Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana
The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet
This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…
Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar
Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and/or fibromyalgia (FM or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n= 59 101 to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6% and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%, respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4% of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking. After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research.
Grossbard, Joel R; Lehavot, Keren; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew; Seal, Karen H; Simpson, Tracy L
Although many risk behaviors peak during young adulthood, little is known about health risk factors and access to care. This study assessed health indicators and health care access in a national sample of young adult veterans and civilians. Data were from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national telephone survey. Of 27,471 participants, ages 19-30 years, 2.2% were veterans (74.6% were male) and 97.7% were civilians (37.6% were male). Gender-stratified comparisons assessed health indicators and health care access by veteran status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine health indicators and health care access as a function of gender and veteran status. In the overall sample, women were more likely than men to have insurance, to have a regular physician, and to have had a routine checkup and yet were more likely to report financial barriers to care. Women also were more likely than men to report general medical and mental distress and higher lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders, whereas men were more likely to be overweight or obese and to report tobacco use and high-risk drinking. Adjusted analyses revealed a higher likelihood of general medical distress and higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders among veterans compared with civilians, although there were no differences between veterans and civilians regarding health care utilization and hazardous drinking. Findings extend the literature on health care status and modifiable risk factors for young adults by identifying differences between men and women and between veterans and civilians. Interventions may need to be tailored on the bases of gender and veteran status because of several differences in mental health and general health needs.
Huergo, Juliana; Casabona, Eugenia Lourdes
This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling) and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.
Full Text Available This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.
Andressa Ribeiro Contreira
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship among motor performance and nutritional status in students. Methods: Attended by 27 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 11-13 years (average 11.74 ± 0.70 years from a private school in Florianópolis/SC. The motor performance was assessed using the MABC-2. For assess the nutritional status was used the BMI calculus. Results: Among 27 participants, 6 had a risk / indicative of motor difficulties and 9 had overweight. The vast majority of participants had adequate height for age. There was negative significant statistically correlation, but moderate, among BMI and total performance in the MABC-2, indicating that as higher the BMI, worse is the motor performance. Conclusion: Based on these results and the literature, it is suggested that in addition to the identification of children with overweight and motor difficulties, programs targeted physical activity and motor interventions are implemented, especially in the school environment, aiming to maintain the health conditions.
Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D
To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. 1,806,932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable consumption (r= -0.672, p=0.001) and excess alcohol
Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E
despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James
To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sousa, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Benavides, Fernando G; Schenker, Marc; García, Ana M; Benach, Joan; Delclos, Carlos; López-Jacob, María José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria
To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008-2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental health (MH) were analyzed via logistical regression. When compared with male permanently contracted Spanish-born workers, worse health is seen in undocumented foreign-born, time in Spain ≤3 years (SRH aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.09-6.56; MH aOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15-4.42); in Spanish-born, temporary contracts (SRH aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.04-5.53); and in foreign-born, temporary contracts, time in Spain >3 years (MH: aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.13-3.38). In females, highest self-rated health risks are in foreign-born, temporary contracts (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.91) and without contracts, time in Spain >3 years (aOR 4.63, 95% CI 1.95-10.97). Contract type is a health determinant in both foreign-born and Spanish-born workers. This study offers an uncommon exploration of undocumented migration and raises methodological issues to consider in future research.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether increase in proportion of the rumen undegradable starch (RUS and rumen undegradable protein (RUP affects the production performance and health status of calves. The experiment was done on 36 Holstein, seven-day-old calves, divided into three groups of 12 calves, with equal sex ratio. The experiment was conducted in two periods. In the first period, calves were fed with full pasteurized milk and milk replacer and additionally fed with starter mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 36.6% RUP and 16.5% RUS, Group II 49.1% RUP and 27.6% RUS and Group III 53.5% RUP and 36.5% RUS. In the second period, calves were fed with milk replacer and grower mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 33.5% RUP and 15.8% RUS, Group II 48% RUP and 26.3% RUS and Group III 54.3% RUP and 34.6% RUS. In the first period, calves from the Group III had significantly (P<0.01 higher body weight compared to calves in Group I and II (74.75; 59.36; 66.58 kg, as well as daily weight gain (0.76, 0.49, 0.61 kg/d. At the end of the experiment, there was no significant difference in body weight and daily weight gain. The calves in Group I and III had significantly (P<0.05 higher consumption of starter mixture compared to the calves in Group II (7.48; 7.11; 4.33 kg/d, and a significantly (P<0.05 higher overall feed consumption compared to the calves in Group II. The calves in Group II and III had significantly (P<0.05 better feed conversion ratio than the calves in Group I (1.37; 1.50; 2.08 kg/kg. The results of health monitoring (diarrhea, pneumonia indicate a different proportion of rumen undegradable starch and protein ratio did not have significant effect on calves’ health.
SANTOS, C. A. dos; KRAWULSKI, C. C.; BINI, D.; GOULART FILHO, T.; KNOB, A.; MEDINA, C. C.; ANDRADE FILHO, G.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.
Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...
Christopher William Woodall; Michael C. Amacher; William A. Bechtold; John W. Coulston; Sarah Jovan; Charles H. Perry; KaDonna C. Randolph; Beth K. Schulz; Gretchen C. Smith; Susan. Will-Wolf
For two decades, the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, has been charged with implementing a nationwide field-based forest health monitoring effort. Given its extensive nature, the monitoring program has been gradually implemented across forest health indicators and inventoried states. Currently, the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis...
Mišurec, J.; Kopáčková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Hanuš, Jan; Weyermann, J.; Entcheva-Campbel, P.; Albrechtová, J.
Roč. 6, JUN 2012 (2012), 63545-1-63545-25 ISSN 1931-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll * optical indices * Norway spruce * continuum removal * HyMap * actual physiological status * Sokolov basin * forest management Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2012
Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now,
We now know that efficient public policies for cancer control need to be global and take into account each and all the factors involved: economics and level of development, style of life and risk factors, access to screening, effectiveness of the care-providing system. A very simple scorecard is proposed, based on publicized public health indicators, which allows a comparison between European countries. We extracted 49 indicators from public databases and literature concerning 22 European countries. We made correlation calculations in order to identify relevant indicators from which a global score was extracted. Using a hierarchical clustering method we were then able to identify subsets of homogeneous countries. A 7 indicator scorecard was drawn up: national gross product, scientific production, smoking rate, breast screening participating rate, all cancer mortality rate (male population), 5 years relative survival for colorectal cancer and life expectancy at birth. A global score shows: 1) the better positioned countries: Switzerland, Sweden, Finland and France; 2) the countries where cancer control is less effective: Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Three subsets of countries with a fairly similar profile were identified: a high level of means and results group; a high level of means but a medium level of results group; and a low level of means and results group. This work emphasizes dramatically heterogeneous situations between countries. A follow-up, using a reduced but regularly updated set of public health indicators, would help induce an active European policy for cancer control.
Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos
Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.
Lu, Hai-Xia; Wong, May Chun Mei; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman
Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.
Rondon, Edilaura Nunes; Silva, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da; Botelho, Clovis
To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their association with sociodemographic variables and with the characteristics of the work environment. A cross-sectional study comprising 464 workers employed at ceramics manufacturing facilities located in the city of Várzea Grande, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising questions regarding sociodemographic variables, work environment characteristics, and respiratory symptoms. Data were analyzed by means of prevalence ratios and their respective 95% CIs between the dependent variable (respiratory symptoms) and the other explanatory variables. In the multivariate analysis, two hierarchical models were built, the response variables being "all respiratory symptoms" and "severe respiratory symptoms". In the sample studied, the prevalence of "all respiratory symptoms" was 78%, whereas that of "severe respiratory symptoms" was 35%. The factors associated with "all respiratory symptoms" were gender, age bracket, level of education, type of occupation, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. The factors associated with "severe respiratory symptoms" were level of education, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. Our results indicate the presence of upper and lower airway disease in the population studied.
Blosnich, John R; Gordon, Adam J; Fine, Michael J
To assess the associations of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning sexual orientation or transgender status (LGBTQ) and military experience with health indicators. We used data from the Fall 2012 National College Health Assessment. The survey included self-identified sociodemographic characteristics, mental (e.g., depression) and physical (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus) conditions, health risk behaviors (e.g., smoking), and social stressors (e.g., victimization). We used modified Poisson regression models, stratified by self-reported military service, to examine LGBTQ-related differences in health indicators, whereas adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 27,176 in the sample, among the military-experienced group, LGBTQ individuals had increased adjusted risks of reporting a past-year suicide attempt (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.67), human immunodeficiency virus (aRR = 9.90; 95% CI = 1.04-79.67), and discrimination (aRR = 4.67; 95% CI = 2.05-10.66) than their non-LGBTQ peers. Among LGBTQ individuals, military experience was associated with a nearly four-fold increased risk of reporting a past-year suicide attempt (aRR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.46-8.91) adjusting for age, sex, race and ethnicity, marital status, depression, and other psychiatric diagnoses. Military experience may moderate health indicators among LGBTQ populations, and likewise, LGBTQ status likely modifies health conditions among military-experienced populations. Results suggest that agencies serving military populations should assess how and if the health needs of LGBTQ individuals are met. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...
HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian
eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...
Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Alonso, Joaquín Valle; Álvarez, Manuel Vaquero; Orr, Siobhan; Cantarero, Francisco Jesús Llorente
Background: Physical activity (PA) is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF), PA, obesity and academic performance (AP) in primary school children. Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage of fat mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test. Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019), Natural Sciences (P=0.024), Religion (P=0.018) and Physical Education (Plevels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.
This is the second edition of a database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI). It features 49 health indicators, under one cover containing the most recent data available from a variety of national surveys. This information may be used to establish health goals for the population and to offer objective measures of their success. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's socio-economic electronic database and retrieval system, or through a personal computer package which enables the user to retrieve and analyze the 1.2 million data points in the system.
Francisco Javier Fonseca del Pozo
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA is considered one of the most important determinants of the health status in children, and predictor of morbidity/mortality in adults. The aim is to examine the relationship between physical fitness (PF, PA, obesity and academic performance (AP in primary school children Methods: Cross-sectional studies including 91 primary school students, aged 9 to 12 years, from the province of Córdoba. Data was collected from April to June 2014. We measured PF using part of the EUROFIT fitness testing battery. The level of PA was measured as low or high PF and the level of obesity was measured using body mass index, waist circumference, percentage offal mass, lean body mass, percentage of lean mass and basal metabolism. AP by scores on the second quarter was based on the total average of scores of basic subjects and other subjects, including physical education. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Spanish overall and factorial intelligence test.Results: The results of AP were positively related to levels of PF. Students who achieve better PF score better in Maths, (P=0.019, Natural Sciences (P=0.024, Religion (P=0.018 and Physical Education (P<0.001. A direct association between maximal aerobic capacity with Mathematics (r=0.325, P=0.02, AP (r=0.349, P=0.001 and cognitive performance (CP(r=0.312, P=0.003 was observed. There was also a direct association of better jump tests with higher AP (r=0.328, P=0.002.Conclusion: The AP is associated with higher levels of fitness. Therefore, the education system should consider implementing curriculum strategies favouring the improvement of the PF, and therefore the health and AP of students.
Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission was recently awarded a research contract from the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate the levels of micronutrients (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) and pollutants (As, Pb) in health indices (hair, blood, etc.) to study their interactions and impacts on the nutritional status of Bangladeshi population. The project was scheduled to start in December 2001 and to be completed by November 2002. To date, sampling and sample preparation techniques for heavy metal analysis in hair and blood using XRF/PIXE have been investigated, and some preliminary work on sample analysis has been performed. It indicates that both PIXE and XRF methods can be used for the determination of nutritionally important trace metals in health indices after a simple sample treatment for volume reduction either by oven or freeze drying. Results of Biochemical assessment of nutritional status of Bangladeshi pre-school children under normal and malnutrition conditions from a previous study has been given in the Results section of this paper. There has been found a positive correlation of malnutrition with some nutritional parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum total protein, serum total albumin, and serum Cu and Zn levels. Hair Zn level had no significant correlation (p>0.05) with serum Zn level but hair Cu level had a positive correlation with serum Cu level. The trace element concentrations in hair of both normal and malnourished children in the age group of 1-5 years, as studied do not show any regular dependence on nutritional status of the subjects. Only the low copper content in the hair of the malnourished group can possibly be linked with nutritional disorders. (author)
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Christensen, Steen; van Thi, Dang
that might reflect seasonality in shrimp recruitment was found, making this resource potentially suitable for a fishery management system based on closed seasons. Further, the data indicate that the major part of the catches are comprised of low value species belonging to the genera Parapenaeopsis; whereas......Based on catch and effort data analyses covering the period 1996-2002, time series of catch rates in the trawl fisheries in the South China Sea along the coasts of Bac Lieu and Ca Mau in South East Vietnam were estimated. The indicators include catch rates for total shrimp catch, five major shrimp...... the most valuable species, i.e. the Penaeus and Metapenaeus catch groups have been significantly depleted during the period investigated. Based on the experiences from the present analysis, recommendations are presented with regard to adjustments of the enumerator data collection programme to fulfil...
O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D
Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.
Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591 Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.
Choi, Y H; Kim, M S; Byon, Y S; Won, J S
This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practitioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonla Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climatization functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows: 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a Cronbach = 0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status; physical health status was the
Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...
Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi
eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...... was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several...
Baron, R.; Mannien, J.; te Velde, S.J.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.
Background: Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview
Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi
This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....
O'Connor, Eibhlis; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.
Recent cross-sectional data suggest that better vitamin K status in young girls (aged 3-16 years) is associated with decreased bone turnover, even though it is not associated with bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum...... percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), as an index of vitamin K status, and BMC and biochemical indices of bone turnover in peri-pubertal Danish girls. This peri-pubertal stage is a dynamic period of bone development, and as such, may represent an important window of opportunity for vitamin K...
Jan 31, 2014 ... High blood pressure and abnormal body mass have been observed to correlate negatively with health status. Of interest in this study, is the impact such health status have on visual function indicated by near point of convergence. In this community based cross sectional study, 250 randomly selected ...
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.
Full Text Available Background. To characterize the health status of children from the antiterrorist operation zone in the east of Ukraine with cardiorheumatologic pathology and to study the indicators of stress-regulating systems was the purpose of our work. Materials and methods. A clinical and instrumental examination was performed in 126 children aged 8–18 years, 92 of them from the anti-terrorist operation zone and 34 immigrant children from the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. The comparison group consisted of 509 children of the same age from the Kharkiv region and Kharkiv. The intensity of stress-realizing systems was determined by the level of cortisol, thiobarbituric acid-active products and diene conjugates in the blood serum, epinephrine and norepinephrine in daily urine. The state of stress-limiting systems was assessed by the content of serotonin, reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the blood and melatonin in daily urine. Results. In the structure of somatic pathology of children and adolescents from zone of military operations in the east of Ukraine, cardiorheumatologic diseases rank second, the first place belongs to diseases of the digestive system. In 34.1 % of children admitted to the institute for the first time, the deterioration of health occurred against the background of psychoemotional stress and lack of conditions for treatment in the main place of residence. In the structure of patients’ complaints, astheno-neurotic ones prevailed, which was significantly more frequent in children of the first group. Also, various psychosomatic disorders, diseases of the digestive system and endocrinopathy were diagnosed most often. The study of stress-regulating systems in children from the anti-terrorist operation zone revealed some differences in the indicators, taking into account the nosology. Thus, patients with cardiovascular pathology had an activation of stress-realizing systems, and
Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari
Conclusions: Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.
Jun 15, 1991 ... and measles is an important preventive health care strategy. I. In southern Africa, recent ... on pr~vious in-depth investigations. The reasons for ..... of the recent M immunisation campaign in Cape Town/ coupled with access to ...
Jun 15, 1991 ... or population classification.3 In this anicle we have end~avou~ed to complement this ... distribution of services parallels this political divide.8. ,9. Department of .... Cape Town City Council Technical Management. Services .... Health, City of Cape Town, for his co-operation; and to Dr Derek. Yach, of the ...
Connop, P J
Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.
Tobollik, Myriam; Kabel, Claudia; Mekel, Odile; Hornberg, Claudia; Plaß, Dietrich
Evidence-based political measures need reliable information about the health status of a population and the determinants affecting health. Here, environment and health indicators can provide helpful additional insights. This article provides an overview of existing indicators in the field of environment and health. There are single indicators and indicator sets describing solely the environment or health as well as some indicators integrating both aspects. The indicator sets cover classical epidemiological indicators but also summary measures of population health, which combine mortality and morbidity as well as simple descriptions of the exposure towards environmental risks. The indicator sets mostly cover water and air quality related aspects. For some of the indicators their influence on health is also presented. Furthermore, environment related health indicators are part of sustainability indicator sets. There are indicators on the international, European, national, and municipal level. All indicator sets aim to support policy-making by advising on measures and setting priorities in the area of environment and health protection. However not all indicators reflect the effect of the environment on health adequately. Therefore, further development of the existing indicators is necessary to reflect current progress (e. g. political needs) and to include new scientific evidence in the field of environment and health. A continuous provision, review, and interpretation of meaningful indicators is required to identify trends and to react to these in order to protect the environment and health. This is necessary to adequately pursue the precautionary principle.
Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie
Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…
Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina
Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES, lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity. Methods The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 999, 38- > =78 yrs. The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > =30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR > =0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders. Results The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth ( Conclusions Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.
Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.
Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…
Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva
The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates
Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A
Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein
Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K
To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies carried out during the last decade have led to a better understanding of the value of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. The present report concentrates on data concerning 0-5-year-old children and examines the indices of weight and height and the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. The need for a reference population as well as for a standard or target is recognized and the advantages and disadvantages of local versus international reference populations...
Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.
Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health
This paper intends to develop health status index among drug abuse prison inmates in Malaysia. A self-admistered questionnaire distributed to 1753 respondents. In this study, to calculate the health status index number of drug abuse inmates, descriptive and factor analyses applied. The data based on 10 indicators of ...
Costello, Rebecca B; Nielsen, Forrest
To update advances in identifying factors affecting magnesium (Mg) status that assist in providing improved evidence-based clinical decision-making for assessing Mg status. Findings from recent cohort studies, small randomized control trials, and multiple meta-analyses reinforce earlier work that serum Mg concentrations, urinary Mg excretion, and Mg dietary intakes are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. These studies indicate that the reference range for serum Mg needs updating, and that individuals with serum Mg in the range of 0.75-0.85 mmol/l and displaying changes in other factors associated with a low Mg status may be Mg deficient. Individuals with serum Mg concentrations below this range most likely are Mg deficient and, above this range, are most likely Mg sufficient. The combined determination of serum Mg concentration, 24-h urinary Mg excretion, and dietary Mg intake is currently the most practical method to obtain a sound assessment of Mg status. The strong correlations of Mg deficiency with increased risk of several chronic diseases, some of which exist as comorbidities, indicate that Mg status should be ascertained in patients presenting such disorder.
Buitendijk, Simone; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Cuttini, Marina; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Bottu, Jean
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of the member states of the European Union to produce the indicators recommended by the PERISTAT project on perinatal health indicators and to provide an overview of fetal and infant health outcomes for these countries according to the information now available.
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.
ecosystem parameters representing policy relevant end points. It is further recommended to identify a specific minimum data set for specific policy relevant end points, to carefully establish baseline values, to improve scientific knowledge on biodiversity and modelling of soil data, and to implement new......Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....
Fernández, E; Alonso, R M; Quer, A; Borrell, C; Benach, J; Alonso, J; Gómez, G
Self-perceived class results from directly questioning subjects about his or her social class. The aim of this investigation was to analyse self-perceived class in relation to other indicator variables of socioeconomic level. Data from the 1994 Catalan Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population of Catalonia was used. We conducted a discriminant analysis to compute the degree of right classification when different socioeconomic variables potentially related to self-perceived class were considered. All subjects who directly answered the questionnaire were included (N = 12,245). With the aim of obtaining the discriminant functions in a group of subjects and to validate it in another one, the subjects were divided into two random samples, containing approximately 75% and 25% of subjects (analysis sample, n = 9,248; and validation sample, n = 2,997). The final function for men and women included level of education, social class (based in occupation) and equivalent income. This function correctly classified 40.9% of the subjects in the analysis sample and 39.2% in the validation sample. Two other functions were selected for men and women separately. In men, the function included level of education, professional category, and family income (39.2% of classification in analysis sample and 37.2% in validation sample). In women, the function (level of education, working status, and equivalent income) correctly classified 40.3% of women in analysis sample whereas the percentage was 38.9% in validation sample. The percentages of right classification were higher for the highest and lowest classes. These results show the utility of a simple variable to self-position within the social scale. Self-perceived class is related to education, income, and working determinants.
Jinabhai, C C; Coovadia, H M; Abdool-Karim, S S
Socio-medical indicators developed by WHO for monitoring progress towards Health-for-All have been adapted to reveal, clearly and objectively, the devastating impact of state planning based on an outmoded immoral and unscientific philosophy of race superiority in South Africa on the health of the disenfranchised majority within the context of social and economic discrimination; Health policy indicators confirm that the government is committed to three options (Bantustans, A New Constitution, and A Health Services Facilities Plan) all of which are inconsistent with the attainment of Health-for-All; Social and economic indicators reveal gross disparities between African, Coloured, Indian, and White living and working conditions; Provision of health care indicators show the overwhelming dominance of high technology curative medical care consuming about 97 percent of the health budget with only minor shifts towards community-based comprehensive care; and Health status indicators illustrate the close nexus between privilege, dispossession and disease with Whites falling prey to health problems related to affluence and lifestyle, while Africans, Coloureds, and Indians suffer from disease due to poverty. All four categories of the indicator system reveal discrepancies which exist between Black and White, rich and poor, urban and rural. To achieve the social goal of Health-for-All requires a greater measure of political commitment from the state. We conclude that it is debatable whether a system which maintains race discrimination and exploitation can in fact be adapted to provide Health-for-All.
Sly, J Leith; Moore, Sophie E; Gore, Fiona; Brune, Marie Noel; Neira, Maria; Jagals, Paul; Sly, Peter D
Adverse environmental exposures in early life increase the risk of chronic disease but do not attract the attention nor receive the public health priority warranted. A safe and healthy environment is essential for children's health and development, yet absent in many countries. A framework that aids in understanding the link between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes are environmental health indicators-numerical estimates of hazards and outcomes that can be applied at a population level. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a set of children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) for physical injuries, insect-borne disease, diarrheal diseases, perinatal diseases, and respiratory diseases; however, uptake of steps necessary to apply these indicators across the WHO regions has been incomplete. A first indication of such uptake is the management of data required to measure CEHI. The present study was undertaken to determine whether Australia has accurate up-to-date, publicly available, and readily accessible data on each CEHI for indigenous and nonindigenous Australian children. Data were not readily accessible for many of the exposure indicators, and much of the available data were not child specific or were only available for Australia's indigenous population. Readily accessible data were available for all but one of the outcome indicators and generally for both indigenous and nonindigenous children. Although Australia regularly collects data on key national indicators of child health, development, and well-being in several domains mostly thought to be of more relevance to Australians and Australian policy makers, these differ substantially from the WHO CEHI. The present study suggests that the majority of these WHO exposure and outcome indicators are relevant and important for monitoring Australian children's environmental health and establishing public health interventions at a local and national level and collection of appropriate
Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline
Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
N. Brouard; J.-M. Robine; E. Cambois
Cambois (Emmanuelle), Robin? (Jean-Marie), Brouard (Nicolas).- Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: A History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation Indicators of life expectancy applied to specific statuses, such as the state of health or professional status, were introduced at the end of the 1930s and are currently the object of renewed interest. Because they relate mortality to different domains (health, professional activity) applied life expectancies reflect simultan...
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.
Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.
Wieringa, Frank T.; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Fiorentino, Marion; Laillou, Arnauld; Berger, Jacques
Zinc deficiency has serious wide-ranging health consequences and is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world. However, reliable indicators or biomarkers to assess zinc status are not available at present. Indirect indicators such as the prevalence of stunting or anemia, iron deficiency, as well as more direct indicators such as plasma zinc concentrations are being used at present to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations. However, as t...
Occupants and housing managers deal with several environmental problems in dwellings. To support the diagnosis of cause and effect and to promote good communication about health hazards, indicators of the relationship between physical properties, occupancy patterns and health risks are needed. The
Proctor, Susan P
.... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.
PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Rahman, M. Omar; Barsky, Arthur J.
Purpose: This study examines the value of self-reported health (SRH) as an indicator of underlying health status in a developing country setting. Design and Methods: Logistic regression methods with adjustments for multistage sampling are used to examine the factors associated with SRH in 2,921 men and women aged 50 and older in rural Bangladesh.…
Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S
To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne
The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined by blood glucose levels. Education, income and paternal occupation were assessed as indicators of socioeconomic status. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of socioeconomic status and diabetes by estimating sex-specific and age-adjusted prevalence ratios and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. To explore the relationship between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and socioeconomic status sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios were computed. We adjusted the alpha-level for multiple testing of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms using Bonferroni's method (α(BF) ~ 0.005). In addition, we explored the association of a genetic risk score with socioeconomic status. Social inequalities in diabetes were observed for all indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there were no significant associations between individual diabetes-related risk alleles and socioeconomic status with odds ratios ranging from 0.87 to 1.23. Similarly, the genetic risk score analysis revealed no evidence for an association. Our data provide no evidence for an association between 11 diabetes-related risk alleles and different indicators of socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort, suggesting that the explored genetic variants do not contribute to health inequalities in diabetes.
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES, poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context. Prenatal depression is an important public health concern with negative sequela for the mother and her children. We use data on assets, education, food insecurity, debt, and depression symptoms from a sample of 1154 pregnant women residing in rural Pakistan. Women who screened positive for depression participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial of a perinatal depression intervention; all women were interviewed October 2015-February 2016, prior to the start of the intervention. Cluster-specific sampling weights were used to approximate a random sample of pregnant women in the area. Findings indicate that fewer assets, experiencing food insecurity, and having household debt are independently associated with worse depression symptoms. The association with assets is linear with no evidence of a threshold effect, supporting the idea of a gradient in the association between levels of SES and depression symptoms. A gradient was also initially observed with woman’s educational attainment, but this association was attenuated once other SES variables were included in the model. Together, the asset, food insecurity, and debt indicators explain 14% of the variance in depression symptoms, more than has been reported in high income country studies. These findings support the use of multiple SES indicators to better elucidate the complex
Hyppönen, Hannele; Ronchi, Elettra; Adler-Milstein, Julia
Health Information Systems (HISs) are expected to have a positive impact on quality and efficiency of health care. Rapid investment in and diffusion of HISs has increased the importance of monitoring the adoption and impacts of them in order to learn from the initiatives, and to provide decision makers evidence on the role of HISs in improving health care. However, reliable and comparable data across initiatives in various countries are rarely available. A four-phase approach is used to compare different HIS indicator methodologies in order to move ahead in defining HIS indicators for monitoring effects of HIS on health care performance. Assessed approaches are strong on different aspects, which provide some opportunities for learning across them but also some challenges. As yet, all of the approaches do not define goals for monitoring formally. Most focus on health care structural and process indicators (HIS availability and intensity of use). However, many approaches are generic in description of HIS functionalities and context as well as their impact mechanisms on health care for HIS benchmarking. The conclusion is that, though structural and process indicators of HIS interventions are prerequisites for monitoring HIS impacts on health care outputs and outcomes, more explicit definition is needed of HIS contexts, goals, functionalities and their impact mechanisms in order to move towards common process and outcome indicators. A bottom-up-approach (participation of users) could improve development and use of context-sensitive HIS indicators.
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine
The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experienc...
Rieber, A.; Tomczak, R.; Nuessle, K.; Brambs, H.J.
Since MRI is being applied as a diagnostic imaging method, there is no other field of application of MRI that has been causing debates and emotions of such controversial nature as has MRI of the breast. Advocates of the method emphasize the fact that MR mammography is capable of detecting carcinomas not shown by all other available methods, and diagnostic findings even permit identification of malignomas with a high accuracy. As a concluding statement of the analysis of the pros and cons it can be said that establishment of a routine diagnostic method offering higher sensitivity and specificity than other available methods, free of radiological risks at that, certainly would be appropriate. Those supporting MR mammography believe that this method is up to all requirements stated. However, financial constraints in the public health sector demand that the range of indications be well defined. (orig./AJ) [de
Background: A good school health programme is necessary to optimize the educational opportunities and make appropriate adjustments for optimal development of the school child. This study was done to determine some haematological parameters as a correlate of health status of new entrants in two mission owned ...
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Frank T. Wieringa
Full Text Available Zinc deficiency has serious wide-ranging health consequences and is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world. However, reliable indicators or biomarkers to assess zinc status are not available at present. Indirect indicators such as the prevalence of stunting or anemia, iron deficiency, as well as more direct indicators such as plasma zinc concentrations are being used at present to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations. However, as this paper shows by using data from a recent national micronutrient survey in Vietnam, the estimates of the prevalence of zinc deficiency using these different indicators can vary widely, leading to inconsistencies. In this paper, zinc deficiency among children is four times more prevalent than iron deficiency and 2.3 times more than stunting prevalence for example. This can lead not only to confusion concerning the real extent of the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations, but also makes it hard to inform policy on whether action is needed or not. Moreover, evaluation of programs is hampered by the lack of a clear indicator. Efforts should be made to identify the most suitable indicator to evaluate the impact of programs aimed at improving zinc status and health of populations.
Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Laura E. Cerón Rincón
define sustainability, in other words, the maintenance of their functions inside the limits of an ecosystem. The health and quality indicators are a set of measurements (physical, chemical and biological properties that pretend to establish quality standards for this resource; the enzymatic activity is placed inside this set because of its close relationship with the other properties and because of its sensibleness to the changes due to handling and use. The present review pretends to illustrate how the tracking of the biological catalysis of the soil through uses and alterations that an ecosystem may suffer, may supply information for the understanding of how the processes responsible for the maintenance of functions such as biomass production, pollutant remediation and cycling of nutrients, suffer changes and if these are positive, negative or iterative.
Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.
Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality
Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C
It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately
Blessing U. Mberu
Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to
De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira
Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.
Iqbal, S.; Qureshi, A.; Iqbal, N.; Khan, A.A.
Diabetes causes numerous oral and salivary changes leading to cariogenic and gingival lesions. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of diabetes mellitus in oral health. A cross-sectional study including 60 diabetic children (case group) and 30 non diabetic children (control group) of age 3-14 years was conducted. HbA1c and blood glucose level was measured along with the oral health including gingival status and dental caries status was visually assessed. Gingival status was coded for healthy, marginal gingivitis and calculus. Dental caries status (decayed and filled) for both deciduous and permanent dentition was assessed. Data was recorded in a pre-coded oral health proforma, which was then entered and analyzed in SPSS version 10.0. Descriptive analysis such as percentage frequencies and means was performed. Exact Chi-square test was used to analyze any significant changes observed amongst the study population, where level of significance was p < 0.05 with confidence interval 95%. The results show important difference between both groups of children. Dental caries level is significantly higher in diabetic children both in deciduous and permanent dentition than in non-diabetic children (p <0.05). Gingival health was also observed to be debilitated in diabetic children than nondiabetic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights that special preventive measures must be adopted to maintain a good oral health of the diabetic children. (author)
Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Lee, Kheng Hock; Low, Lian Leng
It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status. A PubMed and Scopus search was conducted in January 2017 to identify suitable articles published from 1 January 2000 to 31 January 2017. Only studies that were done on Singapore public rental housing communities were included for review. A total of 14 articles including 4 prospective studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies were obtained for the review. Topics addressed by these studies included: (1) Health status; (2) Health seeking behaviour; (3) Healthcare utilisation. Staying in public rental housing was found to be associated with poorer health status and outcomes. They had lower participation in health screening, preferred alternative medicine practitioners to western-trained doctors for primary care, and had increased hospital utilisation. Several studies performed qualitative interviews to explore the causes of disparity and concern about cost was one of the common cited reason. Staying in public rental housing appears to be a risk marker of poorer health and this may have important public health implications. Understanding the causes of disparity will require more qualitative studies which in turn will guide interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness in improving health outcome of this sub-population of patients.
Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.
... chapter looks at some of the ways that climate change is affecting human health and society, including changes in Lyme disease, West ... health effects. Why does it matter? Changes in climate affect the ... to human health and welfare. Warmer average temperatures will likely lead ...
Ferrer, R; Palmer, R
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.
Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…
Rosenberger, J.; van Dijk, J.P.; Nagyova, I.; Roland, R.; Geckova, A.M.; van den Heuvel, W.J.; Groothoff, J.W.
Background. Quality of life and perceived health status (PHS) are important indicators of patient care together with morbidity, mortality and health-care resource utilization. The aim of this study is to explore how various medical conditions might influence perceived health status. Methods. The
Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.
Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian
Results: Generally, 75% production centers had favorable hygienic status and 25% had slightly favorable hygienic status. According to obtained results, hygienic status of production centers had relatively favorable and favorable conditions and only in January and February in 31.3% and 18.8% processing hall and 12.5% product store was in a very favorable hygienic status. The results showed that in terms of environmental health status, 62.5% production centers in raw materials store part, 66.66% in production processing hall, 20.83% in packaging hall, 60.41% in product store and 37.5% in bathrooms had favorable status. Based on the results, hygienic status of bathrooms and processing hall achieved lowest and highest score, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that between hygienic status and production rate (p=0.411 there is no significant relationship. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the halva and tahini production centers of Ardakan city in terms of environmental health indicators had slightly favorable status to favorable and none of the production centers had not very favorable conditions. The results of this study can be used to improve health status of halva and tahini production centers.
.... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...
Jamieson, G G
The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease has greatly diminished the need for antiulcer surgery. However, in societies where such drug therapy is considered too expensive and because occasional patients remain refractory to optimal medical therapy, elective surgery for duodenal ulcer disease is still carried out. If the required expertise is available, it can be undertaken laparoscopically. The advent of endoscopic therapies such as heater probe therapy and injection sclerotherapy has also greatly diminished the need for emergency surgery in bleeding peptic ulcer disease. Once again, however, when such therapy fails surgery is still indicated. Even with perforated peptic ulcer disease the role of surgery has receded somewhat, but here not because of changes in drug therapy. Nonoperative management of perforation is indicated in fit patients if the diagnosis is in doubt, in any patient when surgical facilities are unavailable (e.g., remote geographic areas, on board ship), or when a patient is extremely ill either because of co-morbidity or late presentation of the disease. Operation should be considered in all patients when the perforation is established to be unsealed, particularly after
Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020; Institute of Medicine; Institute of Medicine
...) established the Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020 to develop and recommend 12 indicators and 24 objectives for consideration by HHS for guiding a national health agenda...
Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Mobile, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins
Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; May, Tom W.; Claunch, Rachael; Wieser, Carla; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Tillitt, Donald E.
Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites in 4 river basins in the southeastern United States to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Mercury concentrations in bass samples from all sites exceeded toxicity thresholds for mammals [>0.1 micrograms per gram wet weight (ug/g ww)], fish (>0.2 ug/g ww), and birds (>0.3 ug/g ww) and were greatest (>0.5 ug/g ww) in samples from the Alabama River at Eureka Landing, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks, Alabama; the Apalachicola River at Blountstown, Florida; the Savannah River at Sylvania, Georgia; and the Pee Dee River at Bucksport, South Carolina. Selenium concentrations were relatively high (>0.75 ug/g ww) in fish from the Tombigbee River at Lavaca, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks; and the Chattahoochee River at Omaha, Georgia compared to those from other sites. Concentrations of 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were high in fish from the Chattahoochee River at Omaha and the Mobile River near Bucks, which was near a 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1- dichloroethylene (DDT) formulating facility that historically discharged into the lower Mobile River. Toxaphene concentrations in fish from the Flint River near Albany, Georgia (60-100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) ww) may pose a risk to fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole
attempts to analyze few indicators that directly and indirectly influence the state of reproductive health in ... health in Nigeria. Secondary data sources from Nigeria's Demographic and Health Survey ..... women and deny them their fundamental.
Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Daumit, Gail L.; LiJuan, Fang; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wohlheiter, Karen; Dixon, Lisa B.
We examined indices of the health of persons with serious mental illness. A sample of 100 adults with schizophrenia and 100 with major mood disorder were recruited from randomly selected outpatients who were receiving community-based psychiatric treatment. Participants were surveyed about health indicators using items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III and the National Health Interview Survey. Their responses were compared with those of matched samples from the general population surveys. A total of 1% of persons with serious mental illness, compared with 10% from the general population sample, met criteria for all 5 of selected health indicators: nonsmoker, exercise that meets recommended standards, good dentition, absence of obesity, and absence of serious medical co-occurring illness. Within the mentally ill group, educational level, but not a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus mood disorder, was independently associated with a composite measure of health behaviors. We conclude that an examination of multiple health indicators may be used to measure overall health status in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:16469943
Laghi, Andrea; Rengo, Marco; Graser, Anno; Iafrate, Franco
CT colonography (CTC) is a robust and reliable imaging test of the colon. Accuracy for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is as high as conventional colonoscopy (CC). Identification of polyp is size dependent, with large lesions (≥10 mm) accurately detected and small lesions (6–9 mm) identified with moderate to good sensitivity. Recent studies show good sensitivity for the identification of nonpolypoid (flat) lesions as well. Current CTC indications include the evaluation of patients who had undergone a previous incomplete CC or those who are unfit for CC (elderly and frail individuals, patients with underlying severe clinical conditions, or with contraindication to sedation). CTC can also be efficiently used in the assessment of diverticular disease (excluding patients with acute diverticulitis, where the exam should be postponed), before laparoscopic surgery for CRC (to have an accurate localization of the lesion), in the evaluation of colonic involvement in the case of deep pelvic endometriosis (replacing barium enema). CTC is also a safe procedure in patients with colostomy. For CRC screening, CTC should be considered an opportunistic screening test (not available for population, or mass screening) to be offered to asymptomatic average-risk individuals, of both genders, starting at age 50. The use in individuals with positive family history should be discussed with the patient first. Absolute contraindication is to propose CTC for surveillance of genetic syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (in particular, ulcerative colitis). The use of CTC in the follow-up after surgery for CRC is achieving interesting evidences despite the fact that literature data are still relatively weak in terms of numerosity of the studied populations. In patients who underwent previous polypectomy CTC cannot be recommended as first test because debate is still open. It is desirable that in the future CTC would be the first-line and only diagnostic test for
Laghi, Andrea, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Rengo, Marco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Graser, Anno [InstitutfürKlinische Radiologie, Klinikumder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Campus Großhadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 München (Germany); Iafrate, Franco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)
CT colonography (CTC) is a robust and reliable imaging test of the colon. Accuracy for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is as high as conventional colonoscopy (CC). Identification of polyp is size dependent, with large lesions (≥10 mm) accurately detected and small lesions (6–9 mm) identified with moderate to good sensitivity. Recent studies show good sensitivity for the identification of nonpolypoid (flat) lesions as well. Current CTC indications include the evaluation of patients who had undergone a previous incomplete CC or those who are unfit for CC (elderly and frail individuals, patients with underlying severe clinical conditions, or with contraindication to sedation). CTC can also be efficiently used in the assessment of diverticular disease (excluding patients with acute diverticulitis, where the exam should be postponed), before laparoscopic surgery for CRC (to have an accurate localization of the lesion), in the evaluation of colonic involvement in the case of deep pelvic endometriosis (replacing barium enema). CTC is also a safe procedure in patients with colostomy. For CRC screening, CTC should be considered an opportunistic screening test (not available for population, or mass screening) to be offered to asymptomatic average-risk individuals, of both genders, starting at age 50. The use in individuals with positive family history should be discussed with the patient first. Absolute contraindication is to propose CTC for surveillance of genetic syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (in particular, ulcerative colitis). The use of CTC in the follow-up after surgery for CRC is achieving interesting evidences despite the fact that literature data are still relatively weak in terms of numerosity of the studied populations. In patients who underwent previous polypectomy CTC cannot be recommended as first test because debate is still open. It is desirable that in the future CTC would be the first-line and only diagnostic test for
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A
Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....
Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.
This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the
Khalaila, R N Rabia
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Goldblatt, Hadass; Dishon, Yael; Taychaw, Omer; Shadmi, Efrat
Few studies have assessed healthcare experiences in apparently healthy adolescents, or whether healthcare attitudes are linked to the two leading adolescent health indicators, smoking and obesity. Even fewer have examined these relationships in adolescent immigrant groups or made comparisons to adolescent non-immigrants. Using a cross-sectional study, healthcare experiences were compared among three groups of adolescents (n = 589) including Russian immigrants (n = 154), Ethiopian immigrants (n = 54), and non-immigrants (n = 381). Bootstrap estimates indicated positive healthcare experiences were less common among Russian adolescent immigrants (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17, 0.86) compared to non-immigrants, unless the Russian adolescent immigrants reported above average socioeconomic status, in which case they were more likely than non-immigrant adolescents to report positive healthcare experiences (OR = 3.22, CI = 1.05, 9.85). Positive healthcare experiences were less likely among adolescents who were smokers (OR = 0.50, CI = 0.27, 0.91), and more likely for adolescents with a normal or low BMI (OR = 3.16, CI = 1.56, 6.40) and for those relying on parents for health information (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.05, 3.70). Findings suggest a social gradient in which positive healthcare experiences were more common among adolescence with higher socioeconomic status for some immigrants (Russian adolescents) but not for others. The two leading health indicators were related to healthcare experiences, but as adolescent smokers were less likely to have positive healthcare experiences, proactive efforts are needed to engage this group. What is Known: • Health indicators (such as obesity) and healthcare attitudes are linked to healthcare service use among adolescents sampled from outpatient and inpatient populations. What is New: • A social gradient involving socioeconomic status and being an adolescent immigrant was found regarding
M. Yu. Arkhipova
Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.
Елена Николаевна Никулина; Светлана Ивановна Елгина; Юлия Александровна Липкова; Сергей Викторович Липков
Objective – to determine the main health indicators in preterm newborns. Materials and Methods: Premature newborns and full-term newborns (160 and 1408, respectively) were investigated with clinical, instrumental, and statistical methods. Anthropometric parameters, somatic health, vulvar anatomy were considered to be the main criteria for general health. Results: The indicators of general health (physical development, somatic health, vulvar anatomy) in premature and full-term newborns...
Afshari, Somaye; Khorasani, Elahe; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Darab, Mohsen Ghaffari
Many changes have been made in different sciences by developing and advancing information and communication technology in last two decades. E-health is a very broad term that includes many different activities related to the use of electronic devices, software as well as hardware in health organizations. The aim of this study is comparing electronic health indicators in the selected countries and discussion on the best indicators. This study has chosen 12 countries randomly based on the regional division of the WHO. The relevant numbers of health indicators and general indicators and information technology indicators are extracted of these countries. We use data from the Bitarf's comparative study, which is conducted by the Iranian Supreme Council of Information Technology in 2007. By using Pearson correlation test, the relations between health general indicators and IT indicators are studied. Data was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions Pearson correlation test were used. The findings show that there is a positive relation between indicators related to IT and "Total per capita health, healthy life expectancy, percent literacy". Furthermore, there is a mutual relation between IT indicators and "mortality indicator". This study showed differences between selective indicators among different countries. The modern world, with its technological advances, is not powerless in the face of these geographic and health disparity challenges. Researchers must not rely on the available indicators. They must consider indicators like e-business companies, electronic data internet, medical supplies, health electronic record, health information system, etc., In future, continuous studies in this field, to provide the exact and regular reports of amount of using of these indicators through different countries must be necessary.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the status of the secondary school students regarding different indicators of mental health. We were interested in the perception of successfulness, stress caused by the school, relationships towards friends and family members, intensive physical response to the stress, depression symptoms, eating disorders symptoms and substance abuse. The participants also estimated feeling of content and meaning in life. The questionnaire was designed especially for this research. 647 grammmar school and economics secondary school students were asked to participate in the study. The results are mostly similar to those of other Slovene surveys. There are major differences in problem areas depending on the sex of participants: girls' results show more physical responses to the stress, fear and the strain of learning, depression symptoms and eating disorders symptoms, while the boys reported more substance abuse, lower grades and less studying. The research shows the frequency of different problems in adolescents and correlations among forms of risk taking behavior. There are high correlations among different sorts of subsubstance abuse. Also depression, physical response to the stress and eating disorders symptoms are connected. The research should lead to various preventive programmes, where the efforts of the schools, health-care system, local community and the state have to be co-ordinated.
Youn Ho Shin
Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (nonwhite, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Reuben, Cynthia A; Pastor, Patricia N
Past studies have shown that specific child conditions are associated with poor school outcomes. A national health survey with noncategorical measures of health and indicators of school functioning offers the opportunity to examine this association. To compare links between two health measures (children with special health care needs and general health status) and multiple school outcomes. The analysis was based on 59,440 children aged 6-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Child health was assessed using the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) screener and a question on general health status. CSHCN were classified by the complexity of their health care needs. Indicators of school functioning included special education use, many problem reports, repeated a grade, lack of school engagement, and many missed school days. Overall 22% of children were identified as CSHCN: 13% with more complex needs (C-CSHCN) and 9% with medication use only (CSHCN-RX). Approximately 17% of children were in less than optimal health. After controlling for a child's sociodemographic characteristics C-CSHCN had an increased risk of all of the negative school outcomes compared to children without SHCN, while CSHCN-RX had an increased risk of only one school outcome (many missed school days). Children in less than optimal health were at an increased risk of all negative school outcomes compared to children in optimal health. The CSHCN screener and health status question identify related, but distinct, groups of children with worse outcomes on the indicators of school functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja
The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to
Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme
The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.
Weaver, James B; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Mays, Darren; Hopkins, Gary L; Kannenberg, Wendi; McBride, Duane
Converging evidence from culturally diverse contexts indicates that sexually explicit media use behavior (SEMB; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with risky sexual health perceptions and behaviors, many that involve high risks of HIV/STD transmission. Essentially unexplored, and the focus here, are potential relationships between SEMB and nonsexual mental- and physical-health indicators. Variability in six continuously measured health indicators (depressive symptoms, mental- and physical-health diminished days, health status, quality of life, and body mass index) was examined across two levels (users, nonusers) of SEMB. A sample of 559 Seattle-Tacoma Internet-using adults was surveyed in 2006. Multivariate general linear models parameterized in a SEMB by respondent gender (2 × 2) factorial design were computed incorporating adjustments for several demographics. SEMB was reported by 36.7% (n = 205) of the sample. Most SEMB users (78%) were men. After adjusting for demographics, SEMB users, compared to nonusers, reported greater depressive symptoms, poorer quality of life, more mental- and physical-health diminished days, and lower health status. The findings show that mental- and physical-health indicators vary significantly across SEMB, suggesting the value of incorporating these factors in future research and programmatic endeavors. In particular, the findings suggest that evidence-based sexual health promotion strategies simultaneously addressing individuals' SEMB and their mental health needs might be a useful approach to improve mental health and address preventable sexual health outcomes associated with SEMB. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Detection of indices of violence against women by health professionals in a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... Similar baseline surveys are recommended for other Health Institutions as the first ...
Rotstein, Z; Shani, M
Comparison of published data and health indices from different countries with different health systems is subject to many pitfalls. Comparison of national expenditure for health care based on purchasing power of the currency may be misleading if the purchasing power of the health services is ignored. Comparisons may also be misleading if they ignore national geographic and demographic structures. Government and health authorities often quote different sets of data and use different terminology and definitions. This article stresses the disparity in the definition of medical manpower and points out differences relating to ratios of manpower to population and to per capita spending. Also addressed is the importance of the qualitative and value aspects of health systems not usually involved in comparison of international health indices. In conclusion, safety measures and precautions such as choosing the right index for the right purpose, adjustment of indices to the purchasing power parity of health, demographics, etc., should be used when conducting health care analyses.
Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations.
van den Berge, Jan C; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Hartman, Eline M J; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J; van Domburg, Ron T
Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included a series of consecutive PCI patients (n = 573) as part of the RESEARCH registry, a Dutch single-center retrospective cohort study. These patients completed the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and 10 years post-PCI. We found 6 predictors of poor subjective health status 10 years post-PCI: SF-36 at baseline, age, previous PCI, obesity, acute myocardial infarction as indication for PCI, and diabetes mellitus (arranged from most to least numbers of sub domains). SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.
Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C
Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further
Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke
The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...
Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal population of Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal, India: Compared with nontribal women. ... Results: The results indicated that the Lodha women belong to poor socioeconomic ...
Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey
This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.
Perera, Irosha; Ekanayake, Lilani
The aim of the study was to assess the value of different indicators of socioeconomic status for oral health research among Sri Lankan adolescents. Six indicators of socioeconomic status were assessed in terms of their relationship to 2 oral health outcomes. The sample consisted of 15-year-old students (n = 1218) selected from 48 schools in the Colombo district using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Data collection included oral examinations of students and questionnaires to both students and their parents. The correlations between the 6 indicators were low to moderate. The indicators of household material assets and parental educational status emerged as significant predictors of the 2 oral health outcomes. Therefore, it is concluded that indicators of material assets-namely, the family affluence scale and the asset index-could be used as optimal measures of socioeconomic status in oral health research among adolescents in Sri Lanka.
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Webster, I W; Rawson, G K
A comparison of health status between 779 Seventh-day Adventists, who have a strong commitment to heal-related life styles, and two other groups of people--8363 persons referred by general practitioners and 9825 volunteers--was made. The Seventh-day Adventists showed less impairment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, of plasma cholesterol and plasma urate concentrations, and of lung ventilatory capacity; and less obesity at most specific ages. With increasing age, the level of breathlessness, reported heart disease, hypertension, and hypertensive and diuretic therapy in this sample approached that of the comparative groups, possibly because of natural attrition of high-risk persons in the latter. Depression, sleeplessness, use of sedatives and tranquillizers were lower in the Seventh-day Adventists; although, once again, a drawing together of the three groups in older age categories was evident. It is concluded that the life style of Seventh-day Adventists is conducive to lessened morbidity, delayed mortality, and decreased call on health services in comparison with the general population.
Vedlūga, Tomas; Mikulskienė, Birutė
The goal of the present article is to compile a corpus of indicators of eHealth development evaluation that would essentially reflect stakeholder approaches and complement technical indicators of assessment of an eHealth system. Consequently, the assessment of the development of an eHealth system would reflect stakeholder approaches and become an innovative solution in attempting to improve productivity of IT projects in the field of health care. The compiled minimum set of indicators will be designed to monitor implementation of the national eHealth information system. To ensure reliability of the quality research, the respondents were grouped in accordance to the geographical distribution and diversity of the levels and types of the represented jobs and institutions. The applied analysis implies several managerial insights on the hierarchy of eHealth indicators. These insights may be helpful in recommending priority activities in implementation of an eHealth data system on the national or international level. The research is practically useful as it is the first to deal with the topic in Lithuania and its theoretical and practical aspect are particularly relevant in implementation of an eHealth data system in Lithuania. The eHealth assessment indicators presented in the article may be practically useful in two aspects: (1) as key implementation guidelines facilitating the general course of eHealth system development and (2) as a means to evaluate eHealth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cole, D.C.; Eyles, J.; Gibson, B.L.
Increasingly, scientists are being called upon to assist in the development of indicators for monitoring ecosystem health. For human health indicators, they may draw on environmental exposure, human morbidity/mortality or well-being and sustainability approaches. To improve the rigour of indicators, we propose six scientific criteria for indicator selection: (1) data availability, suitability and representativeness (of populations), (2) indicator validity (face, construct, predictive and convergent) and reliability; (3) indicator responsiveness to change; (4) indicator desegregation capability (across personal and community characteristics); (5) indicator comparability (across populations and jurisdictions); and (6) indicator representativeness (across important dimensions of concern). We comment on our current capacity to adhere to such criteria with examples of measures of environmental exposure, human health and sustainability. We recognize the considerable work still required on documenting environment-human health relationships and on monitoring potential indicators in similar ways over time. Yet we argue that such work is essential in order for science to inform policy decisions which affect the health of ecosystems and human health. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan kota yang tidak terkendali akan mengakibatkan tekanan terhadap lingkungan dan beban masyarakat meningkat, sebaliknya degradasi lingkungan akan mengakibatkan pembatasan pengembangan ekonomi dan penurunan kualitas hidup. Guna mencegah terjadinya dampak-dampak negatif, maka diperlukan prinsip-prinsip pembangunan kota yang berkelanjutan. Evaluasi terhadap pelaksanan pembangunan kota yang berkelanjutan perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah pembangunan suatu kota sudah atau belum/tidak berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyusun Key Performance Indicators (KPI guna menilai status pembangunan kota berkelanjutan. Perumusan KPI ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. KPI yang dihasilkan terdiri dari 21 indikator dan 9 elemen dari 3 pilar pembangunan berkelanjutan (ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan. Implementasi KPI dilakukan untuk pengukuran status keberlanjutan Kota Tangerang Selatan. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan bahwa kota ini termasuk dalam tahap awal pembangunan berkelanjutan. Secara umum perkembangan ekonomi dan sosial relatif cukup baik, namun tidak demikian dengan kondisi lingkungannya. ABSTRACT Uncontrolled urban development will result in pressure on the environment and the burden of the people. On the contrary, environmental degradation will lead to restricted economic development and decreased quality of life. In order to prevent negative impacts, it is necessary to implement the principles of sustainable city development. Evaluation of the implementation of sustainable city development is needed to determine whether the development of a city is sustainable or not. This study aimed to develop Key Performance Indicators (KPI to assess the status of sustainable city development. The formulation of KPI is done with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. KPI generated consists of 21 indicators and 9 elements of the 3 pillars of sustainable development (economic, social, and environmental
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday d...
Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter
As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.
Woh, Pei Yee; Thong, Kwai Lin; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Behnke, Jerzy Marian; Lewis, John Watkin; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena
This study used microbial indicators to assess the hygiene status of 383 migrant food handlers from 3 urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Microbiological analysis revealed that all the hand swabs tested 99.5% positive for aerobic plate counts (mean [M] ± standard deviation [SD] = 3.57 ± 0.83 log 10 CFU [colony forming unit]), 20.8% positive for total coliform/ Escherichia coli (M ± SD = 0.30 ± 0.67 log 10 CFU), and 63.4% positive for Staphylococcus aureus (M ± SD = 1.38 ± 1.26 log 10 CFU). In addition, aerobic plate counts and Staphylococcus aureus counts exceeded the acceptable standard levels. Bacterial counts were found to be significantly associated with subjects' country of origin ( P = .019) and working responsibilities ( P = .001). Our findings indicate high probability of transmission of pathogenic bacteria from the food handlers' hands to customers during meal preparation and serving. This calls for improvements in personal hygiene and sanitation standards by the relevant health authorities among migrant food handlers.
Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...
Arnold, C W
Race, ethnicity, and gender are significant indicators of occupational status, general health status, and thus, occupational health status. Although African-American women constitute only 6.8% of the total U.S. labor force, they hold 20% of the jobs in the health care industry and are disproportionately represented in those jobs that have the highest levels of workplace exposure to hazards. As a result, they are therefore more likely to be at greater exposure and risk to the spectrum of occupational health problems. In order to gain insight into the effects of race and gender on the occupational health status of African-American women health care workers, this article uses three data sources that provide different but complementary sources of information on the demographic characteristics of workers, location of categories of occupations, working conditions of jobs, and other job and worker characteristics. Given the concentration of African-American women in health care positions where there exists a greater likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards, it is therefore both logical and appropriate for primary care physicians, especially those engaged in office-based practices, to identify this target population for special services and to be more aware of the type of health issues with which these patients are more likely to present and to experience during their working lives. Health care providers have a responsibility to assess occupational factors related to a patient's health problems and to incorporate this information into their treatment protocols and into the design and explanation of each patient's care plan.
Li, H; Zhang, L
In recent years, malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis has been taken more and more seriously in clinical physicians, and patients' nutritional status is closely associated with prognosis. At present, there are many methods for the evaluation of nutritional status in patients with liver cirrhosis, but there are still no unified standards. This article reviews the common evaluation indices and methods used in clinical practice in China and foreign countries, in order to provide a basis for accurately evaluating nutritional status and guiding nutritional therapy in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Kramers, Pieter G N
Within the EU Health Monitoring Programme (HMP), the ECHI project has proposed a comprehensive list of 'European Community Health Indicators'. In the design of the indicator set, a set of explicit criteria was applied. These included: i) be comprehensive and coherent, i.e. cover all domains of the public health field; ii) take account of earlier work, especially that by WHO-Europe, OECD and Eurostat; and iii) cover the priority areas that Member States and Community health policies currently pursue. Flexibility is an important characteristic of the present proposal. In ECHI, this has been emphasized by the definition of 'user-windows'. These are subsets from the overall indicator list, each of which should reflect a specific user's requirement or interest. The proposed indicators are, in most cases, defined as generic indicators, i.e. their actual operational definitions have not yet been attempted. This work has been, and is being carried out to a large part by other projects financed under the HMP, which cover specific areas of public health or areas of data collection. Apart from indicators covered by regularly available data, indicators (or issues) have been proposed for which data are currently difficult to collect but which from a policy point of view would be needed. All this points to the fact that establishing an indicator list which is actually used by Member States is a continuously developing process. This process is now continued by the first strand of the new EU Public Health Action Programme.
Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve
Research on economic status and adult mortality is often stymied by the reciprocity of this relationship and lack of clarity on which aspect of economic status matters. While financial resources increase access to healthcare and nutrition and reduce mortality, sickness also reduces labor force participation, thereby reducing income. Without longitudinal data, it is difficult to study the linkage between economic status and mortality. Using data from a national sample of 132,116 Indian adults aged 15 years and above, this paper examines their likelihood of death between wave 1 of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), conducted in 2004-2005 and wave 2, conducted in 2011-2012. The results show that mortality between the two waves is strongly linked to the economic status of the household at wave 1 regardless of the choice of indicator for economic status. However, negative relationship between economic status and mortality for individuals already suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic conditions varies between three markers of economic status - income, consumption and ownership of consumer durables - varies, reflecting two-way relationship between short and long term markers of economic status and morbidity.
Kamran, F.; Masood, A.
Objective: To investigate the perceptions of health status and depression among Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs). Stydy Design: A longitudinal research design was used. Methods: Recipients’ perceived health status (PHS) was measured by a self-developed questionnaire that reflected the symptom severity and frequency of common immunosuppressant side effects. Depression levels were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory B.D.I II) .The sample population comprised of RTRs with a successful and healthy renal transplant recruited from private and government sector renal units in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Recipients with poorer perceptions of health status tend to be more depressed as indicated by significant negative correlations between PHS and depression. However, further regression analysis found both constructs as significant predictors of each other, raising a question of causal direction. A cross lagged correlation analysis indicated that PHS appears to be a stronger predictor of depression comparatively. Most recipients tend to have positive perceptions of their health status (M = 30.84, S.D = 3.64) with minimum to moderate level of depression (M = 9.50, S.D = 4.00), It is found that a positive perception of health status is associated with lowered depression. Conclusion: Most recipients’ with a healthy kidney transplant tend to report a positive perception of their health status despite adverse medication side effects. However, the perceived health status is significantly associated with consequent feeling of depression. The study confirms the efficacy and positive health outcomes of renal transplantation in Pakistan. (author)
Yu, M Y; Sarri, R
This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a woman's life cycle focusing on infancy girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950-1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate, expressed as a percentage of all deaths, and the burden of disease, measured in terms of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), are used to reflect the changing patterns of female diseases and causes of deaths. Significant improvement in the health status of Chinese women since 1950 is widely acknowledged as a major achievement for a developing country with the largest population in the world, but the differentials in women's health by region and urban/rural areas are considerable. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) indicates that the overall level of physical well-being of Chinese women has increased in recent decades, but disparity in health between men and women still exists. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) further reveals that China has achieved significant progress in women's health during the past four decades, but far less has been achieved with respect to gender equality overall. The final sections of the paper focus on the discussion of some health problems faced by the female population during the process of economic reform since the 1980 s. In order to promote gender equality between women and men, concerns on women's health care needs are highlighted.
Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.
Hematologic changes following whole-body exposure to gamma or x-ray radiation have been used to estimate dose. The usefulness of this biological indicator is limited because of the recovery of these cells with time, thus making it unsuitable for estimation of dose years after exposure. The same is true for spermatogenic indicators; recovery and restoration of sperm numbers and fertility makes this biological indicator impractical for assessing radiation dose decades after radiation exposure. As noted in the text of the report, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere (Wasserman 1986). There is good agreement that ionizing radiation causes biochemical changes in the body; however, attempts to apply these changes to provide a reliable biological dosimetry system have not been particularly successful. The status of this research has been summarized by Gerber (1986). One of the difficulties has been the problem of establishing clear dose-effect relationships in humans. The lack of specificity in the response for radiation is another problem
poverty aside from physical capital (Strauss J and Thomas D, 1998). ... factors on health status of children across poverty groups and sector. ...... Decomposing Inequalities in Nutritional Status of ... The causal effect of health on social and.
Cătălin Ovidiu BABA
Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.
Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik
Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary
Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.
Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university
van den Berge, Jan C.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Hartman, Eline M. J.; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J.; van Domburg, Ron T.
Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included
study explored the application of Land Surface Temperature (LST)-vegetation ... Classification methods and crop growth models are widely used for crop monitoring. ... The limitations of the study were that some of the Landsat 8 images were contaminated with cloud ..... These relationships arise due to the cooling effects.
Stuart H M Butchart
Full Text Available The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries. RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups.
English, Paul B; Sinclair, Amber H; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin
To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity.
Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L
Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release, are produced in support of the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation as selection criteria...
Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea
Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the ﬁnal set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wang, Hui; Liu, Guochao; Tian, Youjia; Zhang, Fengmei; Feng, Zhihui; Chen, Qianshu; Qu, Jianying; Lim, David
To assess the health statue of chronically exposed Chinese medical radiation workers. A cross-sectional study of 530 medical radiation workers in a city of China was conducted to document the health status and the monitored annually absorbed doses. Long-term and low-dose radiation exposure can affect a number of health indicators in the individuals, which covered the cardiovascular system, hematologic system, ophthalmology, liver and kidney s functions, chromosome aberration and micronucleus. The differences in the health status between male and female individuals were associated with job types and exposed years of service. The monitored doses of individuals were lower than the limit value of the national standard. The health status in chronically exposed individuals demonstrated some gender difference associated with length of exposure and work type. This study provides some evidence to understand the health status of medical radiation workers in China and have the potentially to inform screening and clinical diagnosis. (authors)
Nigatu Tilahun H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia has been publishing Health and Health related indicators of the country annually since 1987 E.C. These indicators have been of high importance in indicating the status of health in the country in those years. However, the trends/patterns of these indicators and the factors related to the trends have not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In addition, there were minimal efforts to develop a model for predicting future values of Health and Health related indicators based on the current trend. Objectives The overall aim of this study was to analyze trends of and develop model for prediction of Health and Health related indicators. More specifically, it described the trends of Health and Health related indicators, identified determinants of mortality and morbidity indicators and developed model for predicting future values of MDG indicators. Methods This study was conducted on Health and Health related indicators of Ethiopia from the year 1987 E.C to 2000 E.C. Key indicators of Mortality and Morbidity, Health service coverage, Health systems resources, Demographic and socio-economic, and Risk factor indicators were extracted and analyzed. The trends in these indicators were established using trend analysis techniques. The determinants of the established trends were identified using ARIMA models in STATA. The trend-line equations were then used to predict future values of the indicators. Results Among the mortality indicators considered in this study, it was only Maternal Mortality Ratio that showed statistically significant decrement within the study period. The trends of Total Fertility Rate, physician per 100,000 population, skilled birth attendance and postnatal care coverage were found to have significant association with Maternal Mortality Ratio trend. There was a reversal of malaria parasite prevalence in 1999 E.C from Plasmodium Falciparum to Plasmodium Vivax. Based on
Leh, O.L.H.; Shaharuddin Ahmad; Kadaruddin Aiyub; Yaakob Mohd Jani; Hwa, T.K.
Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)
Minguillón, Roberto F.; Yacuzzi, Enrique
Occupational Health and Safety Governance (OHSG) is a branch of Corporate Governance by which the board directs and controls labor risks created by their own enterprise. The OHSG concept is relatively new; unlike Occupational Health and Safety Management, which is mostly related to the work of managerial ranks, OHSG deals with principles, the interests of stakeholders, and the work of directors. The paper defines the new concept, OHSG, develops an original health and safety indicator, and pre...
da Silva Dalben, Gisele; Teixeira das Neves, Lucimara; Ribeiro Gomide, Marcia
There is a lack of data on the oral health status of individuals with craniofacial syndromes. A group of 15 children with Treacher Collins syndrome, aged 5 to 15 years old, was examined and evaluated for plaque, caries and gingival problems. The ability of the patients to clean their teeth was also investigated. A high plaque index and poor efficacy of tooth-brushing was recorded. The caries and gingival indexes were not proportionally as high as the plaque accumulation. There was no association between the gingival index and presence of mouth breathing. There was predominance of the D component in both the dmft and DMFT indexes; this was associated with a need for restorative dental treatment in 60% of the patients, which indicated the need for dental care for these patients. Caretakers should be informed of the importance of oral health and oral hygiene and encouraged to take responsibility for the oral care of the children living at home.
Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.
In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled
Paladini, Luciana; Hodder, Rick; Cecchini, Isabella; Bellia, Vincenzo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli
Dyspnoea is the most common symptom associated with poor quality of life in patients affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). While COPD severity is commonly staged by lung function, the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale has been proposed as a more clinically meaningful method of quantifying disease severity in COPD. We wished to assess whether this scale might also be useful during telephone surveys as a simple surrogate marker of perceived health status in elderly patients with COPD. We conducted a comprehensive health status assessment by telephone survey of 200 elderly patients who had a physician diagnosis of COPD. The telephone survey contained 71 items and explored such domains as educational level, financial status, living arrangements and social contacts, co-morbid illness, and the severity and the impact of COPD on health status. Patients were categorized according to the reported MRC score: mild dyspnoea (MRC scale of 1), moderate dyspnoea (MRC scale of 2 and 3), or severe dyspnoea (MRC of 4 and 5). Deterioration in most of the recorded indicators of health status correlated with an increasingly severe MRC score. This was most evident for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), perceived health and emotional status, pain-related limitations, limitations in social life, hospital admissions in preceding year and prevalence of most co-morbidities. The MRC dyspnoea scale is a reliable index of disease severity and health status in elderly COPD patients which should prove useful for remote monitoring of COPD and for rating health status for epidemiological purposes.
La Parra Casado, Daniel; Gil González, Diana; de la Torre Esteve, María
To determine the social class gradient in health in general Spain population and the health status of the Spanish Roma. The National Health Survey of Spanish Roma 2006 (sample size = 993 people; average age: 33.6 years; 53.1% women) and the National Health Surveys for Spain 2003 (sample size: 21,650 people; average age: 45.5 years; 51.2% women) and 2006 (sample size: 29,478 people; average age: 46 years; 50.7% women) are compared. Several indicators were chosen: self-perceived health, activity limitation, chronic diseases, hearing and sight problems, caries, and obesity. Analysis was based on age-standardised rates and logistic regression models. According to most indicators, Roma's health is worse than that of social class IV-V (manual workers). Some indicators show a remarkable difference between Roma and social class IV-V: experiencing three or more health problems, sight problems, and caries, in both sexes, and hearing problems and obesity, in women. Roma people are placed on an extreme position on the social gradient in health, a situation of extreme health inequality.
Conard, Mark W
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.
Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri
From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status.
Chu, Filmer; Ohinmaa, Arto; Klarenbach, Scott; Wong, Zing-Wae; Veugelers, Paul
The main function of vitamin D is calcium homeostasis. However, emerging evidence has correlated adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with better mental health. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with indicators of mental health such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with four indicators of mental health were examined using ordered logistic regression models with increasing specificity that account for demographics, socio-economic status, and health. Margin effects are used to determine the probability of the average adult Canadian being in the best mental health state by groupings of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A robust association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the indicators of mental health were observed. In the fully adjusted ordered logistic model, an average Canadian appeared more likely to experience better mental health when serum 25(OH)D concentrations were higher. This study adds to the weight of the existence of an association between vitamin D status and mental health, but, as this study is cross sectional, it does not establish causality. Due to the low risk of harm from toxicity and the relative modest costs of vitamin D supplements, more research to establish the effectiveness and causality of this relationship is recommended.
Fallis, Don; Frické, Martin
Objectives: To identify indicators of accuracy for consumer health information on the Internet. The results will help lay people distinguish accurate from inaccurate health information on the Internet. Design: Several popular search engines (Yahoo, AltaVista, and Google) were used to find Web pages on the treatment of fever in children. The accuracy and completeness of these Web pages was determined by comparing their content with that of an instrument developed from authoritative sources on treating fever in children. The presence on these Web pages of a number of proposed indicators of accuracy, taken from published guidelines for evaluating the quality of health information on the Internet, was noted. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation between the accuracy of Web pages on treating fever in children and the presence of proposed indicators of accuracy on these pages. Likelihood ratios for the presence (and absence) of these proposed indicators. Results: One hundred Web pages were identified and characterized as “more accurate” or “less accurate.” Three indicators correlated with accuracy: displaying the HONcode logo, having an organization domain, and displaying a copyright. Many proposed indicators taken from published guidelines did not correlate with accuracy (e.g., the author being identified and the author having medical credentials) or inaccuracy (e.g., lack of currency and advertising). Conclusions: This method provides a systematic way of identifying indicators that are correlated with the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of health information on the Internet. Three such indicators have been identified in this study. Identifying such indicators and informing the providers and consumers of health information about them would be valuable for public health care. PMID:11751805
Assari Arani, Abbas; Atashbar, Tohid; Antoun, Joseph; Bossert, Thomas
Two years after the implementation of the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), this study evaluated the effects of the plan on health equity indices. The main indices assessed by the study were the Out-of-Pocket (OOP) health expenditures, the Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index, the index of households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE). The per capita share of costs for total health services has been decreased. The lowered costs have been more felt in rural areas, generally due to sharp decrease in inpatient costs. Per capita pay for outpatient services is almost constant or has slightly increased. The reform plan has managed to improve households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) index from an average of 2.9% before the implementation of the plan to 2.3% after the plan. The Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index has worsened from 0.79 to 0.76, and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE) index deteriorated after the implementation of plan from 0.34 to 0.50. Considerable improvement, in decreasing the burden of catastrophic hospital costs in low income strata which is about 26% relative to the time before the implementation of the plan can be regarded as the main achievement of the plan, whereas the worsening in the headcount ratio of IHE and FFC are the equity bottlenecks of the plan.
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social dete...
Gascuel, Didier; Coll, Marta; Fox, Clive
Stock-based and ecosystem-based indicators are used to provide a new diagnosis of the fishing impact and environmental status of European seas. In the seven European marine ecosystems covering the Baltic and the North-east Atlantic, (i) trends in landings since 1950 were examined; (ii) syntheses...
Gapparova, K M; Nikitiuk, D B; Zaĭnudinov, Z M; Tserekh, A A; Chekhonina, Iu G; Golubeva, A A; Sil'vestrova, G A; Rusakova, D S; Grigor'ian, O N
Under steady state conditions in 66 athletes involved in weightlifting, bodybuilding, judo and taekwondo have studied features of the metabolic status. Data on matter-of-fact nutrition, body weight content within the inter-competition period, energy exchange, clinical and biochemical indices and physical acceptability indices were analyzed. As a result, the decrease indexes of metabolism at all the sportsmen and high-level caloric value at sportsmen who are engaged in weightlifting, which corresponds their energy expenditures, was revealed.
Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon
We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)
Aarø, Leif Edvard; Flisher, Alan J; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans; Namisi, Francis S; Wubs, Annegreet
Adolescents' reports of parents' education are sometimes used as indicators of socioeconomic status in surveys of health behaviour. The quality of such measurements is questionable. We hypothesized that consistent reporting of parents' education across measurement occasions in prospective panel studies indicates a higher quality of data than single or inconsistent reports. A multi-site, prospective panel study (three measurement occasions) was carried out among adolescents in Cape Town and Mankweng (South Africa), and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Analyses were based on data from students participating at baseline and with a valid code for school number (n = 15,684). For Cape Town and Dar es Salaam students, the associations between parents' education and an alternative indicator of socioeconomic status (both measured at baseline) increased with increasing consistency of reports about parents' education across measurement occasions. For Cape Town, the associations of father's education with a range of behavioural and social cognition variables were significantly stronger among ;;consistent'' than among other students. The pattern was the same for mother's education, but with fewer significant interaction effects. Requiring consistency of reports across data-collection occasions may, under the right combination of circumstances, make a difference. Insignificant and "close to zero'' associations may turn out to be at least moderately strong and statistically significant. When applying indicators of socioeconomic status, such as parents' highest level of completed education, it is most advantageous to use data from prospective panel studies, and to check for consistency of answers across measurement occasions.
Merglova, Vlasta; Hecova, Hana; Stehlikova, Jaroslava; Chaloupka, Pavel
The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies. A case-control study of 142 pregnant women was conducted. The case group included 81 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies, while 61 women with normal pregnancies served as controls. The following variables were recorded for each woman: age, general health status, DMF, CPITN, and PBI index, amounts of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental treatment needs. The Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-squared test were used for statistical analyses. Statistically significant differences were detected between the PBI indices and dental treatment needs of the two groups. Out of the entire study cohort, 77% of the women in the case group and 52% of the women in the control group required dental treatment. In this study, women with complications during pregnancy had severe gingivitis and needed more frequent dental treatment than those in the control group.
Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S
By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.
Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira
Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course.
This study aimed to quantify the extent to which socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status among Thais is present after the country implemented the Universal Coverage policy and to decompose the determinants and their associations with inequality in self-reported oral health status in particular with the worse condition. The study employed a concentration index to measure socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status, and the decomposition method to identify the determinants and their associations with inequality in oral health-related measures. Data from 32,748 Thai adults aged 15-75 years from the nationally representative Health &Welfare Survey and Socio-Economic Survey 2006 were used in analyses. Reports of worse oral health status of the lower socioeconomic-status group were more common than their higher socioeconomic-status counterparts. The concentration index (equaling -0.208) corroborates the finding of pro-poor inequality in self-reported worse oral health. Decomposition analysis demonstrated certain demographic-, socioeconomic-, and geographic characteristics are particularly associated with poor-rich differences in self-reported oral health status among Thai adults. This study demonstrated socioeconomic-related inequality in oral health is discernable along the entire spectrum of socioeconomic status. Inequality in perceived oral health status among Thais is present even while the country has virtually achieved universality of health coverage. The study also indicates population subgroups, particularly the poor, should receive consideration for improving oral health status as revealed by underlying determinants.
Galt, K.J.; Cerisier, S.D.M.; Caris, N.B.
Eskom's Koeberg Nuclear Power Station has maintained and reported on the WANO Chemistry Performance Index for a number of years. Because of the masking effects of multiple averaging, the value of the Index was questionable. The modified WANO Chemistry Performance Indicator, introduced recently, was considered an improvement. However, it was felt that it is too general to adequately address the long-term plant health management needs of a specific plant; a more tailored, plant-specific indicator is needed. A system of indices for measuring and managing long-term plant health at Eskom's 10 large fossil-fired power stations had been developed in 1996. The major success of these indices in improving plant performance management lay in their inclusion in station performance contracts. The Fossil Chemistry Index was based on the original WANO Chemistry Performance Index and suffered from the same shortcomings. Consequently, a major revision of this index was initiated to address these deficiencies. The objectives set for the revised common indicator were that target and limit values from Eskom Chemistry Standards should be incorporated, that the masking effect of multiple averaging be minimised or eliminated, that weighting factors be introduced to reflect the relative importance of selected parameters, that conditioning chemical effectiveness be monitored, and that ranges of values be accommodated. In tandem with this revision, there was requirement to include Koeberg in the reporting of long term plant health indicators. Instead of developing completely separate chemistry indicators for fossil and nuclear plant. A commonality of approach to Long Term Plant Health indicators was sought. This has resulted in a single indicator determination, with parameter selection, limit values, and target values providing the required plant specificity. (J.P.N.)
Sivertsen, Gunnar; Kværner, Kari J.
This paper reports on a new model for the measurement and stimulation of service innovation and commercialization in the health sector which has been developed for the Norwegian Ministry of Health and will be piloted in 2016. Data for the indicators are recorded from a new shared national innovation management and information system in which the primary function (independent of measurement) is to aid the phase-to-phase efficiency and valuation work in daily innovation processes, and to create...
Vitalii Valeriyevich Kulish
Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to solving the problem of social measurement of modern youth’s health. The subject of the analysis is the content of the concept, characteristics and indicators of the social health of young people, which enable using sociological research’ methods to measure a given status of the younger generation in contemporary Russian society. The purpose of this work is to define the theoretical and methodological foundations of the sociological analysis of the young people social health and to substantiate its main indicators in the tools of complex sociological research. Methodology of the study. The basis of the research is formed by the system approach, the complex approach, the logical-conceptual method and general scientific methods of research: comparative analysis, system analysis, construction of social indicators, modeling. Results. The social health of young people is defined through the category “status” and is considered as an integrated indicator of the social quality of the younger generation. It is substantiated that the social health of youth is a status of socio-demographic community in which it is able not only to adapt to the changing conditions of the social environment but is also ready to transform actively the surrounding reality, having the potential to resist destructive social phenomena and processes. The main indicators that allow measuring the social health of young people by sociological methods are determined: adaptability in the social environment, social activity in all spheres of public life, social orientation and significance of activity, behavior regulativity by social norms and universal values, creativity of thinking and behavior, readiness for social integration and self-development. A system of social indicators and indicators for conducting a sociological study of social health in historical memory, value orientations and everyday practices of young people has been developed.
Carstensen, Jacob; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Dahl, Karsten
This report contributes to the development of tools that can be applied to assess the five classes of ecological status of the Water Framework Directive based on the biological quality elements phytoplankton and macroalgae. Nitrogen inputs and concentrations representing reference conditions...... and boundaries between the five ecological status classes were calculated from estimates of nitrogen inputs from Denmark to the Danish straits since 1900 combined with expert judgement of the general environmental conditions of Danish waters during different time periods. From these calculated nitrogen...... concentrations and a macroalgal model ecological status class boundaries were established for six macroalgal indicators in a number of Danish estuaries and coastal areas. Furthermore, site-specific correlations between concentrations of nitrogen and chlorophyll a were used to define reference conditions...
Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma
The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
address not only the problems of undernutrition, but also to monitor the weight and health ..... women of low socio-economic status were found to be at the greatest risk of an .... Public Health, Harvard University Press. 1996. 2. World Health ...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali
Full Text Available Background: Environmental Health Indicators (EHIs are the most im¬portant criteria for evaluation of effi¬ciency and effectiveness of the activi¬ties of the health sector. The operations and situation of the health sys¬tem can be analyzed through surveying the indicators and comparing them during different times. The present study aimed to study the EHIs of Ta¬briz, using the common environmental health processes and national EHIs of the Ministry of Health. Method: The required information for determination of EHIs was col¬lected from different sources, including mainly the Environmental Health De¬partment of the Health Center of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran and other organizations. Results: We found some important desirable and undesirable EHIs in Ta¬briz, including high percentage of households with access to safe and reliable drinking water, high safety in microbiological and chemical quality of drink¬ing water, acceptable level of BOD5 and COD in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WTP, lack of complete municipal wastewa¬ter collection and treatment, relatively poor sanitation and health of food markets and public places, undesirable collection, transportation and dis¬posal of munici¬pal solid waste, low EHIs of some school classrooms, un¬acceptable disposal of medical waste in some hospitals, and finally high level of noise pollution in the city.Conclusion: Considering the poor condition of some EHIs of Tabriz, im-plementing proper actions for pro¬motion of the indicators especially devel¬opment of municipal wastewater collection, improvement of solid waste management, environmental health of some schools and mosques, and fi¬nally the noise pollution level of the city is recommended.
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
Galesi, Lilian Fernanda; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques
Dementia weakens older people and can lead to malnutrition; therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between indicators of dementia and biochemical indicators, anthropometric indicators and food intake in institutionalised older people. A total of 150 older people of both genders participated in this study. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index and other anthropometric variables, and biochemical indicators were used to analyse the differences between individuals with and without dementia. Energy and nutrient intakes were determined by food records, and dementia was investigated with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The data were analysed by the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney tests. Of the 150 individuals studied, 48% were men with a mean age of 73 ± 10 years and 52% were women with a mean age of 80 ± 9 years. Thirty-six per cent had some degree of malnutrition and 48% presented dementia, which was more prevalent in women (59%). The nutritional status of men and women individuals with and without dementia differed significantly (P people with dementia may have higher nutritional requirements. Implications for practice. Investigation of dementia may contribute to the nutritional status assessment of older people and energy expenditure and immobility should be investigated for a more complete assessment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Courtney, Karen L; Alexander, Gregory L; Pack, Beth; Bax, Heather; Adams-Leander, Shelia; Holcomb, Melissa
Building on work within public administration research, five categories of quality indicators are proposed for evaluating World Wide Web (web) sites belonging to state health professional agencies and associations. The five measures include: transparency, transactions, connectivity, personalization and usability. This project describes the construction of each quality indicator index and a calculation of quality scores. This project applies these methods to state Boards of Nursing and nursing association websites.
Frempong-Ainguah, Faustina; Bailey, Claire E; Hill, Allan G
Global discourse on population, health and development have placed women's health issues at the top of development agenda. Women's reproductive health has received some attention in Ghana since the mid-1990s. However, studies on women's general health status, dimensions and the differentials in a rapidly growing urban setting is poorly understood and under-researched. This study sought to examine the various pathways in which individual socio-demographic factors, economic characteristics and endowment influence self-assessed health status among women living in the city of Accra, Ghana. The paper draws on a cross-sectional study carried out in 2008 and 2009 using a representative sample of urban women 20 years and older (n = 2814). Multivariate stepwise linear regression models were performed to investigate the influence of socio-demographic, economic and health indicators on health-related quality of life, measured by eight sub-scales of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Interaction effects between some demographic and socio-economic variables were also performed. The analyses show diverse relationships between demographic, socio-economic and health indicators and health outcomes assessed using eight SF-36 sub-scales. Education, disease symptoms and age of the respondent were the most significant factors influencing good overall health status. Interestingly, age has no significant effect on mental health after controlling for all other explanatory variables. The findings show that health issues are multi-faceted requiring socio-cultural, health and economic policy interventions. Investing in women's education is important to improve health status. There is also the need for more effective collaboration across various sectors to improve the health and well-being of women in general. Ageing has increasing relationship with poor physical health status and the elderly should be given needed attention and support.
Gusto, Gaëlle; Vol, Sylviane; Lasfargues, Gérard; Guillaud, Christian; Lantieri, Olivier; Tichet, Jean
Association between deprivation and health is well established, particularly among unemployed or fixed-term contract or temporary contract subjects. This study aimed to assess if this relationship existed as well in full-time permanent workers. Biometrical, biological, behavioural and psychosocial health risk indicators and an individual deprivation score, the Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score, were recorded from January 2007 to June 2008, in 34 905 full-time permanent workers aged 18-70 years, all volunteers for a free health examination. Comparisons of the behavioural, metabolic, cardiovascular and health risk indicators between quintiles of the deprivation score with adjustments on age and socioeconomic categories were made by covariance analysis or logistic regression. For both genders, degradation of nutritional behaviours, metabolic and cardiovascular indicators and health appeared gradually with deprivation, even for deprivation score usually considered as an insignificant value. The absence of only one social support or one social network was associated with a degradation of health. Full-time permanent workers with the poorest health risk indicators had more frequent social exclusion signs. These results were independent of socioeconomic categories and age. Understanding how deprivation influences health status may lead to more effective interventions to reduce social inequalities in health. The deprivation Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres score is a relevant tool to detect subjects who could benefit from preventive interventions. Our findings suggest that this deprivation score should be used as a health risk indicator even in full-time permanent workers. Assessing deprivation is useful to design and evaluate specific intervention programmes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
identify and bring under control at workplaces all health risks; provide ... on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. ..... The assistance from the IPC/IS. National ... tions of the Healthcare Infection Prevention.
The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army...
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39.4% reported to have one or more cavities, 20.3% did not brush their teeth twice or more times a day, and 30.9% had never been to a dentist (or did not know it). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, living in a lower middle income country, consumption of chocolate or candy, having made a dental care visit, and poor mental health was associated with tooth ache in the past 12 months. Being male, being 20 to 21 years old, coming from a wealthier family background, living in a lower middle income country, frequent consumption of soft drinks, not having consulted with a dentist in the past 12 months and weak beliefs in the benefits of tooth brushing were associated with inadequate tooth brushing frequency (health status and oral health behaviors were found and various risk factors identified that can be utilized to guide interventions to improve oral health programs among university students.
Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta
Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.
Patrícia Pinheiro de Freitas
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Unhealthy lifestyles occur more often in low-socioeconomic status (SES groups. The assessment of isolated factors reduces the understanding of the problem instead of clarifying the dynamic interaction of these factors in influencing the health. Objective: To study the relationship between nutrition habits and health, and the coexistence of dietary risk factors, according to the occupational status of public municipal employees. Materials and Methods: An electronic epidemiological survey was conducted from September to December 2009. In total, 5,646 public municipal employees (temporary and permanent of the municipality (14.7% answered the questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, health, physical activity, nutritional profile, and working conditions related to eating were investigated. Occupational status was defined by the International Socio-Economic Index. The coexistence of dietary risk factors (low consumption of fruits and vegetables, high consumption of chicken skin and meat fat, and insufficient time to eat at work were evaluated using Venn diagrams. Results: Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight were more frequently reported in the low occupational status, and positive self-reported health was directly related to the occupational status of participants. Conclusion: Differences in health conditions and in the dietary habits of individuals according to occupational status indicate its relevance in the development of public and institutional policies that aim to promote health and reduce inequalities and the need for greater focus on those with lower occupational status.
Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health care industry in Malaysia. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1S (2018) > ... Next, an in-depth meeting was conducted to gain insights and feedbacks with the management of a private hospital.
John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters
Forest health analysts seek to define the location, extent, and magnitude of changes in forest ecosystems, to explain the observed changes when possible, and to draw attention to the unexplained changes for further investigation. The data come from a variety of sources including satellite images, field plot measurements, and low-altitude aerial surveys. Indicators...
Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi
Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.
Davidson, Fiona; Heffernan, Ed; Greenberg, David; Butler, Tony; Burgess, Philip
The aim of this paper is to describe the development and technical specifications of a framework and national key performance indicators (KPIs) for Australian mental health Court Liaison Services (CLSs) by the National Mental Health Court Liaison Performance Working Group (Working Group). Representatives from each Australian State and Territory were invited to form a Working Group. Through a series of national workshops and meetings, a framework and set of performance indicators were developed using a review of literature and expert opinion. A total of six KPIs for CLSs have been identified and a set of technical specifications have been formed. This paper describes the process and outcomes of a national collaboration to develop a framework and KPIs. The measures have been developed to support future benchmarking activities and to assist services to identify best practice in this area of mental health service delivery.
Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn
In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.
Conclusion: Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied ...
Choi, Y. S.; Ko, J. D.; Choi, K. S.; Jung, Y. H.
Safety culture has been recognized as important to achieve high level of nuclear safety, as several recent events that have occurred in advanced countries were found to have important implications for safety culture. Under the recognition, implementation-focused and practical methods to foster safety culture have become necessary. Development of safety culture indicators for assessing the level of safety culture and identifying some deficiencies is being conducted. This paper examines the regulatory positions of major nuclear power countries on licensee's safety culture, introduces the development status of Korean Safety Culture Indicators and presents its future direction
Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng
This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.
Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Iron overload may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS. A growing body of evidence indicates that the oxidative stress that results from excess tissue iron can leads to insulin resistance, tissue damage, and other complications observed in MS. The objective of this study was to investigate indices of iron status including serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels, and full blood cell count, together with demographic and anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile components, and other biochemical parameters in subjects with and with-out MS. Methods: A total of, 385 individuals (176 with and 209 subjects without MS according to the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF criteria were recruited. Indices of iron status and other clinical and biochemical parameters were determined in MS patients and healthy controls using standard methods. Results: Higher serum iron and ferritin values were observed in subjects with MS in compared to healthy controls (P 0.050. Among the other indices, only red blood cell (RBC was associated considerably with the presence of MS (P < 0.050. Conclusion: Our data indicate that even in a country with a comparatively high prevalence of iron deficiency, serum iron and ferritin values in MS patients are higher than healthy controls. The reason why ferritin and iron are higher in MS patient may be related to dietary factors.
Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.
Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li
Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p
Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; de Mello, Débora Falleiros
This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Paraná, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Tibaldi, Giuseppe; Munizza, Carmine; Pasian, Sherri; Johnson, Sonia; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Zucchi, Serena; Cesano, Simona; Testa, Cristina; Scala, Elena; Pinciaroli, Luca
Since the 1978 Italian reform, an integrated network of community mental health services has been introduced. With few exceptions, research on determinants of mental health service use at the district level has focused on inpatient activities and social deprivation indicators. The European Psychiatric Care Assessment Team (EPCAT) standardized methodology allows for an evidence-based comparison of mental health systems between geographical areas. To compare service provision and utilization between local catchment areas; to explore quantitative relationships between residential and community service use and socio-demographic indicators at the ecological level. The European Socio-demographic Schedule (ESDS) was used to describe area characteristics, and the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS) to measure service provision and utilization in 18 catchment areas in Piedmont. Substantial variation in service use emerged. Acute hospital bed occupancy rates were lower in areas with more intensive community continuing care service users and with a smaller percentage of the population living alone. The non-acute hospital bed occupancy rate was directly related to the percentage of the population living alone or in overcrowded conditions, and to the level of mobile continuing care service users. Community continuing care service use was highest in areas with a larger percentage of the population living alone. Multiple regression models explained between 48 and 55% of the variation in inpatient and community service use between areas. Relationships based on ecological characteristics do not necessarily apply to the individual. This level of assessment, however, is necessary in evaluating mental health policy and service systems, and in allocating resources. The distribution of mental health care resources should be weighted in terms of indicators of social deprivation shown to be important predictors of both inpatient and community service use, as these are likely to be
Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.
Marcos C Lange
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to analyze the stroke units in two centers for the key performance indicators (KPIs required by the Ministry of Health in Brazil. Methods All 16 KPIs were analyzed, including the percentage of patients admitted to the stroke unit, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the first 48 hours after admission, pneumonia and hospital mortality due to stroke, and hospital discharge on antithrombotic therapy in patients without cardioembolic mechanism. Results Both centers admitted over 80% of the patients in their stroke unit. The incidence of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was > 85%, that of in-hospital pneumonia was 70%. Conclusion Our results suggest using the parameters of all of the 16 KPIs required by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, and the present results for the two stroke units for future benchmarking.
Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M
Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.
Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R
This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.
Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...
Rajan, R.; Satyanarayan, C.; Raghunathan, C.; Koya, S.S.; Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Venkataraman, K.
Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since...
population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.
Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica
The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs
Ana M Queiros
Full Text Available Large efforts are on-going within the EU to prepare the Marine Strategy Framework Directive’s (MSFD assessment of the environmental status of the European seas. This assessment will only be as good as the indicators chosen to monitor the eleven descriptors of good environmental status (GEnS. An objective and transparent framework to determine whether chosen indicators actually support the aims of this policy is, however, not yet in place. Such frameworks are needed to ensure that the limited resources available to this assessment optimize the likelihood of achieving GEnS within collaborating states. Here, we developed a hypothesis-based protocol to evaluate whether candidate indicators meet quality criteria explicit to the MSFD, which the assessment community aspires to. Eight quality criteria are distilled from existing initiatives, and a testing and scoring protocol for each of them is presented. We exemplify its application in three worked examples, covering indicators for three GEnS descriptors (1, 5 and 6, various habitat components (seaweeds, seagrasses, benthic macrofauna and plankton, and assessment regions (Danish, Lithuanian and UK waters. We argue that this framework provides a necessary, transparent and standardized structure to support the comparison of candidate indicators, and the decision-making process leading to indicator selection. Its application could help identify potential limitations in currently available candidate metrics and, in such cases, help focus the development of more adequate indicators. Use of such standardized approaches will facilitate the sharing of knowledge gained across the MSFD parties despite context-specificity across assessment regions, and support the evidence-based management of European seas.
Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo
Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.
Kusnierz, Paul C; Holbrook, Christopher M
Bed stability is an important stream habitat attribute because it affects geomorphology and biotic communities. Natural resource managers desire indices of bed stability that can be used under a wide range of geomorphic conditions, are biologically meaningful, and are easily incorporated into sampling protocols. To eliminate potential bias due to presence of instream wood and increase precision of stability values, we modified a stream bed instability index (ISI) to include measurements of bankfull depth (d bf ) and median particle diameter (D 50 ) only in riffles and increased the pebble count to decrease variability (i.e., increase precision) in D 50 . The new riffle-based instability index (RISI) was compared to two established indices: ISI and the riffle stability index (RSI). RISI and ISI were strongly associated with each other but neither was closely associated with RSI. RISI and ISI were closely associated with both a diatom- and two macrovertebrate-based stream health indices, but RSI was only weakly associated with the macroinvertebrate indices. Unexpectedly, precision of D 50 did not differ between RISI and ISI. Results suggest that RISI is a viable alternative to both ISI and RSI for evaluating bed stability in multiple stream types. With few data requirements and a simple protocol, RISI may also better conform to riffle-based sampling methods used by some water quality practitioners.
Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid
This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity-a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college.
Moraitis, Manos L; Tsikopoulou, Irini; Geropoulos, Antonios; Dimitriou, Panagiotis D; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Giannoulaki, Marianna; Valavanis, Vasilis D; Karakassis, Ioannis
Marine habitat assessment using indicator species through Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) was investigated. The bivalves: Corbula gibba and Flexopecten hyalinus were the indicator species characterizing disturbed and undisturbed areas respectively in terms of chlorophyll a concentration in Greece. The habitat suitability maps of these species reflected the overall ecological status of the area. The C. gibba model successfully predicted the occurrence of this species in areas with increased physical disturbance driven by chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the habitat map for F. hyalinus showed an increased probability of occurrence in chlorophyll-poor areas, affected mainly by salinity. We advocate the use of C. gibba as a proxy for eutrophication and the incorporation of this species in monitoring studies through SDM methods. For the Mediterranean Sea we suggest the use of F. hyalinus in SDM as an indicator of environmental stability and a possible forecasting tool for salinity fluctuations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Apolinar Membrillo Luna
Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Studnek, Jonathan R; Bentley, Melissa; Crawford, J Mac; Fernandez, Antonio R
Ensuring the health and productivity of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals is important. However, there has been no known national baseline assessment of the health and wellness of EMS professionals in the United States. According to Healthy People 2010, top indicators of personal health include physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and smoking prevalence. The objectives of this study included quantifying existing health conditions and describing key health indicators among EMS professionals. It was hypothesized that work-life characteristics were associated with existing health conditions and key health indicators. Data utilized for this analysis were obtained from a 2007 questionnaire included in biennial national recertification packets. This questionnaire utilized validated items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the Longitudinal EMT Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). Along with common demographic characteristics, items inquired about existing health conditions (diabetes, asthma, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or high blood cholesterol level), general health, physical activity, and smoking status. Descriptive analyses were performed utilizing chi-square tests, and logistic regression was utilized to describe associations between existing health conditions and the key health indicators. There were 58,435 individuals who became recertified in 2007, with 30,560 (52%) returning questionnaires. Individuals with missing data were removed, leaving 19,960 individual records. There were 4,681 (23.5%) individuals who reported at least one existing health condition. The mean BMI for the study participants was 27.69 kg/m(2). There were 5,742 (28.8%) individuals classified as having normal weight and 5,146 (25.8%) who were obese. The overwhelming majority of individuals did not meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for physical activity (15,022, 75.3%). There
Lum, O M
The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.
Rajaneesh, K.M.; Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.
that these organisms can serve as good indicators of the trophic status of the water column. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study Area Sampling was carried out in an area within the CB, along the west coast (9o 34’ 48” N, 76o 08’ 24” E) of India (Fig.1... of the estuarine system (Jyothibabu et al., 2006). CB is a very important 4 estuarine system of Kerala in terms of fishing and extensive transportation of goods. It is also used for dumping industrial as well as domestic wastes. It has three dredged channels...
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
The null hypothesis for this study suggested that there was no significant difference in the types of performance error indicators between accredited and non-accredited programs on the following types of indicators: (1) number of significant event reports per unit, (2) number of forced outages per unit, (3) number of unplanned automatic scrams per unit, and (4) amount of equivalent availability per unit. A sample of 90 nuclear power plants was selected for this study. Data were summarized from two data bases maintained by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. Results of this study did not support the research hypothesis. There was no significant difference between the accredited and non-accredited programs on any of the four performance error indicators. The primary conclusions of this include the following: (1) The four selected performance error indicators cannot be used individually or collectively to predict accreditation status in the nuclear power industry. (2) Annual performance error indicator ratings cannot be used to determine the effects of performance-based training on plant performance. (3) The four selected performance error indicators cannot be used to measure the effect of operator job performance on plant effectiveness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate
This paper suggests new empirical DEA models for the measurement of health indicators and the allocation of health resources. The proposed models were developed by first suggesting a population-based health indicator. By introducing the suggested indicator into DEA models, a new approach that solves the problem of health resource allocation has been developed. The proposed models are applied to an empirical study of Taiwan's health system. Empirical findings show that the suggested indicator can successfully accommodate the differences in health resource demands between populations, providing more reliable performance information than traditional indicators such as physician density. Using our models and a commonly used allocation mechanism, capitation, to allocate medical expenditures, it is found that the proposed model always obtains higher performance than those derived from capitation, and the superiority increases as allocated expenditures rise.
Full Text Available Introduction: Community-oriented oral health promotion programmes can be efficiently targeted by assessing the oral health status comprehensively. Aim: To investigate oral health status and normative needs of college students in Mangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was done among 720, 18–20-year-old students attending degree colleges in Mangalore using multi-stage random sampling. Oral health status was recorded as per World Health Organization oral health assessment form. The data were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11.5 version software. Results: Overall dental caries prevalence accounted to 68.1%, with a mean Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (DMFT of 1.94 [males had higher DMFT score (2.06 than females (1.82], and majority of the students required one surface restoration. Periodontal status of the students as measured by Community Periodontal Index (CPI showed that majority of the study participants (34.9% had calculus necessitating the need for oral prophylaxis. Conclusion: Oral health status of the age groups not traditionally studied gives the complete picture of the oral disease burden, indicating the need of oral heath preventive measures among college students in India.
Seid, Abdu Kedir
In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.
Quezada, Amado D; Lozada-Tequeanes, Ana L
Although the associations between specific socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and overweight or obesity (OWOB) have been studied in different countries, fewer evidence exists for these associations when multiple SES indicators are considered simultaneously. Furthermore, there are few studies investigating time trends in OWOB and their relation with SES in upper-middle income countries, especially for men. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the nature and evolution of the associations between SES indicators and OWOB in the Mexican adult population. We pooled data from the 2006 and 2012 National Health and Nutrition Surveys in Mexico and obtained covariate-adjusted prevalence from a design-based logistic multiple regression model. Covariates included a wealth index, education, occupational status, marital status, and all interactions for each covariate with sex (male/female) and survey year. For men, the association between wealth and OWOB remained positive in general but curvature was more evident in 2012. The wealth-OWOB association in women showed an inverted-U pattern at both years with a positive slope that turned into a negative one as wealth increased. Among women, OWOB prevalence at the college/university education level was approximately 12.0 ± 2.4 (percentage points ± standard error) lower compared with the elementary education level. We did not find differences between educational categories for men in 2006, but in 2012 OWOB tended to be higher among the more educated. The prevalence of obesity in women increased at wealth levels from the middle and upper-middle section of the wealth distributions. Overall OWOB prevalence was near 70 % in 2012 for both sexes. Among Mexican women, the associations between SES indicators and excess body weight were consistent to those found in developed countries. Among Mexican men, higher education was not associated with a lower prevalence of OWOB but the positive association between
Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.
Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.
Kazi, A; Haslam, C O
Psychological stress is a major cause of lost working days in the UK. The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has developed management standards (MS) to help organizations to assess work-related stress. To investigate the relationships between the MS indicator tool and employee health, job attitudes, work performance and environmental outcomes. The first phase involved a survey employing the MS indicator tool, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), job attitudes, work performance and environmental measures in a call centre from a large utility company. The second phase comprised six focus groups to investigate what employees believed contributed to their perceived stress. Three hundred and four call centre employees responded with a response rate of 85%. Significant negative correlations were found between GHQ-12 and two MS dimensions; demands (Rho = -0.211, P job performance, job motivation and increased intention to quit but low stress levels were associated with reduced job satisfaction. Lack of management support, recognition and development opportunities were identified as sources of stress. The findings support the utility of the MS as a measure of employee attitudes and performance.
Istomin, A V; Mikhaĭlov, I G
Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.
Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of rare, genetic connective tissue diseases that cause blisters in the skin and mucosal membranes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of patients with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica and level of knowledge and opinion of parents about the implementation of preventive measaures and quality of dental care of affected children. Methods. This study included a group of 17 patients from Serbia suffering from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and matched control group. Dental caries status was assessed using the Klein-Palmer index. Oral hygiene status was verified with oral hygiene indices, simplified plaque index, and calculus index as described by Green and Vermillion. The gingiva was assessed as healthy or inflamed (gingivitis on the basis of any changes in color, shape, size and surface texture. The condition of oral mucosa has been registered on the basis of inspection of the lips, tongue, a floor of the mouth, mouth vestibule and palate. The level of knowledge and the impressions of parents about the application of preventive measures were investigated through two questionnaires specifically designed for this study. Results. In both dentitions, there was the highest percentage of caries teeth. In primary dentition average value of the modified plaque index was 1.4 ± 1.14 and modified calculus was 0.7 ± 1. On permanent teeth average plaque index was 2 ± 0.4, and average calculus 1.6 ± 0.6. Statistically, significant higher values were found in permanent dentition in percentage distribution of decayed, missing, filled teeth and also for plaque and calculus indices between affected children and the control group. Most common findings on mucosa were microstomia (76.5% and ankyloglossia (88.2%. Conclusion. The absence of protocol between the treating physician and the dentist and not sufficiently informed parents are leading to inadequate dental care. The implementation of
Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127
Elizabeth M Miller
Full Text Available Women experience significant changes in iron status throughout their reproductive lifespans. While this is evident in regions with high rates of malnutrition and infectious disease, the extent of reproductive-related changes is less well known in countries with low rates of iron deficiency anemia, such as the United States. The goal of this study is determine the relationship between women's reproductive variables (pregnancy, parity, currently breastfeeding, regular menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use, and age at menarche and iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and % transferrin saturation using an anthropological framework for interpreting the results. Data from women aged 18-49 were taken from the 1999-2006 US NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of US women. Using multiple imputation and complex survey statistics, women's reproductive variables were regressed against indicators of iron status. Pregnant women had significantly poorer iron status, by most indicators, than non-pregnant women. All biomarkers demonstrated significantly lower iron levels with increasing parity. Women who were having regular periods had iron indicators that suggested decreased iron levels, while women who used hormonal contraceptives had iron indicators that suggested increased iron levels. Despite relatively good iron status and widespread availability of iron-rich foods in the US, women still exhibit patterns of iron depletion across several reproductive variables of interest. These results contribute to an ecological approach to iron status that seeks to understand variation in iron status, with the hopes that appropriate, population-specific recommendations can be developed to improve women's health.
Full Text Available Context and Aims: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect the nutritional status of an individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the magnitude of obesity and undernutrition based on body mass index (BMI and direct, derived anthropometric variables, among college students of Kolkata. Subjects and Methods: Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and non-invasive method that reflects body composition. A total of 100 male students aged 18-22 years of different undergraduate colleges of Kolkata have participated in this study. Anthropometric profiles (a total of 24 direct and derived variables including weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences were measured. Results: Results showed 14.68% of the studied population are underweight, 9.25% are overweight, and 0.89% is obese, as per BMI. The present report showed higher prevalence of normal BMI (75.16% in male college students, whereas obesity was almost found to absent among participants. Conclusion: The findings of the present report indicated occurrence of almost normal nutritional status among male undergraduates of Kolkata based on BMI and anthropometric indices
Listen as Dr. Machell Town, a branch chief and statistician with CDC's Division of Population Health, talks about her team's study on self-perceived health and reported mental distress among working-aged adults.
Xiao, Hong; Barber, Janet P
To examine the effect of perceived health status on three components of patient satisfaction. The Household Component of the 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for people 35-64 years of age was used to examine the effect of perceived health status on patient satisfaction measured in terms of access to care, provider quality and quality of care. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were used to describe the subjects and to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and perceived health status controlling for patient demographic factors, health factors and provider characteristics. All analyses used STATA 8.0 which is designed to analyze weighted data. A total of 4,417 patients (71% women) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Patients who rated their health excellent or good scored higher on the three dimensions of patient satisfaction. Higher scores on one or more components of patient satisfaction were associated with being older, married, better educated and having higher income, health insurance and good mental health. Seeing the health-care provider for an old problem resulted in lower levels of patient satisfaction. Provider characteristics significantly related to patient satisfaction were listening to the patient, being a specialist, seeing patients in an office setting and being located in the South. This study has shown that patient satisfaction is influenced by a person's self-perceived health status and other personal characteristics that are external to the delivery of health care. These findings suggest that patient satisfaction data should be used judiciously because a significant portion of the variation may be attributed to factors endogenous to the patient and therefore are not amenable to provider intervention.
Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Dweik, Diana; Girasek, Edmond
Female doctors in Hungary have worse indicators of physical and mental health compared with other professional women. We aimed to cast light on possible indicators of mental health, workload, and burnout of female physicians. Two time-points (T) were compared, in 2003 (T1 n = 408) and 2013 (T2 n = 2414), based on two nationally representative surveys of female doctors, and comparison made with data from other professional control groups. Independent samples t test or chi-squared test was used both for the two time-point comparison and the comparison between the index and the control groups. The background factors of sleep disorders and burnout were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. No significant differences in the rates of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts and attempts were detected between the 2003 and 2013 cohorts, but the prevalence of sleep disorders increased. The workload increased, and there was less job satisfaction in 2013 than in 2003, coupled to more stressful or difficult work-related situations. The personal accomplishment component of burnout significantly decreased in line with the declining work-related satisfaction. Compared to the professional control groups, the prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, and sleep disorders was higher among female physicians at both time-points. The number of workplaces, frequency of work-related stressful situations, and intensive role conflict was associated with sleep disorders and decreased personal accomplishment. In comparison with the other professional groups, female doctors had worse mental health indicators with regard to depression, suicidal ideas, and sleep disorders both in 2003 and 2013 while within professional strata the changes seemed to be less. Increasing workload had a clear impact on sleep disorders and the personal accomplishment dimension of burnout.
Negeri, Gutema; Haile Mariam,Damen
Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...
Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence
To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Clement C. Azodo
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...
Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng
China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.
Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status
Hjorth, Mads Fiil
The prevalence of overweight children is high and increasing numbers of children now show features of metabolic syndrome. Various aspects of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and lack of good-quality sleep have all been linked to this recent development of overweight and cardio-metabolic risk...... at reducing obesity and its associated metabolic complications in adulthood. In my PhD thesis I assessed objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children and related these movement behaviors to indicators of adverse health (dietary intake, adiposity......, and cardio-metabolic risk markers). Firstly, findings indicated that waist-worn accelerometers could be used to obtain a proxy measure of sleep duration meaning that monitoring of physical activity and sleep could be done by a single accelerometer worn on the waist for 24-hours a day. Secondly, most...
Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A
Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Karnam, Rekha Rao; Kumar, Naganandini Samapth; Eshwar, Shruthi; Deolia, Shravani
Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability. Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability. There is a potential role of cognitive ability in SES and oral health.
Hale, Lauren; Hill, Terrence D; Friedman, Elliot; Nieto, F Javier; Galvao, Loren W; Engelman, Corinne D; Malecki, Kristen M C; Peppard, Paul E
Why does living in a disadvantaged neighborhood predict poorer mental and physical health? Recent research focusing on the Southwestern United States suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods favor poor health, in part, because they undermine sleep quality. Building on previous research, we test whether this process extends to the Midwestern United States. Specifically, we use cross-sectional data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a statewide probability sample of Wisconsin adults, to examine whether associations among perceived neighborhood quality (e.g., perceptions of crime, litter, and pleasantness in the neighborhood) and health status (overall self-rated health and depression) are mediated by overall sleep quality (measured as self-rated sleep quality and physician diagnosis of sleep apnea). We find that perceptions of low neighborhood quality are associated with poorer self-rated sleep quality, poorer self-rated health, and more depressive symptoms. We also observe that poorer self-rated sleep quality is associated with poorer self-rated health and more depressive symptoms. Our mediation analyses indicate that self-rated sleep quality partially mediates the link between perceived neighborhood quality and health status. Specifically, self-rated sleep quality explains approximately 20% of the association between neighborhood quality and self-rated health and nearly 19% of the association between neighborhood quality and depression. Taken together, these results confirm previous research and extend the generalizability of the indirect effect of perceived neighborhood context on health status through sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Holland, Berry J.; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Brouwer, Sandra
Background Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,
van Holland, B.J.; Soer, R.; de Boer, M.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Brouwer, S.
Background Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane
Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.
Stronks, K.; van de Mheen, H.; van den Bos, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are smaller among women than among men. In this paper, it is hypothesized that this is due to a gender difference in employment status. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study. The socioeconomic indicators were educational level of the
Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.
Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…
Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain
Full Text Available The execution of public policies, which attain the reduction of the iniquities in oral health, requires, from managers of Brazil’s Health Unified System (SUS, a planning of simplified actions with universal reach, as well as the participation of social actors who are involved in this process. The Community Oral Health Indicator – ICSB aims at consisting in “new technology” in order to obtain data in an easy and simple way that can be able to provide agility to planning organization towards the equity, as well as improving the population’s oral health condition. As a strategy, involving the community health agent (ACS from the Family Health Program (PSF, the tool (ICSB was developed to survey the data on oral health epidemiological status of the population. The methodological design consists, initially, in a training workshop with the ACS and a posterior data survey along the population. The dentists involved in the project will be the preceptors of the training workshop for the ACS, in what concerns the identification of oral health problems and their degree of severity. According to the need of treatment, the dentist will develop oral health actions based on the principle of equity.
Chung, Woojin; Kim, Jaeyeun; Lim, Seung-Ji; Lee, Sunmi
No study of obesity risk for people in developed countries has conducted a multi-dimensional analysis of the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. In this paper, we investigated if education functions as either a confounder or an effect modifier in the association of another socioeconomic status indicator with obesity. This cross-sectional study analyzed data of an adult population sample (10,905 men and 14,580 women) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2014). The study performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for three education levels and four indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., marital status, residential area, occupation, and income). The overall prevalence of obesity was 38.1% in men and 29.1% in women (p status and obesity (p for interaction = 0.006), it functioned as both a confounder (p socioeconomic indicator groups in men; for example, in a rural resident group, a higher level of education increased the probability of being obese by 19.7%. The present study suggests the need to examine sex-specific studies regarding the role of education on the association between other socioeconomic status indicators and obesity. This should be considered in planning education policies to reduce the risk of obesity.
Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U
The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in
Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana
The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority.
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)
textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…
Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Pantelic, G.; Kovacevic, R.; Pavlovic, M.; Tanaskovic, I.
Uranium is widely distributed in the natural environment: in the soil, air and food. And thus all people on the planet inhale or ingest small quantities of uranium every day. However, depleted uranium (DU) is industrial product. It is used in medicine, aviation, astronomy, oil exploitation, as well as for military purposes for penetrating ammunition. America is not the only country that applies depleted uranium ammunition. It is a part of the military arsenal in France, England, Turkey, Israel, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Thailand. Depleted uranium is toxic for both humans and animals for two basic reasons: as a heavy metal, it has toxic chemical effects, and as an alpha-emitter, it also has radioactive effects. Although it is considered less radioactive than natural uranium, its toxicity is high due to high LET (linear energetic transfer) irradiation, tissue deposition (bones, kidneys, blood, lungs) and elimination time (5000 days). Radiation limit above which adverse health effects are initiated (radiation carcinogenic risk), depends on the quantity and contamination time (how much and how long), including also other factors, such as age, sex, previous health status, exposure to other materials, genetic predisposition and radiosensitivity (lack of indicators), diet and stress. According to ICRP recommendations, carcinogenic risk for the occupationally exposed individuals is minimal if the exposure is limited to the effective dose of 100 mSv for five years and not above 50 in a single year, being five times lower for general population. In average annual effective dose per population, from all sources is below 1mSv, carcinogenic risk will range from 1 per 10 000 to 1 per 100 000, and in occupationally exposed individuals exposed to maximum permitted doses (MPD), the risk of cancer with fatal outcome is below 3 per 100 000). Immediate effects of population exposure to low uranium doses do not result in evident clinical picture. Late consequences include
Fernández-Martín, L C; Iglesias-de-Sena, H; Fombellida-Velasco, C; Vicente-Torres, I; Alonso-Sardón, M; Mirón Canelo, J A
To improve the quality of care in a Mental Health Hospital and identify the level of patient satisfaction. A descriptive, longitudinal, and retrospective study was conducted on 666 patients who completed treatment in the Mental Health Day Hospital of Salamanca, during the period 1994-2012, using the Hospital Management Annual Reports. A questionnaire designed for this purpose was used as the measurement tool. Most of the patients satisfactorily valued aspects, such as the general impression of the treatment (90% said «good/fairly good») and perception of being helped (94% perceived «very/fairly helped»); with 83% believing that the hospital is accessible. As regards empathy-understanding, it was noted that 14% feel discontent. While 18% of patients expected to be completely cured, the 83% of patients that finished their treatment have said that, in their opinion, the symptoms have subsided «very or somewhat». As regards the knowledge that they have about their disease, 30% believe it has advanced «a lot.» Based on the perceptions reported by patients, it may be said that in general, the level of user satisfaction in the Mental Health Day Hospital is high. Assessing quality through the user opinions helps control the quality, considering that patient satisfaction is a good indicator of result of the care received during their hospitalisation. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.
The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.
Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Scribani, Melissa; Wyckoff, Lynae; Strogatz, David; May, John; Jenkins, Paul
New York, like many other states, provides county-level health statistics for use in local priority settings but does not provide any data on public views about priority health issues. This study assessed whether health department priorities are notably different from community concerns about health, and how both groups' priorities compare with local health statistics. Data from a 2009 rural survey on community health concerns were compared to priorities named by the seven area county health departments, and to local health indicator data. Health care/insurance cost (60%), obesity (53%), and prescription cost (41%) were leading community concerns, regardless of age, education, sex, or Internet in the home. Six of seven county health departments selected access to quality health care (which includes health care/insurance cost) as a leading public health priority, but only three identified obesity. The following leading local health issues were suggested by health indicators: Physical activity and nutrition, Smoking, and Unintentional injury. Health departments diverged from community priorities, from health indicator data, and from one another in choosing priorities. Adding a question about community health priorities to existing state telephone surveys on health behavior and lifestyle would provide an important tool to local health departments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...
Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...
Health status based on lifestyle-related disease is a concern in many developing countries, including Kenya. Factors related to such disease conditions, are important in ensuring economic sustainability in future. Currently there is limited research in this area. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship ...
The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...
Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.
Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and
Here a high infant mortality rate is examined against a low prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and syphilis and some of the effects of migrant labour on the health status of migrant hostel dwellers are identified. The low prevalence of disease among the Cape Town hostel residents suggests that migrant labour, by sifting ...
Schiffer, Angélique A; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, a subgroup of patients still report impaired health status, cardiac symptoms, and feelings of disability following CRT. The aims of this study were to examine (1) whether CHF patients treated...
Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.
Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R
To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P driven (P car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.
Full Text Available The lower pressure of water vapor of the outer eastern and south-eastern Carpathians, as well as in Dobrogea, determines within these areas an average annual number of days of under 2 days. In sheltered areas from Bârlad Plateau the average multi-annual value decreases even below 0,5 days. Hail events that affect the territory of Moldova are, in most cases, caused by thunderstorms during May and June (frequency of over 60 %. We had analysed in the present paper a representative number of statistical severe convective events causing hailstorms and material damage between 1990-2013 period. Values of atmospheric instability indices have been analyzed for these episodes as CAPE (Convective available potential energy, SWEAT (severe weather threat, Li (lifted index, KI (K index, TT (total totals to evaluate their medium range forecast under the hail production conditions. These indicators measure the degree of atmospheric instability providing information about possible occurrence of clouds with large vertical extent. The most powerful correlations have been recorded in the case of parameter LI, for which the daily mean value was used. The status of these indices is assessed for both the days with hail, but also on previous intervals with hail to assess their capacity to forecast this extreme weather phenomenon.
Dohn, Anita L; Chávez, Andrea; Dohn, Michael N; Saturria, Luis; Pimentel, Carlos
To assess the impact of health promotion programs and microcredit programs on three communities in the Dominican Republic. One community had only the health promotion program, one community had only the microcredit program, and one community had both a health promotion program and a microcredit program. This pilot project examined the hypothesis that the largest changes in 11 health indicators that were studied would be in the community with both a health promotion program and a microcredit program, that there would be intermediate changes in the community with only a health promotion program, and that the smallest changes would be in the community with only a microcredit program. The health promotion programs used community volunteers to address two major concerns: (1) the prevalent causes of mortality among children under 5 years of age and (2) women's health (specifically breast and cervical cancer screening). The microcredit program made small loans to individuals to start or expand small businesses. Outcome measures were based on comparisons for 11 health indicators from baseline community surveys (27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, done in December 2000 and January 2001) and from follow-up surveys (also 27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, in June and July 2002, after the health promotion program had been operating for about 13 months). Households were randomly chosen during both the baseline and follow-up surveys, without regard to their involvement in the microcredit or health promotion programs. The health indicators improved in all three communities. However, the degree of change was different among the communities (P microcredit and health promotion programs had the largest changes for 10 of the 11 health indicators. Multisector development is known to be important on a macroeconomic scale. The results of this pilot project support the view that multisector development is also important on a microeconomic level
Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines, and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines. 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65, and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72 and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75 education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75 and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74. Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines.
Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.
Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the
Scheil-Adlung, Xenia; Behrendt, Thorsten; Wong, Lorraine
Health sector employment is a prerequisite for availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of health services. Thus, in this article health worker shortages are used as a tracer indicator estimating the proportion of the population lacking access to such services: The SAD (ILO Staff Access Deficit Indicator) estimates gaps towards UHC in the context of Social Protection Floors (SPFs). Further, it highlights the impact of investments in health sector employment equity and sustainable development. The SAD is used to estimate the share of the population lacking access to health services due to gaps in the number of skilled health workers. It is based on the difference of the density of the skilled health workforce per population in a given country and a threshold indicating UHC staffing requirements. It identifies deficits, differences and developments in access at global, regional and national levels and between rural and urban areas. In 2014, the global UHC deficit in numbers of health workers is estimated at 10.3 million, with most important gaps in Asia (7.1 million) and Africa (2.8 million). Globally, 97 countries are understaffed with significantly higher gaps in rural than in urban areas. Most affected are low-income countries, where 84 per cent of the population remains excluded from access due to the lack of skilled health workers. A positive correlation of health worker employment and population health outcomes could be identified. Legislation is found to be a prerequisite for closing access as gaps. Health worker shortages hamper the achievement of UHC and aggravate weaknesses of health systems. They have major impacts on socio-economic development, particularly in the world's poorest countries where they act as drivers of health inequities. Closing the gaps by establishing inclusive multi-sectoral policy approaches based on the right to health would significantly increase equity, reduce poverty due to ill health and ultimately contribute
Lindmark, Ulrika; Jansson, Henrik; Lannering, Christina; Johansson, Linda
To explore the association between oral health and nutritional status in the context of daily care for older people. Oral problems often increase with age and affect a person's ability to chew and swallow. They might also influence the ability to maintain a satisfactory nutritional status. Oral health awareness is therefore of great importance in nursing care for older people. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Swedish quality register, Senior Alert, were used, including structured assessments of both oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. In total, 1,156 persons (mean age: 82.8 ± 7.9) had both oral and nutritional assessments registered by the nursing staff in daily care. Approximately 29% of participants had moderate oral health problems. Another 12% had severe problems. Over 60% of the persons were considered at risk of malnutrition or were malnourished. There was a weak correlation between poor nutritional status and poor oral health, and approximately one-third of the persons who were at risk or malnourished had simultaneous oral problems. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that when problems involving voice and swallowing were present, there was also a greater possibility of being assessed as at risk of malnourishment or being malnourished. There is a relationship between oral health problems and nutritional status, indicating the importance of evaluating oral health status in older persons with nutritional problems. Nursing staff involved in care for older people should be aware of the importance of including regular oral health check-ups in their work. There is also a need for nursing staff members and oral health professionals to exchange knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.
Marino Gallina, Pietro; Bechini, Luca; Cabassi, Giovanni; Cavalli, Daniele; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Corti, Martina; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia; Masseroni, Daniele; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Facchi, Arianna
Improvements in crop production depend on the correct adoption of agronomic and irrigation management strategies. The use of high spatial and temporal resolution monitoring methods may be used in precision agriculture to improve the efficiency in water and nutrient input management, guaranteeing the environmental sustainability of agricultural productions. In the last decades, many indices for the monitoring of water or nitrogen status of crops were developed by using multispectral images and, more recently, hyperspectral and thermal images acquired by satellite of airborne platforms. To date, however, comprehensive studies aimed at identifying indices as independent as possible for the management of the two types of stress are still scarce in the literature. Moreover, the chemometric approach for the statistical analysis of the acquired images is not yet widely experienced in this research area. In this context, this work presents the set-up of a greenhouse experiment that will start in February 2015 in Milan (Northern Italy), which aims to the objectives described above. The experiment will be carried out on two crops with a different canopy geometry (rice and spinach) subjected to four nitrogen treatments, for a total of 96 pots. Hyperspectral scanner and thermal images will be acquired at four phenological stages. At each phenological phase, acquisitions will be conducted on one-fourth of the pots, in the first instance in good water conditions and, subsequently, at different time steps after the cessation of irrigation. During the acquisitions, measurements of leaf area index and biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content in the plants, soil water content, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential will be performed. Moreover, on leaf samples, destructive biochemical analysis will be conducted to evaluate the physiological stress status of crops in the light of different irrigation and nutrient levels. Multivariate regression analysis between the acquired
U P, Rathnakar; Belman, Madhuri; Kamath, Ashwin; B, Unnikrishnan; Shenoy K, Ashok; A L, Udupa
People with limited health literacy are more likely to make medication errors, and they have less health knowledge, worse health status, more hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs than people with adequate literacy. The objective of this study is to assess the health literacy status among patients who are able to read and understand English attending a tertiary care hospital by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine [REALM] technique and to compare the health literacy levels to educational status and other baseline characteristics. A widely used word recognition method [REALM] was used to assess the HL status of 200 patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India. The number of correctly pronounced words was used to assign a grade-equivalent reading level. Scores 0 to 44 indicate reading skills at or below the 6th grade level, scores from 45 to 60 represent skills at the 7th or 8th grade level, and scores above 60 indicate skills at the high-school level or higher. HL status was found below adequate level in more than 50% of the patients. Younger age group showed better HL scores compared to those aged more than 25 years. General education level or the medium of education does not truly reflect HL levels as brought out in the study. Even those with postgraduate qualification had poor HL skills. The study was carried out to find out the HL levels among patients attending a tertiary care hospital. It was assumed that the general education levels may not reflect true HL status. In view of the results of this study it can be concluded that patient's HL skills should not be taken for granted and adequate attention should be paid in educating and briefing patients whenever patients are required to interpret and understand health care related documents.
Rahu, Mati; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Pega, Frank; Andreeva, Tatiana; Ay, Pinar; Baburin, Aleksei; Bencko, Vladimír; Csépe, Péter; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Ondrusová, Martina; Ribak, Joseph
This article of the International Epidemiological Association commissioned paper series stocktakes the population health and status of epidemiology in 21 of the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. By United Nations geographical classification, these countries belong to Eastern Europe, Western Asia and South-Central Asia. Published data were used to describe population health indicators and risk factors. Epidemiological training and research was assessed based on author knowledge, information searches and E-mail survey of experts. Bibliometric analyses determined epidemiological publication outputs. Between-country differences in life expectancy, amount and profile of disease burden and prevalence of risk factors are marked. Epidemiological training is affected by ongoing structural reforms of educational systems. Training is advanced in Israel and several Eastern European countries. Epidemiological research is mainly university-based in most countries, but predominantly conducted by governmental research institutes in several countries of the former Soviet Union. Funding is generally external and limited, partially due to competition from and prioritization of biomedical research. Multiple relevant professional societies exist, especially in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Few of the region's 39 epidemiological academic journals have international currency. The number of epidemiological publications per population is highest for Israel and lowest for South-Central Asian countries. Epidemiological capacity will continue to be heterogeneous across the region and depend more on countries' individual historical, social, political and economic conditions and contexts than their epidemiologists' successive efforts. National and international research funding, and within- and between-country collaborations should be enhanced, especially for South-Central Asian countries.
Hedt, Bethany L; Pagano, Marcello
Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing about those who do not visit the clinic beyond the fact that they do not visit the clinic. An alternative is to take a random sample of the population. However, we show that this solution would be wasteful if it excluded the use of available information. Hence, we present a simple annealing methodology that combines a relatively small, and presumably far less expensive, random sample with the convenience sample. This allows us to not only take advantage of powerful inferential tools, but also provides more accurate information than that available from just using data from the random sample alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Phanphairoj, Kanjanee; Loa, Ritzmond
Health is influenced by numerous factors that affect the health service system and health status of the people in every country. This article aims to compare the determinants of the health service system and the health status of the people in Thailand, the Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia; and to recommend policies that impact the population's health and the country's development. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature from a variety of online search and academic databases, and synthesis of previous study was used in this paper. Data on country indicators were taken from published online databases of the Ministry of Public Health of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand,and Vietnam; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank. In Thailand, the determinants of the health service system and health status of the people are medical information and technology because of the government initiatives to improve the quality of healthcare services through the use of modern technology. In Vietnam, the society and culture, and the strengths and weaknesses of the hospital significantly affect the health status and health service system there because of the religious beliefs of the people. However, in Cambodia, the strengths and weaknesses of the hospital are the primary determinant of the health service system and health status of the people due to the condition of the hospitals, the availability of new medical devices, and the number of healthcare professionals. In the Lao PDR, trade and investment, and medical information and technology, significantly influence the health service system and health status of the people because of the government efforts to outsource capital expenditures and medical technology. The strengths and weaknesses of the hospital are the key determinants of the health service system and health status of the people in all GMS countries. Understanding the determinants of health is essential in order to develop policies and programs that impact the
Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H
To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
Tan, L; Yang, Q H; Chen, J L; Zou, H X; Xia, T S; Liu, Y
The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of mental health status and attitudes towards suicide on suicidal ideation in a sample of 6568 Chinese children and adolescents in China. Attitudes towards suicide were investigated as a possible moderator and mediator of the influence of mental health status on suicidal ideation. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Approximately 35.38% of children and adolescents in our study reported having suicidal ideation. Mental health status and attitudes towards suicide both had an independent effect on the severity of suicidal ideation. Results indicated that mental health status was positively associated with suicidal ideation, while attitudes towards suicide were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of mental health status on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among children and adolescents who reported favourable attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide partially mediated the link between mental health status and the severity of suicidal ideation. Specifically, students who experienced poorer mental health status might be more likely to report significantly more favourable attitudes towards suicide, which in turn promote greater suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the prevention of youth suicide, suggesting that mental health status and attitudes towards suicide could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicidal ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Christine E. Blake
Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.
Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.
Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373
Feng, Wei; Qi, Shuangli; Heng, Yarong; Zhou, Yi; Wu, Yapeng; Liu, Wandai; He, Li; Li, Xiao
Plant disease and pests influence the physiological state and restricts the healthy growth of crops. Physiological measurements are considered the most accurate way of assessing plant health status. In this paper, we researched the use of an in situ hyperspectral remote sensor to detect plant water status in winter wheat infected with powdery mildew. Using a diseased nursery field and artificially inoculated open field experiments, we detected the canopy spectra of wheat at different developmental stages and under different degrees of disease severity. At the same time, destructive sampling was carried out for physical tests to investigate the change of physiological parameters under the condition of disease. Selected vegetation indices (VIs) were mostly comprised of green bands, and correlation coefficients between these common VIs and plant water content (PWC) were generally 0.784-0.902 ( p powdery mildew stress. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) was sensitive to physiological response influenced by powdery mildew, and the relationships of PRI with chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), and the potential activity of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fo) were good with R 2 = 0.639, 0.833, 0.808, respectively. Linear regressions showed PRI demonstrated a steady relationship with PWC across different growth conditions, with R 2 = 0.817 and RMSE = 2.17. The acquired PRI model of wheat under the powdery mildew stress has a good compatibility to different experimental fields from booting stage to filling stage compared with the traditional water signal vegetation indices, WBI, FWBI 1 , and FWBI 2 . The verification results with independent data showed that PRI still performed better with R 2 = 0.819 between measured and predicted, and corresponding RE = 8.26%. Thus, PRI is recommended as a potentially reliable indicator of PWC in winter wheat with powdery mildew stress. The results will help to understand the physical state of
Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tishelman, Carol; Agüero-Torres, Hedda; Chowdhury, A M R; Winblad, Bengt; Höjer, Bengt
The study aims to (i) describe regional variation and gender differences in health status of older people (60 years and older) in Bangladesh, indicated by self-reported health problems and functional ability; (ii) explore influence of socio-economic factors on health status of older people. In a cross-sectional study in rural and urban Bangladesh, 696 older persons were asked about their health problems and ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL). More than 95% of older people reported health problems. Approximately 80% of elderly women in both the regions reported having four or more health problems compared with 42% and 63% elderly men in the urban and rural regions, respectively. More women (urban: 55%; rural: 36%) than men (urban: 32%; rural: 22%) also reported difficulties with ADL. Irrespective of age, sex and area of residence, those reporting greater number of health problems were more likely to report difficulty with at least one ADL task. Reporting pattern of specific health problems varied between urban and rural regions. Socio-economic indicators were found to have little influence on reporting of health problems, particularly in the rural region. Observed regional difference may be related to the influence of social and environmental factors, and level of awareness concerning certain health conditions.
Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Rossi, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Lidia; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco
to evaluate self-perceived health status of immigrants in Italy. cross-sectional study based on the representative national samples of the multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" conducted in 2005 and 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). the study was conducted on the age group of 18-64: No. 80,661 in 2005, among which 3.2% were immigrants, and No. 72,476 in 2013, among which 7.1% were immigrants. prevalence rate ratios (PRR) calculated through log-binomial regression models, stratified by survey edition and gender, by evaluating the association between the Physical Component Score (PCS), the Mental Component Score (MCS), and the overall health index and citizenship. Adjustment for the following confounding factors was performed: age, educational level, working condition, perceived economic resources, body mass index (BMI). in 2005, immigrants had a lower probability of poor-perceived physical health, both among men (PRR: 0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.89) and women (PRR: 0.89; 95%CI 0.82- 0.97), compared to Italians. In 2013, the perceived health advantage of immigrants was reduced for both genders (PRR males: 0.87; 95%CI 0.80-0.95; PRR females: 0.94; 95%CI 0.88-0.99). In the considered period, the prevalence of people with worse mental health conditions increases, with lower PRR among immigrants, compared to Italians. Higher probability of «NOT good» overall perceived health was also observed among immigrants residing in Italy for at least 10 years (PRR men: 1.24; PRR women: 1.15) and among immigrants men from America (PRR: 1.35). from 2005 to 2013, immigrants seemed to maintain a better perception of health status than Italians. Nevertheless, study results show a decrease in self-perceived health, particularly mental health, in the considered period - apart from demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors - as well as a worse overall self-perceived health status among immigrants who stayed in Italy longer. Such
Cerulli, Catherine; Cerulli, Jennifer; Santos, Elizabeth J; Lu, Najii; He, Hua; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; White, Anne Marie; Tu, Xin
To explore whether the health status of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims warrants pharmacies to be portals for public health promotion. Specific objectives included (1) identifying prevalence of IPV including domestic violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in a community sample, (2) describing characteristics and correlates of DV/SA between participants who reported and did not report DV/SA, and (3) exploring whether DV/SA status is related to mental health medication use. Cross sectional. Upstate New York during 2006. English- and Spanish-speaking respondents younger than 65 years of age answering four questions to assess DV/SA. Secondary analysis of a countywide random telephone survey, the 2006 Monroe County Adult Health Survey, which collects prevalence data on health behaviors and health status indicators. To determine whether those reporting DV/SA are at increased odds for mental health medication use, controlling for other sociodemographic- and health-related variables. The survey response rate was 30.3%, with 1,881 respondents meeting inclusion criteria. Those reporting DV/SA were almost twice as likely to use mental health medications. However, when controlling for other variables, only poor mental and physical health were significant in increasing the odds of mental health medication use. The analyses reported here suggest that DV/SA victims in a community sample use mental health medications. When controlling for other variables, survey respondents reported worse physical and mental health. If pharmacies are suitable portals for DV/SA outreach, curricula would need to provide the knowledge and skills needed to take an active role in this public health promotion.
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) displays depict traffic advisories, resolution advisories, and information on other aircraft. Symbols for other aircraft include the proximate status indication where the symbols of proximate...
Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.
Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking statesâ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...
Andersen, Jesper H; Dahl, Karsten; Göke, Cordula
the biodiversity status of Danish marine waters. The biodiversity status was in no areas classified as “unaffected by human activities.” In all the 22 assessment areas, the status was classified as either “moderately affected by human activities” or “significantly affected by human activities.” Spatial variations...
Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Chesney, R.W.; Lange, T.A.; Lindgren, U.; Smith, E. Jr.
Single-photon (I-125) absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) of the distal third of the radius, and dual-photon absorptiometry (Gd-153) was used to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM), as well as the BMC of major skeletal regions. Measurements were done in normal females, normal males, osteoporotic females, osteoporotic males, and renal patients. The BMC of the radius predicted TBBM well in normal subjects, but was less satisfactory in the patient groups. The spinal BMC was predicted with even lower accuracy from radius measurement. The error in predicting areal density (bone mass per unit projected skeletal area) of the lumbar and thoracic spine from the radius BMC divided by its width was smaller, but the regressions differed significantly among normals, osteoporotics, and renal patients. There was a preferential spinal osteopenia in the osteoporotic group and in about half of the renal patients. Bone measurements on the radius can indicate overall skeletal status in normal subjects and to a lesser degree in patients, but these radius measurements are inaccurate, even on the average, as an indicator of spinal state
Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I
The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no
Constantino-Coledam, Diogo H; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli; Arruda, Gustavo Aires de; Pires-Júnior, Raymundo; Teixeira, Marcio; Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de
This study was aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic indicators and adolescents' physical activity and health-related fitness. The study involved 716 adolescents from both genders whose age ranged from 10 to 18 years-old (46.8% male) who answered a questionnaire for estimating their habitual physical activity, socioeconomic status; two health-related physical fitness tests were also performed. The socioeconomic indicators analysed concerned their parents' educational level and the number of bathrooms, TVs, cars, housemaids, refrigerators and freezers in their homes. A positive association was found between paternal education (PR=1.61 (range 1.27-2.10) and 1.41 (1.10-1.83)) and housemaids (PR=1.97 (1.04-3.81) and 1.92 (1.05-3.52)) with recommended physical activity and leisure time physical activity, respectively. The number of cars (PR=1.48: 1.02-2.19) and freezers (PR=1.88: 1.12-3.18) was positively associated with leisure time physical activity and the number of TVs negatively so (PR=0.75: 0.63-0.89). The number of TVs (PR=0.80: 0.67-0.96) and cars (PR=0.70: 0.55-0.89) was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness whilst paternal education (PR=1.17: 1.00-1.37) and the number of bathrooms in the home (PR=1.25: 1.02-1.54) were positively associated with muscular strength. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness were associated with socioeconomic status. However, such association depended on the socioeconomic indicator being analysed. Caution should be taken when analysing studies which use different socioeconomic indicators.
Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.
Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E
The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...
Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan
PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health
Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C
Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd
Mulusew G. Jebena
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents’ health and wellbeing in Ethiopia. Method We used data from the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth which began tracking a cohort of adolescents in 2005 to examine the social, behavioral and economic determinants of their health and well-being. A total of 1,919 sample were included in the main analyses. All youths provided data related to their food insecurity experiences and their health status. A mixed effect logistic regression using random intercept and trend model was used to examine the relationship between food insecurity and their health status. Fixed effects estimates were also computed to check the parsimoniousness of the random intercept and trend model. Results The results indicated that the mean (±SD age of adolescents was 18.6(±1.4. Nine hundred twenty three (48.1% of them were female. The magnitude of self-rated health status was relatively unstable ranging from 18.9%, 34.7% to 37.3% in each round. Similarly, 20.4%, 48.4% and 20.6% of adolescents were food insecure during each consecutive round of the survey respectively. Exposure to food insecurity is strongly associated with self-rated health status (β = 0.28, P < 0.001 and poor self-rated health was also more pronounced for some time (β =2.11, P < 0.001 and decline after a turning point (β = −0.38, P < 0.001. Conclusions These findings imply that any social, nutrition and public health interventions designed to improve adolescent health should consider underlying social determinants of health such as food insecurity.
Cajandig, P.; Quiros, A.; Nolan, H.; Tallman, R.; Cooper, N.; Ayala, J.; Courtier, C.
Authors: Patrick Cajandig*, Jose Ayala**, Nathaniel Cooper**, Catherine Courtier**, Hannah Nolan**, Rachelle Tallman**, T.E. Angela L. Quiros** * Davis High-School CA, **University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department Seagrasses are a key component in coastal ecosystems. Found in shallow marine environments, they make a large contribution to coastal ecosystem health by sustaining water quality, stabilizing the sea bottom, and providing habitat as well as food for other organisms. Seagrasses accumulate tiny grains of sediment, increasing water clarity. Just like barren hills are prone to erosion compared to vegetated, rooted down hills, we find a similar situation in the ocean. Seagrasses have broad roots that extend vertically and horizontally to help stabilize the seabed. Seagrasses support a whole ecosystem, because some organisms feed off of the seagrass alone, while others feed off the inhabitants of the seagrass. The quality of sediment is a vital part of seagrass health, just like nutrient rich soils are important to land plants. But what in seagrass sediment is a good indication of health? We hypothesize that seagrass health measures such as percent cover and seagrass species diversity are related to the abundance of foraminiferans relative to other seagrass sediment components. My mentor, T. E. Angela L. Quiros, from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), collected the sediment samples from seagrass beds in the Philippines. Samples were dried and brought to UCSC for sediment sieving. We used different sized sieves to sort the sediment. These sieves ranged from coarse to very fine sieves (Phi -2.0 (coarse) through +3.0 (fine) going in 0.5 intervals on a log scale). We weighed the sediment that was caught in each tray and separated them into bags of different size classes. To analyze each sample, we subsampled four size classes (Phi's -2.0, -1.5,-1.0, 0.0), and used a dissecting scope to identify and then weigh the
Sánchez-Lastres, J; Eirís-Puñal, J; Otero-Cepeda, J L; Pavón-Belinchón, P; Castro-Gago, M
To evaluate the nutritional status of mentally retarded children in the region of Galicia in north-west Spain, on the basis of anthropometric variables. The following variables were determined in a sample of 128 mentally retarded children (81 M, 47 F): birthweight, bodyweight, height/length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, arm area, arm muscle area, arm fat area, arm lean-to-fat ratio, Shukla's nutrition index and Quetelet's body mass index (BMI). A preliminary statistical analysis indicated that most information content could be maintained considering only eight of these variables. A factor analysis of the resulting 8 x 128 (variables by subjects) data matrix was performed, identifying two factors (FA1 and FA2) that together explained 82% of total variance. Taking these factors as indicators of nutritional status, the data were analysed for possible effects of age, gender, socioeconomic and family environment, intelligence quotient (IQ), presence/absence of cerebral palsy, quality of diet, appetite and antiepileptic use. The analysis suggested that most subjects were in the normal nutrition range, but about 33% showed either borderline or definite malnutrition. Mean score on FA2 showed a significant negative correlation with age. Children with cerebral palsy had lower mean scores on both factors, and scores on both factors varied with IQ. Children with definite malnutrition had a significantly lower IQ than those in the normal nutrition range. Mean score on both factors varied with appetite and quality of diet. The mean FAI score of children from inland-rural areas was significantly lower than that of children from coastal or urban areas. Mean FA1 score increased with increasing age of the parents. The prevalence of obesity was 13% when obesity was defined on the basis of Shukla's nutrition index, and 19% when defined on the basis of FA1 score. Malnutrition as
Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix
OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...
Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit
Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...
Kaimi Pereira Costa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine performance indicators related to women’s health. Data were collected from 457 women living in the State of Parana, Brazil, classified according to age: 20-29 years (N=158, 30-39 years (N=171 and 40-49 years (N=128. The following variables were analyzed: height (m, body weight (kg, BMI, waist-hip ratio, abdominal strength (repetitions, flexibility (cm, and right and left hand grip strength (kgf. Descriptive statistics, one-factor ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all categories of the variables analyzed, except for right hand grip strength (good and excellent at age 30-39 years and left hand grip strength at age 40-49 years. There was a higher incidence of inadequate BMI and waist-hip ratio and low abdominal strength among women aged 40-49 years. Low flexibility was more frequent in the 20-29 year group. The differences in right and left hand grip strength between age groups were small.
Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C
Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.
Asbu, Eyob Zere; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Kaissi, Amer
Since the declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 1990, many countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region made some improvements in maternal and child health and in tackling communicable diseases. The transition to the global agenda of Sustainable Development Goals brings new opportunities for countries to move forward toward achieving progress for better health, well-being, and universal health coverage. This study provides a profile of health status and health financing approaches in the MENA region and their implications on universal health coverage. Time-series data on socioeconomics, health expenditures, and health outcomes were extracted from databases and reports of the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program and analyzed using Stata 12 statistical software. Countries were grouped according to the World Bank income categories. Descriptive statistics, tables and charts were used to analyze temporal changes and compare the key variables with global averages. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for more than three quarters of the disability-adjusted life years in all but two lower middle-income countries (Sudan and Yemen). Prevalence of risk factors (raised blood glucose, raised blood pressure, obesity and smoking) is higher than global averages and counterparts by income group. Total health expenditure (THE) per capita in most of the countries falls short of global averages for countries under similar income category. Furthermore, growth rate of THE per capita has not kept pace with the growth rate of GDP per capita. Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) in all but the high-income countries in the group exceeds the threshold for catastrophic spending implying that there is a high risk of households getting poorer as a result of paying for health care. The alarmingly high prevalence of NCDs and injuries and associated risk factors, health spending falling short of the GDP
Costigan, Sarah A; Barnett, Lisa; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R
Evidence suggests sitting time is independently associated with a range of health issues in adults, yet the relationship between sedentary behavior and health indicators in young people is less clear. Age-related increases in sedentary behavior are well-documented; the behavioral patterns of adolescent girls are of particular concern. More than one third of adolescent girls' sedentary behavior time is accumulated through use of recreational screen-based behaviors. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between recreational screen-based sedentary behavior and the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health indicators for adolescent girls. A secondary objective was to identify studies that have adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. A structured electronic search of all publication years (through December 2011) was conducted to identify studies in: CINAHL, Communications and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Included publications were observational and interventional studies involving adolescent girls (12-18 years) that examined associations between screen-based, sedentary behavior and health indicators (physical, psychosocial, and/or behavioral). The search identified 33 studies that evaluated health indicators of screen-based sedentary behaviors among adolescent girls. Strong evidence for a positive association between screen-based sedentary behavior and weight status was found. A positive association was observed between screen-time and sleep problems, musculoskeletal pain and depression. Negative associations were identified between screen time and physical activity/fitness, screen time and psychological well-being, and screen time and social support. The relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior and diet quality was inconclusive. Less than half of the studies adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. Screen-based sedentary
Cavalcante, Maria Lígia Silva Nunes; Borges, Cíntia Lira; Moura, Acácia Maria Figueiredo Torres de Melo; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de
To identify the incidence of mortality, diarrheal diseases, scabies and falls; and the prevalence of pressure ulcers - all of which are related to the safety ofinstitutionalized older adults. This was a documentary retrospective study developed in a long-term residential careinstitution for older adults in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were gathered from records of health assessment indicators filed between January 2008 and December 2015. Analysis included absolute case frequency; the sum of monthly prevalence and incidence rates; mean values of cases; and mean annual incidence and prevalence rates. The incidence of mortality over these nine years ranged from 9% to 13%; of acute diarrheic disease from 13% to 45%; and scabies from 21% to 63%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers ranged from 8% to 23%. Between 2012 and 2015, the incidence rate of falls without injury varied from 38% to 83%, and with injury from12% to 20%. Analysis of the health indicators revealeda high incidence of scabies and falls and a high prevalence of pressure ulcers. The identification of less than optimal rates for performance indicators canhelp improve the quality of nursing care. Identificar a incidência de mortalidade, doenças diarreicas, escabiose e quedas, e a prevalência de lesões por pressão para a segurança do idoso institucionalizado. Estudo documental, retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos, localizada no nordeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio dos registros dos indicadores de avaliação de saúde, arquivados de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2015. A análise incluiu a frequência absoluta dos casos; o somatório das taxas de prevalência e incidência mensais; a média de casos e das taxas de incidência e prevalência anuais. Observa-se que a incidência de óbitos nos nove anos considerados variou de 9 a 13%; de doenças diarreicas agudas, de 13 a 45%; e de escabiose, de 21 a 63%. A prevalência de lesão por
Hafeez, Baria; Paolicchi, Juliann; Pon, Steven; Howell, Joy D; Grinspan, Zachary M
Status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in children. Pediatric medical centers often develop protocols to standardize care. Widespread adoption of electronic health records by hospitals affords the opportunity for clinicians to rapidly, and electronically evaluate protocol adherence. We reviewed the clinical data of a small sample of 7 children with status epilepticus, in order to (1) qualitatively determine the feasibility of automated data extraction and (2) demonstrate a timeline-style visualization of each patient's first 24 hours of care. Qualitatively, our observations indicate that most clinical data are well labeled in structured fields within the electronic health record, though some important information, particularly electroencephalography (EEG) data, may require manual abstraction. We conclude that a visualization that clarifies a patient's clinical course can be automatically created using the patient's electronic clinical data, supplemented with some manually abstracted data. Future work could use this timeline to evaluate adherence to status epilepticus clinical protocols. © The Author(s) 2015.
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...
Full Text Available Diatom indices have been used and tested mainly for assessing the ecological status of rivers and deep lakes, but there are scarce studies that determine their effectiveness in shallow lakes and in coastal Mediterranean lakes. This study evaluates the validity of several common diatom indices (SPI, BDI, CEC and TDIL for the determination of the ecological quality of three coastal lakes (Valencia, Spain and presents descriptions and ecological data of the main diatom species recorded. Diatom samples were collected from phytobenthos, both from epiphyton of the dominant submerged macrophytes and the sediment. The ecological status of the systems was determined according to different physico-chemical variables and was compared with the results obtained from epiphytic diatom communities. The results showed discrepancies among diatom indices and also with the state determined by the environmental variables. The effectiveness of the indices depended on the number of species assessed for each index with respect to the total species recorded and the suitability of the weight assigned to each species. The results reveal the need to gather more information about the composition and ecology of the diatoms and microalgae characteristic of coastal Mediterranean standing waters. This work contributes to their better knowledge.Los índices de diatomeas han sido aplicados y contrastados principalmente en la evaluación del estado ecológico de los sistemas lóticos y lagos profundos, pero son escasos los estudios sobre su eficacia en lagos someros y lagunas litorales mediterráneas. Este trabajo evalúa la validez de varios índices conocidos de diatomeas (IPS, IBD, CEE y TDIL para la determinación de la calidad ecológica de tres lagunas litorales (Valencia, España y presenta las descripciones y datos ecológicos de las principales especies de diatomeas registradas. Las muestras de diatomeas se recogieron del fitobentos, tanto del epifiton desarrollado sobre
Sayar, F; Fallah, S; Akhondi, N; Jamshidi, S
Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases share some common underlying mechanisms. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to assess the association of hyperlipidemia and statin consumption with periodontal status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants including 50 individuals with normal lipid profile (group C), 50 hyperlipidemic patients without drug therapy (group N), and 50 hyperlipidemic patients on drug therapy for a minimum of 3 months (group S). Periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and pocket depth (PD) were measured for all teeth except for the third molars. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, and triglycerides (TGs) were measured. The mean values of CAL and PD were significantly higher in the two hyperlipidemic groups compared with the C group (P < 0.005). Also, CAL and PD had significant associations with serum levels of TGs, LDL, and TC (P < 0.0001); PI in the group S was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P < 0.005). Hyperlipidemic patients showed higher values of periodontal parameters compared with the statin-treated and control groups. Lower PI in the group S may indicate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Takeuchi, Susumu; Ueno, Masayuki; Takehara, Sachiko; Pham, Thuy Anh Vu; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouth rinsed water and oral health status such as dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status, flow rate of saliva and oral bacteria. Subjects were 165 patients who visited the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Oral health status, including dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status and flow rate of saliva, was clinically examined. The turbidity was measured with a turbidimeter. Quantification of Fusobacterium spp, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and total bacteria levels was performed using real-time PCR. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the associations between the turbidity and oral health parameters. The turbidity showed significant correlations with the number of decayed teeth and deep pockets, the plaque index, extent of tongue coating and Fusobacterium spp, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and total bacteria levels. In a multiple regression model, the turbidity was negatively associated with the flow rate of saliva and positively associated with the total number of bacteria (p turbidity of mouth rinsed water could be used as an indicator to evaluate oral health condition and the amount of bacteria in the oral cavity. In addition, the turbiditimeter appeared as a simple and objective device for screening abnormality of oral health condition at chair side as well as community-based research.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Risk factors for the intrahospital nutritional status worsening (NSW have not been precisely defined in the literature. The objective was defining thoese factors among gastroenterological patients and defining the risk patients requiring a preventive nutritional therapy. Methods. In 650 gastroenterological patients, NSW was evaluated on the basis of reducing of the six parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, midupper arm muscle circumference (MAMC, serum albumin level (ALB, and lymphocyte count (LYM. The influence on NSW was tested for 13 factors concerning characteristics of the patient, disease, and diagnostic procedures. Among the factors influencing significantly the NSW, primary and secondary risk factors were selected. After scoring of risk factors had been performed, the risk-score for NSW (RSNSW was defined. The critical value of RSNSW which required preventive nutritional therapy was also calculated. Results. The incidence of NSW was in the range 29.2%−57.9%. The presence of general complications and severe disease activity were considered as primary risk factors, whereas malignant disease, age above 71, hepato-billiary tract involvement, hospitalization longer than 14 days, and mobility worsening were considered as secondary risk factors. The best predictive value for the NSW was proved for the RSNSW ≥ 6. Because of that, preventive nutritional therapy should be indicated in patients presenting with both primary risk factors or in patients presenting with one primary factor combined with three secondary risk factors at least. Conclusion. There are 7 risk factors for NSW in gastroenterological patients, but they are not of the same importance - two primary and five secondary risk factors can be differentiated. Preventive nutritional therapy is indicated only in patients having both primary risk factors or in those presenting with one primary risk factor combined with three
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as
Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena
Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs' chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification
Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence
Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.
Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Gupta, V; Prothrow-Stith, D
We examined the status of women in the 50 American states in relation to women's and men's levels of health. The status of women in each state was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. The study design was cross-sectional and ecologic. Our main outcome measures were total female and male mortality rates, female cause-specific death rates and mean days of activity limitations reported by women during the previous month. Measures of women's status were strikingly correlated with each of these health outcomes at the state level. Higher political participation by women was correlated with lower female mortality rates (r = -0.51), as well as lower activity limitations (-0.47). A smaller wage gap between women and men was associated with lower female mortality rates (-0.30) and lower activity limitations (-0.31) (all correlations, P women's status were also strongly correlated with male mortality rates, suggesting that women's status may reflect more general underlying structural processes associated with material deprivation and income inequality. However, the indices of women's status persisted in predicting female mortality and morbidity rates after adjusting for income inequality, poverty rates and median household income. Associations were observed for specific causes of death, including stroke, cervical cancer and homicide. We conclude that women experience higher mortality and morbidity in states where they have lower levels of political participation and economic autonomy. Living in such states has detrimental consequences for the health of men as well. Gender inequality and truncated opportunities for women may be one of the pathways by which the maldistribution of income adversely affects the health of women.
Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K
Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.
Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne
The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of job insecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship. A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohort that was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n = 907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007 questionnaires. Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity, high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant for psychological distress. Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health and psychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findings indicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporary employment and health status.
Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775
Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio‑economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between ...
LeFlore, Judy L; Engle, William D
Decisions regarding the need for volume replacement in neonates often are made in the immediate newborn period. Capillary refill time (CRT) is used as an indicator of circulatory status; however, recent data show that CRT varies considerably with age, ambient and skin temperature, anatomical site of measurement, and duration of pressure. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the relationship between CRT and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in term neonates, and (2) evaluate the differences among CRT values measured at 3 body sites and with varying duration of cutaneous pressure. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, correlational study. Subjects Forty-two appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates with birthweights, (M = 3407; SD = +/- 540 g), gestational ages (M = 39 weeks; SD = +/- 1 week), and sex (21 males, 21 females). Infants had no history of perinatal distress or maternal chorioamnionitis. Each neonate was studied prospectively 1 to 4 hours after birth. The infants were clothed with only a diaper and evaluated on a radiant warmer bed set to achieve an axillary temperature of 36.5 degrees to 37.0 degrees C. Capillary refill time was measured with a digital stopwatch at 3 sites: volar surface of finger (F), plantar surface of heel (H), and lower sternum (St), using brief (1- to 2-second) and extended (3- to 4-second) pressure. Heart rate was auscultated and counted for 60 seconds, and BP was measured by oscillometry. Relationships among variables were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Capillary refill time, blood pressure, and heart rate. There was no significant site variation for CRT for either brief (2.4 +/- 0.6 to 2.9 +/- 1.0 seconds) or extended (3.8 +/- 0.8 to 4.3 +/- 0.8 seconds) pressure. However, regardless of site, CRT was greater when extended versus brief pressure was used (P correlations
Hamidi, Yadollah; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; SeifRabiei, Mohamad Ali; Farhadian, Maryam; Alimohamadi, Shohreh; Kharghani Moghadam, Seyedeh Melika
The prophecy of health promoting hospitals (HPH) is bringing about a change and transition from treatment-oriented to health-oriented attitudes. In Iran, hospitals usually play the traditional roles. The present study was aimed at the evaluation of the health promotion status in specialized hospitals associated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS). This applied study was conducted in two Hamadan specialized hospitals in the Hamadan city. The health promotion status was evaluated using a self-assessment checklist designed by the World Health Organization's HPH. The evaluation was done in five standards including management policy, patient assessment, patient information and intervention, promotion of a healthy workplace and continuity and cooperation. The results showed that both the hospitals studied had a poor status in terms of promoting a healthy workplace (average = 31.24%) and management policy standards (average = 35.29%) in comparison with the other relevant standards: patient assessment (53.12%), patient information and intervention (62.5%), continuity and cooperation (65.78%)). The results of the standards and sub-standards status displayed better performance in the cardiovascular hospital (53.67%) compared to the women and parturition hospital (42.64%). The findings indicated that HPH standards are very low in the studied hospitals. The reason behind this wide gap might be due to the fact that hospitals in Iran are more treatment-oriented and patient-oriented and they do not play an active part in health promoting. It was found that management policy and promoting healthy workplace standards had the worst status and must be improved.
Capasso, Francesca; Vozza, Iole; Capuccio, Veronica; Vestri, Anna Rita; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia
To assess correlations between periodontal status, maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-term and low birth weight in a sample of pregnant women. Study population was represented by outpatient pregnant women, gestational age > 26 weeks. Medical history questionnaires were administered to all participants who underwent clinical evaluation; clinical obstetric outcome records were collected after delivery. A questionnaire was administered regarding personal information, socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and oral health conditions. A clinical oral examination was performed to collect Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Pregnancy outcome records included: delivery week, kind and causes of delivery, any relevant complications, and birth weight. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the data from the questionnaire while the relationship between delivery week, birth weight, maternal age and periodontal status was evaluated through multivariate tests of significance. 88 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation (Pperiodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No statistical correlation was found among pre-term and low birth weight, smoking, ethnicity and educational level of mothers. The results highlight the importance of including a routine oral and periodontal health examination in pregnant women older than 40 years of age. The correlation between periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in older mothers indicates the need for routine oral health examination and periodontal status assessment and care in pregnant women older than 40 years of age.
Vukojević, Mladenka; Zovko, Ana; Talić, Ivana; Tanović, Merima; Rešić, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Ivana; Splavski, Bruno
Parental socioeconomic status is a multidimensional concept of special importance for the growth, development, health outcomes and education of children. Its definition generally refers to the amount of parents' income, their employment status and level of education. Hence, lack of economic resources and poverty of parents affect all aspects of the child's life, health outcomes and education, as well as his/her social inclusion. Accordingly, the consequences of a reduced parental socioeconomic status leave long-term effects on their children. Therefore, in order to create interventional programs for children of parents with low income and lower socioeconomic status, as well as with lower level of education, it is important to address the direct aspects of poverty. This review contributes to the evidence indicating that the parental socioeconomic status is highly influential in determining the child's physical and mental health and future outcomes including his/her academic achievements and education, as well as the parameters of his/her physical abilities, cognitive function and fundamental neurobiology affecting brain development.
van der Dijs, FPL; Schnog, JJB; Brouwer, DAJ; Velvis, HJR; van den Berg, GA; Bakker, AJ; Duits, AJ; Muskiet, FD
We investigated whether pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) (9 +/- 4 years; 27 homozygous SCD [HbSS]; 19 sickle-C disease [HbSC]) have different folate status compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched normal hemoglobin (HbAA) controls (n = 20), and whether their folate status can be
Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah
The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…
Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F
UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.
Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Shinada, Kayoko; Wright, Fredrick A C; Kawaguchi, Yoko
This study aims to analyse the relationship between seven health practices, oral health behaviors, and oral health status in community dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8 ± 5.9 years). Questionnaires survey about sociodemographics, self-reported seven health practices and oral health behaviors were conducted by trained interviewers. Oral examinations investigated the number of teeth present, decayed teeth, periodontal status and functional tooth units (FTUs). Oral malodor was assessed by Organoleptic Test, and unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Five health practices (smoking, drinking, physical activity, breakfast and weight maintenance) were significantly related with oral health behaviors. ancova analysis demonstrated the following significant associations: (i) smoking behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (ii) drinking alcohol behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iii) eating breakfast behavior with periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iv) eating between-meal snack with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth and periodontal disease, (v) maintaining weight with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease and oral malodor, (vi) sleeping with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (vii) physical activity with periodontal disease and salivary flow rate. Good health practices were related with good oral health behaviors. Moreover, general health practices were associated with the clinical oral health status such as number of teeth present, decayed teeth, FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate. The elderly with good general health practices were considered to have good oral health status. Improving general health
Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke
Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....
Carmel, S; Lazar, A
The purpose of the study was to compare three groups of Israeli elderly that differ in social class and immigration status on measures of health and psycho-social well-being, and assess the factors which explain their self-rated health (SRH). Based on a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70 +), data were collected from 1138 persons during 1994 by structured home interviews. Social class differences among Israeli veterans were mainly found with regard to psycho-social characteristics. They were less conspicuous in health measures. New immigrants, who had a higher level of education than the veterans, but ranked lower on economic status, reported lower levels of health and psycho-social well-being than the veterans. Self-rated health among the immigrants was mainly explained by objective measures of health, and economic status, while in the higher social class of veterans it was also explained by education and psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings indicate that in contradiction to the convergence hypothesis, social class and immigration status affect health and well-being also in old age. It is suggested that the immigration crisis and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin, as well as the lower social and economic status of the immigrants in Israel, outweigh their relative advantage in age and education in influencing their health and well-being. The differences found among the three groups in the factors that explain self-rated health have implications for the use of economic status as a relevant indicator of social class when considering health status among the elderly, and for the interpretation of SRH, as a global measure of health, in different socio-cultural groups.
Galvin Alaan Galeon
Full Text Available Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R, Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.
P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav
Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.
Heaton, Tim B
This research tests the hypothesis that change over time in women's status leads to improvements in their children's health. Specifically, we examine whether change in resources and empowerment in mother's roles as biological mothers, caregivers, and providers and social contexts that promote the rights and representation of and investment in women are associated with better nutritional status and survival of young children. Analysis is based on a broad sample of countries (n = 28), with data at two or more points in time to enable examination of change. Key indicators of child health show improvement in the last 13 years in developing nations. Much of this improvement--90 percent of the increase in nutritional status and 47 percent of the reduction in mortality--is associated with improving status of women. Increased maternal education, control over reproduction, freedom from violence, access to health care, legislation and enforcement of women's rights, greater political representation, equality in the education system, and lower maternal mortality are improving children's health. These results imply that further advancement of women's position in society would be beneficial.
Becchetti, Leonardo; Bachelet, Maria; Riccardini, Fabiola
We provide original, international evidence documenting that self-assessed health (SAH) is a leading health indicator, that is, a significant predictor of future changes in health conditions, in a large sample of Europeans aged above 50 and living in 13 different countries. We find that, after controlling for attrition bias, lagged SAH is significantly and negatively correlated with changes in the number of chronic diseases, net of the correlations with levels, and changes in sociodemographic factors and health styles, country and regional health system effects, and declared symptoms. Illness-specific estimates document that lagged SAH significantly correlates with arthritis, cholesterol, and lung diseases (and weakly so with ulcer, hypertension, and cataracts) and has a significant correlation with the probability of contracting cancer. Interpretations and policy implications of our findings are discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David
To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....
Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David
The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162
Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana; Posada-López, Adriana; Rocha-Buelvas, Anderson
To compare self-perceived health indicators between ethnic groups in Colombia. Cross-sectional study with data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey (ENSP-2007). Data from 57,617 people ≥18 years were used. Variables included: belonging to an ethnic group (exposure); self-rated health; mental health problems, injuries for accidents/violence (outcomes); sex, age, education level and occupation (explicative/control). A descriptive study was carried out of the explicative variables, and the prevalence of the outcomes was calculated according to ethnicity, education level and occupation. The association between the exposure variable and the outcomes was estimated by means of adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of outcomes was higher in people reporting to belong to an ethnic group and differences were found by sex, ethnic groups and health outcomes. Women from the Palenquero group were more likely to report poor self-rated health (aOR 7.04; 95%CI 2.50-19.88) and injuries from accidents/violence (aOR 7.99; 95%CI 2.89-22.07). Indigenous men were more likely to report mental health problems (aOR 1.75; 95%CI 1.41-2.17). Gradients according to ethnicity, education, occupation and sex were found. Minority ethnic groups are vulnerable to reporting poor health outcomes. Political actions are required to diminish health inequalities in these groups.
Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía
This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone
OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...
Bakos Izabella Mária
Full Text Available It is a general socio-political objective of the mid- and long term food industry development strategy of Hungary to promote healthy food production and consumption. The realization of the strategy of the domestic food industry increasingly promotes healthy eating, for example consuming natural, domestic, fresh ingredients, prepared foods, in order to improve the overall health of the population (EFS, 2014-2020. Our study presents the regional tendencies of staple food consumption in Hungarian regions and the changes in indicators reflecting the health status of the population. Furthermore, our hypothesis states that there is a statistically provable correlation between the annual food consumption of Hungarian households per capita and the health status, on regional level.
Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan
Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Gooding, Diane C; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Pflum, Madeline; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José
This study is an attempt to evaluate extant psychometric indicators using latent profile analysis for classifying community-derived individuals based on a set of clinical, behavioural, and personality traits considered risk markers for psychosis spectrum disorders. The present investigation included four hundred and forty-nine high-school students between the ages of 12 and 19. We used the following to assess risk: the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B), Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire (ESQUIZO-Q), Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale-Adolescent version (ACIPS-A), and General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Using Latent profile analysis six latent classes (LC) were identified: participants in class 1 (LC1) displayed little or no symptoms and accounted for 38.53% of the sample; class 2 (LC2), who accounted for 28.06%, also produced low mean scores across most measures though they expressed somewhat higher levels of subjective distress; LC3, a positive schizotypy group (10.24%); LC4 (13.36%), a psychosis high-risk group; LC5, a high positive and negative schizotypy group (4.45%); and LC6, a very high distress, severe clinical high-risk group, comprised 5.34% of the sample. The current research indicates that different latent classes of early individuals at risk can be empirically defined in adolescent community samples using psychometric indicators for psychosis spectrum disorders. These findings may have implications for early detection and prevention strategies in psychosis spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
El Osta, Nada; Hennequin, Martine; Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie; Abboud Naaman, Nada Bou; El Osta, Lana; Geahchan, Negib
Studies concerning the more appropriate criteria for evaluating oral health in relation to nutrition in the elderly vary greatly. There is a need to identify the most relevant criteria for classifying dental indicators of mastication in nutritional studies, so these indicators may be considered for epidemiological and clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between nutritional deficit and measures of oral health in a group of elderly. A convenience sample of independent elderly aged 65 years or more attending two primary care clinics in Beirut, Lebanon was selected. Data were collected from a questionnaire including the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and questions about perception of xerostomia and chewing problems. The oral examinations recorded decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), the prosthetic status and the number of functional units (FU). The sample was composed of 121 women (mean age: 71.59 ± 5.97 years) and 80 men (mean age: 72.74 ± 6.98 years). They were allocated to two groups: 85 participants suffering from malnutrition (MNA score nutritional status (MNA score ≥ 24). Parameters that explain MNA variations were perception of xerostomia (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.66-7.34]), number of FU (OR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.49; 5.22]), and GOHAI score (OR = 2.905, 95% CI [1.40; 6.00]). Further studies exploring factors affecting nutrition in the elderly should take into consideration perception of xerostomia, number of FUs and GOHAI score. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.
Marzieh Shirazi Khah
Iranian elderly women, differences in health indicators-social and elderly women than elderly Iranian population could be due to the unequal status of health and social status of women men Some of these differences include: the life expectancy for women than men (73 years versus 68 years, more elderly men than elderly women (51.84% versus 48.16%, heart disease and blood pressure is higher in elderly women than elderly men (25 and 42.6 versus 17 and 42% prevalence of fat type of triglycerides in the blood is higher in older women than men (63.6 versus 42.6%, the prevalence of osteoporosis bone is higher in older women than men (56.3 versus 16.7% rate of drug use is higher in older women than men (34.9 versus 25.4% illiteracy rate is higher in older women than men (80.15 versus 56% rate of emotional problems and mental illness is higher in older women than men (25.3 versus 8.17% rate the quality of life is lower in elderly women than men (31.6 versus 34.26% of the deposit's elderly nursing home is more than older men (60.6 versus 39.4% is much more alone in elderly women than elderly men (12.8 versus 2.5% Conclusion: Shows the results that elderly women are fragile not only of gender but also the various aspects mentioned above are fragile .And this led to threats of this group from the quantity and quality of life. So it seems to be accurate in the future national studies in order to better understand the aging population, especially women and other fragile groups to and also be designed to the prevention and treatment interventions, with attention to fragile women disabilities and their lack of financial security and will also feel the need to pay special attention to young women before and after aging.
Wilke, Sarah; Jones, Paul W; Müllerova, H
BACKGROUND: Poor health status has been associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. To date, the impact of changes in health status on these outcomes remains unknown. AIMS: To explore the relationship of clinically relevant changes in health status with exacerbation, hospitalis...
Aiman Farag Mohammed Ali
Full Text Available Malnutrition, a major risk factor for a number of infectious diseases, including acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTI, is common in developing countries. Nutritional status is an important index of the quality of life. Objectives:To analyze the correlation between food intake and health status to nutritional status of 9-11 years old children in Semarang. The study was a correlation study carried among school children in Semarang aged 9-11 years old. Data are presented in the descriptive analyses and Spearman correlation. Overall, food intake (energy and protein of 9-11 years old children in Semarang is normal with ≥ 90% RDA, health status of them was satisfactory (very low AURTI incidence,and their nutritional status were mostly normal. There was a correlation between energy intake with nutritional status with indicators BMI, and z-score of W/A and H/A, but there was no correlation between protein intake and AURTI with nutritional status. Energy and food intake of the children correlate with all nutritional status being studied. It should be suggested to parents to implement balanced diet, to avoid the development of obesity among elementary school children through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition as well as obesity.How to CiteAli, A. F. M., Muis, S. F., & Suhartono, S. (2016. Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with The Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 249-256.
Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan
To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320
Full Text Available To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS, we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7% occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P=0.000 and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45 compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70, but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P<0.05. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS.
Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht
Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. © SAGE Publications 2015.
Lange, Marcos C; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Nóvak, Edison M; Harger, Rodrigo; Felippe, Maria Justina Dalla Bernardina; Canever, Mariana; Dall'Asta, Isabella; Rauen, Jordana; Bazan, Rodrigo; Zetola, Viviane
All 16 KPIs were analyzed, including the percentage of patients admitted to the stroke unit, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the first 48 hours after admission, pneumonia and hospital mortality due to stroke, and hospital discharge on antithrombotic therapy in patients without cardioembolic mechanism. Both centers admitted over 80% of the patients in their stroke unit. The incidence of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was > 85%, that of in-hospital pneumonia was 70%. Our results suggest using the parameters of all of the 16 KPIs required by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, and the present results for the two stroke units for future benchmarking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and
McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A
Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.
Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam
Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254
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Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...
Full Text Available This report presents a set of indicators to aid in the assessment of reproductive health and its associated programs in developing countries. The indicators basically stem from the accords ratified at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD, which was held in 1994 for the purpose of improving the reproductive health status of women, men, and adolescents throughout the world. However, working drafts and ways of approaching the subject were developed in 1996 at several meetings of representatives of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, bilateral agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. The indicators are not in their definitive and final form, and it is expected that comments received from users will allow them to be improved. The indicators deal with the monitoring of progress toward the goals of the ICPD, managerial policies and procedures, family planning, maternal health, infections of the reproductive system and sexually transmitted diseases, abortion and infertility, and other demographic, social, and economic factors.
Lafortune, Louise; Béland, François; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joël
For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164), we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles) based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability) Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical information for the planning of longitudinal studies of aging
Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical
Full Text Available To analyze the relationship of nutritional status with oral health status among visual impairment. The subjects were 146 elderly people (70 males and 76 females aged 20-72 years (mean 48.8±6.2 years, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA questionnaires were administered. Oral examinations investigated the number of present teeth, DMFT and Functional Tooth Units (FTUs. According to the MNA score, 44.5% of subjects were categorized as normal nutrition, 47.3% as questionable, and 8.2 % as malnutrition. The mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs were 17.8±6.9 and 6.9±3.2, respectively. Subjects with malnutrition had lower numbers of present teeth (10.7±1.4 and FTUs (4.3±1.7 than those with normal nutrition (20.2±0.7 and 12.3±0.5 (p≤0.05. Nutritional status of visual impaired Thai was associated with mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs. Keeping many natural teeth or having appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures would prevention malnutrition.
Ljaginskaja, A.M.; Izhewskij, P.W.; Golovko, O.V.
In general the results achieved show that in the population living on the territories contaminated with radionuclides the most distinct negative dynamic of reproductive health than in the control areas is observed dourly the post-accidental period. The highest intensively of the negative dynamic and for certain the lower (than in the control) absolute indices of the reproductive health are revealed in the population living on the territory with 137 Cs contamination from 5 Ci/km 2 to 15 Ci/km 2 Under the equal conditions of 137 Cs contamination of soil the most distinct decrease of indices of the reproductive health was revealed in the areas with the most original level of the reproductive health that witness about the important role of the original level of the reproductive health in forming the effects of the exposure of the population. In the structure of the chosen indices of the reproductive health the loading place according to the intensively of the negative dynamic takes the indices characterising UPO and the status of the newborns, that is the indices reflecting the somatic stochastic effects of radiation influence. (author)
Stieglitz, Jonathan; Madimenos, Felicia; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael
Sedentary lifestyle contributes to osteoporosis and fragility fracture risks among modern humans, but whether such risks are prevalent in physically active preindustrial societies with lower life expectancies is unclear. Osteoporosis should be readily observable in preindustrial societies if it was regularly experienced over human history. In this study of 142 older adult Tsimane forager-horticulturalists (mean age ± SD, 62.1 ± 8.6 years; range, 50 to 85 years; 51% female) we used calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (qUS) to assess bone status, document prevalence of adults with reduced bone status, and identify factors (demographic, anthropometric, immunological, kinesthetic) associated with reduced bone status. Men (23%) are as likely as women (25%) to have reduced bone status, although age-related decline in qUS parameters is attenuated for men. Adiposity and fat-free mass positively co-vary with qUS parameters for women but not men. Leukocyte count is inversely associated with qUS parameters controlling for potential confounders; leukocyte count is positively correlated within adults over time, and adults with persistently low counts have higher adjusted qUS parameters (6% to 8%) than adults with a high count. Reduced bone status characteristic of osteoporosis is common among active Tsimane with minimal exposure to osteoporosis risk factors found in industrialized societies, but with energetic constraints and high pathogen burden. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Full Text Available Anthropometric indices are of the best indicators for growth monitoring during neonatal period. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association ofanthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices. The study was conducted in 230 mothers who had health profiles in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin during 2013. Data were collected through the records in mothers’ health profiles. Data were analyzed using T-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Of 230 infants, 119 (51.7% were male. Mean weight and head circumference were significantly different between Iranian and Afghan infants.The Iranian mothers were older and had higher weight and height during pregnancy compared to the Afghan mothers and the difference was statistically significant. There was positive significant correlation between mothers’ age, weight, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and infants’ birth weight. There was also positive significant correlation between mothers’ hemoglobin and hematocrit and infants’ height. With regards to the results, proper nutrition, maternal health, and providing appropriate health services during pregnancy can be beneficial for improving infants’ health.
Wang, Qing; Zhang, Huyang; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai
Childhood health in China was poor in the 1950s and 1960s because of limited nutrition. In the last three decades, China has distinguished itself through its tremendous economic growth and improvements in health and nutrition. However, prior to such growth, access to good nutrition was more variable, with potentially important implications, not only for childhood health, but also for adult health, because of its long-term effects lasting into adulthood. To shed light on these issues, this study examined the long-run association between childhood health and adult health outcomes among a middle-aged Chinese population and addresses the endogeneity of childhood health. A nationwide database from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was employed. Three adult health outcomes variables were used: self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function. The local variation in grain production in the subjects' fetal period and the first 24 months following birth was employed as an instrument for childhood health in order to correct for its endogeneity. Childhood health recalled by the respondents was positively and significantly associated with their adult health outcomes in terms of self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function in single-equation estimates that did not correct for the endogeneity of childhood health. A good childhood health status increased the probabilities of good adult health, good adult cognitive function, and good adult physical function by 16% (95% CI: 13-18%), 13% (95% CI: 10-15%), and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%), respectively. After correcting for endogeneity, the estimated effects of good childhood health were consistent but stronger. We also studied the male and female populations separately, finding that the positive effects of childhood health on adult health were larger for males. In China, childhood health significantly affects adult health. This suggests that early interventions to promote
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opoku; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Janssens, Wendy; Pradhan, Menno
This study's objective is to provide an alternative explanation for the low enrolment in health insurance in Ghana by analysing differences in perceptions between the insured and uninsured of the non-technical quality of healthcare. It further explores the association between insurance status and perception of healthcare quality to ascertain whether insurance status matters in the perception of healthcare quality. Data from a survey of 1,903 households living in the catchment area of 64 health centres were used for the analysis. Two sample independent t-tests were employed to compare the average perceptions of the insured and uninsured on seven indicators of non-technical quality of healthcare. A generalised ordered logit regression, controlling for socio-economic characteristics and clustering at the health facility level, tested the association between insurance status and perceived quality of healthcare. The perceptions of the insured were found to be significantly more negative than the uninsured and those of the previously insured were significantly more negative than the never insured. Being insured was associated with a significantly lower perception of healthcare quality. Thus, once people are insured, they tend to perceive the quality of healthcare they receive as poor compared to those without insurance. This study demonstrated that health insurance status matters in the perceptions of healthcare quality. The findings also imply that perceptions of healthcare quality may be shaped by individual experiences at the health facilities, where the insured and uninsured may be treated differently. Health insurance then becomes less attractive due to the poor perception of the healthcare quality provided to individuals with insurance, resulting in low demand for health insurance in Ghana. Policy makers in Ghana should consider redesigning, reorganizing, and reengineering the National Healthcare Insurance Scheme to ensure the provision of better quality healthcare
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Lago, Santiago; Cantarero, David; Rivera, Berta; Pascual, Marta; Blázquez-Fernández, Carla; Casal, Bruno; Reyes, Francisco
A comprehensive approach to health highlights its close relationship with the social and economic conditions, physical environment and individual lifestyles. However, this relationship is not exempt from methodological problems that may bias the establishment of direct effects between the variables studied. Thus, further research is necessary to investigate the role of socioeconomic variables, their composition and distribution according to health status, particularly on non-communicable diseases. To shed light on this field, here a systematic review is performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A 7-year retrospective horizon was considered until 21 July 2017. Twenty-six papers were obtained from the database search. Additionally, results from "hand searching" were also included, where a wider horizon was considered. Five of the 26 studies analyzed used aggregated data compared to 21 using individual data. Eleven considered income as a study variable, while 17 analyzed the effect of income inequality on health status (2 of the studies considered both the absolute level and distribution of income). The most used indicator of inequality in the literature was the Gini index. Although different types of analysis produce very different results concerning the role of health determinants, the general conclusion is that income distribution is related to health where it represents a measure of the differences in social class in the society. The effect of income inequality is to increase the gap between social classes or to widen differences in status.
Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...
Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela
Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445
Gil-Montoya, J A; Subirá, C; Ramón, J M; González-Moles, M A
This study examines whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with malnutrition risk in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was designed using a representative sample of Spaniards over 65 years old. Data on sociodemographics and oral health status were gathered by interview and examination. Oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and malnutrition risk using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The final sample included 2,860 elderly, 41.7 percent males and 58.3 percent females, with a mean age of 73.7 +/- 6.8 years. Mean GOHAI score was 52.1 +/- 7.2, with 70.7 percent of the sample needing oral health care according to this index. The mean MNA score was 24.0 +/- 3.31; 3.5 percent of the elderly were malnourished, 31.5 percent were at risk of malnutrition, and 65.0 percent were considered adequately nourished. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...
Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine
Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health
Doumit, Jacqueline H; Nasser, Ramzi N; Hanna, Dimitri R
This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported "good" health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents.
BACKGROUND: Several demographic and health surveys in Africa have shown the high prevalence of home delivery, but little is known how strongly skilled person unattended deliveries are associated with maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this review was to assess the gross correlation of maternal mortality ...
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.
Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.
Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius
Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.
A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.
Dovie, Delali B K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Ogunseitan, Oladele A
There is accumulating evidence that the emerging burden of global climate change threatens the fidelity of routine indicators for disease detection and management of risks to public health. The threat partially reflects the conservative character of the health sector and the reluctance to adopt new indicators, despite the growing awareness that existing environmental health indicators were developed to respond to risks that may no longer be relevant, and are too simplistic to also act as indicators for newer global-scale risk factors. This study sought to understand the scope of existing health indicators, while aiming to discover new indicators for building resilience against three climate sensitive diseases (cerebro spinal meningitis, malaria and diarrhea). Therefore, new potential indicators derived from human and biophysical origins were developed to complement existing health indicators, thereby creating climate-sensitive battery of robust composite indices of resilience in health planning. Using Ghana's health sector as a case study systematic international literature review, national expert consultation, and focus group outcomes yielded insights into the relevance, sensitivity and impacts of 45 indicators in 11 categories in responding to climate change. In total, 65% of the indicators were sensitive to health impacts of climate change; 24% acted directly; 31% synergistically; and 45% indirectly, with indicator relevance strongly associated with type of health response. Epidemiological indicators (e.g. morbidity) and health demographic indicators (e.g. population structure) require adjustments with external indicators (e.g. biophysical, policy) to be resilient to climate change. Therefore, selective integration of social and ecological indicators with existing public health indicators improves the fidelity of the health sector to adopt more robust planning of interdependent systems to build resilience. The study highlights growing uncertainties in
Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…
Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria
The purpose of this study was to estimate of educating level effect as one indicator of social status on eating behaviours and anthropometrical parameters of nutritional status in professionally active men aged 20-60 at city environment. The research was conducted into 1320 workers of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Steelworks in Cracov. The research tool was the author's questionnaire which included questions about meal consumption regularity and frequency of consuming selected groups of foodstuffs. The indicators of nutritional status were fixed on the base of anthropometrical measurements, whereas the body content was estimated by method of bioimpendation with the use of electronic scales TBF-300P. Differentiation of some eating behaviours depending on the level of education was proved; but one cannot definitely estimate the relation of these parameters, as the higher educated people aged 40-60 years old more frequently declare two meal style of eating and more often consume confectionery than the lower educated; in turn vocationally educated men aged 20-40 more often declare consuming fast food products. Statistically considerable differentiation in some anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status depending of the level of education among men aged 40-60 was also proved. Men of vocational education are characterized by the highest value of WHR indicator but at the same time lower value of the 4 skin-fatty folds sum than higher educated people.
Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.
Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…
Bruna Kulik Hassan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
Jong Ju Seon
Full Text Available The effect of employment insecurity on employee health is an important public health issue due to the recent effects of neoliberalism and the global financial crisis (2007-2008 on labor markets. This study aims to evaluate the differences in cardiovascular health status and the use of preventive screening services between standard and nonstandard workers.Waged employees (N = 5,338 between the ages of 20 and 64 were grouped into standard (full-time, permanent and nonstandard (part-time, temporary, or daily employees. Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2009, a nationwide representative survey, were examined, including cardiovascular health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, physical inactivity, measured morbidities (blood pressure, blood glucose level, lipid profiles, body mass index, and the use of screening services for hypertension and diabetes mellitus.Female nonstandard employees tended to have higher blood pressure than did female standard employees (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02 to 1.98. However, nonstandard employees (both men and women were less likely to use preventive screening services for hypertension (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94 in men; aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.73 in women and diabetes (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79 in men; aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.71 in women.Nonstandard work is associated with the underuse of screening services and poorer cardiovascular health in a specific population. Policies to reduce employment insecurity and encourage nonstandard employees to receive health screening services should be prioritized.
Seon, Jong Ju; Lim, Yu Jin; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Jae Moon; Kim, Sang June; Choi, Seulggie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Park, Sang Min
The effect of employment insecurity on employee health is an important public health issue due to the recent effects of neoliberalism and the global financial crisis (2007-2008) on labor markets. This study aims to evaluate the differences in cardiovascular health status and the use of preventive screening services between standard and nonstandard workers. Waged employees (N = 5,338) between the ages of 20 and 64 were grouped into standard (full-time, permanent) and nonstandard (part-time, temporary, or daily) employees. Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2009, a nationwide representative survey, were examined, including cardiovascular health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, physical inactivity), measured morbidities (blood pressure, blood glucose level, lipid profiles, body mass index), and the use of screening services for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Female nonstandard employees tended to have higher blood pressure than did female standard employees (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02 to 1.98). However, nonstandard employees (both men and women) were less likely to use preventive screening services for hypertension (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94 in men; aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.73 in women) and diabetes (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79 in men; aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.71 in women). Nonstandard work is associated with the underuse of screening services and poorer cardiovascular health in a specific population. Policies to reduce employment insecurity and encourage nonstandard employees to receive health screening services should be prioritized.
An evaluation of the costs connected with the health consequences due to occupational exposure for the personnel in the NPP 'Kozloduy' is made. The methods used are WTP (willingness to pay) and COI (cost of illness). The estimations in USD are as follows: for chronic bronchitis in adults 126 000 - 3336 000 (WTP); visit to medical unit - 265 - 795 (COI); asthma attacks per day - 12 - 55 (WTP); acute respiratory syndrome - 5 - 15 (WTP). Health - demographic data are used for the risk assesment. The weighted mean value for personnel irradiation is 2.5 - 8.7 mSv/year. Determination of individual dose limit, individual radiation risk, and individual annual dose limit is discussed
Gagné, Thierry; Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas
Associations between social status and health behaviours are well documented, but the mechanisms involved are less understood. Cultural capital theory may contribute to a better understanding by expanding the scope of inequality indicators to include individuals' knowledge, skills, beliefs and material goods to examine how these indicators impact individuals' health lifestyles. We explore the structure and applicability of a set of cultural capital indicators in the empirical exploration of smoking behaviour among young male adults. We analysed data from the Swiss Federal Survey of Adolescents (CH-X) 2010-11 panel of young Swiss males (n = 10 736). A set of nine theoretically relevant variables (including incorporated, institutionalized and objectified cultural capital) were investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Regression models were run to observe the association between factor scores and smoking outcomes. Outcome measures consisted of daily smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked by daily smokers. Cultural capital indicators aggregated in a three-factor solution representing 'health values', 'education and knowledge' and 'family resources'. Each factor score predicted the smoking outcomes. In young males, scoring low on health values, education and knowledge and family resources was associated with a higher risk of being a daily smoker and of smoking more cigarettes daily. Cultural capital measures that include, but go beyond, educational attainment can improve prediction models of smoking in young male adults. New measures of cultural capital may thus contribute to our understanding of the social status-based resources that individuals can use towards health behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Cheng, June J.; Berry, Peter
Objectives This study aimed at developing a list of key human health indicators for quantifying the health impacts of climate change in Canada. Methods A literature review was conducted in OVID Medline to identify health morbidity and mortality indicators currently used to quantify climate change impacts. Public health frameworks and other studies of climate change indicators were reviewed to identify criteria with which to evaluate the list of proposed key indicators and a rating scale was d...
Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S
By 1979, 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.
Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G
The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social
investigate the feasibility of inclusion of HRV indicators into allostatic load assessments and which HRV ... said to reflect stressor-induced activation of the two ... reduced in stress and said to be of prognostic value for ... Recruitment by a power point-illustrat- .... values (Total HRV and vagal activity dependent HRV) can.
Johnstone, Christopher P; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon. Possibly the usefulness of these metrics is taxon, environment or condition specific. Alternatively, in an uncontrolled environment where multiple factors are influencing a metric, its response to environmental change will sometimes, but not always, be predictable. We suggest that (i) researchers should validate a metricfres utility before use, (ii) multiple metrics should be used to construct an overall erythrocyte profile for an individual or population, (iii) there is a need for researchers to compile reference ranges for free-living species, and (iv) some metrics which are useful under controlled, clinical conditions may not have the same utility or applicability for free-living vertebrates. Erythrocyte metrics provide useful information about health and condition that can be meaningfully interpreted in free-living vertebrates, but their use requires careful forethought about confounding factors. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David
This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status of a sample of prisoners at the Federal Prison in Enugu. The health status of inmates in the prison system needs to be incorporated into data and reports that summarize the state of the nation's health; this will encourage the provision of health care to ...
Background: Oral health is an important and often neglected component of an older person's general health and well- being. Objectives: To determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods: The oral health status of 95 elderly patients who presented at the General outpatient clinic of the Obafemi ...
Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001⁻2003. With a nationally representative sampling, CPES included 11,207 adults who were either non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 7587) or Hispanic Whites ( n = 3620. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, treated as dichotomous measure. Independent variables were education, income, employment, and marital status. Ethnicity was the focal moderator. Age and gender were covariates. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results. Education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in the pooled sample. Although education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in non-Hispanic Whites, none of these associations were found for Hispanic Whites. Conclusion. In a similar pattern to Blacks’ diminished return, differential gain of SES indicators exists between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, with a disadvantage for Hispanic Whites. Diminished return of SES should be regarded as a systemically neglected contributing mechanism behind ethnic oral health disparities in the United States. Replication of Blacks’ diminished return for Hispanics suggests that these processes are not specific to ethnic minority groups, and non-White groups gain less because they are not enjoying the privilege and advantage of Whites.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is little data on the association of metabolic syndrome and health status in Serbian men, so our intention was to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in men with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in New Belgrade, Serbia; to determine which of the anthropometric parameters (body mass index—BMI and waist circumference—WC is best for the evaluation of health risks in primary care, especially the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Research Methods and Procedures: The study involved 132 healthy men ages 44.73 ± 9.37 years. Anthropometric values were measured in all the patients. Blood pressure, blood biochemistry (high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and analysis of their medical records were also done. Analysis of consistency has been used in testing hypothesis. Results: The sample consisted of 132 patients with mean age 44.73 ± 9.37 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 44.7%. Analysis of consistence showed differences in the combined predictive ability of anthropometric indicators and other factors of MetS. Conclusions: BMI andWCare the simple measures of adiposity most strongly associated with metabolic abnormalities. Our findings suggest that WC can not be used as a complementary measurement to identify health risks in any group of men
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Leading... People 2020 leading health indicators (LHIs). The LHIs were developed to communicate high-priority health... , 240-453-6113. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Subject of Challenge Competition: Leading Health Indicators...
Ghatak, S; Singh, B B
Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.
Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Ursulean, Ion; Cornescu, Alexandra; Botezatu, Nicolae; Belic, Ghenadie
The study of the effects of health and the psychological and social rehabilitation of the children born in families of 'liquidators' in the period 1996-2010 reveals compromised immune status and the decrease of the main health indicators. The health status of the children is characterized by a high level of general morbidity, primarily psychosomatic, compared with the general population, a significant frequency of the chromosome aberrations are due to the influence of a large number of endogenous and exogenous factors, most significant exposure to irradiation of the father
Artazcoz, L; Cortès, I; Escribà-Agüir, V; Cascant, L; Villegas, R
The objectives of this study are to identify family and job characteristics associated with long work hours, to analyse the relationship between long work hours and several health indicators, and to examine whether gender differences for both objectives exist. The sample was composed of all salaried workers aged 16-64 years (3950 men and 3153 women) interviewed in the 2006 Catalonian Health Survey. Weekly work hours were categorised as less than 30 h (part-time), 30-40 (reference category), 41-50 and 51-60 h. Multiple logistic regression models separated by sex were fitted. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender. Among men, extended work hours were related with being married or cohabiting and with being separated or divorced. In men, working 51-60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.24), self-reported hypertension (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29), job dissatisfaction (aOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.82), smoking (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.72), shortage of sleep (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.85) and no leisure-time physical activity (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.64 to 3.60). Moreover, a gradient from standard working hours to 51-60 h a week was found for these six outcomes. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner: in situations of family financial stress men work overtime in order to increase the income and/or accept poor working conditions for fear of job loss, one of them being long working hours.
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Wheeler, Benedict W; Lovell, Rebecca; Higgins, Sahran L; White, Mathew P; Alcock, Ian; Osborne, Nicholas J; Husk, Kerryn; Sabel, Clive E; Depledge, Michael H
Many studies suggest that exposure to natural environments ('greenspace') enhances human health and wellbeing. Benefits potentially arise via several mechanisms including stress reduction, opportunity and motivation for physical activity, and reduced air pollution exposure. However, the evidence is mixed and sometimes inconclusive. One explanation may be that "greenspace" is typically treated as a homogenous environment type. However, recent research has revealed that different types and qualities of natural environments may influence health and wellbeing to different extents. This ecological study explores this issue further using data on land cover type, bird species richness, water quality and protected or designated status to create small-area environmental indicators across Great Britain. Associations between these indicators and age/sex standardised prevalence of both good and bad health from the 2011 Census were assessed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for indicators of socio-economic deprivation and rurality, and also investigated effect modification by these contextual characteristics. Positive associations were observed between good health prevalence and the density of the greenspace types, "broadleaf woodland", "arable and horticulture", "improved grassland", "saltwater" and "coastal", after adjusting for potential confounders. Inverse associations with bad health prevalence were observed for the same greenspace types, with the exception of "saltwater". Land cover diversity and density of protected/designated areas were also associated with good and bad health in the predicted manner. Bird species richness (an indicator of local biodiversity) was only associated with good health prevalence. Surface water quality, an indicator of general local environmental condition, was associated with good and bad health prevalence contrary to the manner expected, with poorer water quality associated with better population health. Effect
Curtis, Randall; Baker, Judith; Riske, Brenda; Ullman, Megan; Niu, Xiaoli; Norton, Kristi; Lou, Mimi; Nichol, Michael B
Improvements in hemophilia care over the last several decades might lead to expectations of a near-normal quality of life for young adults with hemophilia. However, few published reports specifically examine health status indicators in this population. To remedy this knowledge gap, we examined the impact of hemophilia on physical and social functioning and quality of life among a national US cohort of 141 young men with hemophilia aged 18-34 years of age who received care at 10 geographically diverse, federally funded hemophilia treatment centers in 11 states between 2005 and 2013 and enrolled in the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies. Indicators studied included educational achievement, employment status, insurance, health-related quality of life, and prevalence of the following comorbidities: pain, range of motion limitation, overweight/obesity, and viral status. The cohort was analyzed to compare those aged 18-24 to those aged 25-34 years. When compared to the general US adult population, this nationally representative cohort of young US adults with hemophilia experienced significant health and social burdens: more liver disease, joint damage, joint pain, and unemployment as well as lower high-school graduation rates. Nearly half were overweight or obese. Conversely, this cohort had higher levels of health insurance and equivalent mental health scores. While attention has typically focused on newborns, children, adolescents, and increasingly, on older persons with hemophilia, our findings suggest that a specific focus on young adults is warranted to determine the most effective interventions to improve health and functioning for this apparently vulnerable age group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen
This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.
Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk
We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities.
Joseph, Tiffany D
Recent policy debates have centered on health reform and who should benefit from such policy. Most immigrants are excluded from the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) due to federal restrictions on public benefits for certain immigrants. But, some subnational jurisdictions have extended coverage options to federally ineligible immigrants. Yet, less is known about the effectiveness of such inclusive reforms for providing coverage and care to immigrants in those jurisdictions. This article examines the relationship between coverage and health care access for immigrants under comprehensive health reform in the Boston metropolitan area. The article uses data from interviews conducted with a total of 153 immigrants, health care professionals, and immigrant and health advocacy organization employees under the Massachusetts and ACA health reforms. Findings indicate that respondents across the various stakeholder groups perceive that immigrants' documentation status minimizes their ability to access health care even when they have health coverage. Specifically, respondents expressed that intersecting public policies, concerns that using health services would jeopardize future legalization proceedings, and immigrants' increased likelihood of deportation en route to medical appointments negatively influenced immigrants' health care access. Thus, restrictive federal policies and national-level anti-immigrant sentiment can undermine inclusive subnational policies in socially progressive places. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Jiyun
Although the relationship between work-life balance (WLB) and health is well known, it has been poorly studied in Korea. This study investigated factors related to WLB for Korean workers, including working time features and the relationships between WLB and health outcomes. Data were obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, which examined a representative working population. This study investigated general characteristics, working time characteristics, work related health, and WLB. A multivariate logistic regression was used to test the associations between WLB and health outcome variables, including general health status, mental health, work-related risks to health and safety, sickness absenteeism, presenteeism, musculoskeletal disease, headache/eyestrain, and fatigue. General characteristics including gender, age, working sector, occupation, and employment type were found to be related to WLB. Moreover, working time characteristics were found to be strongly related to WLB. In addition, WLB was significantly related to various health outcomes. Our findings indicate that WLB is strongly related to health outcomes among Korean workers. The results suggest that there is a need for interventions that focus on implementing working time strategies for better health.
Health status of the under-fives. Fifty-nine (87%) of the 68 children were examined, and 29% were found to have a condition considered as requiring medical treatment. These were: upper respiratory infections in 5, scabies in 4~ impetigo in 4, and severe malnutrition in 4 children. Three children had Tinea capiris infections.
Full Text Available Under the Japan – Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement, more than 1,000 of Indonesian health care workers have migrated to Japan. Social adjustment during the process of migration is linked to mental health changes. This study aimed to figure out the strongest predictor that influences the change in mental health status as a result of migration. Baseline data were collected in Jakarta in 2013 during pre-departure orientation. Follow-up study was conducted one year after the study participants migrated to Japan in 2014. Using longitudinal design, this study employed 92 participants consisting of nurse and certified care worker candidates. The multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to figure out the predictors that influence the change in mental health status. The prediction model expected to explain 39.9% of the change in mental health status, p value < 0.01, while sex (b = 0.201, p value < 0.05, economic conditions in pre-migration (b = -0.200, p value < 0.05, and the socio cultural adaptation competency (b = -0.238, p value < 0.05. This finding assumed that female candidates and those who have economic constraint in pre-migration stage, and those who have declining in socio-cultural adaptation competency tend to have lower mental health one year after the migration.
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; P Social connectedness was highly valued, with over 30% of participants stating strong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.
Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z
Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674
Bouchalová, M; Kukla, L; Okrajek, P
situation. In partner relationships conflicts were present frequently including violence. They also suffered from depression, anxiety, neuroses, phobias and social isolation more often. They also attempted to become pregnant longer than other women and tolerated pregnancy worse. They noted more changes to themselves and experiences more stress. The worse their feelings were during the first months of pregnancy, the higher frequency of pregnancy difficulties, delivery pathologies and post-natal complications were present according to the health-status documentation. This paper brings a whole series of original findings of factors associated with self-rated health-status. The socio-economic position in the families of their own had a more substantial influence on the health-status of the monitored women compared to the position in the families where they grew up. The indicators - e.g. stress, social isolation, work, social support, education, income and household created gradients on the health-status scale which were overall highly significant.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the association of the perceived body image, nutritional status, physical activity level, health indicators of and socio-demographic characteristics of elderly women. This cross-sectional study was also characterized as descriptive and correlacional, with a sample of 265 randomly selected women aged from 60 to 96 years, proportionally stratified by groups from the Friend’s Association, Groups for sharing live experiences and Open University for the Elderly of Jequié/BA. A questionnaire was used in an individual interview to obtain information on the socio-demographic characteristics (age, marital and economical status, family organization and income, and educational level, health indicators (subjective perceived health and self-reported health problems, physical activity level (IPAQ long version adapted for seniors and perceived body image (PBI, a nine-silhouette scale. The measurements of body mass and stature allowed for computing body mass index (BMI, used as a parameter for nutritional status. Data analyses consisted of the descriptive and nonparametric statistics, as well as measures of association, using the level of significant at 5%. Among the elderly, 47.5% was aged 60 to 69 years and 48.3% was widow. They lived in homes with three generations (38.1% and had low level of education: incomplete elementary school (88.7%. The elderly women were on retirement plan (58.5%, had monthly income up to minimum wage (51.7% and belonged to socioeconomic class D (55.8%. As for the PBI, 54% of the women were dissatisfied, mainly for body mass excess (35.1%. PBI was associated to the nutritional status, i.e., an increase in the BMI category raised the proportion of dissatisfied seniors. However, PBI was not associated with socio-demographic characteristics, health indicator or physical activity level. Comparing satisfied and dissatisfied women, no differences were noted in physical activity level, age or stature
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...
Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima
Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health.
Carneiro, Fernando F; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia C; Netto, Guilherme F; Galvão, Luis A C; Cancio, Jacira A; Bonini, Estela M; Corvalan, Carlos F
This report summarizes the Brazilian experience on the design and implementation of environmental health, with contributions from Argentina, Canada, and Cuba, presented at the International Symposium on the Development of Indicators for Environmental Health Integrated Management, held in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, on 17-18 June 2004. The methodology for the development of environmental health indicators has been used as a reference in the implementation of environmental health surveillance in Brazil. This methodology has provided tools and processes to facilitate the understanding and to measure the determinants of risks to environmental health, to help decision makers control those risks. Key words: environmental health indicators, environmental health surveillance, integrated management.
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro
Analyze the level of Life Quality (LQ) in relation to nutritional status in a sample of primary school children. Cross sectional study with 298 participants (53.35% female) of 8-12 years. LQ was assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire . Measures of weight and size were taken. The BMI (normal-weight, overweight and obesity) was categorized using standard criteria. To establish the relationship between the different statistical variables was performed the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test and analysis of variance. Nutritional status was significantly correlated with LQ (F = 5.096; p =, 007). School children with a normal- weight state showed higher LQ levels compared to those overweight (p = .015) and obese (p =, 013). The results show that nutritional status acts as a differentiating factor in LQ. Adopting active lifestyle behaviours that promote a healthy nutritional status not only can have benefits over health biological parameters (such as physical condition) but can also contribute to improve other LQ indicators and mental health . Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.
Full Text Available Background: People at or over the age of 60, constitute above 7.7% of total population. Traditionally this segment of population depends on their children for their health and social welfare, However owing to the social and cultural changes that are taking place within the Indian society, this support may not be as readily available, as it is believed. With the changing demography of India, there is urgent need to look at the health status of elderly for planning appropriate health facilities for them. Objectives: To study biosocial, nutritional and chronic disease risk factor profile of elderly population. Methods: Cross-sectional Study was conducted in Doiwala block of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. 122 elderly persons of age 60 years and above were interviewed on predesigned questionnaire by house to house visit in the selected village. Results: Overall prevalence of risk factors found to be higher amongst elderly females. Unutrition was higher amongst elderly males. In all, 48.6% elderly were underweight ,10.3% were overweight and 5.6% cases were in obese category. As per the Waist and hip ratio 47.2% elderly belonged to the moderate to high risk category. 30.8% people were hypertensive. Conclusions: Prevalence of high-risk factors for chronic diseases is quite high amongst elderly population, especially amongst elderly females.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Walther, Carl P.; Carter, Caitlin Wise; Low, Chai L.; Williams, Peter; Rifkin, Dena E.; Steiner, Robert W.
Background. Protein–energy wasting is common in patients on maintenance hemodialysis and is strongly associated with poor quality of life and mortality. However, clinical assessment of protein–energy wasting remains difficult. Predialysis creatinine levels are associated with mortality risk but may be influenced by both muscle mass and dialysis dose. This might be overcome by examining the rate of rise in creatinine between dialysis sessions. Methods. We conducted an observational cohort study among 81 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at our Veterans Affairs unit. Predialysis serum creatinine and change in serum creatinine between midweek dialysis sessions served as the predictor variables of interest and clinically available proxies of nutritional status and time to mortality served as the outcome variables. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models evaluated relationships, respectively. Results. The mean age of the study participants was 63 ± 10 years, 77 (95%) were male, mean body mass index was 27 ± 6 kg/m2 and 69% had diabetes. Median follow-up time was 13 months, during which 12 patients (15%) died. Interdialytic change in serum creatinine showed a strong direct correlation with predialysis serum creatinine (R = 0.96). Higher levels of both markers were associated with younger age, less residual urine volume and higher serum albumin, serum phosphorus and normalized protein catabolic rate (P creatinine tertile, participants in the lowest tertile (creatinine (change creatinine and interdialytic change in creatinine are both strongly associated with proxies of nutritional status and mortality in hemodialysis patients and are highly correlated. Interdialytic change in creatinine provided little additional information about nutritional status or mortality risk above and beyond predialysis creatinine levels alone. PMID:21775764
The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)
Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J
Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful