perception of risks and efficacy of the pvaccine (10.8%, opinions regarding the organization of the vaccination campaign (7.1%, and perception of the pandemic's severity (5.2%. Overall, 71.3% (95%CI = 69.0-73.6 of the participants recommended pvaccination to young adults at risk and 40.1% (95%CI = 37.6-42.7 to other young adults. GPs' own pvaccination was strongly predictive of their recommendation to both young adults at risk (OR = 9.6; 95%CI = 7.2-12.6 and those not at risk (OR = 8.5; 95%CI = 6.4-11.4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that around 60% of French private GPs followed French authorities' recommendations about vaccination of health care professionals against the A(H1N1 influenza. They pinpoint priority levers for improving preparedness for future influenza pandemics. Besides encouraging GPs

  11. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  12. Comparison of farmers in the agricultural health study to the 1992 and the 1997 censuses of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Charles F; Sprince, Nancy L; Heywood, Ellen; Pierce, Joy; Logsden-Sackett, Nyla; Pennybacker, Margaret; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2005-01-01

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a large, prospective cohort study in the states of Iowa and North Carolina that has been developed to better understand how pesticides and other agricultural exposures relate to the occurrence of cancer and other diseases. This report compares the characteristics of AHS farmers to the Census of Agriculture to evaluate the generalizability of AHS findings. We restricted the AHS to private pesticide applicators who enrolled in Iowa (n = 31,065) and in North Carolina (n = 17,239) between 1993 and 1997, and who identified themselves as living or working on a farm. We compared their self-reported data with data from the 1992 and 1997 Censuses of Agriculture. AHS farmers in Iowa are younger; live or work on larger farms; more frequently apply herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides; and are more likely to raise beef cattle and swine, and grow corn, soybeans, hay, and oats. AHS farmers in North Carolina are also younger, live or work on larger farms, more frequently reported growing crops commonly seen in the state, and are more frequent pesticide users. However, animals raised are similar to those in the North Carolina Census of Agriculture. AHS farmers likely represent the higher end of pesticide usage in both states in part because AHS farmers have larger farms. Since the health effects of pesticides are best ascertained among pesticide users with the greatest exposure, the AHS cohort should prove to be a valuable resource for health effects research.

  13. LAA~Ah

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    411<0 = 1000 dalton, 1 dalton = 1.66024 x 10-24 g. ______ LAA~Ah ... energy use. These changes led to a reduction in food intake and the percentage of body fat, along with an ... of the brain called the hypothalamus may be important in ...

  14. Aa Ah Nak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  15. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  16. The crystal structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer reveals the structural basis of the repression of AhR-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunya; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ohto, Umeharu

    2017-10-27

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin and related compounds are extraordinarily potent environmental toxic pollutants. Most of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin toxicities are mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family. Upon ligand binding, AhR forms a heterodimer with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and induces the expression of genes involved in various biological responses. One of the genes induced by AhR encodes AhR repressor (AhRR), which also forms a heterodimer with ARNT and represses the activation of AhR-dependent transcription. The control of AhR activation is critical for managing AhR-mediated diseases, but the mechanisms by which AhRR represses AhR activation remain poorly understood, because of the lack of structural information. Here, we determined the structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer by X-ray crystallography, which revealed an asymmetric intertwined domain organization presenting structural features that are both conserved and distinct among bHLH-PAS family members. The structures of AhRR-ARNT and AhR-ARNT were similar in the bHLH-PAS-A region, whereas the PAS-B of ARNT in the AhRR-ARNT complex exhibited a different domain arrangement in this family reported so far. The structure clearly disclosed that AhRR competitively represses AhR binding to ARNT and target DNA and further suggested the existence of an AhRR-ARNT-specific repression mechanism. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism by which AhRR represses AhR-mediated gene transcription. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. MENGGAGAS PENDIDIKAN BERWAWASAN KEWIRAUSAHAAN DI PERGURUAN TINGGI ISLAM: STUDI KASUS FAKULTAS SYARI`AH DAN EKONOMI ISLAM IAIN “SMH” BANTEN 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR HIDAYAH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Initiating the Education based on Entrepreneurship in Islamic College: a Study at Syariah and Islamic Economic Faculty IAIN "SMH" Banten 2014-2015. There has been a concern over a high unemployment rate among graduates of Islamic higher education and a low proportion of entrepreneurs in Indonesia. In fact, a high proportion of entrepreneurs is one of indicators of a country’s welfare. This has generated a question: to what extent do Islamic values cultivate entrepreneurial culture among its adherents? How to cultivate entrepreneurial culture in Islamic higher education? This paper will investigate this matter using a case study of Faculty of Islamic Law and Economics at Banten State Institute for Islamic Studies. The paper argues that the curriculum at the faculty of Islamic Law and Economics has not been oriented towards building entrepreneurial culture. The curriculum consists of subjects to enhance the students’ competence and skills to prepare them as bachelors of syari`ah economics for the professions such as manager, lecturer, researcher, syari`ah auditor, etc, instead of preparing them for entrepreneurs who are capable to build his or her own business from the scratch. To propose Islamic entrepreneurship study program at the FSEI of IAIN SMHB, it is important to havea strong political will not only from the internal IAIN but also higher authoritative body such as the Ministry of Religious Affairs to facilitate this from not only the accreditation process but also financial support. A further feasibility study needs to be undertaken to build its infrastructure such as qualified lecturers, appropriate curriculum structure, and recruitment student system. Since this field has a strong link with a ‘real sector’, there has been an urgent need to build cooperations with business sector to enable the students to undertake their apprentice and build their networks to facilitate their ability to develop their own business.

  18. INDONESIA SHARI'AH COMPLIANCE STOCK RETURN BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measures the behaviour of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance stock return. The measurement of return behaviour toward volatility will proved the capability of Indonesia Shari'ah compliance toward volatility that happened in Indonesia during the period of observation. Investing in Shari'ah compliance is quite different than investing in conventional stock which followed the capital market set of rules and law, Shari'ah compliance follows not only the capital market set of laws and but also the Islamic principles of principles. Most of the previous studies examine issues related to the conventional stocks and market. The present study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari'ah compliance instrument. In the case of Shari'ah stock price in Indonesia, the dynamics volatility of the stock price can be minimized by taking an integrated screening process to the listed company, as precautions steps toward volatility

  19. Novel cellular targets of AhR underlie alterations in neutrophilic inflammation and iNOS expression during influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Martin, Kyle C.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    The underlying reasons for variable clinical outcomes from respiratory viral infections remain uncertain. Several studies suggest that environmental factors contribute to this variation, but limited knowledge of cellular and molecular targets of these agents hampers our ability to quantify or modify their contribution to disease and improve public health. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environment sensing transcription factor that binds many anthropogenic and natural chemicals. The immunomodulatory properties of AhR ligands are best characterized with extensive studies of changes in CD4+ T cell responses. Yet, AhR modulates other aspects of immune function. We previously showed that during influenza virus infection, AhR activation modulates neutrophil accumulation in the lung, and this contributes to increased mortality in mice. Enhanced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in infected lungs are observed during the same timeframe as AhR-mediated increased pulmonary neutrophilia. In this study, we evaluated whether these two consequences of AhR activation are causally linked. Reciprocal inhibition of AhR-mediated elevations in iNOS and pulmonary neutrophilia reveal that, although they are contemporaneous, they are not causally related. We show using Cre/loxP technology that elevated iNOS levels and neutrophil number in the infected lung result from separate, AhR-dependent signaling in endothelial and respiratory epithelial cells, respectively. Studies using mutant mice further reveal that AhR-mediated alterations in these innate responses to infection require a functional nuclear localization signal and DNA binding domain. Thus, gene targets of AhR in non-hematopoietic cells are important new considerations for understanding AhR-mediated changes in innate anti-viral immunity. PMID:23233726

  20. Facing a Health Threat in a Complex Information Environment: A National Representative Survey Examining American Adults' Behavioral Responses to the 2009/2010 A(H1N1) Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; McCloud, Rachel F.; Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent A(H1N1) studies suggest that intrapersonal and interpersonal factors may exert influence on people's preventive behaviors for avoiding the flu during pandemics. Aims: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccinations play key roles in containing disease transmission during a pandemic. We examined how intrapersonal and…

  1. A Spectroscopic Study of the effect of Ligand Complexation on the Reduction of Uranium(VI) by Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zheming; Wagnon, Ken B.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, the reduction rate of uranyl complexes with hydroxide, carbonate, EDTA, and Desferriferrioxamine B (DFB) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS), a potential electron shuttle for microbial reduction of metal ions (Newman and Kolter 2000), is studied by stopped-flow kinetics techniques under anoxic atmosphere. The apparent reaction rates varied with ligand type, solution pH, and U(VI) concentration. For each ligand, a single largest kobs within the studied pH range was observed, suggesting the influence of pH-dependent speciation on the U(VI) reduction rate. The maximum reaction rate found in each case followed the order of OH- > CO32- > EDTA > DFB, consistent with the same trend of the thermodynamic stability of the uranyl complexes and ionic sizes of the ligands. Increasing the stability of uranyl complexes and ligand size decreased the maximum reduction rate. The pH-dependent rates were modeled using a second-order rate expression that was assumed to be dependent on a single U(VI) complex and AH2DS species. By quantitatively comparing the calculated and measured apparent rate constants as a function of pH, species AHDS3- was suggested as the primary reductant in all cases examined. Species UO2CO3(aq) , UO2HEDTA-, and (UO2)2(OH)22+ were suggested as the principal electron acceptors among the U(VI) species mixture in carbonate, EDTA, and hydroxyl systems, respectively

  2. A spectroscopic study of the effect of ligand complexation on the reduction of uranium(VI) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Wagnon, K.B.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Liu, C.; Rosso, K.M.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the reduction rate of uranyl complexes with hydroxide, carbonate, EDTA, and desferriferrioxamine B (DFB) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH 2 DS) is studied by stopped-flow kinetic technique under anoxic atmosphere. The apparent reaction rates varied with ligand type, solution pH, and U(VI) concentration. For each ligand, a single largest pseudo-1 st order reaction rate constant, k obs , within the studied pH range was observed, suggesting the influence of pH-dependent speciation on the U(VI) reduction rate. The maximum reaction rate found in each case followed the order of OH - > CO 3 2- > EDTA > DFB, in reverse order of the trend of the thermodynamic stability of the uranyl complexes and ionic sizes of the ligands. The pH-dependent rates were modeled using a second-order rate expression that was assumed to be dependent on a single U(VI) complex and an AH 2 DS species. By quantitatively comparing the calculated and measured apparent rate constants as a function of pH, species AHDS 3- was suggested as the primary reductant in all cases examined. Species UO 2 CO 3 (aq), UO 2 HEDTA - , and (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ were suggested as the principal electron acceptors among the U(VI) species mixture in each of the carbonate, EDTA, and hydroxyl systems, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Breaking the waves: modelling the potential impact of public health measures to defer the epidemic peak of novel influenza A/H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias An der Heiden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared phase 6 of the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Although by the end of September 2009, the novel virus had been reported from all continents, the impact in most countries of the northern hemisphere has been limited. The return of the virus in a second wave would encounter populations that are still nonimmune and not vaccinated yet. We modelled the effect of control strategies to reduce the spread with the goal to defer the epidemic wave in a country where it is detected in a very early stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a deterministic SEIR model using the age distribution and size of the population of Germany based on the observed number of imported cases and the early findings for the epidemiologic characteristics described by Fraser (Science, 2009. We propose a two-step control strategy with an initial effort to trace, quarantine, and selectively give prophylactic treatment to contacts of the first 100 to 500 cases. In the second step, the same measures are focused on the households of the next 5,000 to 10,000 cases. As a result, the peak of the epidemic could be delayed up to 7.6 weeks if up to 30% of cases are detected. However, the cumulative attack rates would not change. Necessary doses of antivirals would be less than the number of treatment courses for 0.1% of the population. In a sensitivity analysis, both case detection rate and the variation of R0 have major effects on the resulting delay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Control strategies that reduce the spread of the disease during the early phase of a pandemic wave may lead to a substantial delay of the epidemic. Since prophylactic treatment is only offered to the contacts of the first 10,000 cases, the amount of antivirals needed is still very limited.

  4. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chen, J; Yang, G; Zheng, Y X; Mao, S H; Zhu, W P; Yu, X L; Gao, Y; Pan, Q C; Yuan, Z A

    2015-07-01

    The first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Shanghai, China in March 2013. An additional 32 cases of human H7N9 infection were identified in the following months from March to April 2013 in Shanghai. Here we conducted a case-control study of the patients with H7N9 infection (n = 25) using controls matched by age, sex, and residence to determine risk factors for H7N9 infection. Our findings suggest that chronic disease and frequency of visiting a live poultry market (>10 times, or 1-9 times during the 2 weeks before illness onset) were likely to be significantly associated with H7N9 infection, with the odds ratios being 4.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-12.56], 10.61 (95% CI 1.85-60.74), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.31-10.79), respectively. Effective strategies for live poultry market control should be reinforced and ongoing education of the public is warranted to promote behavioural changes that can help to eliminate direct or indirect contact with influenza A(H7N9) virus.

  5. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Richun; Xie, Ruiqian; Yang, Chong; Frost, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. Most the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  6. Perception of the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and acceptance of influenza vaccination by Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 staff: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Sélilah; Djhehiche, Khaled; Zamora, Adeline; Bergeret, Alain; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perception and attitudes of university staff, including medical school and other science specialties, toward the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and influenza vaccination program. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 4,529 university personnel on October 19-20, 2009. Seven hundred (15%) employees participated in the study. Only 18% were willing to be vaccinated, men more than women (29% versus 9%, P < 0.001), and professors/researchers more than administrative/technical staff (30% vs. 6%, P < 0.001). Intention to be vaccinated was insufficient. Additional efforts are needed to improve information dissemination among university staff. Medical university personnel should receive more information to increase vaccine coverage and protect them as well as patients.

  7. AH Cancri: a contact binary in M67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, J.A.J.; Worden, S.P.; Rucinski, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The W UMa-type contact binary system AH Cnc, which is a member of the old galactic cluster M67, has been studied spectroscopically and photometrically. Estimates of masses, radii, effective temperature and luminosity of AH Cnc have been derived from these data and from cluster membership considerations. The results suggest that AH Cnc is a typical evolved W-type W UMa contact system, although whether the system has evolved as a contact system or has recently become so, could not be determined. The properties of AH Cnc are similar to those of TX Cnc in Praesepe. Information provided by the existence of a gap in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for M67 has been coupled with the AH Cnc results to provide further estimates of the chemical composition of M67. (author)

  8. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  9. Knowledge and practices about novel influenza A(H1N1) in health workers and ambulatory patients, Peru (may 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila, Jeannette; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Enfermera epidemióloga.; Munayco, César V.; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.; Gómez, Jorge; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.; Nunura, Juan; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Canahuiri, Jerónimo; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and health personnel at the beginning of the pandemic of novel Influenza A (H1N1), we did a cross sectional survey appliying a questionnaire in health facilities of Ministry of Health (MoH). 313 patients and 244 health workers were interviewed in 4 Peruvian cities. 38% of surveyed patients linked Influenza A (H1N1) with pigs or poultry, 17% do not recognize that the transmission is from person to person,...

  10. Real-time numerical forecast of global epidemic spreading: case study of 2009 A/H1N1pdm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizzoni Michele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical and computational models for infectious diseases are increasingly used to support public-health decisions; however, their reliability is currently under debate. Real-time forecasts of epidemic spread using data-driven models have been hindered by the technical challenges posed by parameter estimation and validation. Data gathered for the 2009 H1N1 influenza crisis represent an unprecedented opportunity to validate real-time model predictions and define the main success criteria for different approaches. Methods We used the Global Epidemic and Mobility Model to generate stochastic simulations of epidemic spread worldwide, yielding (among other measures the incidence and seeding events at a daily resolution for 3,362 subpopulations in 220 countries. Using a Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood analysis, the model provided an estimate of the seasonal transmission potential during the early phase of the H1N1 pandemic and generated ensemble forecasts for the activity peaks in the northern hemisphere in the fall/winter wave. These results were validated against the real-life surveillance data collected in 48 countries, and their robustness assessed by focusing on 1 the peak timing of the pandemic; 2 the level of spatial resolution allowed by the model; and 3 the clinical attack rate and the effectiveness of the vaccine. In addition, we studied the effect of data incompleteness on the prediction reliability. Results Real-time predictions of the peak timing are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data, showing strong robustness to data that may not be accessible in real time (such as pre-exposure immunity and adherence to vaccination campaigns, but that affect the predictions for the attack rates. The timing and spatial unfolding of the pandemic are critically sensitive to the level of mobility data integrated into the model. Conclusions Our results show that large-scale models can be used to provide valuable real

  11. Promiscuous ligand-dependent activation of the Ah receptor: chemicals in crude extracts from commercial and consumer products bind to and activate the Ah receptor and Ah receptor-dependent gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, M.; Rogers, W.; Bohonowych, J.; Zhao, B. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and related halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs and PAHs) produce a variety of toxic and biological effects, the majority of which are mediated by their ability to bind to and activate the Ah receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. While previous studies suggested that the physiochemical characteristics of AhR ligands (i.e. HAH and PAH agonists) must meet a defined set of criteria, it has recently become abundantly clear that the AhR can be bound and activated by structurally diverse range of synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals. Based on the spectrum of AhR ligands identified to date, the structural promiscuity of AhR ligands is significantly more diverse than that observed for other liganddependent nuclear receptors. However, a detailed understanding of the structural diversity of AhR ligands and their respective biological and toxicological activities remains to be established and could provide insights into the identity of endogenous ligands. Over the past several years we have developed and utilized several AhR-based in vitro and cell-based bioassay systems to screen pure chemicals and chemical libraries as well as mixtures of chemicals with the goal of defining the spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate/inhibit the AhR and AhR-dependent gene expression. In addition, demonstration of the presence of AhR agonists/antagonists in extracts containing complex mixtures of chemicals from a variety of biological and environmental samples, coupled with AhR bioassay-based fractionation procedures, provides an avenue in which to identify novel AhR ligands. In previous preliminary screening studies we demonstrated the presence of AhR agonists in extracts of commercial and consumer products using an in vitro guinea pig hepatic AhR DNA binding and mouse gene induction assays. Here we have extended these studies and have examined the ability of crude DMSO and ethanol extracts

  12. Shari’ah Auditing: A Review of Shari’ah Audit Practices in Islamic Financial Institution (IFIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Azwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With its increasing number of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs in the country, Malaysia has emerged as a leading hub when benchmarked against the other Islamic countries of the world. Unlike its conventional counterpart, the Islamic financial system focuses on the achievement of societal justice as evaluated within its own framework and uses its own criteria in order to achieve the objective of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah. To help achieve this objective, the Islamic finance industry is in need of Shari’ah auditors who are not only knowledgeable and competent in ensuring that the IFIs operate in accordance with Shari’ah principles, but also adequate in supply, in order to cater for the increasing number of IFIs in the country. Therefore, a major aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive review of the auditing process performed by Shari’ah auditors in determining the achievement of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah by the IFIs. Another aim of this study is to assess the existing Shari’ah auditing framework and standards practiced by IFIs in Malaysia. The results of this study could serve as a reference point for the regulatory and professional bodies in assessing the implementation of a comprehensive Shari’ah auditing framework.

  13. Criteria of Sharī‘ah supervisory committee: A comparative study between guidelines of Bangladesh Bank and Bank Negara Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amanullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking and finance differs from conventional banking and finance in that it follows the rules of Sharī‘ah. In order to ensure that Islamic banking and finance follows the Sharī‘ah rulings, it is essential for it to have a Sharī‘ah supervisory board. An important duty of this board is to determine that the products, services, policies, guidelines and all other activities performed by the Islamic bank, are in compliance with the Sharī‘ah rulings. To perform their duty properly, the members of this board should possess certain criteria. Bangladesh Bank has spelled out some guidelines for these criteria briefly. Likewise, Bank Negara Malaysia has provided some guidelines. The main objectives of this research paper are to highlight the guidelines of these two banks on these criteria, compare them and evaluate them in light of Sharī‘ah guidelines on these criteria spelled out by contemporary Muslim jurists.

  14. Using high-throughput sequencing to leverage surveillance of genetic diversity and oseltamivir resistance: a pilot study during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

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    Juan Téllez-Sosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses display a high mutation rate and complex evolutionary patterns. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been widely used for qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of genetic diversity in complex biological samples. The "deep sequencing" approach, enabled by the enormous throughput of current NGS platforms, allows the identification of rare genetic viral variants in targeted genetic regions, but is usually limited to a small number of samples. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a proof-of-principle study to test whether redistributing sequencing throughput from a high depth-small sample number towards a low depth-large sample number approach is feasible and contributes to influenza epidemiological surveillance. Using 454-Roche sequencing, we sequenced at a rather low depth, a 307 bp amplicon of the neuraminidase gene of the Influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (A(H1N1pdm virus from cDNA amplicons pooled in 48 barcoded libraries obtained from nasal swab samples of infected patients (n  =  299 taken from May to November, 2009 pandemic period in Mexico. This approach revealed that during the transition from the first (May-July to second wave (September-November of the pandemic, the initial genetic variants were replaced by the N248D mutation in the NA gene, and enabled the establishment of temporal and geographic associations with genetic diversity and the identification of mutations associated with oseltamivir resistance. CONCLUSIONS: NGS sequencing of a short amplicon from the NA gene at low sequencing depth allowed genetic screening of a large number of samples, providing insights to viral genetic diversity dynamics and the identification of genetic variants associated with oseltamivir resistance. Further research is needed to explain the observed replacement of the genetic variants seen during the second wave. As sequencing throughput rises and library multiplexing and automation improves, we foresee that

  15. Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort

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    Lapidus Nathanael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristics of influenza infection as a complex combination of data collected from questionnaires regarding sociodemographic, medical, behavioral characteristics of subjects and indoor environment, using biological samples or environmental databases. Methods/Design Households were included between December 2009 and July 2010. The design of this study relies on systematic follow-up visits between influenza seasons and additional visits during influenza seasons, when an influenza-like illness is detected in a household via an active surveillance system. During systematic visits, a nurse collects individual and environmental data on questionnaires and obtains blood samples from all members of the household. When an influenza-like-illness is detected, a nurse visits the household three times during the 12 following days, and collects data on questionnaires regarding exposure and symptoms, and biological samples (including nasal swabs from all subjects in the household. The end of the follow-up period is expected in fall 2012. Discussion The large amount of data collected throughout the follow-up will permit a multidisciplinary study of influenza infections. Additional data is being collected and analyzed in this ongoing cohort. The longitudinal analysis of these households will permit integrative analyses of complex phenomena such as individual, collective and environmental risk factors of infection, routes of transmission, or determinants of the immune response to infection or vaccination.

  16. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commercial pesticide applicators" from Iowa who work for pest control companies or for businesses, such as warehouses ... specific pesticides. In 2011, AHS researchers reported an analysis of farmers who use the weed killer atrazine, ...

  17. A seroepidemiological study of pandemic A/H1N1(2009) influenza in a rural population of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koita, O A; Sangare, L; Poudiougou, B; Aboubacar, B; Samake, Y; Coulibaly, T; Pronyk, P; Salez, N; Kieffer, A; Ninove, L; Flahault, A; de Lamballerie, X

    2012-10-01

    The swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1(2009)) started to circulate worldwide in 2009, and cases were notified in a number of sub-Saharan African countries. However, no epidemiological data allowing estimation of the epidemic burden were available in this region, preventing comprehensive comparisons with other parts of the world. The CoPanFlu-Mali programme studied a cohort of 202 individuals living in the rural commune of Dioro (southern central Mali). Pre-pandemic and post-pandemic paired sera (sampled in 2006 and April 2010, respectively) were tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. Different estimates of pH1N1(2009) infection during the 2009 first epidemic wave were used (increased prevalence of HI titre of ≥1/40 or ≥1/80, seroconversions) and provided convergent attack rate values (12.4-14.9%), the highest values being observed in the 0-19-year age group (16.0-18.4%). In all age groups, pre-pandemic HI titres of ≥1/40 were associated with complete absence of seroconversion; and geometric mean titres were 20 in others. Important variations in seroconversion rate existed among the different villages investigated. Despite limitations resulting from the size and composition of the sample analysed, this study provides strong evidence that the impact of the pH1N1(2009) first wave was more important than previously believed, and that the determinants of the epidemic spread in sub-Saharan populations were quite different from those observed in developed countries. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Safety and persistence of the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by 2 doses of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine administered to infants, children and adolescents: Two open, uncontrolled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sicilia, José; Arístegui, Javier; Omeñaca, Félix; Carmona, Alfonso; Tejedor, Juan C; Merino, José M; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Walravens, Karl; Bambure, Vinod; Moris, Philippe; Caplanusi, Adrian; Gillard, Paul; Dieussaert, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    In children, 2 AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine doses given 21 days apart were previously shown to induce a high humoral immune response and to have an acceptable safety profile up to 42 days following the first vaccination. Here, we analyzed the persistence data from 2 open-label studies, which assessed the safety, and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by 2 doses of this vaccine. The first study was a phase II, randomized trial conducted in 104 children aged 6-35 months vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 1.9 µg haemagglutinin antigen (HA) and AS03B (5.93 mg tocopherol) and the second study, a phase III, non-randomized trial conducted in 210 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years vaccinated with the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine containing 3.75 µg HA and AS03A (11.86 mg tocopherol). Approximately one year after the first dose, all children with available data were seropositive for haemagglutinin inhibition and neutralising antibody titres, but a decline in geometric mean antibody titres was noted. The vaccine induced a cell-mediated immune response in terms of antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cells, which persisted up to one year post-vaccination. The vaccine did not raise any safety concern, though these trials were not designed to detect rare events. In conclusion, 2 doses of the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 2 different dosages had a clinically acceptable safety profile, and induced high and persistent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in children aged 6-35 months and 3-17 years. These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00971321 and NCT00964158.

  19. Human Clade 2.3.4.4 A/H5N6 Influenza Virus Lacks Mammalian Adaptation Markers and Does Not Transmit via the Airborne Route between Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, Sander; Mok, Chris K P; van den Brand, Judith M A; van der Vliet, Stefan; Rosu, Miruna E; Spronken, Monique I; Yang, Zifeng; de Meulder, Dennis; Lexmond, Pascal; Bestebroer, Theo M; Peiris, J S Malik; Fouchier, Ron A M; Richard, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    Since their emergence in 1997, A/H5N1 influenza viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage have diversified in multiple genetic and antigenic clades upon continued circulation in poultry in several countries in Eurasia and Africa. Since 2009, reassortant viruses carrying clade 2.3.4.4 hemagglutinin (HA) and internal and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A viruses of different avian origin have been detected, yielding various HA-NA combinations, such as A/H5N1, A/H5N2, A/H5N3, A/H5N5, A/H5N6, and A/H5N8. Previous studies reported on the low pathogenicity and lack of airborne transmission of A/H5N2 and A/H5N8 viruses in the ferret model. However, although A/H5N6 viruses are the only clade 2.3.4.4 viruses that crossed the species barrier and infected humans, the risk they pose for human health remains poorly characterized. Here, the characterization of A/H5N6 A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 virus in vitro and in ferrets is described. This A/H5N6 virus possessed high polymerase activity, mediated by the E627K substitution in the PB2 protein, which corresponds to only one biological trait out of the three that were previously shown to confer airborne transmissibility to A/H5N1 viruses between ferrets. This might explain its lack of airborne transmission between ferrets. After intranasal inoculation, A/H5N6 virus replicated to high titers in the respiratory tracts of ferrets and was excreted for at least 6 days. Moreover, A/H5N6 virus caused severe pneumonia in ferrets upon intratracheal inoculation. Thus, A/H5N6 virus causes a more severe disease in ferrets than previously investigated clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, but our results demonstrate that the risk from airborne spread is currently low. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza A viruses are a threat to human health, as they cross the species barrier and infect humans occasionally, often with severe outcome. The antigenic and genetic diversity of A/H5 viruses from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage is increasing, due to continued

  20. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  1. The Integration of Sharī‘Ah, Ṭarīqah, and Haqīqah: A Study of Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī’s Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Surahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Muslims' understanding of Islamic teaching is diverse. Jurists, for the instance, emphasize the aspect of the outer of the Sharī‘ah while Sufis focus on the aspect of that inner. In history, the tension between them is apparently seen. The first even accuses the second group as a deviant, a heretic, and an unbeliever. Regarding this phenomenon, the study will explore underlying terms in Sufism namely Sharī‘ah, Ṭarīqah, and Ḥaqīqah and explain the relation of these terms based on the library research and descriptive analysis of the three words in the two books, i.e. Asrār al-Sharī‘ah and Jāmi‘ al-Asrār wa Manba’ al-Anwār of Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī. Whether the terms are self-sufficient or interdependent? This study concludes that the three terms are an integral unity that cannot be separated from one another since those three terms refer to the one essence, the one Truth. Those are Divine law brought by Prophet Muhammad. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.806

  2. Neutron scattering studies of the H2a-H2b and (H3-H4)/sub 2/ histone complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4)/sub 2/ and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4)/sub 2/ tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk, can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. 48 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  3. Neutron scattering studies of the H2a-H2b and (H3-H4)2 histone complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4) 2 and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4) 2 tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk, can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. 48 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  4. Effectiveness of a MF-59™-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine to prevent 2009 A/H1N1 influenza-related hospitalisation; a matched case-control study

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    van der Sande Marianne AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, adjuvanted influenza vaccines were used for the first time on a large scale. Results on the effectiveness of the vaccines in preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related hospitalisation are scanty and varying. Methods We conducted a matched case-control study in individuals with an indication for vaccination due to underlying medical conditions and/or age ≥ 60 years in the Netherlands. Cases were patients hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infection between November 16, 2009 and January 15, 2010. Controls were matched to cases on age, sex and type of underlying medical condition(s and drawn from an extensive general practitioner network. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE = 1 - OR. Different sensitivity analyses were used to assess confounding by severity of underlying medical condition(s and the effect of different assumptions for missing dates of vaccination. Results 149 cases and 28,238 matched controls were included. It was estimated that 22% of the cases and 28% of the controls received vaccination more than 7 days before the date of onset of symptoms in cases. A significant number of breakthrough infections were observed. The VE was estimated at 19% (95%CI -28-49. After restricting the analysis to cases with controls suffering from severe underlying medical conditions, the VE was 49% (95%CI 16-69. Conclusions The number of breakthrough infections, resulting in modest VE estimates, suggests that the MF-59™ adjuvanted vaccine may have had only a limited impact on preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related hospitalisation in this setting. As the main aim of influenza vaccination programmes is to reduce severe influenza-related morbidity and mortality from influenza in persons at high risk of complications, a more effective vaccine, or additional preventive measures, are needed.

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic value of factor VIII binding antibodies in acquired hemophilia A: data from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werwitzke, S; Geisen, U; Nowak-Göttl, U; Eichler, H; Stephan, B; Scholz, U; Holstein, K; Klamroth, R; Knöbl, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Bomke, B; Tiede, A

    2016-05-01

    Essentials Factor VIII (FVIII) binding IgG detected by ELISA could be an alternative to the Bethesda assay. We studied the performance of anti-FVIII IgG ELISA in patients with acquired hemophilia and controls. Anti-FVIII IgG > 99th percentile of controls was highly sensitive and specific. Patients with high anti-FVIII IgG have a lower chance of achieving remission. Background Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder that requires fast and accurate diagnosis as it occurs often unexpectedly in previously healthy men and women of every age. The Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the diagnostic reference standard for detecting neutralizing autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), but is not widely available, not ideal for quantifying the complex type 2 inhibitors seen in acquired hemophilia, and suffers from high inter-laboratory variability. Objectives To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of FVIII-binding antibodies as detected by ELISA compared with the Nijmegen Bethesda assay. Methods Samples from the time of first diagnosis and clinical data were available from 102 patients with acquired hemophilia enrolled in the prospective GTH-AH 01/2010 study. Controls (n = 102) were matched for gender and age. Diagnostic cut-offs were determined by receiver-operator curve analysis. The prognostic value was assessed in 92 of the 102 patients by Cox regression analysis of time to partial remission. Results Anti-FVIII IgG above the 99th percentile (> 15 arbitrary units per mL) revealed high sensitivity and specificity (both 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.0) for diagnosing acquired hemophilia. The likelihood of achieving partial remission was related to anti-FVIII IgG concentration ( 1050, 0.39). The Bethesda titer was only associated with the likelihood of partial remission when analyzed in the central laboratory, but not when data from local GTH study sites were used. Conclusion Although the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay is the reference

  6. Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination or infection: a Norwegian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Håberg, Siri Eldevik

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations and infections are possible triggers of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, studies on GBS after vaccinations during the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic in 2009, show inconsistent results. Only few studies have addressed the role of influenza infection. We used information from national health data-bases with information on the total Norwegian population (N = 4,832,211). Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates and self-controlled case series was applied. The risk of being hospitalized with GBS during the pandemic period, within 42 days after an influenza diagnosis or pandemic vaccination was estimated. There were 490 GBS cases during 2009-2012 of which 410 cases occurred after October 1, 2009 of which 46 new cases occurred during the peak period of the influenza pandemic. An influenza diagnosis was registered for 2.47% of the population and the vaccination coverage was 39.25%. The incidence rate ratio of GBS during the pandemic peak relative to other periods was 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.98]. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of GBS within 42 days after a diagnosis of pandemic influenza was 4.89 (95% CI 1.17-20.36). After pandemic vaccination the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95% CI 0.51-2.43). Our results indicated that there was a significantly increased risk of GBS during the pandemic season and after pandemic influenza infection. However, vaccination did not increase the risk of GBS. The small number of GBS cases in this study warrants caution in the interpretation of the findings.

  7. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, Guadalupe; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Camarena, Ángel; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martha; González-Bonilla, César; Grajales-Muñíz, Concepción; Borja-Aburto, Víctor; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2012-11-13

    Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Case-control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07-1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82-10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48-12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated with an elevated number of

  8. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  9. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-García Guadalupe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77; LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32; TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64; additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13. Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05; those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05. The IL1B rs16944 AA

  10. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  11. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zhongshan; Zhou, Jie; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Li, Cun; Wang, Dong; Yang, Dong; Zheng, Shufa; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to severe A(H1N1) 2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) influenza was evaluated in 409 patients, including 162 cases with severe infection and 247 controls with mild infection. We prioritized candidate variants based on the result of a pilot genome-wide association study and a lung

  12. Characterization of the transgenic CA-AhR mouse - cell specific expression of the CA-AhR using CYP1A1 as a marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnberg, S.; Lindstam, M.; Andersson, P.; Hanberg, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, L. [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs performed by WHO and EU lead to major concerns. The tolerable daily intake for humans has been assessed to be within the range of human exposures occurring in the general population today. Dioxins are known to adversely impair reproduction and affect development of reproductive organs, as well as the early development of the immune and the nervous systems. The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs. In order to study the mechanisms of toxicity of ligands of the Ah receptor we have created a transgenic mouse model expressing a constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR). The mutant Ah receptor is expressed and functionally active in most (or all) organs. Consequently, the CA-AhR mice show several of the well-known effects of dioxin exposure. Since the CA-AhR is continuously active at a relatively low level and from early development, this model resembles the human exposure scenario and is thus suitable for studies on mechanisms of action of Ah receptor ligands.

  13. Neutron scattering studies of the H2a-H2b and (H3-H4)2 histone complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4)2 and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4)2 tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk of the type proposed by Klug et al. (23), can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. The low resolution data are in good agreement with those calculated for a cylindrical model 64 X 27 A, but other elongated models fit those data almost as well, including one that approximates free N-terminal arms at each end. Free arms are not necessary, but they must extend from the ends if they exist. A contrast matching experiment done with 50% deuterated H2b and undeuterated H2a in the reconstituted dimer showed that these two histones must each be rather elongated within the complex and are not just confined to one end. The amount of scattering contrast between the undeuterated and 50% deuterated histones was sufficient to suggest further experiments using complexes reconstituted from mixtures of undeuterated and partially deuterated histones which will help elucidate their arrangement within the histone complexes and within the octamer core of the nucleosome core particle

  14. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choshi, Kanji; Mishima, Hiromu; Takaku, Isao; Takase, Tomoko; Neriishi, Shotaro.

    1983-11-01

    A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

  15. Estudio comparativo entre una prueba rápida y RT-PCR tiempo real en el diagnóstico de influenza AH1N1 2009 Comparative study of a rapid testing with real time RT-PCR for diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Castro-Cárdenas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B empleando como estándar la RT-PCR tiempo real para influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo-comparativo de 135 muestras de vías respiratorias de individuos sintomáticos para influenza procesadas de mayo 2009 a octubre 2010.Las pruebas citadas se realizaron simultáneamente. Se utilizó el software Confidence Interval Analysis 2000. RESULTADOS: Sensibilidad 62.96; especificidad 94.44; valor predictivo negativo 62.9; valor predictivo positivo 94.44; razón de probabilidad positiva 11.33 y razón de probabilidad negativa 0.39. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza a 95. DISCUSIÓN: Los valores obtenidos concuerdan con otros estudios donde la sensibilidad fluctúa de 50 a 70 y especificidad entre 90 y 95 por ciento. La prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B es rápida, simple y de menor costo que el RT-PCR tiempo real, útil para identificar el tipo de virus en brotes de influenza de una población determinadaOBJECTIVE: Compare QuickVue Influenza A+B test with real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective-comparative study of 135 respiratory specimens from individuals with symptoms of influenza processed from May 2009 to October 2010.The above mentioned tests were performed simultaneously. For statistic analysisthe softwareof Confidence IntervalAnalysis 2000 was used. RESULTS: The parameters obtained were: sensitivity 62.96; specificity 94.44; negative predictive value 62.9; positive predictive value 94.44; positive likelihood ratio 11.33; negative likelihood ratio 0.39. Confidence intervals to 95,were calculated to all of the above data. DISCUSSION: The test QuickVue InfluenzaA+B is a rapid,simple test,with lower cost than real-time RT-PCR useful for identifying the type of virus outbreaks of influenza in a given population.It correlates well with more specific test and similar reports.

  16. Reliability of Meat, Fish, Dairy, and Egg Intake Over a 33-Year Interval in Adventist Health Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N.; Batech, Michael; Faed, Pegah; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Martins, Marcia; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    We studied Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) cohort members to determine the reliability of long-term recall of adult dietary intake that occurred 33 years ago. Establishing the reliability of these measures supports studies of how dietary exposure across the life course affects risk of cancer and other noncommunicable disease outcomes. Among 1816 AHS-2 cohort members, we conducted a statistical comparison of long-term recall of meat, fish, dairy, and eggs at AHS-2 baseline with their report of current diet 33 years before AHS-2 baseline at an age of 30–60 years. Major findings are as follows: 1) a high correlation for frequency of red meat (R = 0.71), poultry (R = 0.67), and fish (R = 0.60); lower correlations for dairy (R = 0.19) and eggs (R = 0.28); 2) good concordance for dichotomous measures of red meat [sensitivity: 0.70; specificity: 0.92; positive predictive value (PPV): 0.91], poultry (sensitivity: 0.76; specificity: 0.87; PPV: 0.83), fish (sensitivity: 0.61; specificity: 0.93; PPV: 0.89), dairy (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.57; PPV: 0.99), and eggs (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.41; PPV: 0.96); negative predictive value for dairy and eggs was poor. Among older AHS-2 cohort members, we found good reliability of recall of red meat, poultry, and fish intake that occurred 33 years earlier. PMID:25298211

  17. An ab initio CASSCF study of zero field splitting fluctuations in the octet ground state of aqueous [Gd(iii)(HPDO3A)(H2O)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shehryar; Pollet, Rodolphe; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present ab initio calculations of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of a gadolinium complex [Gd(iii)(HPDO3A)(H2O)] sampled from an ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation. We perform both post-Hartree-Fock (complete active space self-consistent field—CASSCF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the ZFS and compare and contrast the methods with experimental data. Two different density functional approximations (TPSS and LC-BLYP) were investigated. The magnitude of the ZFS from the CASSCF calculations is in good agreement with experiment, whereas the DFT results in varying degrees overestimate the magnitude of the ZFS for both functionals and exhibit a strong functional dependence. It was found in the sampling over the AIMD trajectory that the fluctuations in the transient ZFS tensor derived from DFT are not correlated with those of CASSCF nor does the magnitude of the ZFS from CASSCF and DFT correlate. From the fluctuations in the ZFS tensor, we extract a correlation time of the transient ZFS which is on the sub-picosecond time scale, showing a faster decay than experimental estimates.

  18. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  19. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    . The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of this study was to compare the actual...... was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk > Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and /or intake of marine......-PCBs; ii) The inverse association between the integrated serum AhR transactivity and sum of POPs might be explained by the higher level of compounds antagonizing the AhR function probably due to selective POP bioaccumulation in the food chain....

  20. Anti-phase synchronization of influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in Hong Kong and countries in the North Temperate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice P.Y. Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: These results are novel in identifying anti-phase synchronization in influenza A subtypes in Hong Kong and the NTZ. These findings should inform public health preparedness for future epidemics of A/H3N2, which are typically more severe than those of A/H1N1.

  1. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...

  2. PEMIKIRAN ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF SUNNI DAN SYI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Shohibul Itmam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE ISLAMIC THINKING IN SUNNI AND SYI’AH PERSPECTIVES. This paper attempts to describe the problems associated with Islam in particular with regard to Sunni and Syi’ah teachings. The number of  streams that developed in Islam today has resulted Islam got claims from various clerical community, such as terrorism and others, resulting in the ruination image of  Islam in the constellation of  the religions of  man. As the flow and the teachings of  the most dominating civilization of  the world religions, Sunni and Syiah, including the Wahhabi, are necessary to clarify the existence or clarified the diversity in the constellation of  Islam, considering the number of streams that are currently claiming truth on themselves. Iran as the country becoming a reference in the world of  developing Syi’ah should be used as a reference in the study of  understanding associated with Sunni and Syi’ah. From this country, the world of  Islam knows the concept ofgoverning “Wilayatul Faqih”. The concept was pioneered by the government of Imam Khomeini who became known after Islamic Revolution in Iran 1979 and continues to be developed up to now. Every year Iran is celebrated with a huge demonstration with the slogan in Persian, “Islam Pyruz ast, ast Nabud Istikbar”, Islam is victorious, crushed the vanity of the islam enemy. keywords: Islam, Sunni, Syi’ah, Perspective, Differences, Similarities. Tulisan ini mencoba mengurai persoalan yang berhubungan dengan Islam secara khusus yang berkaitan dengan ajaran Sunni dan Syi’ah. Banyaknya aliran yang berkembang dalam Islam dewasa ini telah mengakibatkan Islam mendapat klaim dari berbagai komunitas agamawan, seperti teroris dan lainnya, yang mengakibatkan redupnya citra Islam dalam percaturan agama-agama manusia. Sebagai aliran dan ajaran yang paling mendominasi peradaban agama dunia, Sunni dan  Syi’ah,  termasuk  Wahabi,  perlu  memperjelas  eksistensinya atau diperjelas

  3. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kissling, E

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011\\/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI \\/ acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011\\/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  4. Environmental health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    The two major thrusts of the environmental health studies have been in the areas of health physics aspects of fusion power and methodology for assessing health effects related to nuclear facilities. Researchers were unable to discern a dose-response relationship or to find adverse health effects in the local population around nuclear facilities which might be related to radiation exposure. A second study analyzed the trends in incidence of cancer, congenital malformation, and fetal and infant mortality for Oak Ridge, Anderson County, and Roane County relative to Tennessee. Finally, a more in-depth study on congenital malformations and fetal mortality trends for nine East Tennessee counties surrounding Oak Ridge was completed. The objective of the Health Physics Aspects of Fusion Power Program is to provide, on a timely basis, scientific information and technical evaluations on the potential impacts of fusion power to occupational workers and to members of the public. The primary areas of study in this program during the past year have been (1) factors affecting calculations of dose resulting from a release of tritium, (2) an assessment of the potential for reducing occupational risk from exposures to tritium, and (3) experimental studies of tritium conversion from molecular hydrogen to tritiated water

  5. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the AH of FRW Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Huan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the work made out by the apparent horizon (AH) of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe and the heat flux through the AH from the first law of thermodynamics. We discuss the mechanical properties of the AH and analyze the universe model for which the mechanical properties can change. Finally, the thermal properties of the AH of FRW universe are discussed

  6. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed

  8. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    Full Text Available Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu® compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  9. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for future influenza pandemics. Even though a number of studies have shed light into the risk factors associated with severe outcomes of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infections in different populations (e.g., [1-5], analyses of the determinants of mortality risk spanning multiple pandemic waves and geographic regions are scarce. Between-country differences in the mortality burden of the 2009 pandemic could be linked to differences in influenza case management, underlying population health, or intrinsic differences in disease transmission [6]. Additional studies elucidating the determinants of disease severity globally are warranted to guide prevention efforts in future influenza pandemics. In Mexico, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic was characterized by a three-wave pattern occurring in the spring, summer, and fall of 2009 with substantial geographical heterogeneity [7]. A recent study suggests that Mexico experienced high excess mortality burden during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic relative to other countries [6]. However, an assessment of potential factors that contributed to the relatively high pandemic death toll in Mexico are lacking. Here, we fill this gap by analyzing a large series of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases, hospitalizations, and deaths monitored by the Mexican Social Security medical system during April 1 through December 31, 2009 in Mexico. In particular, we quantify the association between disease severity, hospital admission delays, and neuraminidase inhibitor use by demographic characteristics, pandemic wave, and geographic regions of Mexico. Methods We analyzed a large series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 influenza cases from a prospective surveillance system maintained by the

  10. Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatez MF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, little antigenic variation has been observed in the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. However, as the A(H1N1pdm09 virus continues to circulate and the immunologic pressure within the human population increases, future antigenic change is almost a certainty. Several coinfections of A(H1N1pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1 or A(H3N2 viruses have been observed, but no reassortant viruses have been described in humans, suggesting a lack of fitness of reassortant viruses or a lack of opportunities for interaction of different viral lineages. In contrast, multiple reassortment events have been detected in swine populations between A(H1N1 pdm09 and other endemic swine viruses. Somewhat surprisingly, many of the well characterized influenza virus virulence markers appear to have limited impact on the phenotype of the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses when they have been introduced into mutant viruses in laboratory settings. As such, it is unclear what the evolutionary path of the pandemic virus will be, but the monitoring of any changes in the circulating viruses will remain a global public and animal health priority.Keywords: influenza, pandemic, evolution, adaptation

  11. Detection and characterization of Ah receptor in tissue and cells from human tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, A.; Okey, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ah receptor was identified and characterized in cytosol and nuclear extracts from human tonsils obtained at surgery from children 2 to 6 years of age. Ah receptor was found in cytosol prepared from whole-tonsil homogenates as well as in cytosol and nuclear fractions prepared from tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts grown in primary culture. Cytosolic Ah receptor was detectable in tonsillar tissue with either halogenated (2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) or nonhalogenated (3-[3H]methylcholanthrene and [3H]benzo[a]pyrene) aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimented at approximately 9 S after velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients. The apparent binding affinity (Kd) of [3H]TCDD for Ah receptor ranged from 3 to 12 nM in cytosols from seven different donors. The same analyses indicated a concentration of Ah receptor in human tonsils of approximately 100-300 fmol/mg cytosolic protein. Incubation of either tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts with [3H]TCDD resulted in transformation of cytosolic Ah receptor to a nuclear binding form which could be detected as a specifically labeled peak sedimenting at approximately 6 S on sucrose gradients. These data demonstrate the existence of Ah receptor in human tonsils and suggest that this immune organ may be an appropriate model for further studies on the mechanism and manifestation of aromatic hydrocarbon-induced immunotoxicity in man

  12. Normal mast cell numbers in the tissues of AhR-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Caroline; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Sonner, Jana; Redaelli, Chiara; Peter, Katharina; Kunze, Anja; Haas, Katharina; Esser, Charlotte; Schäkel, Knut; Wick, Wolfgang; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lanz, Tobias V; Platten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) acts as an immunomodulatory molecule in several immune cell lineages. Recently, it has been implicated in development and maintenance of immune cells in barrier tissues such as skin and mucosa. To investigate its role on mast cell development and maintenance in skin, peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) and lymph nodes, we studied in depth their phenotype in AhR-deficient mice. Our findings do not provide any evidence for a suspected role of the AhR in mast cell homeostasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification and analysis of novel flavonoid agonists and antagonists for the AH and estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B.; Nagy, S.; Rogers, J.; Denison, M. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Nantz, M.; Kurth, M.; Springsteel, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological effects in a diverse range of species, tissues, and cell types. The most studied effect is induction of gene expression, and, the majority of AhR responsive genes, such as cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), utilize AhR dependent mechanism of action. While halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the prototypical ligands of the Ah receptor, it has recently identified that the AhR is activated by a structurally diverse array of hydrophobic natural and synthetic chemicals. Given the structural diversity in AhR ligands, the physiochemical characteristics for high and low affinity ligands seems to be established. Environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine homeostasis of an organism have also gained widespread attention in recent years and numerous chemicals have been identified as having either hormone or anti-hormone properties. However, like the AhR, the structural diversity and characteristics of endocrine disrupters that exert their action via nuclear receptors also seems to be depended on the estrogen receptor (ER). The flavonoids are a diverse family of chemicals commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Members of this family exert cytostatic, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In addition, several flavonoids are potent modulators of both the expression and activities of specific cytochrome P450 genes/proteins and somel others have estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Accordingly flavonoids have attracted attention as possible chemoprotective or chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously developed and analyzed a novel chemical library of flavonoids which contained {proportional_to}200 compounds. The ability of these compounds to activate and/or inhibit AhR- and ER- dependent gene expression was examined by using our recently developed AhR- and ER

  14. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis for evaluation of the spread of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quanli; Liu, Lin; Chen, Juan

    2017-10-24

    A large number (n = 460) of A(H7N9) human infections have been reported in China from March 2013 through December 2014, and H7N9 outbreaks in humans became an emerging issue for China health, which have caused numerous disease outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild bird populations, and threatened human health severely. The aims of this study were to investigate the directional trend of the epidemic and to identify the significant presence of spatial-temporal clustering of influenza A(H7N9) human cases between March 2013 and December 2014. Three distinct epidemic phases of A(H7N9) human infections were identified in this study. In each phase, standard deviational ellipse analysis was conducted to examine the directional trend of disease spreading, and retrospective space-time permutation scan statistic was then used to identify the spatio-temporal cluster patterns of H7N9 outbreaks in humans. The ever-changing location and the increasing size of the three identified standard deviational ellipses showed that the epidemic moved from east to southeast coast, and hence to some central regions, with a future epidemiological trend of continue dispersing to more central regions of China, and a few new human cases might also appear in parts of the western China. Furthermore, A(H7N9) human infections were clustering in space and time in the first two phases with five significant spatio-temporal clusters (p < 0.05), but there was no significant cluster identified in phase III. There was a new epidemiologic pattern that the decrease in significant spatio-temporal cluster of A(H7N9) human infections was accompanied with an obvious spatial expansion of the outbreaks during the study period, and identification of the spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic can provide valuable insights for better understanding the spreading dynamics of the disease in China.

  15. Influence of Shari'ah on Socio-Cultural and Economic Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the socio-economic influence of Shari'ah marketing practices in Northwestern ... production, societal marketing, marketing orientation and selling practices were correlated with ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. A Comparison of AH-64 Pilot Attitudes Toward Traditional and Glass Cockpit Crewstation Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    .... This finding suggested that the differences of crewstation design needed to be examined. To identify significant differences, this study assessed pilots' attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit designs in the AH-64 Apache helicopter...

  17. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abron, Jessicca D; Singh, Narendra P; Mishra, Manoj K; Price, Robert L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Singh, Udai P

    2018-04-19

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we investigated if nontoxic ligand of AhR, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), can attenuate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our studies demonstrated that in mice that received ITE treatment, in-vivo colitis pathogenesis, including a decrease in body weight, was significantly reversed along with the systemic and intestinal inflammatory cytokines. ITE increased the expression of Tregs in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and colon lamina propria lymphocytes (cLPL) of mice with colitis when compared to controls. This induction of Tregs was reversed by AhR antagonist treatment in-vitro. ITE treatment also increased dendritic cells (DCs; CD11c+) and decreased F4/80+ (macrophage) from the spleen, MLNs and cLPL in mice with colitis. ITE also reversed the systemic and intestinal frequency of CD4+T cells during colitis and suppressed inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1 as well as induced IL-10 levels. These findings suggest that ITE attenuates colitis through induction of Tregs and reduction in inflammatory CD4+ T cells and cytokines. Thus, our work demonstrates that the nontoxic endogenous AhR ligand ITE, may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat IBD.

  18. Comparative Resistance of AH26 and a New Sealer Prototype to a Bacterial Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Duggan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared the leakage resistance of a New Sealer Prototype (NSP with a traditional sealer (AH 26 in Resilon-filled roots subjected to a bacterial challenge. Study Design. 41 roots were instrumented to ISO size 50 apically. Group 1 (=20 contained Resilon and AH 26 sealer and roots in group 2 (=21 contained Resilon and NSP. Roots were embedded in a dual-chamber model with the upper chamber containing Streptococcus mutans inoculum. Evidence of bacterial penetration was observed for 1 month. Fisher's Test was used to analyze the data. Results. 8 of 20 roots (40% in the AH 26 group demonstrated leakage whereas 3 of 21 roots (14% in the NSP group leaked. The difference in leakage rates was not statistically significant (=0.053. Conclusion. The traditional sealer (AH 26 demonstrated increased leakage rates compared to the New Sealer Prototype (NSP, but the difference did not reach statistical significance in this study.

  19. Comparison of Portfolio Selection and Performance: Shari’ah-Compliant and Socially Responsible Investment Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Islamic screening criteria on Shari’ah-compliant portfolio selection and performance compared to Socially Responsible Investment (SRI portfolio. Each portfolio constructed from 15 stocks based on FTSE 100 using data from year 1997. Mean-variance portfolio optimization is employed with some financial ratios added as constraints for the Shari’ah portfolio. Annual expected return of each portfolio from 2008 to 2013 is used to calculate Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor ratio and Jensen’s alpha as the performance measurement tools. Macroeconomic variables are assessed using ordinary least square to examine whether they influence the portfolios’ expected returns or not. The result finds that Shari’ah portfolio has a better performance than SRI from year 2008 to 2010 shown by higher value of the measurement tools. However, from 2011 to 2013, SRI portfolio has better performance than Shari’ah portfolio. 

  20. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  1. AL-KAFA’AH FI AL-NIKAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Sayuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kafa'ah in marriage is basically equality, suitability and proportionality between the prospective couples getting married. Humans are required to kafa'ah in religion and religiosity. Non-Muslims can't kafa'ah with Muslims because of inequalities in beliefe. Some kafa'ah that should be considered in marriage is nasab, religion, belief or religiosity, profession, liberty and property.

  2. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS. However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI 4.76–15.21; p < 0.001. Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28–2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15–2.36, p = 0.002. However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities’ activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58–7

  3. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  4. PENILAIAN KINERJA FISIK (MATERI KOPERASI SYARI’AH MENURUT PERSPEKTIF SHARI’ATE ENTERPRISE THEORY DENGAN NILAI TAMBAH SYARI’AH DAN ZAKAT SEBAGAI INDIKATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra Handayani Soedarso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the assessment on the performance of sharia cooperatives are strongly influenced by the analytical tools used. Analyzes that have been there only focused on a mere financial perspective with the meaning of finances limited to property or material. Whereas should the assessment of Sharia cooperative performance should be more comprehensive and comprehensive considering the role and function of Shari'ah cooperative which is not only limited to profit oriented but also non profit oriented. Assessment of Shari'ah cooperative performance according to shari'ate enterprise theory perspective assesses the performance of three forms of reality: physical reality, psychic reality and spiritual reality. Performance appraisal of physical reality is viewed from the perspective of financial piety, mental and social reality seen from the perspective of mental and social piety and spiritual reality seen from the perspective of spiritual piety. In this study, the discussion is limited only to the assessment of the physical performance of Shari'ah cooperatives by using the added value of Shariah and Zakat as an indicator of its assessment. The results showed that Sharia Added Value as the first indicator used to assess the physical performance of Shari'ah cooperatives assessed performance based on economic added value, mental added value and spiritual added value. While zakat as the second indicator of physical performance of Shari'ah cooperative is the transformation from the achievement of net profit to the achievement of zalcat, by using the object of zakat appraisal that is optimum.

  5. Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Amanda; Garten, Rebecca; Klimov, Alexander; Villanueva, Julie

    2013-07-01

    The performance of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that detect influenza viral nucleoprotein (NP) antigen has been reported to be variable. Recent human infections with variant influenza A viruses that are circulating in pigs prompted the investigation of the analytical reactivity of RIDTs with these variant viruses. To determine analytical reactivity of seven FDA-cleared RIDTs with influenza A variant viruses in comparison with the reactivity with recently circulating seasonal influenza A viruses. Tenfold serial dilutions of cell culture-grown seasonal and variant influenza A viruses were prepared and tested in duplicate with seven RIDTs. All RIDTs evaluated in this study detected the seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus, although detection limits varied among assays. All but one examined RIDT identified the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. However, only four of seven RIDTs detected all influenza A(H3N2)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H1N1)v viruses. Reduced sensitivity of RIDTs to variant influenza viruses may be due to amino acid differences between the NP proteins of seasonal viruses and the NP proteins from viruses circulating in pigs. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of RIDTs to detect influenza A variant viruses. Specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in whom H3N2v is suspected should be sent to public health laboratories for additional diagnostic testing. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of the Ah locus in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCBs and TCDD): Structure-activity relationships and effects in C57Bl/6 mice congenic at the Ah locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkvliet, N.I.; Baecher-Steppan, L.; Smith, B.B.; Youngberg, J.A.; Henderson, M.C.; Buhler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) following allogeneic tumor challenge is suppressed in Ah-responsive C57Bl/6 mice treated with a single oral dose of the toxic, Ah receptor-binding 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB). The present studies have examined the specific role of the Ah receptor in this immunotoxic response by utilizing HxCB isomers of known, varied affinity for the Ah receptor as well as by comparing effects of high-affinity Ah receptor ligands (3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) on the CTL response of mice that differ only at the Ah locus, that is, Ah-responsive (Ahbb) and Ah-nonresponsive (Ahdd) congenic C57Bl/6 mice. Correlative changes in thymic weight, serum corticosterone (CS) levels, and spleen cellularity were also measured. The potency of HxCB congeners (3,4,5,3',4',5'-; 2,3,4,5,3',4'-; 2,4,5,2',4',5'-) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD to suppress the CTL response, to reduce spleen cellularity, to cause thymic atrophy, and to elevate serum CS levels was directly correlated with the binding affinity of the congener for the Ah receptor. Furthermore, these parameters of immunotoxicity in Ahdd C57Bl/6 mice were significantly more resistant to alterations induced by either 3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB or 2,3,7,8-TCDD as compared to Ahbb C57Bl/6 mice. These results strongly support an Ah receptor-dependent immunotoxic mechanism in suppression of the CTL response following acute exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

  8. Characterization of the Mamluk painting materials in Cairo, Egypt: El-Ashraf Bersbay Madrasa (826 A.H/ 1423 A.D a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    prof.Atef Brania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The painting materials in the Islamic monuments in Cairo were variable and distinguished. The accurate identification and characterization of painting materials in an art object or in a paint layer is certainly an important step in the history of art, technology and conservation. The main objective of the present paper is to examine and investigate the different painting materials (pigments, gilding, binding media and painting ground employed in the decorated ceilings of Madrasa of Al-Ashraf Bersbay (Mamluk Jarkasy period. X-ray diffraction (X.R.D., scanning electron microscope SEM (EDAX, light optical microscope (LOM and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, together with determination of physical properties of the support (water content and density and microbiological study, adapted for analysis, investigation and evaluation of the current status. The study revealed the severe damage of painting materials. Gypsum, ultramarine, smalt, prussian blue, red ochre, emerald green, red lead (minium and gold leaves were identified in El-Ashraf Bersbay Madrasa decoration painting.

  9. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Fuat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. Results A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105 reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1% of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Conclusions Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the

  10. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Sebahat D; Torun, Fuat; Catak, Binali

    2010-10-10

    Both the health care workers (HCWs) and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs) in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105) reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1%) of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the pandemic influenza vaccination is necessary. Efforts for orienting

  11. Adult health study report, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hisao; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-02-01

    The AHS clinical examination is conducted biennially to determine disease (not limited to disease) prevalence rates. No inquiry is made about deaths occurring between the cycle examinations. Since there has been a remarkable difference in cancer mortality by radiation dose it must be stated that the effects of atomic bomb radiation cannot be adequately assessed through a comparison of cancer prevalence rates alone. Nonetheless, in this study, an association between the prevalence rates of various cancers and radiation has been demonstrated, particularly for cancers with a relatively low lethality rate. In this group are cancers of the thyroid and breast where the association is strong, particularly in the younger age-groups. An association continued to be observed for neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, and for all cancers excluding the foregoing, for which a demonstrable association to A-bomb exposure was made at an early stage. These are important findings. Further, analysis of benign tumors suggested an increase in prevalence associated with an increase in radiation dose, a finding which was not observed in the studies of autopsied cases. This finding raises a whole series of questions relating to radiation carcinogenesis. As for other diseases, strong association of increased prevalence with increased radiation dose was observed for various thyroid diseases, anemia, cataract, and calcification of the aorta. As for physical measurements and laboratory tests, relationships to radiation dose were observed concerning hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentatioin rate, and white blood cell count (WBC), in addition to growth and development retardation in the younger survivors as described in a previous report. In general, for many diseases and measurements, the association is stronger for those exposed at younger ages. Furthermore, some effects on the aging process are also suggested by the analysis. (author)

  12. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changwen; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhou, Haibo; He, Jianfeng; Guan, Wenda; Wu, Jie; Song, Wenjun; Wang, Dayan; Liu, Jiexiong; Lin, Qinhan; Chu, Daniel Ka Wing; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Nanshan; Yang, Zifeng; Shu, Yuelong; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik

    2017-07-01

    The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of low pathogenicity. We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at its hemagglutinin cleavage site (PEVPKRKRTAR/GL), a sequence suggestive of high pathogenicity in birds. Its neuraminidase also had R292K, an amino acid change known to be associated with neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. Both of these molecular features might have contributed to the patient's adverse clinical outcome. The patient had a history of exposure to sick and dying poultry, and his close contacts had no evidence of A(H7N9) disease, suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to spread.

  13. Assessing evidence for avian-to-human transmission of influenza A/H9N2 virus in rural farming communities in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; My, Pham Ha; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Hau Thu, Trang Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Duong, Mai Thuy; Tho, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Nguyen Dang; Thanh, To Long; Diep, Nguyen Thi; Duong, Nguyen van; Toan, Tran Khanh; Tung, Trinh Son; Mai, Le Quynh; Iqbal, Munir; Wertheim, Heiman; van Doorn, H Rogier; Bryant, Juliet E; The Vizions Consortium

    2017-08-01

    Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]. Five of the A/H9 human seroconverters likely represented true infections rather than heterosubtypic immunity, because the individuals seroconverted solely to A/H9. Among co-located poultry, we found significantly higher seroprevalance for A/H5 compared to A/H9 in both chickens and ducks [for northern study sites overall, 337/1105 (30.5 %) seropositive for A/H5 and 123/1105 (11.1 %) seropositive for A/H9].

  14. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993-1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or "cumulative exposure days" (years of use times days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use times days/year times estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure-response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers.

  15. Anti-Restriction Protein, KlcAHS, Promotes Dissemination of Carbapenem Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC has emerged and spread throughout the world. A retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009–2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. To determine the mechanism(s that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by KPC, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST was conducted. A series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. Concurrently, the complete sequences of blaKPC−2-harboring plasmids deposited in GenBank were summarized and aligned. The blaKPC−2 and KlcAHS genes in the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were examined. E. coli strains, carrying different Type I Restriction and Modification (RM systems, were selected to study the interaction between RM systems, anti-RM systems and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The ST11 clone predominated among 102 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, all harbored the blaKPC−2 gene; 98% contained the KlcAHS gene. KlcAHS was one of the core genes in the backbone region of most blaKPC−2 carrying plasmids. Type I RM systems in the host bacteria reduced the rate of pHS10842 plasmid transformation by 30- to 40-fold. Presence of the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, on the other hand, increased transformation efficiency by 3- to 6-fold. These results indicate that RM systems can significantly restrict HGT. In contrast, KlcAHS can disrupt the RM systems and promote HGT by transformation. These findings suggest that the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, represents a novel mechanism that facilitates the increased transfer of blaKPC-2 and KlcAHS-carrying plasmids among K. pneumoniae strains.

  16. Adult health study report 7. noncancer disease incidence in the atomic-bomb survivors, 1958-86 (examination cycles 1-14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong F, Lennie; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Akiba, Suminori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1993-08-01

    Using the longitudinal data of the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort collected during 1958-86, we examined for the first time the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the incidence of 19 selected nonmalignant disorders. Diagnoses of the diseases were based on general laboratory tests, physical examinations, and histories taken during the biennial AHS examinations. The outcomes were encoded as three-digit International Classification of Diseases codes in the AHS data base, which served as the basis for case ascertainment. Statistically significant excess risk was detected for myoma uteri, chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, and thyroid disease, defined broadly as the presence of one or more of certain noncancerous thyroid conditions. The finding for myoma uteri might be additional evidence indicating that benign tumor growths are possible effects of radiation exposure. An age-at-exposure effect was detected in nonmalignant thyroid disease, with increased risk for those exposed at ages ≤ 20 yr, but not for older persons. Thus, the AHS data also suggest that the thyroid gland in young persons is more radiosensitive not only to the development of thyroid malignancies, as shown in the most recent LSS report on cancer incidence, but also possibly to the development of nonmalignant disorders. Our findings hold independent of the dose effects observed for thyroid malignancies. No significant dose-response relationships were detected in any of our cardiovascular disease endpoints. Our analysis also suggests that new occurrences of lens opacity during 1958-86 are not increased with radiation dose among the AHS participants. Our results emphasize the utility and importance of the AHS in searching for the effects of acute exposure to ionizing radiation in noncancer diseases. (J.P.N.)

  17. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  18. Health Care Industry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    press conference with President Toledo of Peru on March 23, 2002, President Bush proclaimed, “education, jobs, and health care are the greatest...allow patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure to “visit” their doctors “on-line” while in the comfort and privacy of...to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As a result, non-communicable disease such as 10 heart disease, stroke, diabetes , and cancer are prevalent throughout

  19. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students' preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). In a cross-sectional study, multiple-stage randomized sampling was used to select 300 female students in Isfahan who completed a questionnaire in December 2009. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire based on PMT. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate correlations, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression. The mean age of participants was 15.62 (SE = 1.1) years old. Majority of participants were aware regarding pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (87.3%, 262 out of 300). Results showed that, protection motivation was highly significant relationship with preventive behavior and predicted 34% of its variance. We found all of the variables with the exception of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and response cost were related with protection motivation and explained 22% of its variance. Promotion of students' self-efficacy, and intention to protect themselves from a health threat should be priorities of any programs aimed at promoting preventive behaviors among students. It is also concluded that the protection motivation theory may be used in developing countries, like Iran, as a framework for prevention interventions in an attempt to improve the preventive behaviors of students.

  20. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability......Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  1. Application of Sharī‘ah contracts in contemporary Islamic finance: A maqāṣid perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Soualhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research exposes the underlying maqāṣid embedded in Sharī‘ah contracts as applied in Islamic banking and finance. It addresses the problem of not observing maqāṣid in nominated and combined Sharī‘ah contracts as well as the problem of not sufficiently imbuing maqāṣid in products developed by Islamic financial institutions. As a benchmark of the maqāṣid of wealth, the research adopts Ibn ‘Āshūr’s classification of maqāṣid to evaluate the conformity of Sharī‘ah contracts to Maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah namely, justice, circulation, transparency, and firmness. The study focuses on three markets related to the application of Sharī‘ah contracts, namely, banking, Islamic capital market, and takāful. The study concludes that, by and large, the application of Sharī‘ah contracts has observed Maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah during its development and initial application stages of Islamic finance products; however, offering such products in the market has raised economic questions as to their viability and economic values. In addition, the malpractice of some Sharī‘ah contracts has long raised concerns as to the maqāṣid compliance of such products. The research recommends a de-sophistication of Islamic financial engineering to minimise the possibility of convergence with conventional finance. The research also emphasises product differentiation based on less complicated combined Sharī‘ah contracts.

  2. Contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad: a Sharīʿah and legal appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Suhaida Kasri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the practice of contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. Through a critical examination of the practice, it aims to discuss the issues from the angles of Sharīʿah and Malaysian common law. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a qualitative research methodology. The information on the practice of contra trading is obtained through the Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad’s website and literature as well as series of meetings and discussions held with Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. In comprehending and dissecting the Sharīʿah and legal issues, classical along with contemporary Sharīʿah literature including local and international Sharīʿah advisory bodies’ resolutions and standards have been referred to. The Sharīʿah analysis of these issues is further supported by reference to the statute and by-laws of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad as well as other related legal literature. Findings - This paper finds that contra trading involves a real sale and purchase of shares; the shares are not taken into the possession of the contra trader, neither physically nor constructively; the liability of shares is not transferred to the contra trader; though the practice of profiting in contra trading may contradict the prohibition on profiting without bearing liability, the permissibility of contra trading could still be argued from the contextual approach of public interest (maṣlaḥah and needs (hājah; and contra trading is not gambling. Research limitations/implications - This paper is limited in its analysis to only Sharīʿah and legal perspectives. It does not cover a thorough empirical and quantitative investigation that would measure the extent of the public needs for contra trading and the real benefits that contra trading brings about to the society in the long run. Such studies will further demonstrate whether contra trading deserves a relaxation from the strict Sharīʿah

  3. The influence of social-cognitive factors on personal hygiene practices to protect against influenzas: using modelling to compare avian A/H5N1 and 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenzas in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Understanding population responses to influenza helps optimize public health interventions. Relevant theoretical frameworks remain nascent. To model associations between trust in information, perceived hygiene effectiveness, knowledge about the causes of influenza, perceived susceptibility and worry, and personal hygiene practices (PHPs) associated with influenza. Cross-sectional household telephone surveys on avian influenza A/H5N1 (2006) and pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009) gathered comparable data on trust in formal and informal sources of influenza information, influenza-related knowledge, perceived hygiene effectiveness, worry, perceived susceptibility, and PHPs. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed domain content while confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the extracted factors. The hypothesized model, compiled from different theoretical frameworks, was optimized with structural equation modelling using the A/H5N1 data. The optimized model was then tested against the A/H1N1 dataset. The model was robust across datasets though corresponding path weights differed. Trust in formal information was positively associated with perceived hygiene effectiveness which was positively associated with PHPs in both datasets. Trust in formal information was positively associated with influenza worry in A/H5N1 data, and with knowledge of influenza cause in A/H1N1 data, both variables being positively associated with PHPs. Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry in both datasets. Independent of information trust, perceived influenza susceptibility associated with influenza worry. Worry associated with PHPs in A/H5N1 data only. Knowledge of influenza cause and perceived PHP effectiveness were associated with PHPs. Improving trust in formal information should increase PHPs. Worry was significantly associated with PHPs in A/H5N1.

  4. Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 illness in Florida, 2009-2010: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Doyle

    Full Text Available Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus infection (pH1N1. Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes.We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness.A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI: 1.78 (1.11-2.860], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes.Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue to be targeted for appropriate prophylaxis and

  5. A Comparison of AH-64D and OH-58D Pilot Attitudes Toward Glass Cockpit Crewstation Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    .... This finding suggested that the details of crewstation design needed to be examined. To identify significant differences, this study assessed pilots' attitudes toward glass cockpit designs in the AH-64D Apache and OH-5SD Kiowa helicopters...

  6. Novel archaeal plasmid pAH1 and its interactions with the lipothrixvirus AFV1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, Tamara; Smyth, John; Forterre, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    . Although nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed extensive intergenomic exchange during the evolution of archaeal conjugative plasmids, pAH1 was shown to be stably maintained suggesting that the host system is suitable for studying plasmid-virus interactions. AFV1 infection and propagation leads to a loss...... of the circular form of pAH1 and this effect correlates positively with the increase in the intracellular quantity of AFV1 DNA. We infer that the virus inhibits plasmid replication since no pAH1 degradation was observed. This mechanism of archaeal viral inhibition of plasmid propagation is not observed...... in bacteria where relevant bacteriophages either are dependent on a conjugative plasmid for successful infection or are excluded by a resident plasmid....

  7. Shari’ah concepts in Islamic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main Shari’ah concepts in Islamic banking, a system which operates in accordance with the Islamic law principles, the most important being the prohibition against the payment or acceptance of interest charges (riba, replaced by profit-and-loss-sharing arrangements(PLS, Mudharabah. Also, the paper presents a survey of the historical evolution of the Islamic banking system in Muslim countries, starting with the first Islamic bank, early in the 60’s, Mit Ghamr Local Savings Bank in Egypt. In conclusion, the Islamic banking system is a rapid growth one. It is expected that this presentation will be helpful in increasing the interest in the Islamic principles of banking and financing.

  8. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y; Inoue, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. TABUNGAN: IMPLEMENTASI AKAD WADI’AH ATAU QARD? (Kajian Praktik Wadi’ah di Perbankan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufti Afif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no discussion about banking usury in classic Fikh books, because there were no banks, which nowadays they are needed by society to save their worth. As the research of classic Fiqh, there are differences in ulamas’ instructions, based on their understanding. However, they agree to state that bank interest is a usury or forbidden in Islam. Qardul Hasan is another term of qard, that is interpreted by the most of Indonesian people as social engagement, or bequest. Financial department must be careful in understanding the instructions, related to the implementation in the real life. Banks and financial departments claim that money saving is as akad wadi’ah yad dhamanah, whereas the meaning of dhomanah is responsibility. Fiqh ulamas decide that actually, wadi’ah is responsible. Yad dhamanah is irresponsible.

  10. The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and Its Role in Reducing Head Strikes of the Copilot/ Gunner. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    shelf and locally available automotive airbag system was selected for the tests. The system was a driver’s side airbag designed by Honda Motor Company...allowance for hardware redesign or modifi- cation. Despite these limitations, the study succeeded in demonstrating a problem exists and a supplemental airbag ...JSAARL Repqrt No. 91-8 AD-A233 349 Volume’ I(3 The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and

  11. Economic evaluation of the vaccination program against seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza among customs officers in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamma, Maria; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-01-01

    Health policies from many countries recommend influenza vaccination of "high-priority" professional groups, including customs officers. Our aim was to estimate the economic impact of the vaccination program against influenza among customs officers in Greece during the 2009/2010 period. We developed a decision analytical computational simulation model including dynamic transmission elements that estimated the economic impact of various scenarios with different attack rates, symptomatic percentages and vaccination participation among customs officers. We also assessed in real-time the economic impact of the national 2009/2010 campaign against seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza. Implementing a seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination program among customs officers in Greece with a participation rate of 30%, influenza vaccination was not cost-saving in any of the studied influenza scenarios. When the participation rate reached 100%, the program was cost-saving, when the influenza attack rate was 30% and the symptomatic rate 65%. The real-time estimated mean net cost-benefit value in 2009/2010 period was -7.3 euros/custom officer. With different clinical scenarios, providing a vaccination program against seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza can incur a substantial net benefit for customs offices. However, the size of the benefit strongly depends upon the attack rate of influenza, the symptomatic rate as well as the participation rate of the customs officers in the program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal Ram; Shakya, Geeta; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Prakash Kc, Khagendra; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Dhungana, Guna Raj

    2011-03-23

    The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

  13. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sirjana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6% were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3% were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3% were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53% were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type.

  14. RASIONALITAS KONVERSI BANK KONVENSIONAL KE BANK SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Damanuri

    2016-02-01

    Aji Damanuri   Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.

  15. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  17. Month of the Year and Pre- Holiday Effects In Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the existence of two anomalies in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance; the month of the year and pre-holiday effect, and their implication for stock market efficiency. Investing in Shari’ah compliant is different from investing in conventional stock. Conventional stock market followed the capital market set of rules and law, while Shari’ah follows not only followed the capital market set of laws but also the Islamic principles. Most of the previous studies investigated issues related to the conventional stock market, this study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari’ah compliant instrument and make comparison between both Shari’ah compliance stock market in Indonesia and Malaysia. We document high and significant returns in month and pre-holiday in Indonesia and Malaysia stock market that represent by the Shari’ah compliance. Our result indicate that the month of the year effect is prevalent in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance.   Keywords: Calendar effects, Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance, Month of the year and pre-holiday effects

  18. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  19. Binding Mode and Structure-Activity Relationships of ITE as an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolciami, Daniela; Gargaro, Marco; Cerra, Bruno; Scalisi, Giulia; Bagnoli, Luana; Servillo, Giuseppe; Fazia, Maria Agnese Della; Puccetti, Paolo; Quintana, Francisco J; Fallarino, Francesca; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2018-02-06

    Discovered as a modulator of the toxic response to environmental pollutants, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently gained attention for its involvement in various physiological and pathological pathways. AhR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by a large array of chemical compounds, which include metabolites of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism as endogenous ligands of the receptor. Among these, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) has attracted interest in the scientific community, being endowed with nontoxic, immunomodulatory, and anticancer AhR-mediated functions. So far, no information about the binding mode and interactions of ITE with AhR is available. In this study, we used docking and molecular dynamics to propose a putative binding mode of ITE into the ligand binding pocket of AhR. Mutagenesis studies were then instrumental in validating the proposed binding mode, identifying His 285 and Tyr 316 as important key residues for ligand-dependent receptor activation. Finally, a set of ITE analogues was synthesized and tested to further probe molecular interactions of ITE to AhR and characterize the relevance of specific functional groups in the chemical structure for receptor activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Physical Parameters of the Overcontact Binary AH Cnc in the Old Open Cluster M 67

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the overcontact binary AH Cnc. The CCD observations were done with the Russian-Turkish 1.5 m telescope and the light-curve was solved with the Wilson-Devinney code. The physical parameters of the components have been deduced as M1 = 1.22 Msun,

  1. EDUKASI MARKETING BANK SYARÎ’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhan Wadhan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Marketing is a significant aspect to increase consumer trust. Hence, it is essential to educate the consumer with the lesson of the importance of syarî’ah products concerning the marketing aspects. In fact, many banks serves the customer with syariah service in Indonesia.  The basic concept of spiritual marketing is the managements of creation, taste, heart and work (the implementation. Those concepts are under the guidence of faith integrity, obidience, and loyality to Allâh swt. The key of ethics and moral of business is truly placed on the doers. A Muslim busines manager must hold tightly the ethic and moral of business that cope –khusn al-huluq, trusty, dan tolerant. There are three marketing strategies of syariah banking; marker driven strategic, viral marketing way, and fish net strategy. Element of  mega marketing that had been intruduced by Rasûlullâh since the fifteenth century, and now can be adopted to any kinds of businesses including syariah banking. Key Words: Marketing, Marketer, dan Mega Marketing  

  2. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  3. Glyphosate Use and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Koutros, Stella; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Sandler, Dale P; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lerro, Catherine C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Parks, Christine G; Alavanja, Michael C; Silverman, Debra T; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with both residential and agricultural uses. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans," noting strong mechanistic evidence and positive associations for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some epidemiologic studies. A previous evaluation in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) with follow-up through 2001 found no statistically significant associations with glyphosate use and cancer at any site. The AHS is a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators from North Carolina and Iowa. Here, we updated the previous evaluation of glyphosate with cancer incidence from registry linkages through 2012 (North Carolina)/2013 (Iowa). Lifetime days and intensity-weighted lifetime days of glyphosate use were based on self-reported information from enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up questionnaires (1999-2005). We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression, controlling for potential confounders, including use of other pesticides. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 54 251 applicators, 44 932 (82.8%) used glyphosate, including 5779 incident cancer cases (79.3% of all cases). In unlagged analyses, glyphosate was not statistically significantly associated with cancer at any site. However, among applicators in the highest exposure quartile, there was an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with never users (RR = 2.44, 95% CI = 0.94 to 6.32, Ptrend = .11), though this association was not statistically significant. Results for AML were similar with a five-year (RRQuartile 4 = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.98 to 5.51, Ptrend = .07) and 20-year exposure lag (RRTertile 3 = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.05 to 3.97, Ptrend = .04). In this large, prospective cohort study, no association was apparent between glyphosate and any solid tumors or lymphoid malignancies overall, including NHL and

  4. The impact of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus on seasonal influenza A viruses in the southern hemisphere, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, C C; Kelso, A; McPhie, K A; Ratnamohan, V M; Catton, M; Druce, J D; Smith, D W; Williams, S H; Huang, Q S; Lopez, L; Schoub, B D; Venter, M; Dwyer, D E

    2010-08-05

    Data collected over winter 2009 by five World Health Organisation National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere were used to examine the circulation of pandemic and seasonal influenza A strains during the first pandemic wave in the southern hemisphere.There is compelling evidence that the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus significantly displaced seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and, to a lesser extent, A(H3N2) viruses circulating in the southern hemisphere. Complete replacement of seasonal influenza A strains, however, was not observed during the first pandemic wave.

  5. A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination: A retrospective evaluation of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Massimo; Bella, Antonino; Rota, Maria C; Clagnan, Elena; Gallo, Tolinda; D'Amato, Maurizio; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Ferrara, Lorenza; Demicheli, Vittorio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Rizzo, Caterina

    2015-05-05

    Although concerns about safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy have been raised in the past, vaccination of pregnant women was recommended in many countries during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women vaccinated with a MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. The study was carried out in four Italian regions (Piemonte, Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Lazio, and Puglia) among 102,077 pregnant women potentially exposed during the second or third trimester of gestation to the vaccination campaign implemented in 2009/2010. Based on data retrieved from the regional administrative databases, the statistical analysis was performed using the Cox proportional-hazards model, adjusting for the propensity score to account for the potential confounding effect due to the socio-demographic characteristics and the clinical and reproductive history of women. A total of 100,332 pregnant women were eligible for the analysis. Of these, 2003 (2.0%) received the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during the second or third trimester of gestation. We did not observe any statistically significant association between the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination and different maternal outcomes (hospital admissions for influenza, pneumonia, hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes, thyroid disease, and anaemia), fetal outcomes (fetal death after the 22nd gestational week) and neonatal outcomes (pre-term birth, low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar score, and congenital malformations). Pre-existing health-risk conditions (hospital admissions and drug prescriptions for specific diseases before the onset of pregnancy) were observed more frequently among vaccinated women, thus suggesting that concomitant chronic conditions increased vaccination uptake. The results of this study add some evidence on the safety of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination during

  6. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  7. TCDD-induced transcriptional profiles in different mouse strains that have an identical AhR genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing; Suzuki, Junko S.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Ministry of the Environment, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo (Japan); Lin, Tinmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Wisconsin, MA (United States). School of Pharmacy and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that is known to cause hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. A characteristic feature in the toxicity of TCDD is exceptionally large differences in susceptibility among animal species or even strains belonging to the same species. These strain differences in susceptibility to TCDD have now been elucidated to be due to the difference in ligand binding affinity or transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Actually the C57BL/6 type AhR (AhR{sup b}) showed 6-fold higher ligand binding affinity than the DBA/2 type AhR (AhR{sup d}). The H/W rat AhR has a C-terminal truncation of the transactivating domain compared to the L-E rat AhR. On the other hand, there is considerable species variability in response sensitivity to TCDD that cannot be ascribed simply to polymorphisms of the AhR gene. A non-AhR gene susceptibility loci for hepatic porphyria has been observed in mice treated with iron compounds prior to TCDD injection by using a quantitative trait locus analysis of an F2 intercross between susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant DBA/2 stains. In the rat, a gene B with Han/Wistar type AhR is likely to be involved in resistance to TCDD lethality. These observations suggest that other modulating genes, so-called ''modifier genes'', have profound effects on the AhR-mediated gene expression phenotype. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the AhR coding region, the BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mouse strains are clustered together on a single branch. In the present study, we try to confirm the existence of modifiers by using microarray analysis to examine hepatic gene expression after TCDD exposure in BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice. To recognize the existence of a modifier besides the AhR, it is a prerequisite experimental condition that the analyzed strains have an identical AhR genotype. Therefore, we selected BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice as the model

  8. BAY‘ AL-MURABAHAH: Mendudukkan Kembali Posisinya dalam Perbankan Syari’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhur Prasetiyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BAY‘ AL-MURAbah}ah transaction becomes the most popular product which shari>’ah banking uses to sell its assets for amount of reasons. Total amount of shari>’ah banks store and transact their assets (fund in mura>bah}ah system. The reason is that this product has not only small risk but also ease to manage related to muz}a>rabah and musha>rakah system. In the other hand, Many people don’t understand mura>bah}ah mechanism precisely. They often think that mura>bah}ah mechanism is as credit as well. It is, in fact, that mura>bah}ah system is a cash transaction which shari>’ah banks have. This paper is to elaborate mura>bah}ah system as a product of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: Perbankan Syariah, mura>bah}ah, margin keuntungan, kredit

  9. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic...

  10. Birth defects and aplastic anemia: differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon toxicity associated with the Ah locus. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebert, D.W.; Levitt, R.C.; Jensen, N.M.; Lambert, G.H.; Felton, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The balance between cytochrome(s) P/sub 1/-450 and other forms of P-450 in the liver, and probably many nonhepatic tissues as well, appears to be important in the toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity of numerous compounds. Thus, allelic differences in a single gene--the Ah locus-- can have profound effects on the susceptibility of mice to drug toxicity and cancer. There is evidence for the Ah lous in the human. Striking increases in the incidence of stillborns, reorptions,and malformations caused by 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were observed in the aromatic hydrocarbon responsive C57BL/6N,C3H/HeN, and BALB/cAnN inbred strains, compared with the genetically nonresponsive AKR/N. These data suggest that an association exists between the Ah locus and teratogenesis. Although numerous teratogenic differences among inbred mouse strains have been previously reported, this study is unique in that the genetic differences in teratogenicity observed were predicted in advance, on the basis of known differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon metabolism regulated by the Ah locus.

  11. HOW SHOULD SHARI’AH PRINCIPLES BE APPLIED IN MODERN COMPANY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Susamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show why the modern business institution (company should be Islamized, and to suggest ways in which shari’ah principles can be applied in the company. To achieve this purpose, we should understand how company be islamized in comprehensive and integrated  manner through the Islamic law perspective, with the contemporary issues like underlying contract of company,  legal entity, and the concept of liability. The resolution of these issues is important to assert that shari’ah principles could be applied in the modern company by integrating approach. An integrating approach in the treating of these issues has, however, been lacking, nor has it been subjected to a thorough legal analysis through the principles of Islamic business law.   Tujuan dari pembahasan ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa institusi bisnis modern (perusahaan harus diislamisasi, dan member masukan cara-cara bagimana prinsip- prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan dalam perusahaan. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, kita perlu memahami bagaimana perusahaan diislamisasi secara menyeluruh dan terintegrasi melalui perspektif hukum Islam terhadap persoalan kontemporer, seperti landasan kontrak perusahaan, badan hukum, dan konsep liabilitas. Solusi dari persoalan ini sangat penting untuk   menegaskan bahwa prinsip-prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan pada perusahaan modern melalui pendekatan integrasi. Bagaimanapun, pendekatan integrasi dalam menyikapi persoalan ini jarang dilakukan, disamping tidak menjadi tema analisis melalui prinsip-prinsip hukum bisnis Islami.

  12. NIKAH WISATA; PENDEKATAN MAQASHID AL-SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Bakhtiar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tour marriage as is done in a certain time basically it seems nothing wrong and there is no terms of harmonious violated from the fulfillment side of harmonious and requirements. However, in terms of the purpose of marriage, the law and maqasid al-syari'ah contain marriage problem. In addition, there can also be equated with  mut'ah marriage that is allowed by syi'i. The type of this marriage is not appropriate with the maqasid al-syariah, not only ashliyah but also tabi'iyah. Then the impact could be on the implications of the worst  neglect.Keywords : The tour marriage, maqasid al-Syari'ah and mudharatCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i2.56

  13. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaan Corien M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM, and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%. The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7, mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days. In four flights (19%, contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided during and after the flight. Public health authorities should take into account patient delays in seeking medical advise and

  14. The effect of benzalkonium chloride additions to AH Plus sealer. Antimicrobial, physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, M T; Ruiz-Linares, M; Cassar, G; Ferrer-Luque, C M; Baca, P; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Camilleri, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and physicochemical properties of AH Plus sealer mixed with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BC). AH Plus was tested alone and mixed with 1%, 2% and 3% of BC. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the sealers against Enterococcus faecalis were evaluated by the direct contact test (DCT) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Setting time, flow and solubility were assessed according to ANSI/ADA specifications. Microhardness and contact angle tests were also performed. The chemical changes of the sealers were evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis, and both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR). AH Plus+3% BC was the only sealer to promote total elimination of E. faecalis and the biovolume in this group was significantly lower than in the rest of the sealers (p>0.05). The physical properties of the sealers were according to the ANSI/ADA specifications. The microhardness decreased significantly when BC was added and a significant reduction in contact angle was obtained when incorporating 2% and 3% BC (p<0.05). No phase changes were observed with the modified sealers. The addition of 2% or higher concentrations BC to AH Plus showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities without affecting the properties specified in ANSI/ADA standards. However, additives to the root canal sealer altered other physical and chemical properties that are not commonly found in the literature to evaluate filling materials. The present study highlights that the antimicrobial properties of AH Plus can be significantly improved with the addition of BC. Testing beyond what is specified in standards may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Wei; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Zijian

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333microg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The expressions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100microg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  16. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  17. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli; Wang Zijian

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 μg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na + ,K + -ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The expressions of Na + ,K + -ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 μg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  18. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguin, Marie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes Cedex (France); Lecureur, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.lecureur@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  19. Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Alam, S M Rabiul; Hasan, M Kamrul; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus.

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF MAQÂSHID Al-SYARÎ’AH (An Overview of the Development of Islamic Law in Indonesia

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    Absori .

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study is part of an effort to systematize the basic conception of the values of the sharia as the foundation in the life of nation and state life, where the orientation is to embody the essence of the religious life through the maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam as al-dîn has been providing the basics of life of Muslims through the al-Qur’an and as-Sunnah. Both of these contain guidance values of human life, including in running the sharia for Muslims. Sharia (syarî`ah in perspective of terminology is "street". In an isthilâhî perspective, it is a way to get to God. The basic meaning of sharia itself should be realized in the basic understanding maqâshid al-syarî`ah, which can be interpreted within the scope of statehood, because the meaning contained are the values of universality of maqâshid al-syarî`ah. In the context of Indonesian, then maqâshid al-syarî`ah is part of the basic conception air Almighty God with the aim of creating prosperity for the people of Indonesia. In this study, the approach used is the doctrinal bases to study literature. This study is the strengthening of the maqâshid al-syarî`ah as the basis for the development of Islamic law.Abstrak:Kajian ini merupakan bagian dari upaya untuk sistematisasi konsep dasar dari nilai-nilai syari’ah sebagai pondasi dalam kehidupan berbangsa dan kehidupan bernegara, dimana orientasi tersebut adalah untuk mewujudkan hakikat kehidupan dalam beragama melalui maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam sebagai al-dîn telah memberikan dasar-dasar kehidupan umat Muslim melalui al-Qur’an dan al-Sunnah. Kedua hal tersebut mengandung nilai-nilai tuntunan kehidupan umat manusia termasuk dalam menjalankan syariah bagi umat Muslim. Syari’ah dalam perspektif terminologi merupakan “jalan”. Sedangkan secara isthilâhî, ia dimaknai sebagai jalan untuk sampai kepada Allah SWT. Makna dasar dari syari’ah itu sendiri harus diwujudkan dalam pemahaman dasar maqâshid al-syarî’ah, di

  1. Lay people's interpretation of ethical values related to mass vaccination; the case of A(H1N1) vaccination campaign in the province of Quebec (French Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Raymond; Désy, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Pandemic influenza ethics frameworks are based on respect of values and principles such as regard for autonomy, responsibility, transparency, solidarity and social justice. However, very few studies have addressed the way in which the general population views these moral norms. (i) To analyse the receptiveness of the population of French-speaking Quebecers to certain ethical principles promoted by public health authorities during the AH1N1 vaccination campaign. (ii) To add to the limited number of empirical studies that examine the population's perception of ethical values. Eight months after the end of the AH1N1 vaccination campaign in the Province of Quebec (Canada), 100 French-speaking Quebecers were assembled in ten focus groups. Discussions focussed on the level of respect shown by public health authorities for individual autonomy, the limits of appeals for solidarity, the balance between vaccination efficiency and social justice towards non-prioritized subpopulations, vaccination as a demonstration of civic duty and social responsibility. The population acknowledged a high level of individual responsibility towards family members and agreed to vaccination to protect children and ageing parents. However, the concepts of civic duty and solidarity did not elucidate unanimous support, despite the fact that social justice stood out as a dominant value of public morals. The ethical principles promoted in influenza pandemic ethics frameworks are subject to reinterpretation by the population. An ethic of public health must consider their understanding of the fundamental values that legitimize mass vaccination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

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    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  3. Binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the AhR from various species is essentially irreversible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohonowych, J.; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread, persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that includes the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related chemicals. Exposure to these compounds results in a variety of biochemical and toxic effects, the majority of which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent activator of the AhR and AhR-dependent effects. Interestingly, while a related class of compounds, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can bind to and activate the AhR, and produce many of the same biological effects as HAHs, they do not cause HAH-like toxicity. This can be due to differences between these two classes of compounds with respect to their AhR binding affinity, metabolic stability, and/or gene expression. PAHs have a lower affinity for the AhR5 and, unlike TCDD, can be readily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition to its high affinity for the AhR, TCDD has been shown to stabilize the rat AhR receptor against thermal inactivation and to persistently bind the rat receptor. This persistent occupancy may also contribute to the differential toxicity of HAHs and PAHs. In addition to its biological and toxicological implications, the apparent lack of significant dissociation of TCDD from the AhR also impacts the design and interpretation of competitive binding experiments which assume traditional receptor-ligand equilibrium binding kinetics where binding is reversible and equilibrium of ligand:receptor complex is reached when rates of association and dissociation are equal. In this study we have further examined whether this persistent occupancy is a characteristic of the AhR among different species.

  4. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Eckhardt, Rose; Brownstein, John S; Naqvi, Raza; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Scales, David; Arino, Julien; MacDonald, Michael; Wang, Jun; Sears, Jennifer; Cetron, Martin S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the screening measures that would have been required to assess all travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico by air at the start of the 2009 pandemic. Data from flight itineraries for travellers who flew from Mexico were used to estimate the number of international airports where health screening measures would have been needed, and the number of travellers who would have had to be screened, to assess all air travellers who could have transported the H1N1 influenza virus out of Mexico during the initial stages of the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Exit screening at 36 airports in Mexico, or entry screening of travellers arriving on direct flights from Mexico at 82 airports in 26 other countries, would have resulted in the assessment of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico at the start of the pandemic. Entry screening of 116 travellers arriving from Mexico by direct or connecting flights would have been necessary for every one traveller at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09. Screening at just eight airports would have resulted in the assessment of 90% of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico in the early stages of the pandemic. During the earliest stages of the A(H1N1) pandemic, most public health benefits potentially attainable through the screening of air travellers could have been achieved by screening travellers at only eight airports.

  5. Penyelesaian Sengketa antara Bank Sharî‘ah dengan Nasabah Bermasalah melalui Badan Arbitrase Sharî‘ah Nasional (BASYARNAS menurut UU No. 30 tahun 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sulistyowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers through the National Shari’ah Arbitration Board (BASYARNAS. It focuses to elaborate the procedures of dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers of financing from the perspective of Islamic law according to Bill No. 30/1999 above law No. 30 year 1999. Based on procedures as mentioned in the bill with regard to arbitration and alternative dispute resolution, Basyarnas, in proofing and resolving cases, has fulfilled the procedures and satisfied the conflicting parties with justice, so there is no need to appeal and reconsideration. This means that Basyarnas has conducted dispute resolution according to the existing procedures. The dispute settlement has also been in accordance with the Qur’ân and other Islamic legal rules which consist of the principles of power and mandate applied by the arbitrator in deciding and resolving the dispute. The board—as an independent institution—has setttled the disputes on the basis of justice for all parties, rejected the act of bribery since the cost is measurable. In addition, Basyarnas also gives strong emphasis on the principle of equality, friendship, consistence and response-bility in resolving disputes.

  6. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel cell-based assay reveals associations of circulating serum AhR-ligands with metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wook-Ha; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Jin Taek; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Serum concentrations of environmental pollutants have been positively correlated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in epidemiologic studies. In turn, abnormal mitochondrial function has been associated with the diseases. The relationships between these variables, however, have not been studied. We developed novel cell-based aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist bioassay system without solvent extraction process and analyzed whether low-dose circulating AhR ligands in human serum are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function. Serum AhR ligand activities were measured as serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (sTCDDeq) in pM using 10 μL human sera from 97 Korean participants (47 with glucose intolerance and 50 matched controls, average age of 46.6 ± 9.9 years, 53 male and 45 female). sTCDDeq were higher in participants with glucose intolerance than normal controls and were positively associated (P fasting glucose, but not with HDL-cholesterol. Body mass index was in a positive linear relationship with serum AhR ligands in healthy participants. When myoblast cells were incubated with human sera, ATP generating power of mitochondria became impaired in an AhR ligand concentration-dependent manner. Our results support that circulating AhR ligands may directly reduce mitochondrial function in tissues, leading to weight gain, glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome. Our rapid cell-based assay using minute volume of human serum may provide one of the best monitoring systems for circulating AhR ligands, good clinical biomarkers for the progress of disease and therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Sever, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  9. Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Established in November 2015, the Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies (CMSHS) promotes safety and health for all maritime workers, including those employed...

  10. Characterizing the epidemiology of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mexico's local and national authorities initiated an intense public health response during the early stages of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. In this study we analyzed the epidemiological patterns of the pandemic during April-December 2009 in Mexico and evaluated the impact of nonmedical interventions, school cycles, and demographic factors on influenza transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used influenza surveillance data compiled by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, representing 40% of the population, to study patterns in influenza-like illness (ILIs hospitalizations, deaths, and case-fatality rate by pandemic wave and geographical region. We also estimated the reproduction number (R on the basis of the growth rate of daily cases, and used a transmission model to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies initiated during the spring pandemic wave. A total of 117,626 ILI cases were identified during April-December 2009, of which 30.6% were tested for influenza, and 23.3% were positive for the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus. A three-wave pandemic profile was identified, with an initial wave in April-May (Mexico City area, a second wave in June-July (southeastern states, and a geographically widespread third wave in August-December. The median age of laboratory confirmed ILI cases was ∼ 18 years overall and increased to ∼ 31 years during autumn (p<0.0001. The case-fatality ratio among ILI cases was 1.2% overall, and highest (5.5% among people over 60 years. The regional R estimates were 1.8-2.1, 1.6-1.9, and 1.2-1.3 for the spring, summer, and fall waves, respectively. We estimate that the 18-day period of mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures implemented in the greater Mexico City area was associated with a 29%-37% reduction in influenza transmission in spring 2009. In addition, an increase in R was observed in late May and early June in the southeast states, after mandatory school

  11. BATAS USIA NAFKAH ANAK BERDASARKAN MAQASID AL-SYARI‘AH

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    Marwan Marwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The stipulation of the age limit of child’s livelihood based on to the number of year is important to do, because standard of age maturity (not child authonomy that has been used can lead to the harm to the child who has been in age maturity but she or he is not authonomous yet. On the other hand, the lack of independent age limit can be burden to the parents, because granting a living become limitless. The age limit is not available through the texts of the Shari‘a, therefore, it should be studied by using uṣūl al-fiqh approach (maqāṣid al-syarī‘ah. This study use mixed method; deductive and inductive. The findings were analyzed by using istiṣlāḥiyyah reasoning patterns. Based on this study, it was concluded that the limit of liability of parents for their children is until the child reaches the age of 23 years. Because at the age of 22 years, children in Indonesia generally have completed undergraduate. So at least it takes a year to prepare for finding a job to pay for his life before actually independent living. In addition, there are companies in Indonesia generally limits the prospective new employee at the age of 25 years.

  12. Disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial cells by various types of AhR ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondracek, J.; Chramostova, K.; Kozubik, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Krcmar, P.; Machala, M. [Veterinary Research Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The maintenance of a balance between cell gain and cell loss is essential for proper liver function. The exact role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells remains unclear, since ligand-dependent activation of AhR has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis, depending on the cellular model used. AhR can directly interact with retinoblastoma protein in hepatic cells, forming protein complexes that can efficiently block cell cycle progression by inducing G1 arrest, or to induce the expression of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, such as p271. On the other hand, it has been suggested that AhR could play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation, either directly or by mediating a release from contact inhibition. It is now generally accepted that progenitor cells exist in the liver, are activated in various liver diseases and can form a potential target cell population for both tumor initiating and tumor promoting chemicals4. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) has been found to release rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition by upregulating cyclin A expression and cyclin A/cdk2 activity. Our previous studies have shown that a number of AhR ligands5,6 can stimulate proliferation of confluent of rat liver epithelial ''stem-like'' WB-F344 cells. Such mechanism could play a role in liver tumor promotion. In the present study, we used flavonoid compounds that have been reported to act either as pure agonists, such as beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), or as partial/complete antagonists of AhR - alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) and 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (3'M4'NF), in order to investigate effects of AhR agonists/antagonists on confluent rat liver epithelial cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of model flavonoids on the release of rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition, and on inducibility of

  13. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Tham Chi; Dinh, Pham Ngoc; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tan, Luong Minh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thanh, Le Thi; Mai, Le Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian-human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam.

  14. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1 among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Chi Dung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.

  15. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer; RS (RealSeal Sealer; RP (RealSeal Primer; CG (control group - empty tube. After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05. There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031. RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04. CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content.

  16. Pengaruh Sistem Waralaba Terhadap Retail Kecil Di Ponorogo Tinjauan Maṣlaḥah

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    Siti Wulandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: One of the indications of the acceleration of economic progress in Ponorogo is the rapid development of the real sectors, especially the proliferation of modern businesses using the franchise system. Therefore, small retail businesses today are facing new competitors with huge capital and reliability of modern management. This study tries to find out the impact of the franchise system invasion to the existence of small retails, and how it affects the maṣlaḥah (safety of small retails in Ponorogo. This study uses the theory of maqāṣid al-sharīah in the aspects of ḥifẓ al-māl to analyze the sustainability of small retail businesses amid the proliferation of franchise businesses. Maṣlāḥah is thinking about the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of religious teachings by thinking about priorities and side with the community (al-maṣlaḥah al-'āmah. The results of this study found out the threat of franchise trading system to the existence of small retails. Therefore, the maṣlaḥah for small retail of businesses means the realization of the safety from the expansion of large investors, such as monopoly. Abstrak: Salah satu indikator meningkatnya laju perekonomian Kabupaten Ponorogo ditandai dengan pesatnya perkembangan sektor riil terutama dengan menjamurnya berbagai jenis toko-roko modern (khususnya dengan sistem waralaba yang terus bertambah jumlahnya. Lalu bagaimana dengan para pebisnis retail kecil yang kebanyakan mereka memiliki usaha dengan modal yang tidak terlalu besar. Penelitian ini berupaya mengetahui adakah  pengaruh yang terjadi akibat adanya toko-toko dengan sistem waralaba terhadap eksistensi retail kecil, serta adakah pengaruhnya terhadap kemaslahatan retail kecil yang ada di Ponorogo. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori keberlangsungan usaha yang dikaitkan dengan maqāsid al-shar’īah  aspek kemaslahatan hifz al-māl untuk menguji pengaruh kemaslahatan retail kecil dengan adanya bisnis

  17. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  18. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlhoch, C.; Gossner, C.; Koch, G.; Brown, I.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Verdonck, F.; Penttinen, P.; Harder, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are

  19. Corporate Governance in Shareholding Companies: Comparing Legal Perspective and Position of Shari’ah

    OpenAIRE

    Aznan, H.; Harith Amir Hasan Al Timimi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrat...

  20. Genetic structure of human A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza virus on Corsica Island: phylogenetic analysis and vaccine strain match, 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Falchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic patterns of Hemagglutinin (HA genes of influenza A strains circulating on Corsica Island during the 2006-2009 epidemic seasons and the 2009-2010 pandemic season. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples from 371 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI were collected by General Practitioners (GPs of the Sentinelles Network through a randomised selection routine. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of HA revealed that A/H3N2 strains circulating on Corsica were closely related to the WHO recommended vaccine strains in each analyzed season (2006-2007 to 2008-2009. Seasonal Corsican influenza A/H1N1 isolated during the 2007-2008 season had drifted towards the A/Brisbane/59/2007 lineage, the A/H1N1 vaccine strain for the 2008-2009 season. The A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1pdm strains isolated on Corsica Island were characterized by the S220T mutation specific to clade 7 isolates. It should be noted that Corsican isolates formed a separate sub-clade of clade 7 as a consequence of the presence of the fixed substitution D222E. The percentages of the perfect match vaccine efficacy, estimated by using the p(epitope model, against influenza viruses circulating on Corsica Island varied substantially across the four seasons analyzed, and tend to be highest for A/H1N1 compared with A/H3N2 vaccines, suggesting that cross-immunity seems to be stronger for the H1 HA gene. CONCLUSION: The molecular analysis of the HA gene of influenza viruses that circulated on Corsica Island between 2006-2010 showed for each season the presence of a dominant lineage characterized by at least one fixed mutation. The A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm isolates were characterized by multiples fixation at antigenic sites. The fixation of specific mutations at each outbreak could be explained by the combination of a neutral phenomenon and a founder effect, favoring the presence of a dominant lineage in a closed environment such as Corsica Island.

  1. Contextual generalized trust and immunization against the 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic in the American states: A multilevel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Rönnerstrand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the association between contextual generalized trust and individual-level 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic immunization acceptance. A second aim was to investigate whether knowledge about the A(H1N1 pandemic mediated the association between contextual generalized trust and A(H1N1 immunization acceptance. Data from the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey was used. To capture contextual generalized trust, data comes from an aggregation of surveys measuring generalized trust in the American states. To investigate the association between contextual generalized trust and immunization acceptance, while taking potential individual-level confounders into account, multilevel logistic regression was used. The investigation showed contextual generalized trust to be significantly associated with immunization acceptance. However, controlling for knowledge about the A(H1N1 pandemic did not substantially affect the association between contextual generalized trust and immunization acceptance. In conclusion, contextual state-level generalized trust was associated with A(H1N1 immunization, but knowledge about A(H1N1 was not mediating this association. Keywords: Generalized trust, Social capital, Immunization, A(H1N1 pandemic, American states

  2. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghotbaddini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models.

  3. OPTIMALISASI BANK SYARI’AH MENUJU GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrur Ulum Fahrur Ulum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Syarî’ah banking must be optimized earnestly to fulfill the stakeholders interest. The effective implementation of cooporate governance would realize the goal of fairness, accountability, and transparancy.  There are several prior focus of this system manager: basic concept and problems of cooperate governance in syarî’ah banking, the pillars of implementation, and the mechanism.  As a result, to create an effective  cooperate governance of syariah banking, the following aspects must be urgently required: a contract clarity, market discipline, moral dimension, socio-political atmosphere,  law enforcement, and institution. Board of directors, senior management, stockholders, and depositors have important roles to establish the  harmony of syariah banking development. The stakeholders  are directly connected to the mechanism of cooperate governance of syariah banking. Key Words: corporate governance, bank syari’ah, stakeholders, dan mudlârabah

  4. Corporate Governance in Shareholding Companies: Comparing Legal Perspective and Position of Shari’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrative, and legal perspectives. The study also discusses the stands of international organisations on the issue of corporate governance. Then, it is proceeded by discussing the concept of corporate governance from Shari’ah point of view. The study found that even with the absence of the term “company governance” in Islamic Law, the concept of corporate governance is in line with the Shari’ah and that their scholars have clearly referred to it in their literature. The study has used the descriptive, analytical, inductive and comparative methodology in analyzing the subject matter.

  5. PENGUNGKAPAN SYARI’AH COMPLIANCE DAN KEPATUHAN BANK SYARIAH TERHADAP PRINSIP SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrori -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan terhadap prinsip-prinsip bank Islam dilihat dari perspektif teori tindakan. Populasi untuk penelitian ini adalah para akuntan dan manager cabang bank Islam di kota Semarang dimana untuk respondennya berjumlah 36. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan linear regression. Hasil dari penelitian ini untuk memberikan dukungan empiris terhadap teori tindakan dan juga untuk memprediksi niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah. Praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah disarankan untuk diterapkan pada pelaporan keuangan sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan bank Islam. This study aims to assess the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance as accountability for adherence to the principles of syari’ah Islamic banks in the perspective of the theory of reasoned action. The study population include accountants and managers of Islamic bank branches in the city of Semarang in which there are 36 respondents. Linear regression was implemented for analyzing the data to test the hypothesis used. The results of this study provide empirical support for the theory of reasoned action. Then, it can also be used to predict the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance. Syari’ah compliance disclosure practices is suggested to be applied in financial report as a compliance responsibility of Islamic banks.

  6. The antisense expression of AhPEPC1 increases seed oil production in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Zhang, J.; Chi, X.; Chen, N.; Chen, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, Y.; Yu, S.; Liu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are reported to be involved in fatty acid accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, and salt and drought stresses, knowledge regarding PEPC gene functions is still limited, particularly in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, the antisense expression of the peanut PEPC isoform 1 (AhPEPC1) gene increased the lipid content by 5.7%–10.3%. This indicated that AhPEPC1 might be related to plant lipid accumulation. The transgenic plants underwent more root elongation than the wild-type under salinity stress. Additionally, the specific down regulation of the AhPEPC1 gene improved the salt tolerance in peanuts. This is the first report on the role of PEPC in lipid accumulation and salt tolerance in peanuts.

  7. Detection of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus from live poultry markets in Guangzhou, China: a surveillance report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiu Chen

    Full Text Available A virologic surveillance program for A(H7N9 virus was conducted from April 15, 2013 to February 14, 2014 in Guangzhou, aiming to clarify the geographical distribution of A(H7N9 viruses among live poultry markets (LPMs and poultry farms in Guangzhou. Virological and serological surveys of poultry workers were also conducted to evaluate the risk of poultry-to-human transmission of the A(H7N9 virus.36 retail LPMs, 6 wholesale LPMs and 8 poultry farms were involved in our surveillance program. About 20 live poultry and environmental samples were obtained from each surveillance site at every sampling time. Different environmental samples were collected to represent different poultry-related work activities. RT-PCR and virus culture were performed to identify the A(H7N9 virus. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and RT-PCR were conducted to detect possible A(H7N9 infection among poultry workers.A total of 8900 live poultry and environmental samples were collected, of which 131(1.5% were tested positive for A(H7N9 virus. 44.4% (16/36 of retail LPMs and 50.0% (3/6 of wholesale LPMs were confirmed to be contaminated. No positive samples was detected from poultry farms. A significant higher positive sample rate was found in environmental samples related to poultry selling (2.6% and slaughtering (2.4%, compared to poultry holding (0.9%. Correspondingly, A(H7N9 viruses were isolated most frequently from slaughter zone. In addition, 316 poultry workers associated with the 19 contaminated-LPMs were recruited and a low seroprevalence (1.6% of antibody against A(H7N9 virus was detected. An asymptomatic A(H7N9 infection was also identified by RT-PCR.Our study highlights the importance of conducting effective surveillance for A(H7N9 virus and provides evidence to support the assumption that slaughtering is the key process for the propagation of A(H7N9 virus in retail LPMs. Moreover, the ability of A(H7N9 virus to cross species barrier is proved to be still limited.

  8. Telaah Fenomenologis Patrimonialisme Budaya Politik Terhadap Konflik Sunnî-Shî‘Ah Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatim Jatim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to discover the violence conflict between the Sunnî and the Shî‘ah Muslim communities in Karang Gayam and Blu’uran, Sampang, Madura. The conflict between the two communities has occurred since 2005 to 2013, and has escalated from one event to another. The conflict has caused the expulsion of Shî‘ah people out of Madura island to the refugee’s flats of Puspa Agro Sidoarjo on June 20, 2013. Based on the evidences found, the research is intended to study the phenomenon using phenomenological and patrimonial-political-cultural approa-ches. The study finds that the conflict itself has been caused by a set of hatred discourses and accusation of being heretic, which have been intensely propagated by the local religious elites, i.e. kiai against the Shî‘ah community led by Tajul Muluk. Moreover, the conflict escalation was, among other, due mainly to the strength of patronage relations of the kiais to infiltrate their hegemony and produce the mass to commit violent actions. Incongruously, the power of patronage has been also benefited by the government and many political elites to maintain their political electability and votes. As a result, the government seems to be reluctant to show a firm attitude by enforcing the existing rules to deal with the issue.

  9. Sedimentary evolution and ecosystem change in Ahémé lake, south-west Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussou, Ernest; Totin Vodounon, Henri S.; Vissin, Expédit W.; Mahé, Gil; Oyédé, Marc Lucien

    2018-04-01

    Tropical moist ecosystems, such as Ahémé lake, south-west Benin, are increasingly marked by water degradation, linked with the activities of increasing riparian populations. The objective of this study is to analyze sedimentary dynamics and its influence on the changing ecosystem of Ahémé lake from 1961-2010. Data used to carry out the study are records of precipitation, flows, turbidity, suspended sediment, mineral elements and bathymetry. Grain size data from the sieving of sediment samples were used to interpret suspended solids distribution in the lake. Linear correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of dependence between rainfall and runoff inputs to the lake. Lake depth measurements in some areas of the lake serve to determine the rate of infilling. The sorting index was used to highlight the distribution and origin of sediments in the lake. The results show a degradation of the lake Ahémé ecosystem characterized by infilling of its bed, a high correlation (r = 0.90) between rainfall and runoff, seasonal change in physicochemical parameters (total suspended sediment decrease by -91 %) and decrease in fish production by 135.8 t yr-1. The highest mean suspended sediment concentrations in lake inputs occur during high water periods (123 mg L-1) compared to low water periods (11.2 mg L-1).

  10. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori; Belsky, J.L.; Pastore, J.O.

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  11. Developing Maqasid al-Shari’ah Index to Evaluate Social Performance of Islamic Banks: A Conceptual and Empirical Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic banking and finance is now a reality with Shari 'ah compliant financial operations existing in many different parts of the world. However, its development has recently been subjected to criticism in relation to the aspirational objectives of Islamic moral economy, which constitutes the moral foundations of Islamic finance. The aspirational objectives are general expressed with maqasid al-Shari'ah, which is defined as 'human well-being'.The aim of this research, hence, is to evaluate the social performance of Islamic banks according to maqasid al-Shari'ah upon the realization of Islamic Moral Economy aspirations. AbdelMajid Najjar's concept of maqasid al-Shari 'ah with eight orientations or articulations is adopted to construct an evaluation framework aligned with the objective of rendering a critical improvement of current empirical studies.In operationalizing the developed framework, this study conducts empirical investigations by taking 13 banks from 6 countries for 5-year period (2008-2012 as a sample. In doing so, the annual reports of the sampled banks for the period are subjected to content analysis to generate the necessary data in applying to the formulated framework.Empirical evidence indicates that there is lack of achievement in maqasid al-Shari 'ah performance of Islamic bank and finance. Nevertheless, the overall industry concentrates mainly on self, faith and rights and stakeholding rather than wealth orientation, despite the fewer contributions in social entity, intellect, posterity and ecology. Additionally, the empirical results find that there are different orientations across the banks and countries. Finally, the industry orientation is estimated in this research, which is located to be somewhere betweenfaith and rights and stakeholding.Keywords: Maqasid al-Shari 'ah, Islamic Banking and Finance, Evaluation, Performance

  12. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tissue levels of AhR and sex steroid receptors in breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the incidence of breast fibroadenoma is growing in the last two decades in Tehran. This study aimed to compare the AhR levels in premenopausal breast cancer and breast fibroadnemo with appropriate normal groups. Possible associations of AhR with lifestyle and reproductive risk factors and other fundamental genes of breast cancer and reproductive disorders were the other major goals of present study. To conduct the comparisons all possible reproductive, environmental and lifestyle risk factors of mentioned diseases were recorded in 100 breast cancer, 100 breast fibroadenoma and compared with 400 women in normal group from 2009 to 2011. AhR overexpression in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced reproductive disorders. The AhR overexpression was contributed to ER-/PgR- immunophenotype in malignant tissues. Weight gain (after 18 and after pregnancy, long term (>5yrs OCP consumption, smoking, severe stress ,history of ovarian cysts, hormonal deregulations, living near PAHs producing sources, were correlated with increased risk of breast cancer and reproductive disorders and were correlated with elevated tissue levels of AhR. It seems that increased risk of breast cancer and other reproductive tumours in Tehran may be the result of exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Long term exposure to environmental estrogens can increase the tissue levels of AhR and deregulate the expression pattern of sex steroid receptors and other genes in target tissues.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xingguo, E-mail: chengx@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Vispute, Saurabh G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei [Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression

  15. Estimating the disease burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 from surveillance and household surveys in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vana Sypsa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the disease burden of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in Greece.Data on influenza-like illness (ILI, collected through cross-sectional nationwide telephone surveys of 1,000 households in Greece repeated for 25 consecutive weeks, were combined with data from H1N1 virologic surveillance to estimate the incidence and the clinical attack rate (CAR of influenza A(H1N1. Alternative definitions of ILI (cough or sore throat and fever>38°C [ILI-38] or fever 37.1-38°C [ILI-37] were used to estimate the number of symptomatic infections. The infection attack rate (IAR was approximated using estimates from published studies on the frequency of fever in infected individuals. Data on H1N1 morbidity and mortality were used to estimate ICU admission and case fatality (CFR rates. The epidemic peaked on week 48/2009 with approximately 750-1,500 new cases/100,000 population per week, depending on ILI-38 or ILI-37 case definition, respectively. By week 6/2010, 7.1%-15.6% of the population in Greece was estimated to be symptomatically infected with H1N1. Children 5-19 years represented the most affected population group (CAR:27%-54%, whereas individuals older than 64 years were the least affected (CAR:0.6%-2.2%. The IAR (95% CI of influenza A(H1N1 was estimated to be 19.7% (13.3%, 26.1%. Per 1,000 symptomatic cases, based on ILI-38 case definition, 416 attended health services, 108 visited hospital emergency departments and 15 were admitted to hospitals. ICU admission rate and CFR were 37 and 17.5 per 100,000 symptomatic cases or 13.4 and 6.3 per 100,000 infections, respectively.Influenza A(H1N1 infected one fifth and caused symptomatic infection in up to 15% of the Greek population. Although individuals older than 65 years were the least affected age group in terms of attack rate, they had 55 and 185 times higher risk of ICU admission and CFR, respectively.

  16. Health communication in primary health care -a case study of ICT development for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Amina Jama; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara; Haglund, Bo Ja

    2013-01-30

    Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate

  17. Development and characterization of a green fluorescent protein-based rat cell bioassay system for detection of AH receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Bin; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Proper epidemiological, risk assessment and exposure analysis of TCDD and related HAHs requires accurate measurements of these chemicals both in the species of interest and in various exposure matrices (i.e. biological, environmental, food and feed). While high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are established for these chemicals, these procedures are very costly, time-consuming and are impractical for large scale sampling studies. Accordingly, numerous bioanalytical methods have been developed for the detection of these chemicals in extracts from a variety of matrices, the majority of which take the advantage of the ability of these chemicals to activate one or more aspects of the AhR-dependent mechanism of action. One of the most sensitive bioassay systems developed to date is the so-called CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) assay, which is based on novel recombinant cell lines that contain a stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase gene. Treatment of these cells with TCDD and related HAHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as other AhR ligands, results in induction of reporter gene expression in a time-, dose-, AhR-, and chemical-specific manner. The level of reporter gene expression correlates with the total concentration of the TCDD-like AhR inducers (agonists) present in the sample. Although the firefly luciferase reporter gene contributes to the high degree of sensitivity of the assay, it also has limitations with respect to our need for a rapid and inexpensive bioassay for high-throughput screening analysis. Accordingly, we previously developed a stably transfected murine cell line containing an AhRresponsive enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene. This cell line provided us with a high-throughput cell bioassay system for identification and characterization of AhR agonists and antagonists. Here we have extended these studies and describe the development, optimization, and

  18. Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gary; Katuli, Sozina; Anousheh, Ramtin; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fan, Jing

    2015-02-01

    To compare cardiovascular risk factors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in black individuals living in the USA. A cross-sectional analysis of a sub-set of 592 black women and men enrolled in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort of Seventh-day Adventists. Members of the AHS-2 cohort, who lived in all states of the USA and provinces of Canada. Black/African-American members of two sub-studies of AHS-2 where blood and physiological measurements were obtained. Of these women and men, 25% were either vegan or lacto-ovo-vegetarians (labelled 'vegetarian/vegans'), 13% were pesco-vegetarian and 62% were non-vegetarian. Compared with non-vegetarians, the vegetarian/vegans had odds ratios for hypertension, diabetes, high blood total cholesterol and high blood LDL-cholesterol of 0·56 (95% CI 0·36, 0·87), 0·48 (95% CI 0·24, 0·98), 0·42 (95% CI 0·27, 0·65) and 0·54 (95% CI 0·33, 0·89), respectively, when adjusted for age, gender, education, physical activity and sub-study. Corresponding odds ratios for obesity in vegetarian/vegans and pesco-vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, were 0·43 (95% CI 0·28, 0·67) and 0·47 (95% CI 0·27, 0·81), respectively; and for abdominal obesity 0·54 (95% CI 0·36, 0·82) and 0·50 (95% CI 0·29, 0·84), respectively. Results for pesco-vegetarians did not differ significantly from those of non-vegetarians for other variables. Further adjustment for BMI suggested that BMI acts as an intermediary variable between diet and both hypertension and diabetes. As with non-blacks, these results suggest that there are sizeable advantages to a vegetarian diet in black individuals also, although a cross-sectional analysis cannot conclusively establish cause.

  19. Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gary; Katuli, Sozina; Anousheh, Ramtin; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk factors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in black individuals living in the USA. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a sub-set of 592 black women and men enrolled in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort of Seventh-day Adventists. Setting Members of the AHS-2 cohort, who lived in all states of the USA and provinces of Canada. Subjects Black/African-American members of two sub-studies of AHS-2 where blood and physiological measurements were obtained. Results Of these women and men, 25% were either vegan or lacto-ovo-vegetarians (labelled ‘vegetarian/vegans’), 13 % were pesco-vegetarian and 62% were non-vegetarian. Compared with non-vegetarians, the vegetarian/vegans had odds ratios for hypertension, diabetes, high blood total cholesterol and high blood LDL-cholesterol of 0·56 (95% CI 0·36, 0·87), 0·48 (95% CI 0·24, 0·98), 0·42 (95% CI 0·27, 0·65) and 0·54 (95% CI 0·33, 0·89), respectively, when adjusted for age, gender, education, physical activity and sub-study. Corresponding odds ratios for obesity in vegetarian/vegans and pesco-vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, were 0·43 (95% CI 0·28, 0·67) and 0·47 (95% CI 0·27, 0·81), respectively; and for abdominal obesity 0·54 (95% CI 0·36, 0·82) and 0·50 (95% CI 0·29, 0·84), respectively. Results for pesco-vegetarians did not differ significantly from those of non-vegetarians for other variables. Further adjustment for BMI suggested that BMI acts as an intermediary variable between diet and both hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions As with non-blacks, these results suggest that there are sizeable advantages to a vegetarian diet in black individuals also, although a cross-sectional analysis cannot conclusively establish cause. PMID:24636393

  20. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  1. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation (BRIE) Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive affect appeal, and an affectively neutral, cognitive appeal...

  2. Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Couto Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE, a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region.

  3. Absenteeism in schools during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: a useful tool for early detection of influenza activity in the community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, E O; Elliot, A J; Bagnall, H; Foord, D G F; Pnaiser, R; Osman, H; Smith, G E; Olowokure, B

    2012-07-01

    Certain influenza outbreaks, including the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, can predominantly affect school-age children. Therefore the use of school absenteeism data has been considered as a potential tool for providing early warning of increasing influenza activity in the community. This study retrospectively evaluates the usefulness of these data by comparing them with existing syndromic surveillance systems and laboratory data. Weekly mean percentages of absenteeism in 373 state schools (children aged 4-18 years) in Birmingham, UK, from September 2006 to September 2009, were compared with established syndromic surveillance systems including a telephone health helpline, a general practitioner sentinel network and laboratory data for influenza. Correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between each syndromic system. In June 2009, school absenteeism generally peaked concomitantly with the existing influenza surveillance systems in England. Weekly school absenteeism surveillance would not have detected pandemic influenza A(H1N1) earlier but daily absenteeism data and the development of baselines could improve the timeliness of the system.

  4. The association between serum biomarkers and disease outcome in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davey, Richard T; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment wer...

  5. Introducing the "TCDD-inducible AhR-Nrf2 gene battery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Ronnie L; Reisman, Scott A; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2009-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces genes via the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), including Cyp1a1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1a6 (Ugt1a6), and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1). These genes are referred to as the "AhR gene battery." However, Nqo1 is also considered a prototypical target gene of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In mice, TCDD induction of Nrf2 and Nrf2 target, Nqo1, is dependent on AhR, and thus TCDD induction of drug-processing genes may be routed through an AhR-Nrf2 sequence. There has been speculation that Nrf2 may be involved in the TCDD induction of drug-processing genes; however, the data are not definitive. Therefore, to address whether TCDD induction of Nqo1, Ugts, and Gsts is dependent on Nrf2, we conducted the definitive experiment by administering TCDD (50 mug/kg, ip) to Nrf2-null and wild-type (WT) mice and collecting livers 24 h later to quantify the mRNA of drug-processing genes. TCDD induction of Cyp1a1 and Ugt1a1 was similar in WT and Nrf2-null mice, whereas TCDD induction of Ugt1a5 and 1a9 was blunted in Nrf2-null mice. TCDD induced Nqo1, Ugt1a6, 2b34, 2b35, 2b36, UDP-glucuronic acid-synthesizing gene UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and Gsta1, m1, m2, m3, m6, p2, t2, and microsomal Gst1 in WT mice but not in Nrf2-null mice. Therefore, the present study demonstrates the novel finding that Nrf2 is required for TCDD induction of classical AhR battery genes Nqo1, Ugt1a6, and Gsta1, as well as most Ugt and Gst isoforms in livers of mice.

  6. AhR Activation Underlies the CYP1A Autoinduction by A-998679 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Liguori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 (3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl benzonitrile, was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound’s plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95% and 100 mg/kg (80%. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver, and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity.

  7. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  8. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET A receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET A receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and β-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET A receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice

  9. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  10. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  11. EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) - development of e-research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2017-04-01

    devoted to methods analyzing correlations between technology, geophysical response and resulting hazard was stressed out in service preparation. TCS AH contains a number of computing and data visualization services, which give opportunity to make graphical presentations of the available data. Further development of the Platform, except integration of at least new episodes of all types of anthropogenic hazards, will be covering gradually implementation of new services. TCS AH platform is open for the whole research community. The platform is also designated to be used in research projects, eg. it serves "Shale gas exploration and exploitation induced risks (SHEER)" project (Horizon 2020, call LCE 16-2014). In addition, it is also meant to serve the public sector expert knowledge and background information. In order to fulfill this aim the services for outreach, dissemination & communication will be implemented. TCS AH was used as a teaching tool in Ph. D. students education within IG PAS seismology course for Ph. D. candidates, Interdisciplinary Polar Studies as well as in several workshops for Polish and international students. Additionally, the platform is also used within educational project ERIS (Exploitation of Research results In School practice) aimed for junior high and high schools, funded with support from the European Commission within ERASMUS+ Programme.

  12. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, C; Gossner, C; Koch, G; Brown, I; Bouwstra, R; Verdonck, F; Penttinen, P; Harder, T

    2014-12-18

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.

  13. Developing Islamic Banking Performance Measures Based on Maqasid Al-Shari’ah Framework: Cases of 24 Selected Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Omar Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has achieved remarkable growth that has surpassed the growth of the conventional banking system. Yet, studies show that the performances of Islamic banks (IBs seem to be trailing behind the conventional banks (CBs. Is the poor performance of IBs the result of mismatch between their objectives and their performance measurement criteria or it is a reflection of their true performances? The objectives of Islamic banking had not been formally addressed. Mustafa and Taib (2009 derived the objectives of Islamic banking from Abu Zahara’s theory of the objectives of Shari’ah (Maqasid al-Shari’ah and, based on these Shari’ah objectives, developed a model of Islamic banking performance measures. They named it as Performance Measures based on Maqasid al-Shari’ah framework or the PMMS model. This paper has tested the PMMS model on a sample 24 banks (12 IBs and 12 CBs. The twenty four banks were also evaluated using the traditional conventional financial measures. Mann-Whitney U-Test results show IBs faring well in their performances when measured using the PMMS model than when they are measured using the conventional banking performance yardstick. Policy prescriptions and recommendations for further studies are provided at the concluding section of the paper.

  14. Ah lo previdi - Arien von Mozart, Cocchi, Colla und Paisiello

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Milada

    -, - (2008), s. 75-86. ISBN 9783761821107. ISSN 1861-9053. [Der junge Mozart 1756-1780. Philologie – Analyse – Rezeption. Salzburg, 01.12.2005-4.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS900580552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Ah lo previdi * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart * G. Cocchi * G. Colla * G. Paisiello Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. [Differences in oligomerization of nucleocapsid protein of epidemic human influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and B viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, E N; Semenova, N P; Chumakov, V M; Burtseva, E I; Slepushkin, A N

    2003-01-01

    A comparative analysis of involving the nucleocapsid protein (NP) into shaping-up of SDS-resistant oligomers was carried out presently in circulating epidemic strains of human influenza, viruses A and B. The study results of viral isolates obtained from clinical samples and recent standard strains revealed that the involvement of NP in the SDS-resistant oligomers, which are different in various subtypes of influenza A viruses. According to this sign, the human viruses A(9H3N2) are close to the avian ones, in which, as proved by us previously, virtually the entire NP transforms itself into the oligomers resistant to SDS. About 10-20% of NP are involved in shaping-up the virus influenza A(H1N1) of SDS-resistant oligomers. No SDS-resistant NP-oligomers were detected in influenza of type B. It is suggested that the prevalence of human viruses A(H3N2) in NP-oligomers are the peculiarities of NP structure and of the presence of the PB1 protein from avian influenza virus.

  16. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  17. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  18. The Swedish A(H1N1) vaccination campaign--why did not all Swedes take the vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ingeborg; Sanner, Margareta A

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, a mass vaccination campaign against the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 resulted in 60% vaccination coverage. However, many countries had difficulty in motivating citizens to be vaccinated. To be prepared for future vaccination campaigns, it is important to understand people's reasons for not taking the vaccination. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore motives, beliefs and reactions of individuals with varying backgrounds who did not get vaccinated. The total 28 individuals participating in the interviews were permitted to speak freely about their experiences and ideas about the vaccination. Interviews were analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The strength of participants' decisions not to be vaccinated was also estimated. Patterns of motives were identified and described in five main categories: (A) distinguishing between unnecessary and necessary vaccination, (B) distrust, (C) the idea of the natural, (D) resisting an exaggerated safety culture, and (E) injection fear. The core category, upholding autonomy and own health, constitutes the base on which the decisions were grounded. A prerequisite for taking the vaccine would be that people feel involved in the vaccination enterprise to make a sensible decision regarding whether their health will be best protected by vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of Diuron and Related Substituted Phenylureas with the Ah Receptor Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Baston, David S.; Hammock, Bruce; Denison, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals, including the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Here, we have examined the ability of diuron, a widely used herbicide, and several structurally related substituted phenylureas to bind to and activate/inhibit the AhR and AhR signal transduction. Diuron induced CYP1A1 mRNA levels in mouse hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells and AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression in stably transfected mouse, rat, guinea pig, and human cell lines. In addition, ligand binding and gel retardation analysis demonstrated the ability of diuron to competitively bind to and stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro and in intact cells. Several structurally related substituted phenylureas competitively bound to the guinea pig hepatic cytosolic AhR, inhibited 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression in a species-specific manner and stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, consistent with their role as partial AhR agonists. These results demonstrate not only that diuron and related substituted phenylureas are AhR ligands but also that exposure to these chemicals could induce/inhibit AhR-dependent biological effects. PMID:16788953

  20. Natural co-infection of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses resulting in a reassortant A/H3N2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith, Sareth; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann; Y, Phalla; Horm, Srey Viseth; Ly, Sovann; Buchy, Philippe; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Despite annual co-circulation of different subtypes of seasonal influenza, co-infections between different viruses are rarely detected. These co-infections can result in the emergence of reassortant progeny. We document the detection of an influenza co-infection, between influenza A/H3N2 with A/H1N1pdm09 viruses, which occurred in a 3 year old male in Cambodia during April 2014. Both viruses were detected in the patient at relatively high viral loads (as determined by real-time RT-PCR CT values), which is unusual for influenza co-infections. As reassortment can occur between co-infected influenza A strains we isolated plaque purified clonal viral populations from the clinical material of the patient infected with A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09. Complete genome sequences were completed for 7 clonal viruses to determine if any reassorted viruses were generated during the influenza virus co-infection. Although most of the viral sequences were consistent with wild-type A/H3N2 or A/H1N1pdm09, one reassortant A/H3N2 virus was isolated which contained an A/H1N1pdm09 NS1 gene fragment. The reassortant virus was viable and able to infect cells, as judged by successful passage in MDCK cells, achieving a TCID50 of 10(4)/ml at passage number two. There is no evidence that the reassortant virus was transmitted further. The co-infection occurred during a period when co-circulation of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 was detected in Cambodia. It is unclear how often influenza co-infections occur, but laboratories should consider influenza co-infections during routine surveillance activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  2. Internet Resources of Consumer Health Information Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzuon Chou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health and medical care has always been an important issue. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in consumer health awareness. Therefore, Consumer Health Information has been vastlyemphasized, which results in the development of associated websites. According to an investigation in Taiwan, there are 1,820 different health and medical related websites in 2002. However, due to the lack of regulations, some of these websites’ information contents may be faulty and may confuse users or potentially be harmful. The purpose of this article is to advise consumers how to differentiate between correct and incorrect information in the Health Information websites. The present study analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of some Taiwan’s consumer health websites by comparing their structures, contents and other information with those provided by "the Top Ten Most Useful Health Information Websites" of the USA. [Article content in Chinese

  3. Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Laura Forsberg; Wallinga, Jacco; Finelli, Lyn; Reed, Carrie; Riley, Steven; Lipsitch, Marc; Pagano, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Background The United States was the second country to have a major outbreak of novel influenza A/H1N1 in what has become a new pandemic. Appropriate public health responses to this pandemic depend in part on early estimates of key epidemiological parameters of the virus in defined populations.

  4. Trivalent influenza vaccine in patients on haemodialysis: impaired seroresponse with differences for A-H3N2 and A-H1N1 vaccine components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); D.J. Versluis; P. Kramer; P.P.N.M. Diderich (Philip); W. Weimar (Willem); N. Masurel (Nic)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and one patients on haemodialysis, 21 patients on peritoneal dialysis and 30 healthy controls received a trivalent split vaccine containing 15 micrograms haemagglutinin of a recent influenza A-H3N2, influenza A-H1N1 and influenza B strain, respectively. Antibody production

  5. Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010

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    James E. Fielding

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

  6. On Dimension Theory for a Certain Class of Simple AH Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Toan M.

    2010-06-01

    A class of unital diagonal AH algebras will be studied in this paper. The density property of the set of all elements which are nilpotent up to (left and right multiple) unitaries is presented. As a consequence, these algebras have stable rank one. Section 3 also shows that an algebra in this class has the property LP (i.e., the linear span of projections is dense) provided a certain condition. Finally, restricting our attention to a special subclass which includes Villadsen algebras of the first type, we give the necessary and sufficient condition of real rank zero. (author)

  7. Maqasid al-Shari’ah as a Framework for Economic Development Theorization

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    Abdullahi Abubakar LAMIDO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development studies has so far created a huge intellectual resource, including theories, models and policy prescriptions that have been implemented in most developing economies. However, development theorization has been generally dominated by the western materialist paradigm which is antithetical to the very philosophical foundations of Islam. Muslims, constituting at least a quarter of the world population, mostly live in the less developed economies and are therefore among the largest consumers of these materialist theories.  Based on the premises that the Muslim world cannot address its multifarious development challenges by relying only on imported theories and models, and that as important stakeholders in the world, Muslims need to contribute to the global development discourse; this paper presents an Islamic alternative approach to the analysis of development based on the theory of maqasid al-Shari’ah. The paper proposes a maqasid-based development approach which sees development from the perspective of drawing benefit and removing harm, which require promoting things that make life easy, meaningful and prosperous and blocking all means to harm, socio-economic difficulty and underdevelopment. The three-stages development approach focuses on promoting wellbeing through the preservation and enhancement of five essential components; faith, life, intellect, offspring and wealth. The paper submits that maqasid al-Shari’ah is a veritable framework for, inter alia, formulating development policies and prioritizing development projects. The strength of the approach lies in the proper place it accords to faith, spirituality, and moral ethics as trigger mechanisms for sustained moderate development in addition to its emphasis on all-encompassing but moderate material progress. The paper calls for an extensive study of the science of maqasid al-Shari’ah as it pertains to economic development discourse.  

  8. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in the French Armed Forces: epidemiological surveillance and operational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie; Bédubourg, Gabriel; Duron, Sandrine; Michel, Rémy; Deparis, Xavier; Rapp, Christophe; Godart, Patrick; Migliani, René; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a newly implemented daily surveillance system to the management of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic by the military decision-makers at different levels in the French Department of Defence. The study sample included all medical advisors in the Ministry of Defence and the French Armed Forces Staff and also the members of the specific committee dedicated to flu pandemic control. The variables studied were mental representation of epidemiology, relevance, usefulness, and real-time use of surveillance data using quantitative questionnaires and qualitative face-to-face semistructured interviews. Among the risk managers of the flu pandemic in the Armed Forces, 84% responded. The data generated by epidemiological surveillance were considered relevant and useful, and were reported as effectively used. On the basis of the information produced, concrete actions were planned and implemented in the French Armed Forces. In a pandemic situation involving low mortality, the daily monitoring of the disease did not target public health issues, but it was mainly used to assess the availability of the Armed Forces in real time. For the military staff, epidemiological surveillance represents an essential information tool for the conduct of operations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. A Novel Duplex Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR Assay for the Detection of Influenza A and the Novel Influenza A(H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo P. Sloots

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based responses are dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1 strain. In this study we developed a duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR (dFLU-TM assay for the simultaneous detection of a broad range of influenza A subtypes and specific detection of the novel H1N1 2009 pandemic strain. The assay was compared to the combined results of two previously described monoplex RT-PCR assays using 183 clinical samples and 10 seasonal influenza A isolates. Overall, the results showed that the dFLU-TM RT-PCR method is suitable for detection of influenza A, including the novel H1N1 pandemic strain, in clinical samples.

  10. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm in Italy: age, risk and population susceptibility.

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    Stefano Merler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common pattern emerging from several studies evaluating the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm conducted in countries worldwide is the low attack rate observed in elderly compared to that observed in children and young adults. The biological or social mechanisms responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection are still to be deeply investigated. METHODS: The level of immunity against the A/H1N1pdm in pre and post pandemic sera was determined using left over sera taken for diagnostic purposes or routine ascertainment obtained from clinical laboratories. The antibody titres were measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. To investigate whether certain age groups had higher risk of infection the presence of protective antibody (≥1∶40, was calculated using exact binomial 95% CI on both pre- and post- pandemic serological data in the age groups considered. To estimate age-specific susceptibility to infection we used an age-structured SEIR model. RESULTS: By comparing pre- and post-pandemic serological data in Italy we found age- specific attack rates similar to those observed in other countries. Cumulative attack rate at the end of the first A/H1N1pdm season in Italy was estimated to be 16.3% (95% CI 9.4%-23.1%. Modeling results allow ruling out the hypothesis that only age-specific characteristics of the contact network and levels of pre-pandemic immunity are responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection. This means that age-specific susceptibility to infection, suspected to play an important role in the pandemic, was not only determined by pre-pandemic levels of H1N1pdm antibody measured by HI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results claim for new studies to better identify the biological mechanisms, which might have determined the observed pattern of susceptibility with age. Moreover, our results highlight the need to obtain early estimates of differential susceptibility with age in

  11. Konversi Agama dan Pemahaman Nilai Islam Santri Pondok Itikaf Jama’ah Ngaji Lelaku Lawang

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    Ahmad Redhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang is one of the containers to learn and understand Islam, the background of santri like people who have a black background, such as ex-thugs, gamblers, drunkards, people who have problems of life and people who want to learn religion But have limitations in Arabic. The way santri learn religion, that is by trying to understand the holy verses of the Qur'an and hadith, one of his understanding that is belief in performing the congregational prayer accompanied by the language translation of his people, this is contrary to the prevailing Islamic law. The purpose of the research is to find out 1 why the subject is interested to join the Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang, 2 the psychological factors that cause the students of Pondok Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang change beliefs bergama, 3 how the process of belief change students santri Itikaf Jama'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang, and 4 how the understanding of Islamic values of Santri Pondok Itikaf Jam'ah Ngaji Lelaku, Lawang. The research method used is single case study method. Data collection is done through interview, observation, and documentation. Data analysis is done by using descriptive analysis, that is using words to describe what the purpose of this research. The results showed that 1 subjects interested in joining and believing to implement the teachings received in the cottage because the subject is acceptable as it is by the manager of the cottage, the manager also patient and painstaking provide guidance on the subject, the subjects at least get the peace of mind and can change the attitude of the subject, At least get the peace of mind and can change the attitude of the subject to a better direction, there is a common background between students who are with each other. 2 psychological factors causing the subject to change beliefs, subjects experiencing symptoms of inner pressure caused by the emotional attitudes of the subject, it

  12. Embedding health literacy into health systems: a case study of a regional health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period. Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care. Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites. Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems. What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanriverdi Derya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1 and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW. Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Vaccination rate for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 among HCW was low (12.7%. Most of the respondents believed the vaccine was not safe and protective. Vaccination refusal was mostly related to the vaccine's side effects, disbelief to vaccine's protectiveness, negative news about the vaccine and the perceived negative attitude of the Prime Minister to the vaccine. State anxiety was found to be high in respondents who felt the vaccine was unsafe. Conclusions HCW considered the seriousness of the outbreak, their vaccination rate was low. In vaccination campaigns, governments have to aim at providing trust, and media campaigns should be used to reinforce this trust as well. Accurate reporting by the media of the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines and the importance of vaccines for the public health would likely have a positive influence on vaccine uptake. Uncertain or negative reporting about the vaccine is detrimental to vaccination efforts.

  14. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  15. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  16. Atividade da enzima acetil-hidrolase do fator ativador de plaquetas (PAF-AH em pacientes com diabete melito tipo 1 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Henriques de Castro

    2007-02-01

    between PAF-AH activity and age and LDL, and an inverse correlation between PAF-AH and HbA1c and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were found. CONCLUSION: In the sample studied, PAF-AH showed a higher activity in patients with DM 1, a factor that may be related to the higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases observed in these patients. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the real participation of this enzyme in the risk of development of atherosclerotic diseases in patients with DM 1.

  17. Self-reported Adverse Health Events Following Smallpox Vaccination in a Large Prospective Study of US Military Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-27

    depression, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders, bulimia nervosa, binge‑eating disorders, and PTSD are reported in one mental health variable...22. 42. Wright KM, Huffman AH, Adler AB, Castro CA. Psychological screening program over‑ view. Mil Med 2002; 167:853‑61. 43. Brewin CR. Systematic

  18. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  20. Barriers and enablers for the development and implementation of allied health clinical practice guidelines in South African primary healthcare settings: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, J M; Grimmer, K; Louw, Q; Machingaidze, S; Parker, H; Pillen, H

    2017-09-15

    The South African allied health (AH) primary healthcare (PHC) workforce is challenged with the complex rehabilitation needs of escalating patient numbers. The application of evidence-based care using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is one way to make efficient and effective use of resources. Although CPGs are common for AH in high-income countries, there is limited understanding of how to do this in low- to middle-income countries. This paper describes barriers and enablers for AH CPG uptake in South African PHC. Semi-structured individual interviews were undertaken with 25 South African AH managers, policymakers, clinicians and academics to explore perspectives on CPGs. Interviews were conducted by researcher dyads, one being familiar with South African AH PHC practice and the other with CPG expertise. Rigour and transparency of data collection was ensured. Interview transcripts were analysed by structuring content into codes, categories and themes. Exemplar quotations were extracted to support themes. CPGs were generally perceived to be relevant to assist AH providers to address the challenges of consistently providing evidence-based care in South African PHC settings. CPGs were considered to be tools for managing clinical, social and economic complexities of AH PHC practice, particularly if CPG recommendations were contextusalised. CPG uptake was one way to deal with increasing pressures to make efficient use of scarce financial resources, and to demonstrate professional legitimacy. Themes comprised organisational infrastructures and capacities for CPG uptake, interactions between AH actors and interaction with broader political structures, the nature of AH evidence in CPGs, and effectively implementing CPGs into practice. CPGs contextualised to local circumstances offer South African PHC AH services with an efficient vehicle for putting evidence into practice. There are challenges to doing this, related to local barriers such as geography, AH training

  1. Mitochondrial genomic analysis of late onset Alzheimer's disease reveals protective haplogroups H6A1A/H6A1B: the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging.

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    Perry G Ridge

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia and AD risk clusters within families. Part of the familial aggregation of AD is accounted for by excess maternal vs. paternal inheritance, a pattern consistent with mitochondrial inheritance. The role of specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variants and haplogroups in AD risk is uncertain.We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 1007 participants in the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging, a population-based prospective cohort study of dementia in northern Utah. AD diagnoses were made with a multi-stage protocol that included clinical examination and review by a panel of clinical experts. We used TreeScanning, a statistically robust approach based on haplotype networks, to analyze the mtDNA sequence data. Participants with major mitochondrial haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B showed a reduced risk of AD (p=0.017, corrected for multiple comparisons. The protective haplotypes were defined by three variants: m.3915G>A, m.4727A>G, and m.9380G>A. These three variants characterize two different major haplogroups. Together m.4727A>G and m.9380G>A define H6A1, and it has been suggested m.3915G>A defines H6A. Additional variants differentiate H6A1A and H6A1B; however, none of these variants had a significant relationship with AD case-control status.Our findings provide evidence of a reduced risk of AD for individuals with mtDNA haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B. These findings are the results of the largest study to date with complete mtDNA genome sequence data, yet the functional significance of the associated haplotypes remains unknown and replication in others studies is necessary.

  2. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  3. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolinne Bezerra Perdigão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4. Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998. As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015. In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm, caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010. In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013. The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013. The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  4. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blair

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (n = 88 and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17. Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and a decrease in the weight for mixing relative to the new weights assigned for application methods. The weighting factors for the revised algorithm now incorporate exposure measurements taken on Agricultural Health Study (AHS participants for the application methods and personal protective equipment (PPE commonly reported by study participants.

  5. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  6. Flavonoids and resveratrol as regulators of Ah-receptor activity: protection from dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'yan, V A; Gapparov, M M; Telegin, L Yu; Devichenskii, V M; Pevnitskii, L A

    2003-12-01

    In 2002 FAO and WHO published a joint appeal to state and public organizations and scientific community to take every effort to control the contents of dioxin and related biphenyls in the environment and food products. The toxic effects of dioxin are realized via its interaction with the Ah-receptor. Here we reviewed modern notions about the structure and functions of Ah-receptor. Particular attention was given to antagonists and agonists of the Ah-receptor, including various flavonoids and resveratrol.

  7. Characterization of MCF mammary epithelial cells overexpressing the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Patrick S; Li, Wen; Vogel, Christoph F; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports indicate the existence of breast cancer cells expressing very high levels of the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ubiquitous intracellular receptor best known for mediating toxic action of dioxin and related pollutants. Positive correlation between the degree of AhR overexpression and states of increasing transformation of mammary epithelial cells appears to occur in the absence of any exogenous AhR ligands. These observations have raised many questions such as why and how AhR is overexpressed in breast cancer and its physiological roles in the progression to advanced carcinogenic transformation. To address those questions, we hypothesized that AhR overexpression occurs in cells experiencing deficiencies in normally required estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, and the basic role of AhR in such cases is to guide the affected cells to develop orchestrated cellular changes aimed at substituting the normal functions of ER. At the same time, the AhR serves as the mediator of the cell survival program in the absence of ER signaling. We subjected two lines of Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF) mammary epithelial cells to 3 different types ER interacting agents for a number of passages and followed the changes in the expression of AhR mRNA. The resulting sublines were analyzed for phenotypical changes and unique molecular characteristics. MCF10AT1 cells continuously exposed to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) developed sub-lines that show AhR overexpression with the characteristic phenotype of increased proliferation, and distinct resistance to apoptosis. When these chemically selected cell lines were treated with a specific AhR antagonist, 3-methoxy-4-nitroflavone (MNF), both of the above abnormal cellular characteristics disappeared, indicating the pivotal role of AhR in expressing those cellular phenotypes. The most prominent molecular characteristics of these AhR overexpressing MCF cells were found to be overexpression of ErbB2 and COX-2. Furthermore, we could

  8. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A; Denison, Michael S; Bonati, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  9. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Corrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms

  10. In vitro evaluation of the contact angle formed between AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal and mineral trioxide aggregate Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jaiswal, Shikha; Bajpai, Gauravi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of the contact angle of new root canal sealers - Hybrid Root Seal, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus, and the conventional AH Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha. Two groups (Group D - dentin and Group G - gutta-percha) of 18 samples each were further randomly divided into 3 subgroups based on the type of sealer used, that is, AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal, and MTA Plus. Contact angle measurement device (Phoenix 300) was used to measure the contact angle of the sealers on both dentin and gutta-percha. The results thus obtained were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t -test. MTA Plus recorded significantly higher values of contact angle on both the substrates, that is, dentin and gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Hybrid root canal sealer. The lowest value of contact angle in gutta-percha and dentin was shown by Hybrid root canal sealer and AH Plus, respectively. Both AH Plus and Hybrid Root Seal exhibited lower contact angle values, and hence, better wettability on both dentin and gutta-percha as compared to MTA Plus.

  11. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of multi-continent human influenza A(H1N2) reassortant viruses isolated in 2001 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; La, T; Zhao, P; Tam, J S; Rappaport, R; Cheng, S-M

    2006-12-01

    Genetic analyses were performed on 228 influenza A(H1) viruses derived from clinical subjects participating in an experimental vaccine trial conducted in 20 countries on four continents between 2001 and 2003. HA1 phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed multiple clades circulated around the world with regional prevalence patterns. Sixty-five of the A(H1) viruses were identified as A(H1N2), 40 of which were isolated from South Africa. The A(H1) sequences of these viruses cluster with published H1N2 viruses phylogenetically and share with them diagnostic signature V169A and A193T changes. The results also showed for the first time that H1N2 viruses were prominent in South Africa during the 2001-2002 influenza season, accounting for over 90% of the A(H1) cases in our study, and infecting both children (29/31) and the elderly (11/13). Phylogenetic analysis of the 65 H1N2 viruses we identified, in conjunction with the 56 recent H1N2 viruses currently available in the database, provided a comprehensive view of the circulation and evolution of distinct clades of H1N2 viruses in a temporal manner between early 2001 and mid-2003, shortly after the appearance of these recent reassortant viruses in or near year 2000.

  12. Avian influenza A/H7N9 risk perception, information trust and adoption of protective behaviours among poultry farmers in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Liao, Qiuyan; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Liu, Zong Ping; Fielding, Richard

    2017-05-18

    Poultry farmers are at high-risk from avian influenza A/H7N9 infection due to sustained occupational exposures to live poultry. This study examined factors associated with poultry farmers' adoption of personal protective behaviours (PPBs) based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Totally, 297 poultry farmers in three cities of Jiangsu Province, China were interviewed during November 2013-January 2014. Data on PMT constructs, perceived trustworthiness of A/H7N9 information from mass media (formal sources), friends and family (informal sources), intention to adopt and actual adoption of PPBs and respondents' demographics were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM) identified associations between demographic factors and PMT constructs associated with A/H7N9-oriented PPB intention. Moderated mediation analysis examined how demographics moderated the effects of information trust on PPB intention via risk perceptions of A/H7N9. Respondents generally perceived low vulnerability to A/H7N9 infection. The SEM found that male respondents perceived lower severity of (β = -0.23), and lower vulnerability to (β = -0.15) A/H7N9 infection; age was positively associated with both perceived personal vulnerability to (β = 0.21) and perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.24) in controlling A/H7N9; education was positively associated with perceived response efficacy (β = 0.40). Furthermore, perceived vulnerability (β = 0.16), perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.21) and response efficacy (β = 0.67) were positively associated with intention to adopt PPBs against A/H7N9. More trust in informal information (TII) was only significantly associated with greater PPB intention through its positive association with perceived response efficacy. Age significantly moderated the associations of TII with perceived Self-efficacy and perceived response efficacy, with younger farmers who had greater TII perceiving lower self-efficacy but higher response efficacy. Poultry farmers

  13. Avian influenza A/H7N9 risk perception, information trust and adoption of protective behaviours among poultry farmers in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry farmers are at high-risk from avian influenza A/H7N9 infection due to sustained occupational exposures to live poultry. This study examined factors associated with poultry farmers’ adoption of personal protective behaviours (PPBs based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT. Methods Totally, 297 poultry farmers in three cities of Jiangsu Province, China were interviewed during November 2013-January 2014. Data on PMT constructs, perceived trustworthiness of A/H7N9 information from mass media (formal sources, friends and family (informal sources, intention to adopt and actual adoption of PPBs and respondents’ demographics were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM identified associations between demographic factors and PMT constructs associated with A/H7N9-oriented PPB intention. Moderated mediation analysis examined how demographics moderated the effects of information trust on PPB intention via risk perceptions of A/H7N9. Results Respondents generally perceived low vulnerability to A/H7N9 infection. The SEM found that male respondents perceived lower severity of (β = −0.23, and lower vulnerability to (β = -0.15 A/H7N9 infection; age was positively associated with both perceived personal vulnerability to (β = 0.21 and perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.24 in controlling A/H7N9; education was positively associated with perceived response efficacy (β = 0.40. Furthermore, perceived vulnerability (β = 0.16, perceived self-efficacy (β = 0.21 and response efficacy (β = 0.67 were positively associated with intention to adopt PPBs against A/H7N9. More trust in informal information (TII was only significantly associated with greater PPB intention through its positive association with perceived response efficacy. Age significantly moderated the associations of TII with perceived Self-efficacy and perceived response efficacy, with younger farmers who had greater TII perceiving lower self

  14. Dehydration of a layered double hydroxide-C2AH8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Matusinovic, T.; Kurajica, S.; Zimmermann, B.; Sipusic, J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal dehydration of dicalcium aluminate hydrate, C 2 AH 8 , has been investigated by simultaneous differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET method of surface area measurement. The temperature-dependent infrared measurements were studied by two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy. The structure of aluminum-oxide polyhedron, characterized by 27 Al solid state NMR spectrum method and FT-IR, shows tetrahedron and octahedron as the main forms of aluminum-oxide polyhedrons in C 2 AH 8 sample. From the results obtained a variety of structural transformations observed are explained as a consequence of the removal of loosely held interlayer water molecules at lower temperatures, followed by grafting process of the interlayer [Al(OH) 4 ] - anion. Structural model of a grafting process of the interlayer [Al(OH) 4 ] - tetrahedron onto hydroxylated octahedrons of [Ca 2 Al(OH) 6 ] + layers has been proposed in order to explain observed loss of one water molecule, shrinkage of interlayer spacing and qualitative changes of FT-IR spectra. At higher temperatures the dehydroxylation of the lattice and decomposition of the interlayer species occurs, yielding amorphous material that crystallizes into C 3 A and C 12 A 7 at 885 deg. C. Those findings provide improvement in the interpretation of thermo-analytical results of calcium aluminate cements (CAC) hydration products, and better understanding of CAC conversion process

  15. Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

  16. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  17. Novel approach for identification of left ventricle geometry in patients with chronic heart failure, AH and IHD in combination with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potabashniy V.A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the direction of change of left ventricle (LV geometry in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, arterial hypertension (AH and ischemic heart disease (IHD in combination with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in dependence on severity of clinical signs of CHF and COPD based on recommendation of American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Images (2015. We examined 67 patients with CHF, associated with AH and stable IHD and stable COPD. By the results of this study there were determined different types of left ventricle geometry: concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH, eccentric LVH, mixed LVH, dilated LVH, dependent on blood pressure level, fibrosic and ischemic myocardial changes,, primary predominant disease – AH, IHD or COPD.

  18. Does the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect significantly affect the A-H premium of the stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Since the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect ("the Connect") was launched in late 2014, more and more Mainland investors have invested in Hong Kong listed shares, and vice versa, increasing the transaction volume of the stock market on both sides. However, only a few studies investigated how the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect affected the pricing dynamics of stocks listed in both Shanghai and Hong Kong. Applying linear regression, this study investigates how the Connect affects the H-share discounts of 12 stocks cross-listed in Shanghai and Hong Kong. A new feature of our model is that we add a dummy variable so as to be the first study to examine the effect of the China financial crisis on the A-H premium of the stocks. We find that the A-H premium of all stocks widens significantly after the Connect is launched, implying immatureness or even inefficiency of China's financial market. Furthermore, the result shows that trading activities in the mainland market affects the A-H premium more significantly than trading activities in the Hong Kong market do. This implies that China's financial market plays a dominant role in the Connect.

  19. Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, Maria; Kalantari, Fereshteh; Stern, Natalia; Sand, Salomon; Larsson, Sune; Viluksela, Matti; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jaemsae, Timo; Lind, P. Monica; Hakansson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    difference for cross-sectional area of proximal tibia. Conclusion: The study provides novel information about TCDD-induced bone alterations at doses, which are of relevance from a health risk assessment point of view. In addition, the obtained results provide further support for a distinct role of the AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations, and suggest that the benchmark dose modeling approach is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bone toxicity parameters.

  20. English faculty' s perception of their role in ICT-Oriented classroom at Majma'ah University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The teacher was once considered “an educational authority”, “a dispenser of knowledge”, “someone in charge of telling”, etc. However, with the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in the classroom, knowledge resources have become accessible to the student in ways that are beyond teacher’s control. This fact has led to a new perception of teachers' roles among educational researchers. In other words, teachers have come to be conceived as facilitators, learners, collaborators, etc. In the light of these developments, the present study attempts to investigate English faculty’s view on the possible impact that ICT could have on their role at Majma’ah University. A questionnaire comprising sixteen traditional and ICT-oriented roles was administered to thirty participants in different campuses of Majma’ah University to collect data to verify two research hypotheses: (1 Most EFL faculty at Majma'ah University (MU favour ICT-oriented roles over traditional roles. (2 All ICT-oriented roles are equally valuable to EFL faculty at MU in enhancing teaching practices. Statistical analysis of the study data confirmed the first hypothesis but rejected second one.

  1. Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Virus Transmission Within Swine Farms, China: A One Health, Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Anderson, Benjamin D; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Lednicky, John A; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited. Beginning in 2015, we used a One Health approach and serial sampling to prospectively study 299 swine workers and 100 controls, their 9000 pigs, and 6 pig farm environments in China for influenza A viruses (IAVs) using molecular, culture, and immunological techniques. Study participants were closely monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI) events. Upon enrollment, swine workers had higher serum neutralizing antibody titers against swine H1N1 and higher nasal wash total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and specific IgA titers against swine H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Over a period of 12 months, IAVs were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 46 of 396 (11.6%) environmental swabs, 235 of 3300 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 of 396 (5.8%) water, 20 of 396 (5.1%) aerosol, and 19 of 396 (4.8%) fecal-slurry specimens. Five of 32 (15.6%) participants with ILI events had nasopharyngeal swab specimens that were positive for IAV, and 17 (53.1%) demonstrated 4-fold rises in neutralization titers against a swine virus. Reassorted Eurasian avian-lineage H1N1, A(H1N1)pdm09-like, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses were identified in pig farms. The A(H1N1)pdm09-like H1N1 viruses identified in swine were nearly genetically identical to the human H1N1 viruses isolated from the participants with ILI. There was considerable evidence of A(H1N1)pdm09-like, swine-lineage H1N1, and swine-lineage H3N2 viruses circulating, likely reassorting, and likely crossing species within the pig farms. These data suggest that stronger surveillance for novel influenza virus emergence within swine farms is imperative. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted.

  3. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Integrative health coaching: an organizational case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Caldwell, Karen L; Wakefield, Jessica P; Little, Kerry J; Gresko, Jeanne; Shaw, Andrea; Duda, Linda V; Kosey, Julie M; Gaudet, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe integrative health (IH) coaching as developed in three different interventions offered through a major medical center, as a step toward further defining the field of health coaching. An organizational case study was conducted with document analysis and interviews. Interviewees were the first six IH coaches at Duke Integrative Medicine who provided 360 clients with individual and/or group coaching (two to 28 sessions) in a randomized clinical study and two work-site wellness programs. Qualitative analysis using the constant comparative method was conducted. Integrative health coaching is characterized by a process of self-discovery that informs goal setting and builds internal motivation by linking clients' goals to their values and sense of purpose. Time, commitment, and motivation are necessary in the IH coaching process. The underpinnings of IH coaching are distinct from the medical model, and the process is distinct from health education, executive coaching, and psychotherapy. Integrative health coaching fits well with the assumptions of integrative medicine and has a role in supporting behavior change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR leads to reciprocal epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 expression and amelioration of experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra P Singh

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+ but not AhR (-/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment.These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.

  6. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  7. Towards locating the Nigerian Shari'ah Penal Codes' provisions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, relatives of the murdered are at liberty to waive this and accept compensation money (diyah) or pardon the culprit absolutely. These provisions of the Sharī'ah were not in force in Nigeria until1999 when Zamfara State adopted Sharī'ah as its legal system and eleven other states later followed suit. With the creation ...

  8. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Laier, Peter; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    101L hepatoma cell lines. In comparison the results indicated that the rat H4IIE cell line is more sensitive than the human TV101L for detection of TCDD inducing AhR-CALUX activity. The pesticides iprodione, chlorpyrifos and prochloraz showed dose-dependent AhR agonistic effects in both cell lines...

  9. 75 Ah and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, M. E.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Chang, R.; Cruz, E.

    1992-01-01

    The results of initial characterization testing of 75 Ah actively cooled bipolar battery designs and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs are presented. The results demonstrate the extended cycle life capability of the Ah batteries and the high capacity utilizations at various discharge rates of the nickel-hydrogen batteries.

  10. A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

  11. Discharge of 1400 AH lithium thionyl chloride cells into voltage reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    The development of a high energy density battery is discussed. Tests were conducted on a 1400 AH cell and they include: drop tests, crush tests, vibration and shock tests, hydrostatic pressure effects, charge current tests, and discharge tests. None of these tests led to a venting or explosion of the cell. Criteria are presented for extending RV safety of a 1400 AH cell.

  12. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  13. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  14. Greenway Implementation Influence on Agricultural Heritage Sites (AHS: The Case of Liantang Village of Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As environment-friendly recreational facilities, greenways can bring ecological, social, and economic benefits to the residents of agricultural heritage sites (AHS. Zengcheng District of Guangzhou City first implemented the recreational greenway in China in 2008. Liantang Village is the tourist center of the Liantang Spring segment of Zeng River Greenway system. This village has always been an important planting region of black olive and lychee from ancient times, with more than 1800 large old trees until today. Taking Liantang as a case, participant observations, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires (n = 140 are performed to collect relevant data. This study explores the economic and sociocultural influences of greenway implementation on AHS. Findings reveal that greenway tourism and agricultural heritage conservation form a mutually beneficial relationship. The greenway implementation successfully prompts the emergence and rapid development of tourism which significantly improves the economy of the heritage area and effectively increases the income of the villagers in AHS. The sources of their income mainly include agritainment businesses, agricultural product sales, tourist-related business wages, land leases, and house rentals. Most villagers greatly improve their quality of life because of the continuous infrastructure improvements. However, the daily lives and production orders of villagers are disturbed to some extent. The villagers have a highly sober cognition of the value of old trees, and their protection consciousness is enhanced. The difference in the source of economic income affects the judgment of the villagers, and three groups of villagers exhibit some cognitive differences with the influence of tourism. Results indicate that multi-dimensional values of agricultural heritage can be achieved, and a mutually beneficial relationship will then be formed between tourism and agricultural heritage conservation as soon as the

  15. Relationship between murine Ah phenotype and the hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.S.; Olson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Ah receptor has been correlated with the toxic effects of TCDD in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice. The B6 strain, which has a high affinity cytosolic Ah receptor, is more sensitive to TCDD than the D2 strain, which lacks this receptor. The metabolism of TCDD was studied by incubating 14 C-TCDD (2.2 μM) with hepatocytes from control and TCDD-pretreated B6 and D2 mice. Mice were pretreated with TCDD at doses that maximally induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a measure of Ah locus responsiveness to TCDD (B6, 3μg/kg, ip;D2, 30μg/kg, ip). Similar cytochrome P-450 content was detected in control B6 and D2 hepatocytes, however, TCDD pretreatment increased P-450 content 400% in B6 and 300% in D2 mice. No difference in hepatic EROD activity was found between control B6 and D2 mice (81.7 and 101.7 pmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively), but EROD activity was increased 17-fold in B6 and 10-fold in D2 mice after TCDD administration. The average rate of hepatic TCDD metabolism over two hours was similar in control B6 and D2 mice (1.103 and 0.945 pmol/hr/mg cell protein, respectively), although some qualitative differences in the metabolites were detected by HPLC. TCDD pretreatment produced no quantitative or qualitative changes in TCDD metabolism. These results suggest that the rate of hepatic TCDD metabolism does not correlate with genetic differences at the Ah locus

  16. Divan Şairinin Sessiz ve Gizli Anlatımı: Muvaşşah The Secret and Silent Expression of Divan Poet: Muvaşşah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YEKBAŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface and deep structure of the elements that form the poembring new meaning to poetry. Determination of these elements is veryimportant in Ottoman poem studies. In this respect, many poets ofOttoman poem resorted to create a secret language through sounds andletters. From this point of view, letters gain great many peculiarity withregard to its shape and contents and therefore we see that differentkinds of literary arts reconstituted.These different experiments which have the aim of benefittingfrom the letters’ symbolic value or with the help of letters they try toconstitute concept are characterized as the not suitable line for ourtopic. For this reason, these applications whose examples are rarelyencountered in our literature according to the other literary arts reshown between the talents included the rhetoric. In our literature, oneof the talents which bases on the letters’ types, union, way of reading iscalled muvaşşah and muvaşşah is the method which bases on visualthings.Today, muvaşşah is expressed as the acrostic. Because of thatmuvaşşah is perceived as the art which finds the first letter of verse andcreates the name from these letters. But examples of muvaşşah inclassical Ottoman poetry benefit from not only the first letter of versebut also middle and last letter of verse. Our poets use muvaşşah toform the title, prayer, moreover while constituting verse or couplet, itcan be seen that they use muvaşşah to compose a chronogram tocommemorate the date. In this respect we can express that muvaşşahhas different contents.In our study, with the help of different examples of muvaşşahdifferent peculiarity of this art found place for itself. Different kinds ofmuvaşşah such as kasida, lyric poem, müseddes, stanza, masnavi,müstezad will show us the secret language and silent expression whichis used by the poet in the poem. Divan şiiri incelemelerinde, o şiirin yüzey ve derin yapısını oluşturan unsurların ve

  17. [In silico evaluation of an aviar influenza AH5N1 virus outbreak with human to human transmission: effects of sanitary measures in Valencia, Venezuela, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggeti, Mariana; Romero, Emilse; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    There is a risk for an avian influenza AH5N1 virus pandemia. To estimate the magnitude and impact of an AH5N1 pandemic in areas of Latin-America in order to design interventions and to reduce morbidity-mortality. The InfluSim program was used to simulate a highly pathogenic AH5N1 aviar virus epidemic outbreak with human to human transmission in Valencia, Venezuela. We estimated the day of maximal number of cases, number of moderately and severely ill patients, exposed individuals, deaths and associated costs for 5 different interventions: absence of any intervention; implementation of antiviral treatment; reduction of 20% in population general contacts; closure of 20% of educational institutions; and reduction of 50% in massive public gatherings. Simulation parameters used were: population: 829.856 persons, infection risk 6-47%, contagiousness Index Rh o 2,5; relative contagiousness 90%, overall lethality 64,1% and, costs according to the official basic budget. For an outbreak lasting 200 days direct and indirect deaths by intervention strategies would be: 29,907; 29,900; 9,701; 29,295 and 14,752. Costs would follow a similar trend. Reduction of 20% in general population contacts results in a significant reduction of up to 68% of cases. The outbreak would collapse the health care system. Antiviral treatment would not be efficient during the outbreak. Interpersonal contact reduction proved to be the best sanitary measure to control an AH5N1 theoretical epidemic outbreak.

  18. AhR and SHP regulate phosphatidylcholine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in the one-carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chae; Seok, Sunmi; Byun, Sangwon; Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Grace; Xie, Wen; Ma, Jian; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2018-02-07

    Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are critical determinants of hepatic lipid levels, but how their levels are regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Pemt and Gnmt, key one-carbon cycle genes regulating PC/SAM levels, are downregulated after feeding, leading to decreased PC and increased SAM levels, but these effects are blunted in small heterodimer partner (SHP)-null or FGF15-null mice. Further, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is translocated into the nucleus by insulin/PKB signaling in the early fed state and induces Pemt and Gnmt expression. This induction is blocked by FGF15 signaling-activated SHP in the late fed state. Adenoviral-mediated expression of AhR in obese mice increases PC levels and exacerbates steatosis, effects that are blunted by SHP co-expression or Pemt downregulation. PEMT, AHR, and PC levels are elevated in simple steatosis patients, but PC levels are robustly reduced in steatohepatitis-fibrosis patients. This study identifies AhR and SHP as new physiological regulators of PC/SAM levels.

  19. DESAKAN SOSIOPOLITIK MUNCULNYA GAGASAN EVOLUSI SYARÎ'AH OLEH AN-NA’IM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hefni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Semenjak abad ke-19 M, telah tumbuh perjumpaan intensifantara dunia Muslim dengan peradaban Barat, yangmelahirkan implikasi yang cukup mencengangkan bagiperubahan struktur sosial dunia Muslim. Ketika dunia Muslimmeraih kembali independensinya secara politik daricengkeraman imperialisme dan hegemoni Barat pada abad ke-20 M, salah satu persoalan yang muncul kemudian adalahbagaimana memosisikan syarî'ah dan menjabarkannya kedalam sebuah formulasi yang ideal dan aktual agar mampumengakomodasikan seluruh warga negara dengan latarbelakang suku dan agama yang heterogen. Karenanya, iamenawarkan gagasan evolusi syarî'ah yang meniscayakansyarî'ah dapat menyahuti isu-isu penting bagi masa depankemanusiaan. Dalam membangun gagasannya tentang evolusisyarî’ah, An-Na’im menggunakan teori naskh. Naskh, menurutAn-Na’im, adalah menghapus ayat-ayat Madâniyah denganayat-ayat Makkiyah. Gagasan evolusi syarî’ah dilatarbelakangioleh setting sosiopolitik Sudan sebelum pecah menjadi SudanUtara dan Sudan Selatan.

  20. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland......, and comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns...... in Greenland in a life course perspective. First different ways to determine dietary patterns will be examined; then the association of parents' background, childhood conditions, education, place of residence, job and wealth with diet will be analysed. Finally, the association of diet with other determinants...

  1. The feasibility study: a health economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Gannon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The remit of research funding bodies is to prioritise funding for research that is of relevance and of high quality. This in turn will aim to raise the quality of healthcare and benefit to patients. Researchers are faced with increasing demands and expectations from the public purse and patients. The emphasis is to improve the quality of their research, with the ultimate aim of improving population health. While guidelines on feasibility study methods concentrate heavily on trials, there appears less guidance on application of health economics within feasibility studies, yet these are a less costly way to determine first of all if a full randomised controlled trial (RCT is feasible. A feasibility study assesses if the study can be done in a small RCT type study. Since by definition, a feasibility study does not evaluate the outcome, researchers often omit the health economics aspects but do however include statistical analysis. This leaves a gap in interpretation for policy makers and potential funders. It also means that any resulting publication does not include relevant information and therefore comparison across studies in terms of difficulty in collecting cost data is not possible. The main aim of this commentary therefore, is to demonstrate a suggested health economics analysis within a feasibility study and to recommend to researchers to include these aspects from the conception of their intervention. This paper proposes a number of points, with rationale for each point, to indicate the health economics data and the potential benefits required for coherent interpretation of the feasibility of future economic evaluations in a full trial. Economic evaluation is necessary if implementation into standard care is anticipated. Therefore, collection and summary analysis of relevant data is good practice at each point of the intervention development. Current guidelines for economic evaluation, for example, The Medical Research Guidelines in the

  2. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  3. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  4. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  5. Prospective hospital-based case–control study to assess the effectiveness of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and risk factors for hospitalization in 2009–2010 using matched hospital and test-negative controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Wiebke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a case–control study to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE for prevention of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (pH1N1 and to identify risk factors for pH1N1 and acute respiratory infection (ARI in 10 hospitals in Berlin from December 2009 to April 2010. Methods Cases were patients aged 18–65 years with onset of ARI ≤10 days before admission testing positive for pH1N1 by PCR performed on nasal and throat swabs or by serological testing. Cases were compared to (1 matched hospital controls with acute surgical, traumatological or other diagnoses matched on age, sex and vaccination probability, and (2 ARI patients testing negative for pH1N1. Additionally, ARI cases were compared to matched hospital controls. A standardized interview and chart review elicited demographic and clinical data as well as potential risk factors for pH1N1/ARI. VE was estimated by 1-(Odds ratio for pH1N1-vaccination ≥10 days before symptom onset using exact logistic regression analysis. Results Of 177 ARI cases recruited, 27 tested pH1N1 positive. A monovalent AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine was the only pandemic vaccine type identified among cases and controls (vaccination coverage in control group 1 and 2: 15% and 5.9%. The only breakthrough infections were observed in 2 of 3 vaccinated HIV positive pH1N1 patients. After exclusion of HIV positive participants, VE was 96% (95%CI: 26-100% in the matched multivariate analysis and 46% (95%CI: -376-100% in the test-negative analysis. Exposure to children in the household was independently associated with hospitalization for pH1N1 and ARI. Conclusions Though limited by low vaccination coverage and number of pH1N1 cases, our results suggest a protective effect of the AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine for the prevention of pH1N1 hospitalization. The use of hospital but not test-negative controls showed a statistically protective effect of pH1N1-vaccination and permitted

  6. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  7. Recruitment via the Internet and social networking sites: the 1989-1995 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita Devi; Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-15

    Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203/17,069 vs 10.1%). A higher percentage of study

  8. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  9. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel C; Danon, Leon; O'Hagan, Justin J; Goldstein, Edward; Lajous, Martin; Lipsitch, Marc

    2010-05-05

    Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  10. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  11. Influenza serological studies to inform public health action: best practices to optimise timing, quality and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Karen L; Huston, Patricia; Riley, Steven; Katz, Jacqueline M; Willison, Donald J; Tam, John S; Mounts, Anthony W; Hoschler, Katja; Miller, Elizabeth; Vandemaele, Kaat; Broberg, Eeva; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Nicoll, Angus

    2013-03-01

    Serological studies can detect infection with a novel influenza virus in the absence of symptoms or positive virology, providing useful information on infection that goes beyond the estimates from epidemiological, clinical and virological data. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, an impressive number of detailed serological studies were performed, yet the majority of serological data were available only after the first wave of infection. This limited the ability to estimate the transmissibility and severity of this novel infection, and the variability in methodology and reporting limited the ability to compare and combine the serological data.   To identify best practices for conduct and standardisation of serological studies on outbreak and pandemic influenza to inform public policy. An international meeting was held in February 2011 in Ottawa, Canada, to foster the consensus for greater standardisation of influenza serological studies. Best practices for serological investigations of influenza epidemiology include the following: classification of studies as pre-pandemic, outbreak, pandemic or inter-pandemic with a clearly identified objective; use of international serum standards for laboratory assays; cohort and cross-sectional study designs with common standards for data collection; use of serum banks to improve sampling capacity; and potential for linkage of serological, clinical and epidemiological data. Advance planning for outbreak studies would enable a rapid and coordinated response; inclusion of serological studies in pandemic plans should be considered. Optimising the quality, comparability and combinability of influenza serological studies will provide important data upon emergence of a novel or variant influenza virus to inform public health action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Bi, Y.; Bernhöft, S.; Schramm, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated

  13. Retinoids repress Ah receptor CYP1A1 induction pathway through the SMRT corepressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallone, Frederique; Villard, Pierre-Henri; Seree, Eric; Rimet, Odile; Nguyen, Quock Binh; Bourgarel-Rey, Veronique; Fouchier, Francis; Barra, Yves; Durand, Alain; Lacarelle, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    CYP1A1 isoform is mainly regulated by the transcription factor AhR and to a lesser extent by the nuclear receptor RAR. The effect of a coexposure with 3MC, a AhR ligand, and RA, a RAR ligand, which are, respectively, strong and weak CYP1A1 inducers, is poorly known. We showed in Caco-2 cells that addition of RA significantly decreased 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression by -55% for mRNA level and -30% for promoter and enzymatic activities. We further showed that RA decreased AhR protein level. Moreover, a physical interaction between AhR and the RAR-corepressor SMRT has been described in vitro. Using the corepressor inhibitor TSA, transfected-cells with SMRT cDNA, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrated that RA addition repressed AhR function through a marked AhR/SMRT physical interaction. This interaction explains the decrease of 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. This new mechanism involving the repression of AhR-induced CYP1A1 expression by retinoids allows better knowledge of the CYP1A1 regulation

  14. Kontroversi Produk Bank Sharî‘ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rokhim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the views of Muslims on the nature and legitimacy of bank interest as far as Syari’ah law is concerned. Three views are presented here. First is the view of the neo-revivalists who argue that bank interest is legally illegitimate and that it is a form of riba. Second is the view of—among others—Fazlur Rahman who believes that bank interest is not riba. And third is the view that bank interest is in the state of legal doubtfulness (shubhat. We do not support particular view in this paper. But in principle it seems particularly legitimate to argue that Islam is a religion of social wellbeing in which any transaction should be free from such illegitimate practices as riba, gharar (cheating, and financial speculation. However, we also argue that bank interest is too complicated to be equated with riba. There are no accepted standards and qualifications by which the two can be said as the same. To this complex issue we dedicate our paper as a contribution to the issue at hand.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR (BMK DENGAN MODEL METODE QIRO’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education learning is a learning that has many a role in knowledge. It caused religion is becoming guide for all of human being Islamic in the world. Besides, Islamic religion is able to guarantee a requirement life all mankind either in the world or the hereafter. Therefore, presumably in teaching and learning Islamic religion education, a teacher should have many a matter learning that variously and be able to implement it. One of it is the development of material with Qiro’ati model which is teacher guidance student as well. The material before need to be renovating in order that the material can be running well and appropriate with next era it will be felt by student. The alteration cannot be avoided again, in order that it become requirement human being Islam, but the alteration who doesn’t come out from regulation Islamic precept who has been teaching it. So that, the material lesson is possible give opportunity to the teacher Islamic religion education always actively do learning process that agree with institution of Islamic education requirement. The focus this research is how the effectively of material Islamic religion education with Qiro’ah model?

  16. Evolutionary trends of A(H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin since 1918.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pandemic (H1N1 2009 is spreading to numerous countries and causing many human deaths. Although the symptoms in humans are mild at present, fears are that further mutations in the virus could lead to a potentially more dangerous outbreak in subsequent months. As the primary immunity-eliciting antigen, hemagglutinin (HA is the major agent for host-driven antigenic drift in A(H3N2 virus. However, whether and how the evolution of HA is influenced by existing immunity is poorly understood for A(H1N1. Here, by analyzing hundreds of A(H1N1 HA sequences since 1918, we show the first evidence that host selections are indeed present in A(H1N1 HAs. Among a subgroup of human A(H1N1 HAs between 1918 approximately 2008, we found strong diversifying (positive selection at HA(1 156 and 190. We also analyzed the evolutionary trends at HA(1 190 and 225 that are critical determinants for receptor-binding specificity of A(H1N1 HA. Different A(H1N1 viruses appeared to favor one of these two sites in host-driven antigenic drift: epidemic A(H1N1 HAs favor HA(1 190 while the 1918 pandemic and swine HAs favor HA(1 225. Thus, our results highlight the urgency to understand the interplay between antigenic drift and receptor binding in HA evolution, and provide molecular signatures for monitoring future antigenically drifted 2009 pandemic and seasonal A(H1N1 influenza viruses.

  17. Health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers' views on health, health promotion, health assets and deficits: qualitative study in seven Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Berenguera, Anna; Coma-Auli, Núria; Pombo-Ramos, Haizea; March, Sebastià; Asensio-Martínez, Angela; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Mora-Simón, Sara; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2017-06-13

    Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Furthermore, the identification of different health assets and deficits by the different informants will generate new evidence to promote healthy behaviours, improve community health and wellbeing and reduce preventable inequalities. The objective of this study is to explore the concept of health and health promotion and to compare health assets and deficits as identified by health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers with the ultimate purpose to collect the necessary data for the design and implementation of a successful health promotion intervention. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative research was conducted with 276 participants from 14 primary care centres of 7 Spanish regions. Theoretical sampling was used for selection. We organized 11 discussion groups and 2 triangular groups with health-care users; 30 semi-structured interviews with key community informants; and 14 discussion groups with primary health care workers. A thematic content analysis was carried out. Health-care users and key community informants agree that health is a complex, broad, multifactorial concept that encompasses several interrelated dimensions (physical, psychological-emotional, social, occupational, intellectual, spiritual and environmental). The three participants' profiles consider health promotion indispensable despite defining it as complex and vague. In fact, most health-care users admit to having

  18. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Weber, J T; Nicoll, A; D'Ancona, F; Lopalco, P L; Johansen, K; Wasley, A M; Jorgensen, P; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Giambi, C; Stefanoff, P; Dematte, L; O'Flanagan, D

    2012-01-26

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  19. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2012-06-01

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40\\/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  20. A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase ...

  1. A comparison of 802.11ah and 802.15.4 for IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emerging IEEE 802.11ah is a promising communication standard that supports a massive number of heterogeneous devices in the Internet of Things (IoT. It provides attractive features like improved scalability, low energy consumption, and coverage of large area. In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11ah, and compare it with a prominent alternative, the IEEE 802.15.4. The simulation results show that the new 802.11ah standard performs better than the 802.15.4 in terms of association time, throughput, delay, and coverage range.

  2. HEALTH / GENDER STUDIES: HIV/AIDS and Health Inequalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the interface between the HIV/AIDS pandemic and health inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with an inbuilt assumption that the health inequality situation in African nation states exacerbates, and therefore forestalls meaningful efforts towards the control of HIV/AIDS spread in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009

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    Miller Joel C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During an influenza pandemic, a substantial proportion of transmission is thought to occur in households. We used data on influenza progression in individuals and their contacts collected by the City of Milwaukee Health Department (MHD to study the transmission of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 362 households in Milwaukee, WI, and the effects of oseltamivir treatment and chemoprophylaxis. Methods 135 households had chronological information on symptoms and oseltamivir usage for all household members. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the household secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with households as the unit of analysis. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the individual secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with individual household contacts as the unit of analysis, and a generalized estimating equations approach was used to fit the model to allow for clustering within households. Results Oseltamivir index treatment on onset day or the following day (early treatment was associated with a 42% reduction (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.19, 1.73 in the odds of one or more secondary infections in a household and a 50% reduction (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.46 in the odds of a secondary infection in individual contacts. The confidence bounds are wide due to a small sample of households with early oseltamivir index usage - in 29 such households, 5 had a secondary attack. Younger household contacts were at higher risk of infection (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.50-5.20. Conclusions Early oseltamivir treatment may be beneficial in preventing H1N1pdm influenza transmission; this may have relevance to future control measures for influenza pandemics. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm this finding statistically.

  5. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  6. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-12-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10(-6)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10(-9)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São Paulo State , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season

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    Katia Corrêa de Oliveira Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016. In addition, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.

  8. Information in mental health: qualitative study of mental health service users

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Background  Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.

  9. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, Victor A

    2011-01-01

    Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6-2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3-1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school-age children, the age group most affected

  10. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school

  11. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia Due to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Toshie; Higuera Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena; Vazquez Manriquez, Maria Eugenia; Martinez Valadez, Eduarda Leticia; Ramos, Leticia Alfaro; Izumi, Shinyu; Takasaki, Jin; Kudo, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methodology and Principal Findings A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm) and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post). All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1)pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. Conclusions Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic point of view. These

  12. Socioeconomic factors influencing hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1pdm09. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post. All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic

  13. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  14. Technical structure of Complaint Poetry Until 3 A.H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical structure of Complaint Poetry Until 3 A.H       * Gholam Abbas Rezai   * * Sherafat Karimi     Abstract   Complaint refers to the poetic works in which the poet talks about the Vehemence of his/her painful feeling. It is the description of pains, personal and social problems and in a way is confiding whatever has annoyed his/her soul and body. Complaint can be categorized into social and personal ones. The personal complaints composed at the time of Islam were generally complaining about the Time, death, aging and separation from the beloved. This was due to the poets' shallow viewpoint on life and their nihilistic inclinations. These subjects were still present in first three centuries and were added by new subjects such as complaining about sensual desires.   The general characteristic, style, structure and elements of meaning were simplicity in word and meaning , sincere and ample feeling, using many words with denotative meanings, utilizing maxims, proverbs and wise sayings, rhetorical statements, rich cadence (musical tones, as well as uniformity and simple imagination. Complaint is an independent poetic technique which as a result of the close relation to other sorts of poetic subjects is threaded through various sorts of elegy and sometimes is composed as an independent elegy.     Key words : Complaint Poetry Structure Style Poetic Subject       * Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, university of Tehran . E-mail: GHREZAEE@UT.AC.IR .   ** PhD .candidate university of Tehran .E-mail: KARIMI.SHARAFAT@yahoo.com

  15. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  16. Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Bornstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS. AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs, are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons.Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode.Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29 was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24, but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27 were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6 or in its absence (n = 5. Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist, but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih.Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the

  17. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  18. RELEVANSI KAFĀ’AH TERHADAP KEHARMONISAN RUMAH TANGGA PERSPEKTIF NORMATIF DAN YURIDIS

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    Asrizal Saiin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kafā’ah is a concept of equivalence between the couples who want to get married to create family which is sakinah, mawaddah and rahmah. Religious elements is the main and most important in equality while the others just as a supporting factor, such as: education, offspring, position and economic degree. In determining the partner, every one should understand the kafa’ah concepts and criteria in integrated, inductive and comprehensive, what intended to avoid mistakes in choosing a good couple. This article examine the equality relevance on household harmony in terms of normative and juridical value. [Kafā’ah merupakan suatu konsep kesepadanan antara calon suami dan isteri yang ingin menikah untuk membentuk keluarga sakinah, mawaddah dan rahmah. Unsur agama merupakan unsur utama dan terpenting dalam kafā’ah sedangkan unsur yang lain hanya sebagai pendukung, seperti pendidikan, keturunan, kedudukan dan ekonomi. Dalam menentukan pasangan hidup, perlu dipahami konsep kafā’ah dan kriteria-kriteria yang ada di dalamnya secara integratif, induktif dan konprehensif, yang ditujukan agar tidak terjadi kesalahan dalam memilih jodoh yang baik. Artikel ini mencoba mengkaji relevansi kafā’ah terhadap keharmonisan rumah tangga ditinjau dari nilai normatif dan yuridis.

  19. IMPLEMENTASI MAQĀṢID AL-SHARĪ'AH DALAM HUKUM EKONOMI ISLAM

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    Syufa'at

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective revelation of Islamic law is to create public interest (maṣlaḥat, both individually and collectively. The public interest that mentioned in Islamic law is the true goodness, not the pseudo benefit which influenced human desires. The Public interest here includes physical and spiritual. The public interest that intended by Islamic law is the goodness in this life and in the hereafter, not solely in the world live. maslahah in the Shariah perspective is based on five principles called al-mabādi'al-khamsah or al-uṣūl alkhamsah namely: keeping religion (hifẓ al-dīn, keeping the soul (hifẓ al-nafs, keeping mind (hifẓ al-‘aql, keeping property (hifẓ al-māl, and keeping descent (hifẓ al-nasl. Maqāṣid al-sharī’ah implementation of some economic problems is to answer the reality of modern society to face the challenges of basic needs such as clothing, food, shelter, health, education, employment, sanitation, energy, transport and information. Crucial needs of modern man is the spiritual and ethical, because modern society only measure the welfare just from the outer side only, that is to meet the needs according to the principle of utility and pragmatism

  20. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge.

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    Garland, Elizabeth; Garland, Victoria; Peters, Dominique; Doucette, John; Thanik, Erin; Rajupet, Sritha; Sanchez, Sadie H

    2018-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD) strategies on physical activity (PA) among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID) Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH) incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV) served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19) and 52% (n = 15) respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI) and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054). There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031); while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033). Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures.

  1. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD strategies on physical activity (PA among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19 and 52% (n = 15 respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054. There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031; while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033. Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures. Keywords: Active design, Physical activity, Built environment, Affordable housing

  2. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

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    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  3. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  4. A systematic review of the individual determinants of research evidence use in allied health

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    Lizarondo L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L Lizarondo, K Grimmer-Somers, S KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: The use of evidence-based practice (EBP is often not reflected in allied health (AH practitioners’ day-to-day practice (the research-practice gap. Research suggests that considerable differences between and within AH disciplines exist, which require different approaches in order to influence practice behavior. It is therefore important to develop a better understanding of what influences individual AH practitioners’ adoption of evidence into daily practice.Objective: This systematic review aims to examine the individual characteristics of AH practitioners which determine their uptake of evidence into practice.Methods: Studies which examined individual factors or variables that influence research evidence use by any AH practitioner were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included papers was assessed using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool for Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative summary of the findings was presented.Results: Six studies were included and the methodological quality scores indicated that two were weak and the remainder had moderate–weak quality. The review demonstrated that factors such as educational degree or academic qualification, involvement in research or EBP-related activities, and practitioners’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about research and EBP are significant predictors of self-reported research evidence use in AH. The effect of other factors such as professional characteristics, clinical setting/work environment, information-seeking behavior and sociodemographic variables are less clear. Whether there is an interaction effect between evidence-uptake factors has not been tested.Conclusion: Improving the research knowledge of clinicians and overcoming negative attitudes toward EBP have the potential to move AH

  5. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  6. Breast cancer risk by extent and type of atypical hyperplasia: An update from the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura C; Aroner, Sarah A; Connolly, James L; Colditz, Graham A; Schnitt, Stuart J; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-02-15

    Women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) on a benign breast biopsy specimen are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. However, the relation between the type and extent of AH (atypical ductal hyperplasia [ADH] vs atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) and the magnitude of the breast cancer risk is not well defined. A nested case-control study of benign breast disease and breast cancer risk was conducted. Women with breast cancer and prior benign breast biopsy findings (488 cases) were matched to women with prior benign breast biopsy findings who were free from breast cancer (1907 controls). Benign breast biopsy slides were reviewed and categorized as nonproliferative, proliferative without atypia, or AH (ADH or ALH). The number of foci of AH was also recorded. Among women with ADH, the interrelation between the extent of atypia and breast cancer risk was not significant (odds ratio [OR] for 1 or 2 foci, 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-5.6; OR for ≥3 foci, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.1; P = .41). Similarly, although the risk with ALH was higher for those with ≥3 foci than for those with breast cancer risk. The lack of a significant dose-response relation between the extent and type of atypia and breast cancer risk suggests that it would be premature to use the extent of atypia to influence management decisions for women with ADH or ALH. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

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    Qiuyan Liao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain.Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons.Trust in formal (government/media information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36 and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25, which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively. Trust in informal (interpersonal information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21, which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42 but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44. Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16 which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36. Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy.Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  8. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin; Lam, Wing Tak; Ng, Man Wai; Fielding, Richard

    2010-10-12

    Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain. Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal) information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons. Trust in formal (government/media) information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36) and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25), which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively). Trust in informal (interpersonal) information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21), which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42) but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44). Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16) which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36). Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy. Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  9. Estar ahí, al cuidado de un paciente con demencia Being there, ever caring for a patient with dementia

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    Margarita María Gómez Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Por causa de las pérdidas orgánicas, la persona con demencia se reduce cada vez más hasta la total invalidez, y si no encuentra quién se ocupe de ella, se degradará hasta la completa indigencia. Objetivo: Comprender las razones que tiene el cuidador de un familiar con demencia para estar ahí, a su lado, y las acciones que realiza para mantenerse en el cuidado. Metodología: El estudio se realizó en Medellín, Colombia, desde enero de 2002 hasta junio de 2004 con los lineamientos propuestos por la Teoría Fundada; se entrevistaron 22 individuos, cuya característica común era llevar mínimo tres años al cuidado de una persona con demencia. Los participantes se contactaron a través del Programa de Cuidadores del Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia y del programa Adulto Mayor, del Instituto de Seguros Sociales; el análisis se hizo manualmente. Resultados: "Estar ahí" es una decisión que toman los cuidadores, motivada por la relación filial o familiar con la persona cuidada, y que está sustentada en cuatro asuntos culturales: función socio-económica del grupo, tradición, reciprocidad y religión. Se constataron, además, los sentimientos de desgaste que viven los cuidadores para mantenerse en el cuidado y su necesidad de información, aprender de la experiencia, reflexión, programar otras actividades y apoyo. Conclusión: El cuidador de un paciente con demencia reconoce que "solo no puede", por lo que urge crear ambientes y espacios de apoyo a los cuidadores, para contribuir a su bienestar y salud.Due to their organic losses demented patients evolve towards total invalidity. If they do not find caring people absolute destitution awaits them. Objective: To understand caregiver reasons for "being there" to a patient with dementia and what are his actions to remain giving care. Methodology: This grounded study was carried in Medellín from January 2002 to June 2004. Twenty-two people with a minimum three years

  10. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-12-09

    In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32,404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221,923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4-39.4%; diabetes: 3.3-8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0-33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg(2): 14.1-18.6%). We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge generated will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature, and will

  11. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  12. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  13. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarrarás-Rivas, Jesús; Vargas-Mendoza, Jaime E; Mayoral-García, Maurilio; Matadamas-Zarate, Cuauhtémoc; Elizarrarás-Cruz, Anaid; Taylor, Melanie; Agho, Kingsley

    2010-12-03

    The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the

  14. Biological role of Trichoderma harzianum-derived platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) on stress response and antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Wu, Qiong; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wang, Meng; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum. The enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with PAF-AH proteins from T. koningii and other microbial species. The optimum enzymatic activity of PAF-AH occurred at pH 6 in the absence of Ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of PAF-AH expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. Furthermore, PAF-AH knockout transformant growth occurred more slowly than wild type cells and over-expression strains grown in SM medium at 37°C and 42°C. In addition, PAF-AH expression significantly increased under a series of maize root induction assay. Eicosanoic acid and ergosterol levels decreased in the PAF-AH knockouts compared to wild type cells, as revealed by GC/MS analysis. We also determined stress responses mediated by PAF-AH were related to proteins HEX1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c. Finally, PAF-AH exhibited antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in plate confrontation assays. Our results indicate PAF-AH may play an important role in T. harzianum stress response and antagonism under diverse environmental conditions.

  15. Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Desdouits

    Full Text Available Besides the classical respiratory and systemic symptoms, unusual complications of influenza A infection in humans involve the skeletal muscles. Numerous cases of acute myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis have been reported, particularly following the outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009. The pathogenesis of these influenza-associated myopathies (IAM remains unkown, although the direct infection of muscle cells is suspected. Here, we studied the susceptibility of cultured human primary muscle cells to a 2009 pandemic and a 2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1 isolate. Using cells from different donors, we found that differentiated muscle cells (i. e. myotubes were highly susceptible to infection by both influenza A(H1N1 isolates, whereas undifferentiated cells (i. e. myoblasts were partially resistant. The receptors for influenza viruses, α2-6 and α2-3 linked sialic acids, were detected on the surface of myotubes and myoblasts. Time line of viral nucleoprotein (NP expression and nuclear export showed that the first steps of the viral replication cycle could take place in muscle cells. Infected myotubes and myoblasts exhibited budding virions and nuclear inclusions as observed by transmission electron microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Myotubes, but not myoblasts, yielded infectious virus progeny that could further infect naive muscle cells after proteolytic treatment. Infection led to a cytopathic effect with the lysis of muscle cells, as characterized by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by muscle cells was not affected following infection. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a direct muscle infection causing rhabdomyolysis in IAM patients.

  16. Household transmission of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Casado

    Full Text Available The transmission of influenza viruses occurs person to person and is facilitated by contacts within enclosed environments such as households. The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary attack rates and factors associated with household transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons.During the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons, 76 sentinel physicians in Navarra, Spain, took nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from patients diagnosed with influenza-like illness. A trained nurse telephoned households of those patients who were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 to ask about the symptoms, risk factors and vaccination status of each household member.In the 405 households with a patient laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1pdm09, 977 susceptible contacts were identified; 16% of them (95% CI 14-19% presented influenza-like illness and were considered as secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was 14% in 2009-2010 and 19% in the 2010-2011 season (p=0.049, an increase that mainly affected persons with major chronic conditions. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of being a secondary case was higher in the 2010-2011 season than in the 2009-2010 season (adjusted odds ratio: 1.72; 95% CI 1.17-2.54, and in children under 5 years, with a decreasing risk in older contacts. Influenza vaccination was associated with lesser incidence of influenza-like illness near to statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio: 0.29; 95% CI 0.08-1.03.The secondary attack rate in households was higher in the second season than in the first pandemic season. Children had a greater risk of infection. Preventive measures should be maintained in the second pandemic season, especially in high-risk persons.

  17. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  18. Epidemiological Studies Persian Gulf War Illnesses Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klemm, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study will provide baseline health and risk factor information to estimate the prevalence of selected health conditions, with an emphasis on reproductive health...

  19. Estimate the Health Literacy in Health Centers in the Border of Yazd City: Cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Gerayllo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Health literacy of women in general was unacceptable, and recommendations were made to establish continuous training for women to improve their views. Also consideration should be given to centers to plan the transformation of health literacy which has been launched, to increase the Health literacy of the population being studied as recipients of health services.

  20. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population, Hiroshima, 1971--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, M; Yamakido, M; Otake, M; Belsky, J L; Pastore, J O; Kawamoto, S; Okawa, T; Dock, D S

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The positive rate was significantly higher in those age 50 or over. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria. PCA was detected in 11 of 152 subjects with low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA in subjects presenting achlorhydria and abnormal (low or high) serum pepsinogen levels was 19 in 100, higher than 7 in 106 in those subjects in whom gastric acidity and serum pepsinogen levels were both normal. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 vaccination in the United States.

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    Lisa A Prosser

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza A(H1N1 (pH1N1 was first identified in North America in April 2009. Vaccination against pH1N1 commenced in the U.S. in October 2009 and continued through January 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pH1N1 vaccination.A computer simulation model was developed to predict costs and health outcomes for a pH1N1 vaccination program using inactivated vaccine compared to no vaccination. Probabilities, costs and quality-of-life weights were derived from emerging primary data on pH1N1 infections in the US, published and unpublished data for seasonal and pH1N1 illnesses, supplemented by expert opinion. The modeled target population included hypothetical cohorts of persons aged 6 months and older stratified by age and risk. The analysis used a one-year time horizon for most endpoints but also includes longer-term costs and consequences of long-term sequelae deaths. A societal perspective was used. Indirect effects (i.e., herd effects were not included in the primary analysis. The main endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses were conducted.For vaccination initiated prior to the outbreak, pH1N1 vaccination was cost-saving for persons 6 months to 64 years under many assumptions. For those without high risk conditions, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $8,000-$52,000/QALY depending on age and risk status. Results were sensitive to the number of vaccine doses needed, costs of vaccination, illness rates, and timing of vaccine delivery.Vaccination for pH1N1 for children and working-age adults is cost-effective compared to other preventive health interventions under a wide range of scenarios. The economic evidence was consistent with target recommendations that were in place for pH1N1 vaccination. We also found that the delays in vaccine availability had a substantial impact on the cost-effectiveness of

  2. Laboratory preparedness in EU/EEA countries for detection of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, E; Pereyaslov, D; Struelens, M; Palm, D; Meijer, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; McCauley, J; Daniels, R

    2015-01-01

    Following human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net) rapidly posted relevant information, including real-time RT-PCR protocols. An influenza RNA sequence-based computational assessment of detection capabilities for this virus was conducted in 32 national influenza reference laboratories in 29 countries, mostly WHO National Influenza Centres participating in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Twenty-seven countries considered their generic influenza A virus detection assay to be appropriate for the novel A(H7N9) viruses. Twenty-two countries reported having containment facilities suitable for its isolation and propagation. Laboratories in 27 countries had applied specific H7 real-time RT-PCR assays and 20 countries had N9 assays in place. Positive control virus RNA was provided by the WHO Collaborating Centre in London to 34 laboratories in 22 countries to allow evaluation of their assays. Performance of the generic influenza A virus detection and H7 and N9 subtyping assays was good in 24 laboratories in 19 countries. The survey showed that ERLI-Net laboratories had rapidly developed and verified good capability to detect the novel A(H7N9) influenza viruses. PMID:24507469

  3. The Effective Medicinal plants in Cataract Treatment: An Inquiry in Persian Medicine Resources (4-13th century AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sheikhrezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cataract is a kind of eye disease that starts with blurriness of eye lens and the vision is disrupted as the opacity and cloudiness of the lens increases. Iranian people knew cataract as "Nozoul-al-ma" (water fall and they believed that this disease was an effect of the moisture that accumulates between lens and cornea. Currently, surgery is the only way to restore vision in people with cataract. However, effective medical therapy can reduce the costs and risks of surgery. The purpose of this study is to find the effective medicinal plants in cataract treatment. METHODS: This review article based on library research methods was conducted in three steps (keyword determination, analysis of resources, scoring and arrangement by investigating Persian medicine references. In this study, seven books from 4-13th century AH were studied. The results were scored from 1 to 3 based on implicit or undecided statement, single citation, direct statement and emphatic effect statement. FINDINGS: 36 medicinal plants were found and 11 plants (Ferula assafoetida, Ferula Persica, Foeniculum Vulgare, Cyclamen europaeum, Allium cepa, Euphorbia resinifera, Isatis tinctoria, Zataria multiflora , Olea europaea, Caesalpinia bonduc, Commiphora opobalsamum obtained the highest scores. CONCLUSION: The plants that obtained the highest scores were probably the most prominent drugs for the treatment of cataract in 4-13th century AH. Frequent use of these drugs in recent centuries may indicate their appropriate effect on cataract. However, more clinical researches are required to confirm that.

  4. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  5. Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chowell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21, non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9, and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01 compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P<0.0001. In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03 compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009. Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4, cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8, immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9, and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5 were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients.

  6. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Better Health A short video on the importance of community involvement to effective health systems. ... They discovered that the World Bank would fund the lion's share of the cost of installing piped water in Kilimani if the villagers raised a portion of the money themselves. Villagers decided to create a fund based on ...

  8. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH): cascade of events, clinical aspects, and pharmacotherapy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf

    2018-06-01

    Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity. As opposed to ASH, the clinical course of AH is often severe and requires an effective drug treatment strategy, in addition to absolute alcohol abstinence and nutritional support. Drug options include corticosteroids as a first choice and pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, as a second line therapy, especially in patients with contraindications for a corticosteroid therapy such as infections or sepsis. At seven days under corticosteroids, treatment should be terminated in non-responders, and patients must then be evaluated for liver transplantation. Pentoxifylline is not effective as a rescue therapy for these patients. Other treatments such as infliximab, propylthiouracil, N-acetylcysteine, silymarin, colchicine, insulin and glucagon, oxandrolone, testosterone, and polyunsaturated lecithin are not effective in severe AH. For liver transplantation, few patients will be eligible.

  9. The Volatility of Indonesia Shari’ah Capital Market Stock Price Toward Macro Economics Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shari’ah stock market is also affected by many highly interrelated economic, social, political andother factor, same as the conventional stock market, the interaction between macroeconomic variablesand Shari’ah stock market creating volatility in the stock price as a response towards severalshocks. The sensitivity of Shari’ah stock market towards shocks happened related with the futureexpectation of micro and macro factor in one country which can be predict or unpredictable.There are six macroeconomic variables that used in this research; inflation, exchange rate, interestrate, dow jones index, crude oil palm price, and FED rate. Using vector error correction model(VECM, the result shows that domestic macroeconomic variables that significantly affect IndonesiaShari’ah compliance for long term, while for international macroeconomic variables the selectedvariable such as FED rate and Dow Jones Index are not significantly affected Indonesia Shari’ahcompliance both in short term and long term. Keywords: Indonesia Shari’ah compliance, Macro Economic Indicators, Impulse Response Function,Stock Price Volatility

  10. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  11. PEMBARUAN MASLAḤAH DALAM MAQĀṢID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of maṣlaḥah contained in the maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of maṣlaḥah in ḥifẓ al-dīn is technically defined as al-ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ḥifẓ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ḥifẓ al-nasl as ḥifẓ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ḥifẓ al-māl as al-taḍammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ḥifẓ al-‘aql as al-ḥuqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep maṣlaḥah yang terkandung dalam maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep maṣlaḥah dalam ḥifẓu al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ḥifẓu al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ḥifẓu al-nasl sebagai ḥifẓu al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ḥifẓu al-māl sebagai al-taḍammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ḥifẓu al-‘aql sebagai al-ḥuqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  12. Risk factors affecting seroconversion after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Sung Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Hemodialysis (HD patients have multiple causes of immune dysfunction and poor immune response to influenza vaccination. We investigated the antibody response rate to a pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza vaccination and clinical parameters influencing the induction of antibody responses in HD patients. Methods A total of 114 HD patients were vaccinated with a monovalent adjuvanted H1N1 inactivated influenza vaccine. Titers of neutralizing antibodies were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay at pre- and 4 weeks after vaccination. Seroconversion was defined as either a pre-vaccination HI titer  1:40 or a pre-vaccination HI titer ≥ 1:10 and a minimum four-fold rise in post-vaccination HI antibody titer. Seventeen out of 114 HD patients (14.9% tested positive for antibodies against influenza A/H1N1/2009 before vaccination. The remaining 97 baseline sero-negative patients were included in the analysis. Results Only 30 (30.9% HD patients had seroconversion 4 weeks after vaccination. The elderly patients, those over 65 years of age, showed significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to younger HD patients (20.5% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.042. Furthermore, patients with hemoglobin values less than 10 g/dL had a significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to those with higher hemoglobin values (20.0 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.049. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, only age ≥65 years (OR = 0.336, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.116-0.971, p = 0.044 and hemoglobin levels Conclusions Our data show that HD patients, especially who are elderly with low hemoglobin levels, are at increased risk for lower seroconversion rate after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of vaccination in these high risk patients.

  13. Case of seasonal reassortant a(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. (Adam); C. Swaan (Corien); Voerknecht, M. (Martin); E. Jusic (Edin); van den Brink, S. (Sharon); Wijsman, L.A. (Lisa A.); A.C.G. Voordouw (Bettie); G.A. Donker (Gé); Sleven, J. (Jacqueline); Dorigo-Zetsma, W.W. (Wendelien W.); S. Svraka-Latifovic (Sanela); M. van Boven (Michiel); Haverkate, M.R. (Manon R.); A. Timen (Aura); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  14. Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Swaan, C.M.; Voerknecht, M.; Jusic, E.; Brink, S. van den; Wijsman, L.A.; Voordouw, B.C.G.; Donker, G.A.; Sleven, J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, W.W.; Svraka, S.; Boven, M. van; Haverkate, M.R.; Timen, A.; Dissel, J.T. van; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Besteboer, T.M.; Fouchier, R.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  15. Case of seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus infection, the Netherlands, March 2018.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Swaan, Corien M; Voerknecht, Martin; Jusic, Edin; van den Brink, Sharon; Wijsman, Lisa A; Voordouw, Bettie Cg; Donker, Gé A; Sleven, Jacqueline; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien W; Svraka, Sanela; van Boven, Michiel; Haverkate, Manon R; Timen, Aura; van Dissel, Jaap T; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Bestebroer, Theo M; Fouchier, Ron Am

    A seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus harbouring genome segments from seasonal influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 (HA and NS) and A(H3N2) (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NA and M) was identified in March 2018 in a 19-months-old patient with influenza-like illness (ILI) who presented to a general

  16. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yi; Kang, Min; Liu, Fuqiang; Ren, Ruiqi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yiping; Li, Chao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Dan; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhou, Suizan; Iuliano, A Danielle; Havers, Fiona; Ni, Daxin; Wang, Dayan; Feng, Zijian; Uyeki, Timothy M; Li, Qun

    2017-08-01

    We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.

  17. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  18. eHealth in Denmark: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.

  19. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  20. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  1. Case Study: Neglected Health Issues in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with

  2. A Modified AH-FDTD Unconditionally Stable Method Based on High-Order Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unconditionally stable method, Associated-Hermite FDTD, has attracted more and more attentions in computational electromagnetic for its time-frequency compact property. Because of the fewer orders of AH basis needed in signal reconstruction, the computational efficiency can be improved further. In order to further improve the accuracy of the traditional AH-FDTD, a high-order algorithm is introduced. Using this method, the dispersion error induced by the space grid can be reduced, which makes it possible to set coarser grid. The simulation results show that, on the condition of coarse grid, the waveforms obtained from the proposed method are matched well with the analytic result, and the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than the traditional AH-FDTD. And the efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the traditional FDTD method in analysing 2D waveguide problems with fine-structure.

  3. Identification and simulation evaluation of an AH-64 helicopter hover math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Watson, D. C.; Tischler, M. B.; Eshow, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Frequency-domain parameter-identification techniques were used to develop a hover mathematical model of the AH-64 Apache helicopter from flight data. The unstable AH-64 bare-airframe characteristics without a stability-augmentation system were parameterized in the convectional stability-derivative form. To improve the model's vertical response, a simple transfer-function model approximating the effects of dynamic inflow was developed. Additional subcomponents of the vehicle were also modeled and simulated, such as a basic engine response for hover and the vehicle stick dynamic characteristics. The model, with and without stability augmentation, was then evaluated by AH-64 pilots in a moving-base simulation. It was the opinion of the pilots that the simulation was a satisfactory representation of the aircraft for the tasks of interest. The principal negative comment was that height control was more difficult in the simulation than in the aircraft.

  4. New genetic variants of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in Cuba during 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arencibia, Amely; Acosta, Belsy; Muné, Mayra; Valdés, Odalys; Fernandez, Leandro; Medina, Isel; Savón, Clara; Oropesa, Suset; Gonzalez, Grehete; Roque, Rosmery; Gonzalez, Guelsys; Hernández, Bárbara; Goyenechea, Angel; Piñón, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has evolved continually since its emergence in 2009. For influenza virus strains, genetic changes occurring in HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin cause the emergence of new variants. The aim of our study is to establish genetic associations between 35 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in Cuba in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons, and A/California/07/2009 strain recommended by WHO as the H1N1 component of the influenza vaccine. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of clades 3, 6A, 6B, 6C and 7. Mutations were detected in the antigenic site or in the receptor-binding domains of HA1 segment, including S174P, S179N, K180Q, S202T, S220T and R222K. Substitutions S174P, S179N, K180Q and R222K were detected in Cuban strains for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Assessment of the MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Systematic review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aragón, J; Grande Tejada, A M; Márquez-Peláez, S; Molina Linde, J M; Yang, R

    2013-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in children. A systematic review of the literature was performed after searching the MedLine and Embase electronic databases, and manual search in specialties journals, with MeSH terms and and free terms. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials with children vaccinated with MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, compared with other vaccines doses with/without MF59-adjuvanted. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine was recorded. The quality of the studies included was assessed by CASPe checklist. Four clinical trials with moderate quality were selected. The local and systemic adverse effects were rare and mild, with no differences between groups. Seroconversion and seroprotection levels were higher with MF59-adjuvanted vaccines. Antibody titres were also higher with the adjuvant vaccines. The adjuvant vaccine has a good efficacy and safety profile. The adverse effects that may occur are common and appear similarly in both vaccination groups. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  7. The Mediated Amplification of a Crisis: Communicating the A/H1N1 Pandemic in Press Releases and Press Coverage in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Constanze; Meyer, Lisa; Schulz, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    In the aftermath of the A/H1N1 pandemic, health authorities were criticized for failures in crisis communication efforts, and the media were accused of amplifying the pandemic. Considering these criticisms, A/H1N1 provides a suitable case for examining risk amplification processes that may occur in the transfer of information from press releases to print news media during a health crisis. We integrated the social amplification of risk framework with theories of news decisions (news values, framing) in an attempt to contribute to existing research both theoretically and empirically. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of press releases disseminated by health and governmental authorities, as well as the quality and tabloid press in 10 European countries between March 2009 and March 2011. Altogether 243 press releases, 1,243 quality press articles, and 834 tabloid press articles were coded. Consistent with research on news values and framing the results suggest that quality and tabloid papers alike amplified A/H1N1 risks by emphasizing conflict and damage, presenting information in a more dramatized way, and using risk-amplifying frames to a greater extent and risk-attenuating frames to a lesser extent than press releases. To some extent, the quality and tabloid press differed in how risk information was presented. While tabloid press articles seemed to follow the leading quality press with regards to content and framing of health crisis coverage, they exhibited a stronger emphasis on drama and emotion in the way they presented information. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia due to pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan J Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia is a well described complication of influenza. In recent years, community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (cMRSA infection has emerged as a contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with influenza. Since the emergence and rapid dissemination of pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus in April 2009, initial descriptions of the clinical features of patients hospitalized with pneumonia have contained few details of patients with bacterial co-infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP caused by co-infection with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus and cMRSA were prospectively identified at two tertiary hospitals in one Australian city during July to September 2009, the period of intense influenza activity in our region. Detailed characterization of the cMRSA isolates was performed. 252 patients with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus infection were admitted at the two sites during the period of study. Three cases of CAP due to pandemic A(H1N12009/cMRSA co-infection were identified. The clinical features of these patients were typical of those with S. aureus co-infection or sequential infection following influenza. The 3 patients received appropriate empiric therapy for influenza, but inappropriate empiric therapy for cMRSA infection; all 3 survived. In addition, 2 fatal cases of CAP caused by pandemic A(H1N12009/cMRSA co-infection were identified on post-mortem examination. The cMRSA infections were caused by three different cMRSA clones, only one of which contained genes for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians managing patients with pandemic A(H1N12009 influenzavirus infection should be alert to the possibility of co-infection or sequential infection with virulent, antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens such as cMRSA. PVL toxin is not necessary for the development of cMRSA pneumonia in the setting of pandemic

  10. Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: a study exploring mental health nurses' views of their role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebe, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor

  11. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  12. Public Health Achievements and Challenges: Symposium of the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravlija, Jelena; Vasilj, Ivan; Babic, Dragan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2017-05-01

    Public health is an important area of health care that reflects the readiness of the state and society to provide the welfare of all citizens through the promotion of health and the preservation of a healthy environment - factors that directly affect the health of the population. The field of public health is very broad and its concept is changing over time, being defined in a narrower and wider sense. In short, public health is a science and practice that aims at ensuring the conditions in which people can preserve and improve their health and prevent health damage. The third millennium brings its specifics, needs and priorities according to challenges public health is faced by in the twenty-first century: the economic crisis, rising inequality, population aging, rising rates of chronic diseases, migration, urbanization, ecosystem change, climate change, etc. The role of public health is to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries. Such a public health approach implies a multisectoral work focusing on "wider health determinants", and within this activity experts from various medical and non-medical profiles, whose field of public health is concerned, can be found. The development of inter-departmental co-operation skills contributes to a better understanding of health professionals and professionals of other profiles, and facilitates common, synergistic actions in addressing public health problems in the community. Symposium on Public Health Achievements and Challenges organized by the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies is just another indication of the obligation, the need and the desire for professional and scientific contribution to the fight for better health. Our faculty has so far organized other numerous symposia, and the aim of this symposium is to present public health achievements and challenges in our surrounding in order to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries in a modern way.

  13. Educational needs of reproductive health students: A Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    N Yamani; M Shakour; S Ehsanpour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of reproductive health led to establish the MSc in reproductive health program in developed country. In Iran, the program has not been offered yet. The aim of this study was to assess educational needs of MSc program in reproductive health. Methods: This research used Delphi method. Fifteen experts in reproductive health from Iran participated in this study. First, we provided a list of educational needs for every task, then experts confirmed or rejected education...

  14. Intraarticular and intravenous administration of 99MTc-HMPAO-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells (99MTC-AH-MSCS): In vivo imaging and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Montellano, Antonio Jesús; Martínez, Teresa; Martínez, Carlos M.; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Roldán, Marta; Mora, Cristina Fuente; López-Lucas, Maria Dolores; Fuente, Teodomiro

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Therapeutic application of intravenous administered (IV) human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) appears to have as main drawback the massive retention of cells in the lung parenchyma, questioning the suitability of this via of administration. Intraarticular administration (IAR) could be considered as an alternative route for therapy in degenerative and traumatic joint lesions. Our work is outlined as a comparative study of biodistribution of 99m Tc-ahMSCs after IV and IAR administration, via scintigraphic study in an animal model. Methods: Isolated primary culture of adult human mesenchymal stem cells was labeled with 99m Tc-HMPAO for scintigraphic study of in vivo distribution after intravenous and intra-articular (knee) administration in rabbits. Results: IV administration of radiolabeled ahMSCs showed the bulk of radioactivity in the lung parenchyma while IAR images showed activity mainly in the injected cavity and complete absence of uptake in pulmonary bed. Conclusions: Our study shows that IAR administration overcomes the limitations of IV injection, in particular, those related to cells destruction in the lung parenchyma. After IAR administration, cells remain within the joint cavity, as expected given its size and adhesion properties. Advances in knowledge: Intra-articular administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could be a suitable route for therapeutic effect in joint lesions. Implications for patient care: Local administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could improve their therapeutic effects, minimizing side effects in patients.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  16. A purely infinite AH-algebra and an application to AF-embeddability

    OpenAIRE

    Rordam, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    We show that there exists a purely infinite AH-algebra. The AH-algebra arises as an inductive limit of C*-algebras of the form C_0([0,1),M_k) and it absorbs the Cuntz algebra O_\\infty tensorially. Thus one can reach an O_\\infty-absorbing C*-algebra as an inductive limit of the finite and elementary C*-algebras C_0([0,1),M_k). As an application we give a new proof of a recent theorem of Ozawa that the cone over any separable exact C*-algebra is AF-embeddable, and we exhibit a concrete AF-algeb...

  17. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  18. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  19. Using multiple linear regression and physicochemical changes of amino acid mutations to predict antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haibo; Wei, Xiaomei; Huang, Yu; Hu, Bin; Fang, Yaping; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Among human influenza viruses, strain A/H3N2 accounts for over a quarter of a million deaths annually. Antigenic variants of these viruses often render current vaccinations ineffective and lead to repeated infections. In this study, a computational model was developed to predict antigenic variants of the A/H3N2 strain. First, 18 critical antigenic amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein were recognized using a scoring method combining phi (ϕ) coefficient and information entropy. Next, a prediction model was developed by integrating multiple linear regression method with eight types of physicochemical changes in critical amino acid positions. When compared to other three known models, our prediction model achieved the best performance not only on the training dataset but also on the commonly-used testing dataset composed of 31878 antigenic relationships of the H3N2 influenza virus.

  20. Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Ketelaar; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Linda Bolier; Odile Smeets; Judith K. Sluiter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of particip...

  1. Pathway Linking Internet Health Information Seeking to Better Health: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-08-01

    The Internet increasingly has been recognized as an important medium with respect to population health. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the potential impact of health-related Internet use on health outcomes. Based on the three-stage model of health promotion using interactive media, this study empirically tested a moderated mediation pathway model. Results showed that the effect of Internet health information seeking on three health outcomes (general, emotional, and physical) was completely mediated by respondents' access to social support resources. In addition, users' online health information seeking experience positively moderated this mediation path. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for the design of Internet-based health promotion resources to improve health outcomes.

  2. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  3. Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Bandaranayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding immunity, incidence and risk factors of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic (2009 H1N1 through a national seroprevalence study is necessary for informing public health interventions and disease modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected 1687 serum samples and individual risk factor data between November-2009 to March-2010, three months after the end of the 2009 H1N1 wave in New Zealand. Participants were randomly sampled from selected general practices countrywide and hospitals in the Auckland region. Baseline immunity was measured from 521 sera collected during 2004 to April-2009. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres of ≥1:40 against 2009 H1N1 were considered seroprotective as well as seropositive. The overall community seroprevalence was 26.7% (CI:22.6-29.4. The seroprevalence varied across age and ethnicity. Children aged 5-19 years had the highest seroprevalence (46.7%;CI:38.3-55.0, a significant increase from the baseline (14%;CI:7.2-20.8. Older adults aged ≥60 had no significant difference in seroprevalence between the serosurvey (24.8%;CI:18.7-30.9 and baseline (22.6%;CI:15.3-30.0. Pacific peoples had the highest seroprevalence (49.5%;CI:35.1-64.0. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between both primary (29.6%;CI:22.6-36.5 and secondary healthcare workers (25.3%;CI:20.8-29.8 and community participants. No significant regional variation was observed. Multivariate analysis indicated age as the most important risk factor followed by ethnicity. Previous seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with higher HI titres. Approximately 45.2% of seropositive individuals reported no symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on age and ethnicity standardisation to the New Zealand Population, about 29.5% of New Zealanders had antibody titers at a level consistent with immunity to 2009 H1N1. Around 18.3% of New Zealanders were infected with the virus during the first wave including about one child

  4. From the School Health Education Study to the National Health Education Standards: Concepts Endure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…

  5. Mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in France: comparison to seasonal influenza and the A/H3N2 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Lemaitre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic remains unclear in many countries due to delays in reporting of death statistics. We estimate the age- and cause-specific excess mortality impact of the pandemic in France, relative to that of other countries and past epidemic and pandemic seasons. METHODS: We applied Serfling and Poisson excess mortality approaches to model weekly age- and cause-specific mortality rates from June 1969 through May 2010 in France. Indicators of influenza activity, time trends, and seasonal terms were included in the models. We also reviewed the literature for country-specific estimates of 2009 pandemic excess mortality rates to characterize geographical differences in the burden of this pandemic. RESULTS: The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic was associated with 1.0 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI 0.2-1.9 excess respiratory deaths per 100,000 population in France, compared to rates per 100,000 of 44 (95% CI 43-45 for the A/H3N2 pandemic and 2.9 (95% CI 2.3-3.7 for average inter-pandemic seasons. The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic had a 10.6-fold higher impact than inter-pandemic seasons in people aged 5-24 years and 3.8-fold lower impact among people over 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 pandemic in France had low mortality impact in most age groups, relative to past influenza seasons, except in school-age children and young adults. The historical A/H3N2 pandemic was associated with much larger mortality impact than the 2009 pandemic, across all age groups and outcomes. Our 2009 pandemic excess mortality estimates for France fall within the range of previous estimates for high-income regions. Based on the analysis of several mortality outcomes and comparison with laboratory-confirmed 2009/H1N1 deaths, we conclude that cardio-respiratory and all-cause mortality lack precision to accurately measure the impact of this pandemic in high-income settings and that use of more specific mortality outcomes is important to obtain reliable

  6. A study of the relationship between health awareness, lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objectives of the study were to determine whether consumers who read food labels, were also more aware of health and lifestyle issues, in terms of nutrition and other health-related lifestyle behaviours, and whether there was a relationship between food-label reading, health awareness and lifestyle ...

  7. Health consequences of the Russian weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otrachshenko, V.; Popova, Olga; Solomin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, February (2017), s. 290-306 ISSN 0921-8009 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : health * mortality * temperature Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  8. Effect of Nd:YAG and Diode Lasers on Apical Seal of Root Canals Filled with AH Plus and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khoshbin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, may increase the success rate of endodontic treatments. This study aimed to assess the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the apical seal of the root canals filled with AH Plus® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 96 single-rooted, single-canal extracted human teeth with closed apices. The root canals were prepared by using ProTaper® rotary instruments and were randomly divided into six groups (n=16: 940-nm diode laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 1, Nd:YAG laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 2, AH Plus® sealer (group 3, 940-nm diode laser and MTA-based sealer (group 4, Nd:YAG laser and MTA-based sealer (group 5, MTA-based sealer (group 6, as well as positive and negative control groups. A bacterial leakage model was used for microleakage assessment. Qualitative assessment was done by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P=0.002. The laser-treated groups showed a lower apical microleakage compared to the non-laser-treated groups, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. No significant differences were noted between the two lasers in terms of the apical microleakage, irrespective of the type of sealer (P>0.05.Conclusions: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, has no significant effect on the level of apical microleakage.

  9. A qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system

    OpenAIRE

    Zinszer, Kate; Tamblyn, Robyn; Bates, David W; Buckeridge, David L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technol...

  10. Comparative liver accumulation of dioxin-like compounds in sheep and cattle: Possible role of AhR-mediated xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, F; Spalenza, V; Benedetto, A; Manzini, L; Badino, P; Abete, M C; Nebbia, C

    2016-11-15

    PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that accumulate in animal products and may pose serious health problems. Those able to bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), eliciting a plethora of toxic responses, are defined dioxin-like (DL) compounds, while the remainders are called non-DL (NDL). An EFSA opinion has highlighted the tendency of ovine liver to specifically accumulate DL-compounds to a greater extent than any other farmed ruminant species. To examine the possible role in such an accumulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) involved in DL-compound biotransformation, liver samples were collected from ewes and cows reared in an area known for low dioxin contamination. A related paper reported that sheep livers had about 5-fold higher DL-compound concentrations than cattle livers, while the content of the six marker NDL-PCBs did not differ between species. Specimens from the same animals were subjected to gene expression analysis for AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR-dependent oxidative and conjugative pathways; XME protein expression and activities were also investigated. Both AhR and ARNT mRNA levels were about 2-fold lower in ovine samples and the same occurred for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, being approximately 3- and 9-fold less expressed in sheep compared to cattle, while CYP1B1 could be detectable in cattle only. The results of the immunoblotting and catalytic activity (most notably EROD) measurements of the CYP1A family enzymes were in line with the gene expression data. By contrast, phase II enzyme expression and activities in sheep were higher (UGT1A) or similar (GSTA1, NQO1) to those recorded in cattle. The overall low expression of CYP1 family enzymes in the sheep is in line with the observed liver accumulation of DL-compounds and is expected to affect the kinetics and the dynamics of other POPs such as many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as of toxins (e.g. aflatoxins) or drugs (e.g. benzimidazole

  11. Situating mobile health: a qualitative study of mHealth expectations in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Vincent; Yé, Maurice; Moubassira, Kagoné; Sanou, Hamidou; Sawadogo, N Hélène; Bibeau, Gilles; Sié, Ali

    2017-07-12

    The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in low- and middle-income countries raises high and well-documented expectations among development agencies, policymakers and researchers. By contrast, the expectations of direct and indirect mHealth users are not often examined. In preparation for a proposed intervention in the Nouna Health District, in rural Burkina Faso, this study investigates the expected benefits, challenges and limitations associated with mHealth, approaching these expectations as a form of situated knowledge, inseparable from local conditions, practices and experiences. The study was conducted within the Nouna Health District. We used a qualitative approach, and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included healthcare workers (n = 19), godmothers (n = 24), pregnant women (n = 19), women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 33), and women of childbearing age (n = 92). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Participants expect mHealth to help retrieve patients lost to follow-up, improve maternal care monitoring, and build stronger relationships between pregnant women and primary health centres. Expected benefits are not reducible to a technological realisation (sending messages), but rather point towards a wider network of support. mHealth implementation is expected to present considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organisational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. mHealth is also expected to come with intrinsic limitations, to be found as obstacles to maternal care access with which pregnant women are confronted and on which mHealth is not expected to have any significant impact. mHealth expectations appear as situated knowledges, inseparable from local health-related experiences, practices and constraints. This problematises universalistic approaches to mHealth knowledge, while nevertheless hinting at

  12. Major incidents in rural areas: managing a pandemic A/H1N1/2009 cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Garman, Elaine; McMenamin, Jim; McCormick, Duncan; Oates, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic Influenza (A/H1N1/2009) caused worldwide concern because of its potential to spread rapidly in human populations. In Scotland, Government policy had been to seek to contain the spread of the virus for as long as possible in order to allow time for service preparations, and for vaccine development and supply. The first major Scottish outbreak of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 was in the rural area of Cowal and Bute. After two initial cases were identified, contact tracing found a cluster of cases associated with a football supporters' bus. Within 3 weeks, 130 cases had been identified in the area. Rapid provision of treatment doses of anti-viral medication to cases and prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic close contacts, advice on self-isolation and, where required, interruption of transmission by temporary school closure, were successful in containing the outbreak. Pre-existing Major Incident and Pandemic Flu plans were used and adapted to the particular circumstances of the outbreak and the area. Supporting operational decision-making as close to the cases as possible allowed for speed and flexibility of response. Contact tracing and tracking of cases and results was performed by specialist public health staff who were geographically removed from the cases. This was possible because of effective use of existing telephone conferencing facilities, clarity of roles, and frequent communication among staff working on all areas of the response. Basing the work on established plans, staff experience of rural areas and rural service provision was successful.

  13. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  15. Organizational climate and employee mental health outcomes: A systematic review of studies in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.

  16. Drug susceptibility of influenza A/H3N2 strains co-circulating during 2009 influenza pandemic: first report from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi J; Kothari, Sweta T; Shinde, Pramod S; Chintakrindi, Anand S; Meharunkar, Rhuta; Warke, Rajas V; Kanyalkar, Meena A; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Deshmukh, Ranjana A

    2015-01-01

    From its first instance in 1977, resistance to amantadine, a matrix (M2) inhibitor has been increasing among influenza A/H3N2, thus propelling the use of oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor as a next line drug. Information on drug susceptibility to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza A/H3N2 viruses in India is limited with no published data from Mumbai. This study aimed at examining the sensitivity to M2 and NA inhibitors of influenza A/H3N2 strains isolated from 2009 to 2011 in Mumbai. Nasopharyngeal swabs positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus were inoculated on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line for virus isolation. Molecular analysis of NA and M2 genes was used to detect known mutations contributing to resistance. Resistance to neuraminidase was assayed using a commercially available chemiluminescence based NA-Star assay kit. Genotypically, all isolates were observed to harbor mutations known to confer resistance to amantadine. However, no know mutations conferring resistance to NA inhibitors were detected. The mean IC50 value for oseltamivir was 0.25 nM. One strain with reduced susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitor (IC₅₀=4.08 nM) was isolated from a patient who had received oseltamivir treatment. Phylogenetic analysis postulate the emergence of amantadine resistance in Mumbai may be due to genetic reassortment with the strains circulating in Asia and North America. Surveillance of drug susceptibility helped us to identify an isolate with reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. Therefore, we infer that such surveillance would help in understanding possible trends underlying the emergence of resistant variants in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of travel-associated respiratory tract infections in travelers returning from countries affected by pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Boutolleau, David; Grandsire, Eric; Kofman, Tomek; Deback, Claire; Aït-Arkoub, Zaïna; Bricaire, François; Agut, Henri; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Although acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) have been recognized as a significant cause of illness in returning travelers, few studies have specifically evaluated the etiologies of RTI in this population. This prospective investigation evaluated travelers returning from countries with endemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009, and who were seen in our department at the onset of the outbreak (April-July 2009). Patients were included if they presented with signs of RTI that occurred during travel or less than 7 days after return from overseas travel. Patients were evaluated for microbial agents with RespiFinder plus assay, and throat culture according to clinical presentation. A total of 113 travelers (M/F ratio 1.2:1; mean age 39 y) were included. They were mainly tourists (n = 50; 44.2%) mostly returning from North America (n = 65; 58%) and Mexico (n = 21; 18.5%). The median duration of travel was 23 days (range 2-540 d). The median lag time between return and onset of illness was 0.2 days (range 10 d prior to 7 d after). The main clinical presentation of RTI was influenza-like illness (n = 76; 67.3%). Among the 99 microbiologically evaluated patients, a pathogen was found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or throat culture in 65 patients (65.6%). The main etiological agents were influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (18%), influenza viruses (14%), and rhinovirus (20%). A univariate analysis was unable to show variables associated with influenza A(H1N1) 2009, whereas rhinorrhea was associated with viruses other than influenza (p = 0.04). Despite the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic, rhinovirus and other influenza viruses were also frequent causes of RTI in overseas travelers. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and nasopharyngeal swab cultures are useful diagnostic tools for evaluating travelers with RTI. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ovrevik, Johan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Mollerup, Steen [Section for Toxicology, National Institute of Occupational Health, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Asare, Nana [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Longhin, Eleonora [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Dahlman, Hans-Jorgen [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Camatini, Marina [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Centre Research POLARIS, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Holme, Jorn A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} PM2.5 induces mitotic arrest in BEAS-2B cells. {yields} PM2.5 induces DNA damage and activates DNA damage response. {yields} AhR regulated genes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and AhRR) are upregulated after PM exposure. {yields} Mitotic spindle assembly is perturbed in PM exposed cells. - Abstract: Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in 'classical' apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  19. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  20. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables and fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.; Koeman, J.; Denison, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

  1. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables, and fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.; Koeman, J.H.; Denison, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

  2. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries, hosts and ... features are important for planning control measures between countries and to ... in humans, infections in pigs earlier reported in America, Europe and Asia were ...

  3. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic : An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  4. Influenza AH1N2 Viruses, United Kingdom, 2001?02 Influenza Season

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Joanna S.; Alvarez-Aguero, Adriana; Gregory, Vicky; Lin, Yi Pu; Hay, A.; Zambon, Maria C.

    2003-01-01

    During the winter of 2001?02, influenza AH1N2 viruses were detected for the first time in humans in the U.K. The H1N2 viruses co-circulated with H3N2 viruses and a very small number of H1N1 viruses and were isolated in the community and hospitalized patients, predominantly from children

  5. 'Urf / 'Adah (Custom) : An Ancillary Mechanism in Shari'ah | Salisu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the legal maxim in Islamic legislative system, custom ('Urf / 'Adah) is said to be authoritative (al-'adah Muhakkamah). Thus, right from the inception of Islam, it has been playing a decisive role in the dispensation of Shari'ah. Indeed, medieval and modern works in Islamic jurisprudence ('Usul al-Fiqh) are replete ...

  6. Influenza A(H9N2) Virus, Myanmar, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Thant Nyi; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Bunpapong, Napawan; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Mon, Pont Pont; Mon, Hla Hla; Oo, Kyaw Naing; Oo, Sandi Myint; Mar Win, Mar; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    Routine surveillance of influenza A virus was conducted in Myanmar during 2014-2015. Influenza A(H9N2) virus was isolated in Shan State, upper Myanmar. Whole-genome sequencing showed that H9N2 virus from Myanmar was closely related to H9N2 virus of clade 4.2.5 from China.

  7. Architectuur als beschavingsideaal : Het bezield modernisme van A.H. Wegerif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture as civilizing ideal - The inspired modernism of A.H. Wegerif Ahazuerus Hendrikus (Henk) Wegerif was born in Apeldoorn on 13th of April 1888, the son of Gerrit Wegerif and Elsje Breman. Both his father and grandfather were building contractors, as was his paternal uncle, Chris Wegerif.

  8. Syari’ah, Fiqih dan Sebuah Perspektif tentang Tarjîh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes into account the very fact that Syari’ah has been a subject of controversy over centuries. Its interpretation in the form of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence is a strong indication that Syari’ah is not immune from personal subjectivication. Fiqh is quite personal whereby a jurist would read the message of Syari’ah and attempt to give his personal and subjective interpretation of it. Nonetheless, the paper is also of the argument that this controversy is in itself a source of the dynamics of Syari’ah. It is due to this controversy–otherwise known as the legal dispute- that fiqh is capable of being developed over times. Some substances of fiqh are responses to the opposing views on some issues. Not less important than this is to delve into the factors that triggered such controversy and dispute. The paper speaks of three factors, namely the nature of subject-matter, the way the jurists interpret it, and the social circumstances that surround the jurists and help shape their way of thinking. The first is epistemological, the second methodological, whereas the third to sociological. The three factors are inter-related and form as it were the comprehensive legal products which the Muslims currently inherited. The Tarjih in the meantime, is a form of a legal product, which serves both as a social and intellectual modality for the Muslims in their daily lives.

  9. Outdoor Long-Range WLANs : A Lesson for IEEE 802.11ah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, Stefan; Venkatesha Prasad, R.; Niemegeers, Ignas G M M

    2015-01-01

    Several service applications have been reported by many who proposed the use of wireless LANs (WLANs) over a wide variety of outdoor deployments. In particular, the upcoming IEEE 802.11ah WLAN protocol will enable a longer transmission range between WLAN access points (APs) and stations (STAs) up to

  10. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  11. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  12. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign.

  13. Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.

  14. REINTERPRETASI PRINSIP KAFĀ’AH SEBAGAI NILAI DASAR DALAM POLA RELASI SUAMI ISTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Jahroh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of domestic violence that occurs in marriage is due to the absence of equality or what is often called kafa>’ah in the fiqh al-muna>kah}ah between the prospective husband and wife. In this case the position of husband to wife is not equal, either in economic, social, education, culture, race/ethnicity, ancestry or religious level. Husband’s position which is not equivalent (as kufu>’ with his wife or vice versa, often triggers dispute between the two. Ongoing dispute, then followed by hurting words, beatings or physical abuse, irresponsible behavior, don’t meet the economic or biological needs, marry again, and even can also lead to a sadistic action or killing. In this perspective the author considers that if the value embodied in the kafa>‘ah concept is understood correctly and properly, it’ll actually give a positive chance to prevent domestic violence crime especially in the context of the relationship between husband and wife. [Gejala Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT yang terjadi dalam perkawinan, salah satunya disebabkan tidak adanya kesetaraan atau yang sering disebut dalam fiqh al-munâkahah dengan istilah kafa>’ah antara calon suami dengan calon istri. Dalam hal ini posisi suami dengan istri yang tidak setara, baik setara secara ekonomi, sosial, pendidikan, kultur, ras/suku, keturunan maupun tingkat keberagamaan. Posisi suami yang tidak setara (se-kufu’ dengan istrinya ataupun sebaliknya, sering kali memicu perselisihan di antara keduanya. Perselisihan yang terus-menerus, kemudian diiringi dengan kata-kata yang menyakitkan, tindak pemukulan atau penganiayaan fisik, perilaku yang tidak bertanggung jawab, tidak memenuhi kebutuhan ekonomis atau biologis, kawin lagi, bahkan dapat pula menjurus pada tindakan sadisme dengan menyengsarakan atau menghilangkan nyawa. Dalam perspektif inilah penulis memandang bahwa nilai yang terkandung dalam konsep kafa>’ah jika dipahami dengan tepat dan benar sebenarnya berpeluang

  15. MENGGAGAS PAYUNG HUKUM BAITUL MAAL WATTANWIL (BMT SEBAGAI KOPERASI SYARI’AH DALAM BINGKAI IUS CONSTITUENDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfa Murdiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baitul Maal Wat Tanwil (BMT merupakan lembaga keuangan mikro syari’ah yang secara faktual telah memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap berlangsungnya pembangunan ekonomi di Indonesia. BMT sebagai koperasi syari’ah berada di bawah naungan Dinas Koperasi, konsekuensinya , segala aktivitas keuangan yang terjadi dilindungi oleh kebijakan Undang-undang Koperasi. Namun secara faktual keberadaan UU Koperasi justru belum mampu memberikan dasar hukum yang sesuai dengan praktik BMT yang ada. Oleh karenanya pembentukan aturan hukum yang pasti merupakan hal yang tak bisa ditunda lagi mengingat keberadaan BMT kian tumbuh dan semakin berkembang baik dari aspek jumlah maupun permodalannya. Dengan dibatalkannya UU Koperasi No.17 Tahun 2012 maka perlu bagi BMT memiliki aturan hukum tersendiri sebagai payung hukum bagi aktivitas BMT sebab Koperasi dan BMT (yang disejajarkan dengan Koperasi Syari’ah berbeda secara operasional dan prinsip. Oleh karenanya pembentukan Undang-Undang Koperasi Syari’ah sebagai dasar Hukum BMT harus segera dilaksanakan. Dalam rangka pembentukan UU Koperasi Syari’ah dalam kerangka Ius Constituendum  maka hendaknya perlu diperhatikan 3 nilai dasar , nilai dasar tersebut adalah: pertama Nilai Keadilan yang mendasari secara filosofis terbentuknya suatu aturan hukum ( Filosofiche Geltung dimana dasar ini merupakan suatu landasan ideal yang mengandung cita-cita kolektif masyarakat tentang nilai luhur yang  terkandung dalam Pancasila dan UUD 1945. Kedua adalah nilai kemanfaatan yang mendasari secara sosiologis ( soziologische geltung agar hukum memiliki kekuatan berlaku dimasyarakat. Ketika adalah nilai kepastian yang lahir sebagai dasar yuridis suatu aturan hukum( Juridische Geltung, dasar ini terkait dengan  persyaratan formal pembentukan suatu peraturan selanjutnya Landasan politis artinya bahwa keberadaan suatu aturan hukum merupakan suatu upaya menuangkan cita-cita kolektif masyarakat Indonesia dalam suatu aturan hukum melalui

  16. Health visiting assessment--unpacking critical attributes in health visitor needs assessment practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-02-01

    Assessment of family health need is a central feature of health visiting practice in which a range of skills, knowledge and judgements are used. These assessments are pivotal in uncovering need, safeguarding children and in determining levels of health intervention to be offered to children and their families by the health visiting service in the UK. The central focus of this paper is to outline the critical attributes of the basic principles that underpin health visiting assessment practice that emerged as part of a case study enquiry. A case study design informed by a constructivist methodology was used to examine health visitors' professional judgements and use of formal guidelines in identifying health needs and prioritising families requiring extra health visiting support. The main study was conducted in three community Trust case sites in England, UK, with pilot work being undertaken in a fourth site. Fifteen health visitors participated in the main study and data were collected during 56 observed home visits to families receiving extra health visiting support. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with the health visitors, pre- and post-home contacts, while 53 client interviews also took place. The analysis suggests that there are certain fundamental elements associated with the majority of health visitor assessments and these have been termed assessment principles. These characteristics are integral to, and provide the basis upon which health visitors' assessments are conducted and professional judgement is formed. They reflect the basic principles of health visiting assessment practice, which exist despite the constraints and realities of the practice context and can be differentiated from the activity centred methods of assessment processes.

  17. Health Equity Pilot Project Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2017-01-01

    the existing EU inequities in the low prevalence of breastfeeding and high prevalence of obesity mean that their negative consequences disproportionately affect low socioeconomic families. These families are less likely to be upwardly socially mobile and more likely to be unemployed or suffer absenteeism from...... work due to ill health. Strengthening national legislation to curtail marketing of baby food products will give universal protection while helping especially those who are most susceptible to spend their limited financial resources because of sophisticated marketing strategies. Once transferred...

  18. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  19. An eHealth Capabilities Framework for Graduates and Health Professionals: Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Deborah; Keep, Melanie; Janssen, Anna; Spallek, Heiko; Quinn, Deleana; Jones, Aaron; Tseris, Emma; Yeung, Wilson; Togher, Leanne; Solman, Annette; Shaw, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Background The demand for an eHealth-ready and adaptable workforce is placing increasing pressure on universities to deliver eHealth education. At present, eHealth education is largely focused on components of eHealth rather than considering a curriculum-wide approach. Objective This study aimed to develop a framework that could be used to guide health curriculum design based on current evidence, and stakeholder perceptions of eHealth capabilities expected of tertiary health graduates. Methods A 3-phase, mixed-methods approach incorporated the results of a literature review, focus groups, and a Delphi process to develop a framework of eHealth capability statements. Results Participants (N=39) with expertise or experience in eHealth education, practice, or policy provided feedback on the proposed framework, and following the fourth iteration of this process, consensus was achieved. The final framework consisted of 4 higher-level capability statements that describe the learning outcomes expected of university graduates across the domains of (1) digital health technologies, systems, and policies; (2) clinical practice; (3) data analysis and knowledge creation; and (4) technology implementation and codesign. Across the capability statements are 40 performance cues that provide examples of how these capabilities might be demonstrated. Conclusions The results of this study inform a cross-faculty eHealth curriculum that aligns with workforce expectations. There is a need for educational curriculum to reinforce existing eHealth capabilities, adapt existing capabilities to make them transferable to novel eHealth contexts, and introduce new learning opportunities for interactions with technologies within education and practice encounters. As such, the capability framework developed may assist in the application of eHealth by emerging and existing health care professionals. Future research needs to explore the potential for integration of findings into workforce development

  20. [Health literacy of adults in Germany: Findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Susanne; Hoebel, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In today's information society, health literacy (HL) is considered important for health maintenance and disease management. In this context, dealing with health information is fundamental and requires different cognitive and social skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HL levels in the adult population of Germany, and to identify associations with health behaviours and health status. The analyses were based on data from the German Health Update (GEDA) study, a cross-sectional survey of the German-speaking adult population of Germany, which was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. Health literacy was assessed with the short form of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS EU-Q16), along with questions about socio-demographics, health behaviours, and health status. The HLS-EU-Q16 index could be calculated for 4845 respondents. According to the criteria of the HLS-EU-Q16, more than half of the adults had "adequate" HL (55.8 %). Every third person (31.9 %) had "problematic" and almost every eighth person (12.3 %) had "inadequate" HL. We found significant differences in HL by educational level, but no differences in HL by sex and age group. Certain health behaviours were positively associated with health literacy. A low HL level was associated with poorer physical and mental health. The results point to a need for action to improve HL in the adult population. The strengthening of health literacy should not solely aim at the promotion of individual skills, but also give high priority to the development of health-literate settings.

  1. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John; Richardson, Marty; Seed, Paul T; Rudd, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population skills in relation to these. An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified. The proportion of the population above and below these thresholds, and the sociodemographic variables associated with a greater risk of being below the thresholds, were described. Sixty-four health materials were sampled. Two competency thresholds were identified: text (literacy) only, and text + numeracy; 2515/5795 participants (43%) were below the text-only threshold, while 2905/4767 (61%) were below the text + numeracy threshold. Univariable analyses of social determinants of health showed that those groups more at risk of socioeconomic deprivation had higher odds of being below the health literacy competency threshold than those at lower risk of deprivation. Multivariable analysis resulted in some variables becoming non-significant or reduced in effect. Levels of low health literacy mirror those found in other industrialised countries, with a mismatch between the complexity of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  2. A Study on Sources of Health Financing in Nigeria: Implications for Health care Marketers and Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing difficulties in providing qualitative health care services to the public in Nigeria. The development has called for the need to examine ways through which government and other stakeholders resolve these crises in the health sector. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of Government spending to total Health expenditures in Nigeria. This study basically employs secondary data for analysis. The secondary data are provided from the World Bank Development indicators and Internet. The data was analyzed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Statistical technique. The result revealed a strong positive Correlation (r = 0.634 between Government Health Spending and Total Health Spending. This indicates that Government Health Spending constitutes a significant proportion of the Total Health Expenditures in Nigeria; despite complains about inadequate health financing. In conclusion, the Nigerian Health sector would become more vibrant, if the Government and the Private sector are ready to give the necessary commitments required to achieve the laudable objective of qualitative health for all. The study recommends for more Government Health funding towards tackling the prevalence of some chronic diseases such as HIV, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Meningitis and Paralysis, etc.

  3. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in children from three to seventeen years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans C; Abarca, Katia; Rivera, Luis; Lattanzi, Maria; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani; Kieninger-Baum, Dorothee; Della Cioppa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the optimal dose of an MF59-adjuvanted, monovalent, A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy paediatric subjects. Subjects aged 3-8 years (n=194) and 9-17 years (n=160) were randomized to receive two primary doses of A/H1N1 vaccine containing either 3.75 μg antigen with half a standard dose of MF59 adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or (children 3-8 years only), a non-adjuvanted 15 μg formulation. A booster dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine including homologous A/H1N1 strain was given one year after priming. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study (up to 18 months). A single priming dose of either MF59-adjuvanted formulation was sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines (HI titres ≥1:40>70%; seroconversion>40%; and GMR>2.5). Two non-adjuvanted vaccine doses were required to meet the same licensure criteria. After first and second doses, percentage of subjects with HI titres ≥1:40 were between 97% and 100% in the adjuvanted vaccine groups compared with 68% and 91% in the non-adjuvanted group, respectively. Postvaccination seroconversion rates ranged from 91% to 98% in adjuvanted groups and were 68% (first dose) and 98% (second dose) in the non-adjuvanted group. HI titres ≥1:330 after primary doses were achieved in 69% to 90% in adjuvanted groups compared with 41% in the non-adjuvanted group. Long-term antibody persistence after priming and a robust antibody response to booster immunization were observed in all vaccination groups. All A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred, and no subjects were withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine containing 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen was well tolerated and sufficiently immunogenic to meet all the

  5. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An international Delphi study examining health promotion and health education in nursing practice, education and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2008-04-01

    To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto

  7. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  8. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  9. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  10. Comparing mental health literacy and physical health literacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstead, Robert; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis). Participants were also asked to rate their sympathy and estimates of prevalence for each disorder. Recognition of the mental health disorders was superior compared recognition of the physical disorders. Analysis of treatment beliefs, sympathy and prevalence ratings also showed significant differences between disorders. Results highlight the importance of education and the lack of public knowledge regarding major physical health conditions.

  11. 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion rates and risk factors among the general population in Vientiane Capital, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Kieffer

    Full Text Available To assess 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion rates and their determinants within an unvaccinated population in Vientiane Capital, Laos.CoPanFlu Laos, a general population cohort of 807 households and 4,072 participants was established in March 2010. Sociodemographic data, epidemiological data, and capillary blood samples were collected from all the household members in March, and again in October 2010, in order to assess the level of antibodies to 2009 A(H1N1 with the haemagglutination inhibition assay. 2009 A(H1N1 seroconversion was defined as a fourfold or greater increase in titre between inclusion and follow-up. Determinants for pandemic influenza infection were studied using the generalized estimating equations model, taking household clustering into account.Between March and November 2010, 3,524 paired sera were tested. Prior to the pandemic, our cohort was almost completely vaccine-naive for seasonal influenza. The overall seroconversion rate among nonvaccinated individuals (n = 2,810 was 14.3% (95%CI [13.0, 15.6], with the highest rate for participants under 20 yo (19.8%, 95%CI [17.4, 22.4] and the lowest rate for participants over 60 yo (6.5%, 95%CI [3.7, 10.4]. Participants with lower baseline titres had significantly higher infection rates, with a dose-effect relationship. Odds ratios (ORs ranged from 76.5 (95%CI [27.1, 215.8], for those with a titre at inclusion of 1∶10, to 8.1 (95%CI [3.3, 20.4], for those with a titre of 1∶40. Having another household member with a titre ≥1∶80 was associated with a higher likelihood of immunity (OR = 3.3, 95%CI [2.8, 3.9].The determinants and age distribution for seroconversion within a vaccine-naive population were similar to those found in developed countries. This pandemic was characterized by strong epidemiological determinants, regardless of geographical zone and level of development. Moreover, we detected pre-existing cross-reacting antibodies in participants over 60 yo, which could

  12. Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango, Yessenia M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits. We assessed the association between diet and the risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed colorectal polyps among 2,818 subjects who had undergone colonoscopy. Subjects participated in 2 cohort studies: the AHS-1 in 1976 and the AHS-2 from 2002-2005. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps; 441 cases of colorectal polyps were identified. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of cell-derived MF59®-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della

    2015-01-01

    Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884

  14. The novel human influenza A(H7N9) virus is naturally adapted to efficient growth in human lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Jessica; Schierhorn, Kristina L; Becher, Anne; Budt, Matthias; Tönnies, Mario; Bauer, Torsten T; Schneider, Paul; Neudecker, Jens; Rückert, Jens C; Gruber, Achim D; Suttorp, Norbert; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Hocke, Andreas C; Wolff, Thorsten

    2013-10-08

    A novel influenza A virus (IAV) of the H7N9 subtype has been isolated from severely diseased patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome and, apparently, from healthy poultry in March 2013 in Eastern China. We evaluated replication, tropism, and cytokine induction of the A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus isolated from a fatal human infection and two low-pathogenic avian H7 subtype viruses in a human lung organ culture system mimicking infection of the lower respiratory tract. The A(H7N9) patient isolate replicated similarly well as a seasonal IAV in explanted human lung tissue, whereas avian H7 subtype viruses propagated poorly. Interestingly, the avian H7 strains provoked a strong antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) response, whereas the A(H7N9) virus induced only low IFN levels. Nevertheless, all viruses analyzed were detected predominantly in type II pneumocytes, indicating that the A(H7N9) virus does not differ in its cellular tropism from other avian or human influenza viruses. Tissue culture-based studies suggested that the low induction of the IFN-β promoter correlated with an efficient suppression by the viral NS1 protein. These findings demonstrate that the zoonotic A(H7N9) virus is unusually well adapted to efficient propagation in human alveolar tissue, which most likely contributes to the severity of lower respiratory tract disease seen in many patients. Humans are usually not infected by avian influenza A viruses (IAV), but this large group of viruses contributes to the emergence of human pandemic strains. Transmission of virulent avian IAV to humans is therefore an alarming event that requires assessment of the biology as well as pathogenic and pandemic potentials of the viruses in clinically relevant models. Here, we demonstrate that an early virus isolate from the recent A(H7N9) outbreak in Eastern China replicated as efficiently as human-adapted IAV in explanted human lung tissue, whereas avian H7 subtype viruses were unable to

  15. Lessons from pandemic influenza A(H1N1): the research-based vaccine industry's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelin, Atika; Colegate, Tony; Gardner, Stephen; Hehme, Norbert; Palache, Abraham

    2011-02-01

    As A(H1N1) influenza enters the post-pandemic phase, health authorities around the world are reviewing the response to the pandemic. To ensure this process enhances future preparations, it is essential that perspectives are included from all relevant stakeholders, including vaccine manufacturers. This paper outlines the contribution of R&D-based influenza vaccine producers to the pandemic response, and explores lessons that can be learned to improve future preparedness. The emergence of 2009 A(H1N1) influenza led to unprecedented collaboration between global health authorities, scientists and manufacturers, resulting in the most comprehensive pandemic response ever undertaken, with a number of vaccines approved for use three months after the pandemic declaration. This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade. During this period, manufacturers greatly increased influenza vaccine production capacity, and estimates suggest a further doubling of capacity by 2014. Producers also introduced cell-culture technology, while adjuvant and whole virion technologies significantly reduced pandemic vaccine antigen content. This substantially increased pandemic vaccine production capacity, which in July 2009 WHO estimated reached 4.9 billion doses per annum. Manufacturers also worked with health authorities to establish risk management plans for robust vaccine surveillance during the pandemic. Individual producers pledged significant donations of vaccine doses and tiered-pricing approaches for developing country supply. Based on the pandemic experience, a number of improvements would strengthen future preparedness. Technical improvements to rapidly select optimal vaccine viruses, and processes to speed up vaccine standardization, could accelerate and extend vaccine availability. Establishing vaccine supply agreements beforehand would avoid the need for complex discussions during a period of intense time pressure. Enhancing

  16. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  17. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth

  18. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  19. Health and productivity as a business strategy: a multiemployer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ronald; Taitel, Michael; Haufle, Vince; Parry, Thomas; Kessler, Ronald C; Jinnett, Kimberly

    2009-04-01

    To explore methodological refinements in measuring health-related lost productivity and to assess the business implications of a full-cost approach to managing health. Health-related lost productivity was measured among 10 employers with a total of 51,648 employee respondents using the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire combined with 1,134,281 medical and pharmacy claims. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of health conditions with absenteeism and presenteeism using a range of models. Health-related productivity costs are significantly greater than medical and pharmacy costs alone (on average 2.3 to 1). Chronic conditions such as depression/anxiety, obesity, arthritis, and back/neck pain are especially important causes of productivity loss. Comorbidities have significant non-additive effects on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Executives/Managers experience as much or more monetized productivity loss from depression and back pain as Laborers/Operators. Testimonials are reported from participating companies on how the study helped shape their corporate health strategies. A strong link exists between health and productivity. Integrating productivity data with health data can help employers develop effective workplace health human capital investment strategies. More research is needed to understand the impacts of comorbidity and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of health and productivity interventions from an employer perspective.

  20. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  1. World Health Organization Member States and Open Health Data: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Greenberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Open health data has implications for clinical care, research, public health, and health policy at regional, national, and global levels. No published attempts have been made to determine, collectively, whether WHO member states and governments have embraced the promise and effort required to officially share open health data. The observational study will provide evidence that World Health Organization (WHO member states individually and collectively have adopted open data recommended principles, providing access to open health data. Methods Using the WHO list of member states (n=194, the researchers identified the presence of open health data or initiatives. With each country, the following types of official government web pages were recorded: a Ministry of Health web page; a conspicuous link on a government web page to open health data; additional government health web sites; national government-sponsored open data repositories; unique attributes of national health data web sites; and adherence to the principles of open government data for health. A supplemental PDF file provides a representation of data used for analysis and observations. Our complete data is available at: https://goo.gl/Kwj7mb Observations and Discussion Open health data is easily discoverable in less than one-third of the WHO member states. 13 nations demonstrate the principle to provide comprehensive open data. Only 16 nations distribute primary, non-aggregated health data. 24 % of the WHO observed member states are providing some health data in a non-proprietary formats such as comma-separated values. The sixth, seventh, and eighth open government data principles for health, representing universal access, non-proprietary formats, and non-patent protection, are observed in about one-third of the WHO member states. While there are examples of organized national open health data, no more than a one-third minority of the world’s nations have portals set up to

  2. Evaluations of health promoting schools: a review of nine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mũkoma, Wanjirũ; Flisher, Alan J

    2004-09-01

    The concept of 'health promoting schools' has been embraced internationally as an effective way of promoting the health of children, adolescents, and the wider school community. It is only recently that attempts have been made to evaluate health promoting schools. This paper reviews evaluations of health promoting schools and draws useful evaluation methodology lessons. The review is confined to school-based interventions that are founded explicitly on the concept of the health promoting school and employ the concept beyond one school domain. We included nine evaluations in this review. Seven of these were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. Two were unpublished reports. One study was a randomized controlled trial, while a quasi-experimental research design with comparison schools was used in three studies. With three exceptions, combinations of quantitative and qualitative data were collected. There was evidence that the health promoting school has some influence on various domains of health for the school community. It is also possible to integrate health promotion into the school curriculum and policies successfully. However, the evaluation of health promoting schools is complex. We discuss some of the methodological challenges of evaluating health promoting schools and make suggestions for improving future evaluations.

  3. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  4. The study of Health Literacy of adults in Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sahrayi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Health literacy represents the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to acquire, access and understand the information to maintain and promote health. This study aimed to assess the health literacy of adults in Karaj. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, 525 subjects aged 18-65 years old were selected using multistage sampling in Karaj. Relevant information was obtained using demographic questionnaire and HELIA questionnaire (18-65 years-old, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS and appropriate tests. Results: The mean age of participants was 33.48 ± 11.39 years old. 48.8% (n=250 the participants were male and 51.2% (n=262 were female. 24.2% (n=124 of the participants had inadequate health literacy, 23.4 % (n=120 not so inadequate health literacy, 37.9 % (n=194 adequate health literacy and 14.5 (n = 74 had higher health literacy. Health literacy was significantly associated with age, gender, marital status, education, BMI, smoking and physical activity (p<0.05. Conclusion: Due to low health literacy and the importance of adult role in society, it is necessary educational programs aimed at improving their health literacy skills , designed and implemented. Paper Type: Research Article.

  5. Media use and communication inequalities in a public health emergency: a case study of 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Jung, Minsoo; McCloud, Rachel F; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that differences among individuals and social groups in accessing and using information on health and specific threats have an impact on their knowledge and behaviors. These differences, characterized as communication inequalities, may hamper the strength of a society's response to a public health emergency. Such inequalities not only make vulnerable populations subject to a disproportionate burden of adversity, but also compromise the public health system's efforts to prevent and respond to pandemic influenza outbreaks. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and health communication behaviors (including barriers) on people's knowledge and misconceptions about pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) and adoption of prevention behaviors. The data for this study came from a survey of 1,569 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults during pH1N1. We conducted logistic regression analyses when appropriate. We found that (1) SES has a significant association with barriers to information access and processing, levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, and misconceptions; (2) levels of pH1N1-related knowledge are associated positively with the adoption of recommended prevention measures and negatively with the adoption of incorrect protective behaviors; and (3) people with higher SES, higher news exposure, and higher levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, as well as those who actively seek information, are less likely than their counterparts to adopt incorrect prevention behaviors. Strategic public health communication efforts in public health preparedness and during emergencies should take into account potential communication inequalities and develop campaigns that reach across different social groups.

  6. Relative Efficacy of AS03-Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in Children: Results of a Controlled, Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Montellano, May; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Safadi, Marco Aurélio Palazzi; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Litao, Sandra; Lim, Fong Seng; de Los Santos, Abiel Mascareñas; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Mezerville, Marcela Hernandez-de; Faingezicht, Idis; Kosuwon, Pensri; Lopez, Pio; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Fries, Louis; Dubin, Gary; Breuer, Thomas; Innis, Bruce L.; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The vaccine efficacy (VE) of 1 or 2 doses of AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine relative to that of 2 doses of nonadjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in children 6 months to <10 years of age in a multinational study conducted during 2010–2011. Methods. A total of 6145 children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1:1 to receive 2 injections 21 days apart of A/California/7/2009(H1N1)-AS03 vaccine at dose 1 and saline placebo at dose 2, 2 doses 21 days apart of A/California/7/2009(H1N1)-AS03 vaccine (the Ad2 group), or 2 doses 21 days apart of nonadjuvanted A/California/7/2009(H1N1) vaccine (the NAd2 group). Active surveillance for influenza-like illnesses continued from days 14 to 385. Nose and throat samples obtained during influenza-like illnesses were tested for A/California/7/2009(H1N1), using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety were assessed. Results. There were 23 cases of confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection for the primary relative VE analysis. The VE in the Ad2 group relative to that in the NAd2 group was 76.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.5%–93.4%). The benefit of the AS03 adjuvant was demonstrated in terms of the greater immunogenicity observed in the Ad2 group, compared with the NAd2 group. Conclusion. The 4–8-fold antigen-sparing adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine demonstrated superior and clinically important prevention of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, compared with nonadjuvanted vaccine, with no observed increase in medically attended or serious adverse events. These data support the use of adjuvanted influenza vaccines during influenza pandemics. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01051661. PMID:24652494

  7. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  8. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Miklas

    2009-01-01

    This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  9. Point systems in Games for Health: A bibliometric scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Very few details about point systems used in games for health are reported in scientific literature. To shed some light on this topic a bibliometric study, analyzing the papers containing terms related to games for health and point systems was performed and a mini taxonomy was derived. The search string game* AND health AND (point* OR score) AND system* in a Scopus bibliographic database was used to produce the corpus. We limited the search to articles, reviews and conference papers written i...

  10. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran.

  11. ITE Suppresses Angiogenic Responses in Human Artery and Vein Endothelial Cells: Differential Roles of AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Zou, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Zhou, Chi; Zheng, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor is involved in regulation of many essential biological processes including vascular development and angiogenesis. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an AhR ligand, which regulates immune responses and cancer cell growth. However, the roles of the ITE/AhR pathway in mediating placental angiogenesis remains elusive. Here, we determined if ITE affected placental angiogenic responses via AhR in human umbilical vein (HUVECs) and artery endothelial (HUAECs) cells in vitro. We observed that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation and viability of HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas it inhibited migration of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. While AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression in HUVECs and HUAECs, it attenuated the ITE-inhibited angiogenic responses of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. Collectively, ITE suppressed angiogenic responses of HUAECs and HUVECs, dependent and independent of AhR, respectively. These data suggest that ITE may regulate placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel avian-origin human influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between ferrets via respiratory droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Dong, Libo; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Yuan, Jing; Xiang, Zhiguang; Gao, Kai; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Jiangning; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xiang; Lan, Yu; Guo, Junfeng; Yong, Weidong; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-02-15

    The outbreak of human infections caused by novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) in China since March 2013 underscores the need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmissibility of these viruses in mammals. In a ferret model, the pathogenicity of influenza A(H7N9) was found to be less than that of an influenza A(H5N1) strain but comparable to that of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), based on the clinical signs, mortality, virus dissemination, and results of histopathologic analyses. Influenza A(H7N9) could replicate in the upper and lower respiratory tract, the heart, the liver, and the olfactory bulb. It is worth noting that influenza A(H7N9) exhibited a low level of transmission between ferrets via respiratory droplets. There were 4 mutations in the virus isolated from the contact ferret: D678Y in the gene encoding PB2, R157K in the gene encoding hemagglutinin (H3 numbering), I109T in the gene encoding nucleoprotein, and T10I in the gene encoding neuraminidase. These data emphasized that avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) can be transmitted between mammals, highlighting its potential for human-to-human transmissibility.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  14. The Distribution of Health Services in Iran Health Care System: A Case Study at East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor-khangah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary that various aspects of health information and statistics are identified and measured since health problems are getting more complex day by day. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the distribution of health services in the health care system in Iran and the case of study is East Azerbaijan province. Methods: This research was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all health service providers in East Azerbaijan Province in the public, private, charity, military, social security, and NGO sectors. In this study, the data from all functional health sectors, including hospitals, health centers, and clinical, rehabilitation centers and all clinics and private offices were studied during 2014. The data relevant to performance were collected according to a pre-determined format (researcher- built checklist which was approved by five professionals and experts Health Services Management (content validity. Results: The study findings showed that the public sector by 45.28% accounted for the highest share of provided services and the private sector, social security, military institutions, charities and NGOs institutions by 25.47%, 18.92%, 4.37%, 3.3%, and 2.66% next rank in providing health services in East Azerbaijan province have been allocated. Conclusion: The results show that most of the health services in East Azerbaijan Province belongs to the public sector and the private sector has managed to develop its services in some parts surpassed the public sector. According to the study findings, Policies should be aimed to create balance and harmony in the provision of services among all service providers.

  15. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  16. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  17. Applying the health action process approach (HAPA) to the choice of health products: An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to uncovering Danish consumers' motives for choosing health food. Schwarzer's (1992) health action process approach (HAPA) was applied to understand the process by which people chose health products. The research focused...... on the role of the behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The model has been proved to be a useful framework for understanding consumer choosing health food and is substantial in the further application of dietary choice issues....

  18. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  19. R-2000 home health study : Homeowner health in R-2000 and new conventional homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, A.

    2002-01-01

    A field study was conducted by Health Canada and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to evaluate self-reported health symptoms by residents of R-2000 and conventional homes in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It involved 52 energy efficient R-2000 and 50 conventionally built houses. Health Canada collected and analyz