Bennett, Amanda C; Brewer, Katherine C; Rankin, Kristin M
The purpose of this study is to examine the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status. This study used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health on 80,982 children ages 2-17. The presence of a child mental health condition was defined as a parent-reported diagnosis of at least one of seven child mental health conditions. Parent mental health was assessed via a 5-point scale. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status, while examining socioeconomic, parent, family, and community factors as potential effect modifiers and confounders of the association. 11.1% of children had a mental health condition (95% CI = 10.5-11.6). The prevalence of child mental health conditions increased as parent mental health status worsened. Race/ethnicity was the only significant effect modifier of the child-parent mental health association. After adjustment for confounders, the stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of child mental health conditions related to a one-level decline in parent mental health were: 1.44 (1.35-1.55) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.24 (1.06-1.46) for non-Hispanic blacks, 1.04 (0.81-1.32) for Hispanics from non-immigrant families, 1.21 (0.96-1.93) for Hispanics from immigrant families, and 1.43 (1.21-1.70) for non-Hispanic other race children. The effect of parent mental health status on child mental health conditions was significant only among non-Hispanic children. Parent-focused interventions to prevent or improve child mental health conditions may be best targeted to the sub-populations for whom parent and child mental health are most strongly associated.
Machón-Sobrado, Mónica; Vergara-Mitxeltorena, Itziar; Dorronsoro-Iraeta, Miren; Larrañaga-Larrañaga, Nerea; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Larrañaga-Padilla, Isabel
To analyse the dimensions studied with respect to living and health conditions of the non-institutionalised elderly in the scientific literature in Spain. A content analysis based on secondary sources was carried out by literature searches in Pubmed and Embase in Spanish and English. The search strategies combined terms related to older people, health and/or living conditions and with Spain. All studies assessing living and/or health conditions of elderly in Spain were included. Studies analyzing a specific aspect of living or health conditions and those based on institutionalized population were excluded. A total of 14 studies were considered in the content analysis. The studies are usually local, cross-sectional and data collection is done by direct interview. Variability was observed in the aspects analysed about living and health conditions. All studies included: sociodemographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle habits. Issues related to the status of the out-of home environment are poorly analysed. This work allows knowing the dimensions prioritised in the studies carried out to date about health and living conditions in Spain. It also provides key elements for the development of future research aiming to integrate both living and health conditions of elderly population, both aspects closely related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Associations between marital status and self-rated health were investigated, adjusting for material conditions and trust (social capital). The 2004 public-health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate associations between marital status and self-rated health, adjusting for economic problems and trust. The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 28.7% among men and 33.2% among women. Older respondents, respondents born abroad, with medium/low education, low emotional support, low instrumental support, economic problems, low trust, never married and divorced had significantly higher odds ratios of poor self-rated health than their respective reference group. Low trust was significantly higher among the divorced and unmarried compared to the married/cohabitating. Adjustment for economic problems but not for trust reduced the odds ratios of poor self-rated health among the divorced, which became not significant among men. Never married and the divorced have significantly higher age-adjusted odds ratios of poor self-rated health than the married/cohabitating group. Economic problems but not trust seem to affect the association between marital status and poor self-rated health.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M
Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p hearing impairment (reference group) to report every poor health outcome with the exception of BMI ≥ 25 and lung disease. While many of the differences between disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T
Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree.
Rivera Castiñeira, Berta; Currais Nunes, Luis; Rungo, Paolo
Conditional cash transfers are becoming the standard approach to reducing poverty levels; the Brazilian Bolsa Familia Program, in particular, is the largest program of this kind, and the evaluation of its impact allows for drawing some interesting conclusions, which may apply to other countries. In this paper, the lack of positive results in terms of both health status and modification of unhealthy habits is underlined. Among different causes, which are discussed here, the existence of barriers on the supply side appears as the most important limitation for obtaining better results. The positive impact of this program on both education and poverty reduction however, allows for predicting improvements in health status in the long run.
The overall aim of this thesis was to provide better understanding of the underlying factors related to health maintenance in very old people, with a focus on medical conditions, functional outcome and nutritional status. Data were gathered from the ELSA 85 project (Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment). The ELSA 85 project was started in 2007 with a population-based survey of 85-year-old individuals (n = 650) residing in Linköping municipality, Sweden. During the study period from 2007 ...
Leung, Brenda; Luo, Nan; So, Lawrence; Quan, Hude
Measures of perceived health status may be vulnerable to ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported health status in Chinese and whites using 3 measures: physical and mental health status with the 5-point Likert-type scale, the EQ-5D together with a modified health index scale (0-100), and number of chronic conditions. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Chinese and white Canadians was conducted in a large city in Alberta, Canada. We analyzed 830 Chinese and 789 white respondents. Chinese, compared with whites, reported better health status using the EQ-5D health index (0.94 vs. 0.86) and had fewer chronic conditions surveyed (51.9% vs. 79.2% had one or more conditions). However, Chinese rated their health status fair or poor more often than whites (27.3% vs. 9.7% for physical health and 24.0% vs. 5.0% for mental health) and both groups rated similarly on the health index scale (80.0 for Chinese vs. 77.9 for white). Health status measurements performed inconsistently across ethnic populations. The EQ-5D health index was consistent with the number of chronic conditions, whereas results from the 5-point Likert-type scale and the health index scale were not consistent with the number of chronic conditions. Perceived health status differed by the measures used and ethnicity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as
Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M
To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S
Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered.
Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.
Relationship between socio-economic status, working conditions, and inequalities in health is well examined. However, literature on inequalities in self-reported health connected with socioeconomic status, economic activity, and work conditions in Ukraine is scarce, and evidence of related social...... policy action on this problem is largely absent. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (5158respondents at age 22-65 years) of a European SocialSurvey were used to examine how socioeconomic status, work conditions, and economic activity influence self-reported poor health (poor SRH) of Ukrainian working......-age respondents. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS22 (logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the variables on poor SRH). Such variables as, socio-economic status, economic activity, work conditions were created by using principal component analysis.A binomial logistic regression...
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing measureme
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing
Alba Y. Caro V
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the relationship between working conditions and health status using the data provided by The First Colombian National Survey on Health and Working Conditions (I-ENCST. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted on 931 workers from 737 work centers. The outcome variable was self-perceived health status (good/poor. Exposure variables were working conditions, i.e. hygiene, safety, ergonomic, and psychosocial risk factors. Additional variables were: sex, age, social class, education level, geographic region, and economic activity. We estimated the relationship between working conditions and health status using crude odds ratios (OR that were adjusted through logistic regression with their confidence intervals at 95% (CI95%. Results: workers exposed to the following factors had a higher probability of having a poor health status: insufficient working space (aOR 3.9; 95%CI 1.9-8.3, “the position held does not make it possible to develop skills” (aOR 6.2; 95%CI 2.6-14.7, the work center is very unsafe or not very safe (aOR 7.5; 95%CI 3.0-18.6, and the tools or workstation are inadequate (aOR 5.6; 95%CI 2.3-14.0. Discussion: of the analyzed population, individuals exposed to precarious working conditions had a higher risk of having a poor health status.
Matuk, L C
This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.
Rapoport, I K; Sergeeva, A A; Chubarovskiĭ, V V
Clinical and epidemiological examinations were made in rural junior (8-10-year-old) schoolchildren from the Vyazma District, Smolensk Region. The clinical findings were compared with the results of evaluation of sanitary-and-hygienic school welfare (SGW), made by the regional branch of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, and with those of a sociological survey of school directors and teachers. In the rural schools referred to as Group III morbidity, the incidence of diseases was ascertained to be significantly higher and their patterns had its peculiarities as compared to good hygienic and social educational institutions. There was evidence that the worse schooling conditions, the more children suffered from chronic diseases, chronic mental diseases and physical malformations in particular.
Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.
Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine
Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.
Health status of women still is one of the most serious issues affecting the community particularly in developing countries. Community life is meant to include not only social, economic and nutritional conditions, however additionally the cultural systems of values, aspirations and satisfaction that influence mental and family behavior under reproductive habits.
During the Golden Age of Medicine (20th Century), scientific and technological breakthroughs enabled physicians to treat diseases that were previously incurable. The idealist, romantic approach of medical practice believed in the right of every human being to receive the best treatment possible, regardless of cost. However, the rise in health care expenditure at the end of the last century made this approach impossible to follow. The growing health expenses are due to the increased percentage of chronically sick patients and elderly population, costs of novel technologies and public expectations. Israel spends 7.9% of its GDP on health, a figure which has not changed in the last fifteen years, while other western countries spend a considerably higher and increasing percentage of their GDP on health. Public resources must be allocated in order to maintain the health of the population and to decrease inequities. A data-based demonstration of the population health status and health care system is therefore mandated. in this issue of the Harefuah, three articles are presented which try to show different aspects of the measurement of Israeli heath status. The data accumulated is used to improve the health status of the Israeli people. The Israel Medical Association (IMA) has assumed responsibility for the creation of an objective index for the measurement and evaluation of the public state of health and the healthcare system. The goal of the IMA National Health Index is to promote discussions regarding medicine and health in Israel, and to serve as a tool to be used by relevant policy makers. Prof. Israeli et al discuss the merits of the National Health Index as well as delineate the difficulties regarding the methodology and choice of parameters. They suggest methods for its improvement. Dr Cohen and his colleagues of Clalit Health Services present the Quality Health indicator program in the community. In effect over the past fifteen years, this program is based on
Paula Janice S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004 and Chechnya (February 2004 through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C: 13.3%, Ingushetia (I: 11.3%, and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%. Most people (C: 94%, I: 98% were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1% and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4% and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%. Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5% and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8% – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%. Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28 showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%. Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46
This communication presents part of an international project focused on the work of trainers from an ergonomics perspective. The objective is to identify in the French vocational training system the various types of job status of trainers and their impact on working conditions and health. In order to explore this issue, we met with 11 trainers, all volunteers, working in the music or human resources sectors. Semi-structured interviews and transcriptions of two weeks of the trainers' professional schedules form the data collected. The analyses show that trainers have various job statuses as trainers and sometimes hold down several jobs at the same time. These working situations create freedom but lack security. With very long daily or weekly working hours, the relationships with trainees and clients are qualified as both very interesting, but also one of the most difficult aspects of the work. The 11 trainers, who considered themselves to be in good health, do however declare infra-pathological disorders, which they often relate to their working conditions. These findings are discussed with regard to the literature and raise issues relating to ergonomic methods in activity analysis and situated action.
Blancarte, A L; Murphy, K J; Reilley, R R
This study investigated the present status and suggested trends in health psychology as reported by American Psychological Association Division 38 (Health Psychology) members. A 25-item mail-in survey was developed to obtain these data from a randomly selected sample of 300. Information includes a demographic description of the respondents, their selection of influential books, journals, and individuals, and their opinions regarding the current status and desirable future trends in the field of health psychology.
Paula, Janice S; Leite, Isabel Cg; Almeida, Anderso B; Ambrosano, Glaucia Mb; Pereira, Antônio C; Mialhe, Fábio L
The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet is increasingly used by citizens as source of health information. Young, highly educated adults use the Internet frequently to search for health-related information. Our study explores whether reported chronic conditions or self-reported health status differed among Finnish university students using the Finnish Student Health Services web-based health advice service compared with those not using the service. Methods Cross-sectional study performed by a national postal survey in 2004. Material: A random sample (n = 5 030 of a population of 101 805 undergraduate Finnish university students aged 19–35. The response rate: 63% (n = 3 153. Main outcome measures: Proportion of university students reporting use a of web-based health advice service, diagnosed chronic conditions, and self-reported health status of users and non-users of a web-based health advice service. Statistical methods: Data were presented with frequency distributions and cross-tabulations and the χ2 test was used. Results 12% (n = 370 of Finnish undergraduate students had used the web-based health advice service and were identified as 'users'. The proportion of male students reporting allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis was greater among users than non-users (24%, n = 22 vs. 15%, n = 154, χ2, P = .03. The proportion of female students reporting chronic mental health problems was greater among users than non-users (12%, n = 34 vs. 8%, n = 140, χ2, P = .03. There was no statistical significance between the group differences of male or female users and non-users in self-reported health status (good or fairly good, average, rather poor or poor. Conclusion Among young, highly educated adults the use of a web-based health advice service is not associated with self-reported health status. However, a web-based health advice service could offer support for managing several specific chronic conditions. More research data is needed to evaluate the role of
Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Ferreti Borgatto, A
To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ≥ 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected by probabilistic sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI): BMI 27.0 kg/m2 = overweight. Multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted) was used. The estimation of the prevalence of underweight was 33.0% and that of overweight was 29.6%. The adjusted regression model showed that the probability of underweight was higher in older age groups (OR = 1.63, 70-79 years; OR = 2.05, ≥ 80 years) and among smokers (OR = 1.83). There was negative association between underweight, and hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension (OR = 1.99) was positively associated with overweight. The lower likelihood of overweight was observed among men, smokers, and those aged 80 years and more. The elderly population of Havana presents a vulnerable nutritional status in view of the prevalence of underweight and overweight. Increasing age, smoking, gender, and hypertension are the factors positively associated with vulnerable nutritional status.
Jankowiak, R; Stępniewska, H; Bilański, P; Kolařík, M
Phytophthora plurivora and other Phytophthora species are known to be serious pathogens of forest trees. Little is known, however, about the presence of P. plurivora in Polish oak forests and their role in oak decline. The aims of this study were to identify P. plurivora in healthy and declining Quercus robur stands in southern Poland and to demonstrate the relationship between different site factors and the occurrence of P. plurivora. In addition, the virulence of P. plurivora and other Phytophthora species was evaluated through inoculations using 2-year-old oak seedlings. Rhizosphere soil was investigated from 39 oak stands representing different healthy tree statuses. The morphology and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene were used for identifications. P. plurivora, an oak fine root pathogen, was isolated from rhizosphere soil samples in 6 out of 39 stands. Additionally, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora rosacearum-like were also obtained from several stands. The results showed a significant association between the presence of P. plurivora and the health status of oak trees. Similar relationships were also observed for all identified Phytophthora species. In addition, there was evidence for a connection between the presence of all identified Phytophthora species and some site conditions. Phytophthora spp. occurred more frequently in declining stands and in silt loam and sandy loam soils with pH ≥ 3.66. P. plurivora and P. cambivora were the only species capable of killing whole plants, producing extensive necrosis on seedling stems.
Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...
Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I
Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144).
Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine
The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo
To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.
... illnesses and disabilities Asthma Blindness and low vision Deafness and being hard of hearing Diabetes Flu (Influenza) ... disorder. This condition causes panic attacks, which are sudden, strong feelings of fear for no clear reason. ...
Combs-Orme, Terri; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Simpkins, Celeste G.
A study compared Medicaid children with and without serious mental health problems (n=965) using parent reports of global health status, physical functioning, and general health perceptions. Children with more serious mental health problems were significantly more likely to have chronic health conditions. The number of conditions also predicted…
Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... diabetes, or lupus , or sickle cell disease , or hemophilia, or leukemia, or whatever ongoing health condition they ... checking his or her blood sugar after the game instead of before. Unfortunately, easing up on taking ...
Murphy, Alexia J; Hill, Rebecca J; Buntain, Helen; White, Melinda; Brookes, Denise; Davies, Peter S W
Nutritional status is an important consideration in many pediatric clinical conditions. This paper aimed to examine and compare the nutritional status, represented by body cell mass (BCM), of children with cancer, Crohn's disease (CD), cystic fibrosis (CF) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Anthropometry was measured and BCM was calculated from whole body potassium-40 counting in 259 children being treated for clinical conditions (n = 66 cancer; n = 59 AN; n = 75 CF; n = 59 CD) and 108 healthy children. BCM was adjusted for height (BCMI) and expressed as a Z-score relative to laboratory reference data. The CD (-0.80 ± 1.61; p = 0.0001) and AN (-1.13 ± 0.99; p = 0.0001) groups had significantly lower BMI Z-score than the healthy control (0.13 ± 0.75), cancer (0.50 ± 1.40) and CF groups (-0.09 ± 0.95). The cancer (-1.16 ± 1.60; p = 0.0001), CD (-1.13 ± 1.36; p = 0.0001) and AN (-0.97 ± 1.18; p = 0.0001) groups had significantly reduced BCM compared to the healthy control (0.07 ± 0.93) and CF group (0.31 ± 1.08). According to BCMI Z-score, 42.4% of patients with cancer, 41.7% of the patients with CD, 27.1% of patients with AN, and 4.0% of patients with CF were considered malnourished. This study demonstrates that children undergoing treatment for clinical conditions may have alterations in BCM, independent of BMI. Children with cancer, CD and AN all had a high prevalence of malnutrition. Assessment of body composition, not just body size, is vital to understand nutritional status in children with clinical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama
A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities.
Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama
A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the “therapeutic alliance”, privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. PMID:26043340
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than o
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel
Immigrants leave their homes for unfamiliar destinations in search of better lives for themselves and their families. Many immigrants experience profound loss and emotional distress as they adjust to life in different societies. Despite these challenges, the prevalence of mental health conditions among immigrants is low, whereas children of immigrants have rates equal to those of native populations. The prevalence of mental health conditions is high among refugees, who comprise a specific subgroup of immigrants who have been displaced forcibly and often have experienced severe trauma. Cultural factors, such as stigma and somatization of emotional symptoms, make it less likely that immigrants and refugees from certain groups will ever present to mental health subspecialists. Strong therapeutic relationships, cultural sensitivity, involvement of family members, judicious use of medications, and knowledge of available community resources are important tools that can aid clinicians who treat immigrants and refugees with mental health conditions. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
the cumulative effects on nutritional status of circular migration as a process over time ... infant mortality rates.3 In Cape Town, the infant mortality rate for the hostel .... The research team comprised a nursing sister, a nurse/social anthropologist ...
Pelgrin, Florian; St-Amour, Pascal
This paper studies the lifetime effects of exogenous changes in health insurance coverage (e.g. Medicare, PPACA, termination of employer-provided plans) on the dynamic optimal allocation (consumption, leisure, health expenditures), status (health and wealth), and welfare. We solve, simulate, and structurally estimate a parsimonious life cycle model with endogenous exposure to morbidity and mortality risks, and exogenous health insurance. By varying coverage, we identify the marginal effects of insurance when young and/or when old on allocations, statuses, and welfare. Our results highlight positive effects of insurance on health, wealth and welfare, as well as mid-life substitution away from healthy leisure in favor of more health expenses, caused by peaking wages, and accelerating health issues.
Jun 15, 1991 ... severe legal restrictions women and children have always resided in the ..... investigated hostel dwellers' therapy-seeking activities. REFERENCES ... Ramphele M. Health: a mirror of South Mrican power relations. Paper.
Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine
The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experienc...
"This overview reviews the indicators currently used to describe the health status of populations. It emphasizes Quebec's contributions in helping to develop such indicators, including the development of health expectancy indicators; various theories on changes in population health status and longevity; Quebec's role in the international harmonization of health expectancy indicators; and the initial findings emerging from the compilation of health expectancy time series. An appendix offers a brief survey of texts on demographic indicators, an area in which Quebec has come to specialize." (EXCERPT)
Terre, L; Drabman, R S; Meydrech, E F; Hsu, H S
Over the past decade, univariate studies have identified peer-rated popularity/sociability as a correlate of individual health practices (e.g., alcohol and drug use, exercise habits). Yet, the relationship between multiple health habits and broader social competencies rarely has been systematically examined. Accordingly, using a multivariate approach, the present study investigated the relative influence of background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, race, family type, and socioeconomic status) and peer status on health-related behaviors (i.e., physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, and stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students (ages 11-13). In this sample, peer popularity provided no significant increment in the prediction of health habits over and above the effects explained by demographics. These results are consistent with current perspectives on health and interpersonal behaviors, and have important practical implications for the initiation and maintenance of healthful and risky practices in the natural environment.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa
Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…
Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa
Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...
Occupation. Children’s Health. Health Status Infant Mortality. Low BirthweighL Activity Limitation. Risk Factors Teenage Childbearing_ Smoking in...in 1987-96 (table 4). ■ Low birthweight is associated with elevated risk of death and disability in infants. In 1996 the incidence of low ...is considered to be a good measure of overall community health (10). Low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of health and
S V Subramanian
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous
Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Gruen, R J; DeLongis, A
In this study we examined the relation between personality factors (mastery and interpersonal trust), primary appraisal (the stakes a person has in a stressful encounter), secondary appraisal (options for coping), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and somatic health status and psychological symptoms in a sample of 150 community-residing adults. Appraisal and coping processes should be characterized by a moderate degree of stability across stressful encounters for them to have an effect on somatic health status and psychological symptoms. These processes were assessed in five different stressful situations that subjects experienced in their day-to-day lives. Certain processes (e.g., secondary appraisal) were highly variable, whereas others (e.g., emotion-focused forms of coping) were moderately stable. We entered mastery and interpersonal trust, and primary appraisal and coping variables (aggregated over five occasions), into regression analyses of somatic health status and psychological symptoms. The variables did not explain a significant amount of the variance in somatic health status, but they did explain a significant amount of the variance in psychological symptoms. The pattern of relations indicated that certain variables were positively associated and others negatively associated with symptoms.
Niu, Xiaoling; Roche, Lisa M; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A
Previous studies found that uninsured and Medicaid insured cancer patients have poorer outcomes than cancer patients with private insurance. We examined the association between health insurance status and survival of New Jersey patients 18-64 diagnosed with seven common cancers during 1999-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for 5-year cause-specific survival were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression models; health insurance status was the primary predictor with adjustment for other significant factors in univariate chi-square or Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. Two diagnosis periods by health insurance status were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. For breast, colorectal, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and prostate cancer, uninsured and Medicaid insured patients had significantly higher risks of death than privately insured patients. For bladder cancer, uninsured patients had a significantly higher risk of death than privately insured patients. Survival improved between the two diagnosis periods for privately insured patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer and NHL, for Medicaid insured patients with NHL, and not at all for uninsured patients. Survival from cancer appears to be related to a complex set of demographic and clinical factors of which insurance status is a part. While ensuring that everyone has adequate health insurance is an important step, additional measures must be taken to address cancer survival disparities.
Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki
To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
Klineberg, Emily; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Kang, Melissa; Medlow, Sharon; Sullivan, Lucinda; Cummings, Michael; Pringle, Graeme; Steinbeck, Katharine
More than 26 000 Australians aged 12-24 years experience homelessness, yet data on the health status of homeless youth remain limited. The aim of this study was to describe the health of young people attending a youth health service in Western Sydney who were experiencing homelessness. Retrospective case note review for clients aged 12-25 years attending Youth Health Services in Western Sydney. Extracted data included: homelessness status; demographics; physical health issues; mental health issues; involvement with juvenile justice; and disengagement from education or employment. Just under half of the 180 clients attending a Youth Health Service in Western Sydney were homeless, and an additional 15 young people who were not currently homeless nominated homelessness as a presenting issue. In comparison with currently domiciled young people, homeless youth were less likely to have a regular general practitioner and more likely to nominate a physical health concern as a presenting issue, although there was no difference between groups in terms of diagnosed mental or physical health conditions. Considered as a whole, the sample showed high rates of acute physical symptoms, physical trauma, psychological distress and self-harm. Youth homelessness is associated with risk of both poor physical and mental health. As much of youth homelessness is hidden, health-care providers need to ensure that they inquire about homelessness status, and have an awareness of potentially complex multi-morbidities in the physical and mental health of young marginalised people presenting to health services. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna
Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants' health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A complex clinical social study of health status, life style and conditions of infants aged 3 months to 1 year in migrant families living in Pushkino district of Moscow region for more than 2 years was carried out. The study has revealed that children in migrant families fall behind in physical development, most of them show a delay of psychomotor development, the level of revealed pathology is significantly higher vs. children of famia lies permanently residing in the area. The data acquired indicate the need of intent attention to the children in migrant families from both medical and social authorities.Key words: children, health status, physical development, children's condition.
Full Text Available Dionne CW Braeken,1,2 Sarah Houben-Wilke,1 Dionne E Smid,1 Gernot GU Rohde,2 Jesse JC Drijkoningen,2 Emiel FM Wouters,1,2 Martijn A Spruit,1 Frits ME Franssen1,2 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the Netherlands; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: Spontaneous sputum production occurs in a subset of COPD patients; however, its clinical relevance has not been established. Differences in health status and clinical outcomes between patients with and without positive sputum cultures are unknown.Objective: To compare clinical characteristics and health status of spontaneous sputum producers with a positive culture (SC+ and negative culture (SC- with nonsputum producers (NP in a cohort of COPD patients referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: In total, 518 clinically stable patients with mild-to-very severe COPD were recruited (mean age: 64.1±9.1 years, 55.6% males, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 48.6%±20.0% predicted. Health status was measured using COPD Assessment Test, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Exercise capacity was measured using the 6-minute walking distance. Spontaneously expectorated sputum was cultured for microbiology.Results: Almost one-third of patients spontaneously produced sputum (n=164, 31.7%. Despite comparable lung function, SC+ reported more frequent exacerbations than NP (≥2 exacerbations <1 year: 43 [81.1%] vs 179 [50.6%], P<0.001. COPD Assessment Test total score and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire total score were significantly worse in SC+ than NP (23.9±6.1 vs 21.1±6.7, P=0.012; 3.1±1.0 vs 2.5±1.0, P=0.002; respectively. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D score was significantly higher in SC+ than NP (8.7±4.1 vs 7.2±4.3, P=0.046.Conclusion
This report examines information about the health status of migrant farmworkers, including specific issues related to migrant health services in Michigan. Despite the high rate of families with two wage earners, one-half of migrant farmworker families have incomes below the poverty level. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and sanitation,…
Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.
Graham, Carol; Higuera, Lucas; Lora, Eduardo
This paper assesses the effects of different health conditions on happiness. Based on new data for Latin America, we examine the effects of different conditions across age, gender, and income cohorts. Anxiety and pain have stronger effects than physical problems, likely because people adapt better to one-time shocks than to constant uncertainty. The negative effects of health conditions are very large when compared with the effects of income on happiness. And, while higher peer income typically elicits envy, better peer health provides positive signals for life and health satisfaction. Health norms vary widely across countries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gillcrist, J A; Brumley, D E; Blackford, J U
Although a substantial decline in dental caries has occurred among U.S. children, not everyone has benefited equally. The first-ever surgeon general's report on oral health in America indicates that the burden of oral diseases is found in poor Americans. This study investigates the relationship between community socioeconomic status, or SES, and dental health of children. An oral health survey of 17,256 children, representing 93 percent of children residing in 62 Tennessee communities, was conducted in public elementary schools during the 1996-1997 school year. Portable dental equipment was used for examinations, and data from each examination were entered directly into a laptop computer. The authors performed analyses of covariance to examine the relationship between community SES (low/medium/high) and dental health, controlling for community fluoridation. Community SES was significantly related to caries experience in the primary teeth, the proportion of untreated caries in the primary and permanent teeth, dental treatment needs, dental sealants and incisor trauma. Overall, dental health was significantly worse for low-SES communities than for medium- and high-SES communities. The authors conclude that all specific dental indexes used to measure children's dental health in this study, with the exceptions of caries experience in the permanent teeth and sealant presence, were inversely related to the communities' SES. The percentage of children with dental sealants was directly related to the community's SES. Further improvements in oral health will necessitate that community-based preventive programs and access to quality dental care be made available to children who are identified as being at highest risk of experiencing oral disease.
Emma Gil Ojeda
Full Text Available Background: The creation of reliable epidemiological profiles in different populations is a helpful practice that offers a general vision of how community health can be affected and it assess health systems interventions and provides information to guide the policy making process. Objective: To assess the population´s oral health condition of through the determining of the appropriate markers. Methods: Descriptive study in five health areas of Cienfuegos province including people selected by age group and through randomized sampling. The oral health condition of this population was analyzed, and the results were compared with the previous measurement dating from 1998. Results: The percentage of this population between 5-18 years of age without malocclusions or gingival and periodontal affectation was 72,6% and 38,6% respectively; the percentage of children with DMF-index at the age of five was 1,96, while the 88,2% of 18 years-old surveyed people have all their teeth. The mean of lost teeth in the age groups 35-44 and 60-74 was 7,6 and 24,7 respectively. Conclusions: Most of oral health markers improved compared with the previous measurements, except for the age group 5-18 without malocclusions and the percentage of people without gingival or periodontal affectations, which was slightly reduced.
Youn Ho Shin
Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (nonwhite, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline
Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.
Sousa, Emily; Agudelo Suárez, Andrés A.; Benavides, Fernando G.; Schenker, Marc; Ana M. García; Benach, Joan; Delclós Gómez-Morán, Carlos Eric; López Jacob, María José; Ruiz Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; ITSAL project
Objective To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008–2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental...
Mar 15, 2010 ... demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life .... evidence- and community-based dental health education, .... in adolescents associated with family characteristics and par-.
Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa
Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.
Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.
The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.
.... 1216.3 Section 1216.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONDITIONAL BASIS OF LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENCE STATUS § 1216.3... or her investment capital through other than legal means (such as through the sale of illegal...
Apolinar Membrillo Luna
Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe
The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance.
Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921
Full Text Available Background: Women are traditionally over represented among the poor and therefore in the long run, have less access to remuneration and health resources, including health insurance and social security services. Women are disadvantaged on some fundamental economic indicators such as unemployment and access to economic resources. In 2007 in Jamaica, for instance among the 124 500 unemployed persons in the labour force, 65.4% were women (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2008. Thus, women's health and the control that they can exercise over resources are key factors in achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability in health interventions. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the good health status of rural women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 49 years. Having extensively reviewed the literature, this paper is the first study of its kind in Jamaica and will provide pertinent information on this cohort for the purpose of public health planning. Method/Study Design: The current research extracted a sample of 3450 respondents who indicated that they were rural women ages 15 to 49 years. This sample was taken from a national cross-sectional survey from the 14 parishes in Jamaica. The survey used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the original 25 018 respondents. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7%. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample and logistic regression was used to establish a good health model. Results/Findings: Using logistic regression analyses, 6 variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health status of rural women (i.e. ages 15 to 49 years in Jamaica. These are social standing (two wealthiest quintile – OR=0.524, 95%CI: 0.350,0.785; marital status (separated, divorced or widowed – OR=0.382, 95%CI: 0.147, 0.991; health insurance (OR=0.041, 95%CI: 0.024, 0.069; negative affective psychological conditions (OR=0.951, 95
Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Khankevich, Iu R; Ustimenko, L I; Burtsev, N N; Kuz'minov, O V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A; Trofimova, A Iu
Authors analyzed data characterizing health status of military men serving on the North Fleet, peculiarities of changes in category of fitness for military service in 2002-2011. It was found that 75.1% of conscripts fell into first health group, 20.1%--fell into second health group, 4.8%--fell into third health group. Authors gave detailed characteristics of frequent diseases in military men. Authors formulated organizational solutions, ways of improvement of conscripts' health status.
Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian
This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs), personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs), after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness). Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health). Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23826090
Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.
This paper examines the relationship between the inequality in workplace conditions and health-related outcomes in Japan. It analyzes the effect of changes in the work conditions and work arrangements on the subjective health, activity restriction, and depression symptoms, using the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey (JLPS). The 2007 JLPS consists of nationally representative sample of the youth (20 to 34 yr old) and the middle-aged (35 to 40 yr old). The original respondents were followed up in 2008, and 2,719 respondents for the youth panel and 1,246 for the middle-aged panel returned the questionnaires. The first major conclusion is that there are substantial changes in health conditions between the two waves even though the distributions of health-related outcomes are very similar at two time points. The second major conclusion is that the effects of work conditions depend on different health-related outcomes. Self-reported health and depression symptoms are affected by a variety of job-related factors. The atmosphere of helping each other and the control over the pace of work are two important factors which affect both depression and self-reported health. All these findings suggest that the workplace conditions and job characteristics have profound influence on the workers' health.
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A
Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence on the influ......Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...
Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter
.... The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health...
To describe perceptions of health status among a sample of urban minority adolescents and the contribution of demographics, intrinsic motivation, general self-efficacy, risk taking, and stressful life experiences on the adolescent's perception of health status. Correlational design. A total of 71 adolescents were studied using the Adolescent Health Chart for perceived health status, the Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Risk Taking Instrument, and the Life Events Checklist. There were no statistically significant effects of demographics on perceived health status. Scores of Perceived Health Status correlated with scores of self-efficacy (r = 0.56; p perceived health status in urban minority adolescents. The results contribute to the present body of knowledge about patterns of adolescent health as perceived by the adolescent. In addition to expanding the understanding of the minority adolescent experience in relation to health promotion attributes and health compromising behaviors, the results identify antecedents that are predictive of improved perceived health status for the urban adolescent.
Galvin Alaan Galeon
Full Text Available Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R, Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.
Galeon, Galvin Alaan
Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.
Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda
Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Othman, N A A; Sockalingam, S N M P; Mahyuddin, A
This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate the existing oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia. A total of 50 haemophilia patients and 50 matched controls aged seven to 16 years were recruited into the study. Clinical examination was carried out to determine dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and gingival condition in these two groups. Information regarding previous dental history, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were also obtained. No significant difference was found in mean caries experience in primary and secondary dentitions (P = 0.86 and 0.32) and in Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, P = 0.20) between both groups. However, a significantly higher proportion of haemophilia patients (24%) had better oral hygiene status as compared to the controls (2%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI, P = 0.02) between the two groups with the study group having less gingival inflammation. A total of 88% (n = 44) of the haemophilia patients were registered and received dental treatment in specialist dental clinics. More than half (56%, n = 28) had frequent dental visits and only one-third of the haemophilia patients had history of hospitalization due to oral problems. There was no significant difference in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits between both groups. In general, haemophilia children and adolescents in this study had similar caries experience, a significantly better oral hygiene status and gingival health as compared to healthy controls. The main reason for this is the multidisciplinary approach implemented by medical health-care professionals as primary care provider and the dental team.
Gurbuz, Taskin; Tan, Huseyin
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral hygiene status and dental treatment requirements in children with epilepsy. The treatment group consisted of 211 children with epilepsy (120 boys and 91 girls, 4-15 years old, mean age 7.85 + or - 2.98 years). The control group consisted of healthy children, matched by age and gender. Clinical features of the patients were obtained from hospital records. Clinical examinations were conducted, under standard light, using a plane buccal mirror, a dental probe and air drying to evaluate caries experience and to record the periodontal health of each child. Statistical analysis was performed using chi(2) test, Fisher exact test and anova. The number of decayed and missing teeth, the degree of abrasion and periodontal indexes were significantly worse in patients with epilepsy, compared to the control group (P oral disorders. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures often cause minor oral injuries and traumatized anterior teeth. Epileptic children are at an increased risk of developing caries and gingivitis compared with healthy subjects.
van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik
Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary cardi
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
Daaleman, Timothy P.; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A.
BACKGROUND Religion and spirituality remain important social and psychological factors in the lives of older adults, and there is continued interest in examining the effects of religion and spirituality on health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of religion and spirituality with self-reported health status in a community-dwelling geriatric population.
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.
Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university
Full Text Available Introduction: Health is dynamic and multifactorial in nature. Oral health is an integral part of general health. Health personnel, especially in primary health centers (PHCs, can play an important role in grooming health in their patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of health personnel of PHCs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 520 health personnel working in PHCs of Mathura district in the month of September-October 2014. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (2013 was used to collect data from each subject. Comparison of oral health status of various health personnel was also done. Results: In the present study, 45 (8.7% belonged to the upper socioeconomic class, 295 (56.7% were from upper-middle socioeconomic class, and 180 (34.6% were from lower-middle socioeconomic class. The mean decayed missing filled teeth was 1.11 ± 2.63 for doctors, 1.24 ± 3.10 for pharmacists, 1.10 ± 3.55 for lab technicians, 1.78 ± 3.80 for ward boys/ward nurses, 0.25 ± 0.50 for lady health visitors, and 1.53 ± 3.16 for auxiliary nurse midwives. The difference among study subjects according to occupation was statistically significant (P = 0.787. Conclusion: The oral health status of health personnel of Mathura district was moderate. These health workers can serve as a valuable resource for population-based health promotion approaches in achieving health for all.
Conard, Mark W
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.
This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance.
Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W;
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious condition that is associated with impaired health status and a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. To date, little is known about the determinants of health status and depressive symptoms in CHF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T...... Type D personality is associated with impaired health status and increased depressive symptoms in heart failure patients, independent of disease characteristics....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the
May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David
There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...
Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Erika; Fukaya, Taro
This research aims to further current understanding of gender differences in old age mortality. In particular, it assesses the relative importance of health behavior and baseline health conditions in predicting the risk of dying, and how their effects differ between elderly men and women. Data for this research came from a prospective study of a national sample of 2,200 older adults in Japan from 1987 to 1999. Hazard rate models were employed to ascertain the interaction effects involving gender and health behavior (i.e., smoking and drinking) and baseline health status. Gender differences in old age mortality in the Japanese are quite pronounced throughout all of our models. In addition, interaction effects of gender and smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment, indicate that females in Japan suffer more from these risk factors than do their male counterparts. Failure to adjust for population heterogeneity may lead to a significant underestimation of female advantage in survival. The inclusion of health behavior and health status measures only offsets a limited proportion of this gender differential. The increased mortality risk due to smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment among elderly Japanese women suggests that narrowing of gender gap in mortality may be due to not only changes in the levels of these risk factors but also their differential effects on men and women.
Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S
For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.
Mostafa Amini Rarani
Full Text Available Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study.Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy.Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones.Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran.
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...
Paul Mark Mitchell
Full Text Available Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status.The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650 of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population 'comparator' group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L and capability (ICECAP-A. Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group.5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26 and capability (1.22 compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24 is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55. In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4.Significant differences exist in the
Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that oral health literacy is associated with differences in oral health behaviors and clinical oral health status. An understanding of participants’ oral health literacy levels is crucial for designing effective health educational materials and creating intervention programs to promote oral health.
... their health status and overall wellbeing within the framework of sustainable ... The data collected were analysed using qualitative, quantitative, and ... to allow for a general description of the respondents and their household characteristics.
Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.
in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated......: Type D personality was shown to be an independent correlate of impaired patient-reported physical and mental health status in various cardiovascular patient groups. Clinicians should be aware of the association between chronic psychological distress and poor patient-reported outcomes....
person is not only that who is sound physically, mentally and emotionally but also ... reported health status of adult patients attending general outpatient clinic of University ... This connection brings faith, hope, peace, and empowerment and the.
... for health status was done following the formal ether concentration technique for ... Prevalence rates for iodine deficiency, anaemia, iron deficiency and vitamin A ... iron deficiency (measured as serum Ferritin) and VAD (measured as serum ...
Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter
community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...... as well as life style changes. The paper further illustrates the relationship between the rapid socio-cultural and economic change and the health of the population. Psychosocial stress is reflected in problems such as alcohol abuse, violence and suicide, and these factors have been shown in studies...
Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter
as well as life style changes. The paper further illustrates the relationship between the rapid socio-cultural and economic change and the health of the population. Psychosocial stress is reflected in problems such as alcohol abuse, violence and suicide, and these factors have been shown in studies....... The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small...
Kommuri Sahithi Reddy
Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS. Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions. RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.
Full Text Available Accurate gas turbine engine health status estimation is very important for engine applications and aircraft flight safety. Due to the fact that there are many to-be-estimated parameters, engine health status estimation is a very difficult optimization problem. Traditional gas path analysis (GPA methods are based on the linearized thermodynamic engine performance model, and the estimation accuracy is not satisfactory on conditions that the nonlinearity of the engine model is significant. To solve this problem, a novel gas turbine engine health status estimation method has been developed. The method estimates degraded engine component parameters using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm. And the engine health indices are calculated using these estimated component parameters. The new method was applied to turbine fan engine health status estimation and is compared with the other three representative methods. Results show that although the developed method is slower in computation speed than GPA methods it succeeds in estimating engine health status with the highest accuracy in all test cases and is proven to be a very suitable tool for off-line engine health status estimation.
Kuchma, V R; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Shlenskiĭ, A A; Purgaeva, V K; Sukhinina, S P
The sanitary conditions of information technology classes, the capacities and health status of 10-11th form pupils thoroughly studying information technology were examined. Tests revealed that in the presence of poor conditions, such as reduced illumination, higher air temperatures, increased electromagnetic radiation, noncompliance of rest and work regimens, the pupils had poor working capacities and deteriorated subjective ill health and that adolescents with myopia, poor posture, and scoliosis increased in number.
Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright; Crum, Anthony Bryan; Hung, Man
Varying types of health information sources may influence health outcomes, but not much is known about their impact. The purpose of our study was to explore the association between health information sources and individuals' health status. A total of 14,966 participants who responded to the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey between 2005 and 2012 were included. Controlling for demographics, comorbidities, communication patterns, and socioeconomic status, we utilized regression analysis to examine the relationship between sources of health information and perceived health status. Included in the study were a total of 8,103 females and 6,863 males between 18 and 101 years old (M = 49.14, SD = 16.13). Health information from the Internet and pharmaceutical companies was significantly associated with better health status (p news outlets, and health care companies was not. Information from the Internet was significantly associated with better health status, suggesting that health information from the Internet may have benefits. However, use of social media and health care apps did not relate to better health status, which may indicate that these sources are not as useful to consumers or that these sources have not yet saturated the health information marketplace.
Full Text Available Working conditions in RMHK Trepca directly conditioned by exposure to a wide variety of harmful causes of the diseases, both physical, and chemical hazards and occupational exposure to heavy metals. The aim is to analyze the health status of workers metarluškog-Mining-Chemical Combine Trepca - Zvečan (RMHK Trepca. The research was conducted at the Health Zvecan in Zvecan using the results of the periodic inspection of employees RMHK Trepca. The study included 738 employees in 2014 and 628 employees in 2015. Department of Occupational Health of the Health Zvečan organized and done these examinations in accordance with the rules on conducting preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees at the workplace with increased risk to health, and as an additional source of data used is referred to a periodic review of employee (form no. 2 containing information on sex, age, occupation, place of work, qualification, education level, the drive, the total working age, the expository seniority, the requirements in the workplace, working conditions and workers' exposure to harmful agents or elements of job description city of the Act on risk assessment specific workplace. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels after the hearing damage to the second place in both 2014 (28.86% and in 2015 (18.47%. Followed by diseases of the urinary tract, respiratory organs. Able to work at the workplace with increased risk to the health worker was 92.67% in 2014 and 83.44% of workers in 2015. Preventive measures should be directed towards reducing occupational hazards and adverse working conditions and to insist on the strict implementation of safety measures. Periodic medical examinations to the full extent and quality prescribed in the rules are of great importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, trauma and disability.
Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.
To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...
Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn
In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.
Mini, G K
Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala.
Cenir Gonçalves Tier
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the health conditions and environmental factors that influence the activities of daily living of elderly people. Cross-sectional epidemiological research conducted with 167 elderly in a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2013, using a structured instrument. Data were grouped for statistical/descriptive treatment. Circulatory diseases were the most frequent. The commonly used drug was aspirin, and falls were prevalent in 65 elderly. There was a significant difference in eating in age group older than 80 years (p=0,002. Dressing had significance in the age group above 80 years old (p=0.010, but was not significant when associated architecture with age. It was concluded that knowledge of the socio-demographic and health characteristics of the elderly enables the implementation of specific actions by health professionals, besides helping managers to formulate health indicators.
Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack
Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…
Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.
Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y
In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated Health (SRH and health-related quality of life (HRQoL are used to evaluate health disparities. Like all subjective measures of health, they are dependent on health expectations that are associated with socioeconomic characteristics. It is thus needed to analyse the influence played by socioeconomic position (SEP on the relationship between these two indicators and health conditions if we aim to use them to study health disparities. Our objective is to assess the influence of SEP on the relationship between physical health status and subjective health status, measured by SRH and HRQoL using the SF-36 scale. Methods We used data from the French National Health Survey. SEP was assessed by years of education and household annual income. Physical health status was measured by functional limitations and chronic low back pain. Results Regardless of their health status, people with lower SEP were more likely than their more socially advantaged counterparts to report poor SRH and poorer HRQoL, using any of the indicators of SEP. The negative impact of chronic low back pain on SRH was relatively greater in people with a high SEP than in those with a low SEP. In contrast, chronic low back pain and functional limitations had less impact on physical and mental component scores of quality of life for socially advantaged men and women. Conclusions Both SRH and HRQoL were lower among those reporting functional limitations or chronic low back pain. However, the change varied according SEP and the measure. In relative term, the negative impact of a given health condition seems to be greater on SRH and lower on HRQoL for people with higher SEP in comparison with people with low SEP. Using SRH could thus decrease socioeconomic differences. In contrast using HRQoL could increase these differences, suggesting being cautious when using these indicators for analyzing health disparities.
Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during
Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.
Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is related to both immediate and persisting impairments in mental health and well-being. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that children who grow up in families with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) have more symptoms of mental health problems, compared to those raised in more affluent families. The overall aim of the current thesis was to expand the knowledge of the socioeconomic distribution of childhood mental health problems by co...
Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation ...
Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Cullen, Mark R
Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool. We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.
Full Text Available Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool.We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161. We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury.We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.
Full Text Available Several research works in the related international literature on sociology and health sciences deal with the state of health in one selected population. In these studies, the chosen sample is often connected with special jobs, especially with healthcare professionals and their working conditions. These studies predominantly examine the self-rated subjective health status using questionnaires. There are others that assess the state of health based not only on self-rated subjective indicators, but also using objective data gained by measuring. Considering the international experiences, we chose a special population in our research – healthcare professionals working in an institute for chronically ill psychiatric patients. Our choice was influenced by the fact that we wanted to include their unique working conditions when exploring and assessing their health status. Moreover, our approach was to assess the objective state of health alongside the subjective factors, as our hypothesis was that the majority of the indicators presumably coincided. The data were collected with the help of three questionnaires and some indicators of the objective health statuses were measured. The findings were processed using the SPSS 17.0 mathematical-statistical software package. Following the descriptive statistics, we applied hierarchic cluster-analysis based on results of the WHOQOLD-BREF26 life-quality questionnaire, the WHO WBI-5 Well Being Index, and on the body composition analysis. The results show the objective and subjective health status of population and the factors that influenced it; the working conditions and the interpersonal contacts in the workplace. The conclusion was that in the examined population the subjective and objective health status doesn’t coincide.
Lorraine J. Phillips, MSN, RN, FNP
Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of self-rated health status for Texas adults using the current 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Self-rated health is generally accepted as a valid measure of health status in population studies, and understanding its correlates may help public health professionals prioritize health-promotion and disease-prevention interventions. Methods The two research questions addressed by this study involved the predictors of self-rated health: 1 "Do demographic characteristics, health care coverage, leisure-time physical activity, and body mass index predict self-rated health status for Texas residents aged 18 to 64 years?” and 2 “Does choice of interview language (English vs Spanish predict self-rated health status for Texas residents of Hispanic ethnicity aged 18 to 64 years?” Key analysis variables were identified, and descriptive statistics were used to describe the major variables and determine whether the number of respondents for each variable was sufficient for analysis. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the variables. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis (controlling for diabetes and arthritis of the self-rated health predictors indicated that older age, lack of health care coverage, lack of a college education, being Hispanic, having a lower income, obesity, and not exercising explained 19.4% of the variance of fair and poor self-rated health. The interview language (English or Spanish, age, sex, education, income, obesity, health insurance coverage, and physical activity (controlling for chronic illness explained 22.8% of the variance in fair and poor self-rated health for Hispanic respondents. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a college education, a lower body mass index, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and participation in physical activity are associated with good, very good, or excellent self-rated health
Paul A Bourne
Full Text Available Background: In recent times, the World Health Organization has increasing drawn attention to the pivotal role of social conditions in determining health status. The non-biological factors produced inequalities in health and need to be considered in health development. In spite of this, extensive review of health Caribbean revealed that no study has examined health status over the life course of Jamaicans. With the value of research in public health, this study is timely and will add value to understand the elderly, middle age and young adults in Jamaica. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop models that can be used to examine (or evaluate health of Jamaicans, elderly, middle age and young adults. Method: The current study used data from a cross-sectional survey which was conducted between July and October 2002. Stratified random probability sampling technique was used to collect the data from 25,018 respondents across the island. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7% with 20.5% who did not respond to particular questions, 9.0% did not participated in the survey and another 0.2% was rejected due to data cleaning. Logistic regression analyses were used to model health status of Jamaicans, young adults, middle age adults and elderly. The predictive power of the model was tested using Omnibus Test of Model and Hosmer and Lemeshow (24 was used to examine goodness of fit of the model. The correlation matrix was examined in order to ascertain whether autocorrelation (or multi-collinearity existed between variables. Results: Using logistic regression analysis, eleven variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health Status of Jamaicans (p<0.05. The factors are retirement income (95%CI=0.487-0.958, logged medical expenditure (95% Confidence Interval, CI =0.907-0.993, marital status (Separated or widowed or divorced: 95%CI=0.309-0.464; married: 95%CI=0.495-0.667; Never married, health insurance (95%CI=0
Sarna, Linda; Cooley, Mary E; Brown, Jean K; Williams, Roma D; Chernecky, Cynthia; Padilla, Geraldine; Danao, Leda Layo
To describe and compare the quality of life (QOL) and health status of dyads of women with lung cancer and their family members and to explore the correlates of family members' QOL. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Interview, self-report. 51 dyads consisting of women with lung cancer and their family members. One-time assessment of family members' and patients' QOL, health status, and demographics and patients' clinical characteristics. Family and patient QOL and health status. QOL of the dyads was not significantly related. Poorer physical QOL of family members was associated with older age, comorbid conditions, less education, and alcohol use. Poorer emotional QOL of family members was associated with younger age, depressed mood, and not being a spouse. Fifty-nine percent of family members had comorbid conditions. Significantly more family members continued to smoke and use alcohol. The QOL of family members of patients with lung cancer is diminished when their own health status is compromised. Further study is needed. Additional study is needed to identify family members at risk for diminished QOL and with compromised health status because these factors might affect ability to support patients with lung cancer.
Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L
Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.
Oers JAM van; VTV
The third Dutch Public Health Status and Forecasts (PHSF) report once again contains a large amount of up-todate information about public health status, prevention and healthcare in the Netherlands. International comparisons and regional comparisons within the Netherlands are presented as well. Dut
Oers JAM van; VTV
The third Dutch Public Health Status and Forecasts (PHSF) report once again contains a large amount of up-todate information about Dutch public health status, prevention and healthcare and includes international and regional comparisons. This brochure contains the Key Messages of the 2002 PHSF summa
Full Text Available Introduction: Population health depends on the economic, social, cultural and health changes in a country over time and is reflected in a series of health indicators, such as life expectancy, healthy life years, infant mortality and low birth weight, which are commonly used for monitoring and improvement of a population’s health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the health status of the Greek population compared to the health of 28 European countries. Material: Data for this study were drawn from both the European database ECHI (European Core Health Indicators and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. Results: Life expectancy in Greece (81,4 years and healthy life years (64,7 years for Greek men and 65,1 years for Greek women in 2013 are higher than in Germany and Europe. Even though infant mortality in Greece is showing increasing trends since 2008, is still lower than the European average. In contrast, births of underweight infants (less than 2500 grams are constantly increasing in Greece. The latter health indicator is higher than the German and European one, especially after 2009. The main causes of death for the Greek population are circulatory diseases and malignant neoplasms, as in Europe. Smoking and alcohol are the two main nonmedical determinants of health for the Greek population. Conclusions: Health of the Greek population is quite satisfactory compared to Europe and is comparable to that of the German population, despite the differences in health expenditure. Health inequalities, due to economic crisis in Greece since 2009, are likely to affect certain health indicators. The constant reduction of health expenditure necessitates the contribution of health prevention, promotion and education, in order to improve the health status of the Greek population.
Patrick, D L; Bergner, M
The use of health-related quality of life measures, especially those based on function, are likely to increase during the next decade. This increase, however, is most likely to occur in clinical research and clinical practice. Unless the necessary political will, resources, data, and policy researchers coexist, there will be relatively little advance in the use of health status measures for decision-making and policy. This prediction is based on the observation that policy research tends to rely on available national data, that currently these data provide limited information about health status, and that there appears to be insufficient interest and resources to broaden data collection or to develop methods that incorporate a broad spectrum of health outcomes (e.g. death, impairment, functional status, and perceptions) into a single instrument or measure of health on large populations and communities. This state of affairs is particularly unfortunate as we face a decade in which available health and medical care may become more limited and social inequity in access and health status may become more marked. The effect of social inequities and restrictions to health care on the health of the nation cannot continue to be determined with reference only to the structure and process of the health care system. Health and quality of life outcomes are what count. And, these outcomes cannot be determined without appropriate and inclusive measures of health-related quality of life. Of course, we hope our prediction is wrong and that the motivation and resources will be found to help resolve methodologic issues in the measurement of population health status and quality of life and to provide the necessary data. We hope that government agencies, employers, and private providers will begin to collect health-related quality of life data on the constituents and populations they serve. Even if these data are imperfect or primitive, the effects of improving accessibility and
Mathew A. Mwanyangala
Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.
Vasudeva N.R. Murthy
Full Text Available This research note, using a cross-sectional sample consisting of 27 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (OECD for the reference year 2002, empirically examines the relationship between health status as measured by infant mortality and the degree of income inequality, given the effect of certain controlled variables. The empirical findings based on the estimation by robust econometric methods, show that in these countries, per capita real gross domestic product, the number of doctors, the level of education, percentage of female smokers in the adult population and income inequality, as reflected by the percentage of the income received by the lowest tenth of the population do impact the level of health status. The results clearly indicate that income inequality affects the level of health status adversely. Policy implications of the research findings are discussed in the research.
Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira
Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.
Jung A Kim, PhD
Conclusions: Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being.
Yao, Yingshui; WANG, Linghong; Chen, Yan; Kang,Yaowen; Gu, Qinjun; Fang, Wenhua; Qing, Rui; Lu, Wei; Jin,Yuelong; Ren, Xiaohua; He, Lianping; Guo, Daoxia
The purpose of the survey is to investigate the relationship between anxiety statuses and suboptimal health status among students from south of Anhui in china. Our study was a population-based, cluster sampling method survey with a sample consisting of 5249 students, who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wannan Area in China. Sub-health status was measured by multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents, and anxious status was assessed using anxi...
Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo
Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266
Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status
Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.
Full Text Available An ECG is a bio-medical signal which records the hearts electrical signal versus time. It is an important diagnosis tool for assessing hearts functions. The features extracted from the ECG signal play a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. Our focus is on developing an integrated electrocardiogram (ECG beat detector on mobile phone for health monitoring purpose. The feature extraction scheme determines the amplitude and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitude and interval values of the P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human.
Mohammad Taghi Savadpour
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.
de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Meunier, Sophie; Cyr, Caroline; Coulombe, Simon; Tremblay, Gilles; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Gaboury, Isabelle; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie
The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the association between weight status and men's positive mental health, defined as the presence of symptoms of emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and (2) evaluate the moderating effect of marital status. A total of 645 men aged between 19 and 71 years self-reported their height and weight and answered a questionnaire measuring their emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Analysis of variance revealed that mean levels of emotional, psychological, and social well-being did not significantly differ according to men's weight status. Moderation analyses indicated that, for men in a relationship (married or living common-law), there were no significant associations between overweight, obesity, and the three components of positive mental health. However, for single men, overweight was marginally associated with higher emotional well-being, while obesity was associated with lower psychological well-being and marginally associated with lower social well-being. Results of the present study suggest that health professionals and researchers should take the characteristics (such as marital status) of men with obesity and overweight into account when working with them. Mental health researchers may need to examine men in each weight category separately (e.g. obesity vs. overweight), since the association with positive mental health can differ from one category to another.
Oct 28, 2015 ... Evaluation of the nutritional status of animal flocks showed that the mean ... trace mineral levels in the reared small ruminants, regardless of the ... research indicates that selenium and vitamin E play ..... Project No (10060116).
Cibelle Barbosa Reis
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the elderly about the socio-demographic profile and health conditions in the age groups from 60 to 75 years old (“young” elderly and above 76 years (“old” elderly. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study and home based. The data were collected applying a questionnaire based on the model developed by the Older Americans Resources and Services. Results: 118 elderly participated in the study, being 68.6% “young”, 58% illiterate, 85.2% with income less than two minimum wages and 70.4% with non-white skin. The “old” elderly had a higher proportion of loss of the companion (p=0.002, non-communicable chronic diseases (p=0.023 and dependence to perform activities of daily living (p=0.036. Both age groups had low physical activity, excessive consumption of medicaments and chewing problems. Conclusion: the model of health facing the elderly, should not be restricted to treatment of diseases but cover their functional capacity.
Christine E. Blake
Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.
Full Text Available Child health is one of the main indicators of economic development so that four objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are directly referred to children's health and nutritional status. Due to increase in mothers' employment and parent education as well as children's malnutrition, the effects of parent's socioeconomic status on children's health were analyzed in this paper. statistics in health case of families from health centers of five areas in Tehran were gathered. Research model were estimated by Probit and Ordered Probit methods in STATA software. The mean for mother's education is 3.76 it is more than diploma and less than associate's degree. The average mothers' age for normal, stunting, and severe stunting children is 32.25, 32.92, and 34.20, respectively. "Being twin" has a negative effect on the possibility of children's health it decreases this possibility as 89 percent. Also, if children do not have jaundice, the probability of their health will increase as much as 72 percent. The result shown that mothers' employment has a negative effect on children's health i.e. mothers' employment increases the possibility of stunting due to children's malnutrition. Also, increasing education of working mothers can lead to stunting in children. Family size, being twin, and jaundice have negative effect and father's education has positive effect on children's health.
Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Linos, Athena
in the fisheries sector since ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine the health status and the health risk factors present in Greek fishery workers, by exploring their working environment, thus providing a current baseline for documentation of the needs for prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS...... was seen among nearly half of the fishermen. CONCLUSIONS: The health effects observed are causally related to the work process exposures on board and to diet, smoking, and lack of exercise. This in turn relates to the specific working conditions, the culture and level of education in small-scale fishing...
Liégeois, Axel; Eneman, Marc
Because of the development towards community care, care providers not only exchange information in a team, but increasingly also in networks. This is a challenge to confidentiality. The ethical question is how care providers can keep information about the care receiver confidential, whilst at the same time exchanging information about that care receiver in a team or network? Can shared confidentiality be extended from a team to a network? To clarify this question, the article refers to the advice of an expert ethics committee in mental health care. The advice regards exchange of information in a network as a further step in enhancing collaboration among care providers. Therefore, the good and evident practice of shared confidentiality in a team can be extended to a network if the same conditions are met. First, the care providers participate in a clearly defined and identifiable team or network. Secondly, they have a shared care responsibility. Thirdly, they have a duty of confidentiality. Fourth, they dialogue with the care receiver and obtain his or her consent. Finally, they apply the filter of relevance. Hence, conditional shared confidentiality is an ethical justification for the exchange of information in a team or network.
Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J
Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Karlsson, A; Nordström, G
The aim of the study was to describe HIV-infected patients with respect to nutritional status, symptoms experienced, general state of health, and relevant medical and laboratory data. An additional aim was to study the relationships between some of these variables. On admission to an acute care hospital in Sweden, 25 HIV-positive men were consecutively included in the study. Medical data, anthropometric variables such as weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and percentage weight loss were studied. The following instruments were used: the subjective global assessment (SGA) was used to determine nutritional status; the oral assessment guide (OAG) was used for subjective assessment of the oral cavity; and the numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to assess the symptoms experienced. The Health Index (HI) was used to evaluate general state of health. The results showed that more than half of the patients had suspected/severe malnutrition; between 48% and 72% complained of moderate to severe symptoms of various kinds. Two thirds felt their general state of health was rather poor or very poor. Correlations showed that the lower the BMI, the worse the nutritional status (SGA); the greater the weight loss in percent, the worse the nutritional status (SGA); and the worse the general state of health (HI), the worse the nutritional status (SGA). In conclusion, it is important that nurses have good knowledge concerning nutritional problems in order to be able to detect these conditions at an early stage and/or to endeavour to prevent them.
Full Text Available Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L
Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group.
Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data
Habibović, Mirela; Versteeg, Henneke; Pelle, Aline J M;
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy, which includes the risk of shocks, is considered the primary culprit of reductions in patient reported outcomes (PROs; e.g. health status and distress), thereby negating the role of underlying disease severity. We examined the relative influence...
Hollander, de E.L.
Background: Weight status is one of the factors that influence healthy ageing. It is often assessed with anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), which indicate underweight or excess fat. Both are associated with adverse health outcomes in
Schiffer, Angélique A; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, a subgroup of patients still report impaired health status, cardiac symptoms, and feelings of disability following CRT. The aims of this study were to examine (1) whether CHF patients treated...
The explanation for reduced mortality among older persons with overweight or class I obesity compared to those of desirable weight remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health status on all-cause mortality in a cohort of advanced a...
Hollander, de E.L.
Background: Weight status is one of the factors that influence healthy ageing. It is often assessed with anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), which indicate underweight or excess fat. Both are associated with adverse health outcomes in
Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.
Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and se
d Department of Biostatistics, University of the Free State, South Africa e School of Health Technology, Central University of Technology, South Africa ... status of HIV-infected children in care centres in Mangaung ... 250 000 to 300 000 of whom are children under the age of ...... The effects of vitamin A supplementation.
Avila, Rosa M; Bramlett, Matthew D
The objective of this study is to estimate Hispanic/non-Hispanic (nH)-white health disparities and assess the extent to which disparities can be explained by immigrant status and household primary language. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and conducted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics as a module of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey. We calculated disparities for various health indicators between Hispanic and nH-white children, and used logistic regression to adjust them for socio-economic and demographic characteristics, primary language spoken in the household, and the child's immigrant status. Controlling for language and immigrant status greatly reduces health disparities, although it does not completely eliminate all disparities showing poorer outcomes for Hispanic children. English-speaking and nonimmigrant Hispanic children are more similar to nH-white children than are Hispanic children in non-English speaking households or immigrant children. Hispanic/nH-white health disparities among children are largely driven by that portion of the Hispanic population that is either newly-arrived to this country or does not speak primarily English in the household.
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)
textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the associati
Zhu, Daqiau; Norman, Ian J; While, Alison E
To assess the agreement between self-perceived weight status and BMI status, calculated from self-reported height and weight, in nurses and to evaluate the relationship between weight status misperceptions and personal body weight, demographics and health status. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A large university in London, UK. Four hundred and fifty-six student nurses and 588 qualified nurses attending university were surveyed; 355 student nurses and 409 qualified nurses completed questionnaires representing a response rate of 78 % and 70 %, respectively. The respondents were mainly female (90·0 %), 66·5 % were white and their mean age was 31 years. Sixty-eight per cent of qualified nurses and 77 % of student nurses correctly perceived their weight status. In logistic regression, (mixed) black ethnicity (OR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·01, 6·32), overweight by BMI (OR = 3·10, 95 % CI 1·31, 7·33) and ≥3 family histories of obesity co-morbidities (OR = 2·51, 95 % CI 1·04, 6·08) were significantly associated with misperceptions in the sample of student nurses, whereas overweight by BMI (OR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·67) was the only significant variable in the sample of qualified nurses. A substantial proportion of nurses misclassified their weight status. Nurses' misperception of weight status was related to their own BMI status, ethnic background and obesity-related family histories. Being aware of this may help nurses not only promote their own healthy weight, but also fulfil their public health role to practise weight management successfully with both patients and the public. While limitations of the sample mean that the study findings cannot be generalized, they do provide grounds for future larger-scale research.
Amirat, Y. [University of Brest, EA 4325 LBMS, 29238 Brest (France); University of Annaba, Electrical Engineering Department, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Benbouzid, M.E.H.; Turri, S. [University of Brest, EA 4325 LBMS, 29238 Brest (France); Al-Ahmar, E. [University of Brest, EA 4325 LBMS, 29238 Brest (France); Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Faculty of Sciences and Computer Engineering, BP 446 Jounieh (Lebanon); Bensaker, B. [University of Annaba, Electrical Engineering Department, 23000 Annaba (Algeria)
There is a constant need for the reduction of operational and maintenance costs of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs). The most efficient way of reducing these costs would be to continuously monitor the condition of these systems. This allows for early detection of the degeneration of the generator health, facilitating a proactive response, minimizing downtime, and maximizing productivity. Wind generators are also inaccessible since they are situated on extremely high towers, which are normally 20 m or more in height. There are also plans to increase the number of offshore sites increasing the need for a remote means of WECS monitoring that eliminates some of the difficulties faced due to accessibility problems. Therefore and due to the importance of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in WECS (blades, drive trains, and generators), and keeping in mind the need for future research, this paper is intended as a brief status describing different types of faults, their generated signatures, and their diagnostic schemes. (author)
Kampman-van de Hoek, E.
Abstract There is large variation in the production performance of commercial growing-finishing pig farms. This variation even exists when pigs have a similar genetic background and fed similar diets. The health status is one of the major factors contributing to this large variation
Victora, Cesar G; Barreto, Mauricio L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos A; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Paim, Jairnilson; Bastos, Francisco I; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Travassos, Claudia; Reichenheim, Michael; Barros, Fernando C
Brazil is a large complex country that is undergoing rapid economic, social, and environmental change. In this Series of six articles, we have reported important improvements in health status and life expectancy, which can be ascribed largely to progress in social determinants of health and to implementation of a comprehensive national health system with strong social participation. Many challenges remain, however. Socioeconomic and regional disparities are still unacceptably large, reflecting the fact that much progress is still needed to improve basic living conditions for a large proportion of the population. New health problems arise as a result of urbanisation and social and environmental change, and some old health issues remain unabated. Administration of a complex, decentralised public-health system, in which a large share of services is contracted out to the private sector, together with many private insurance providers, inevitably causes conflict and contradiction. The challenge is ultimately political, and we conclude with a call for action that requires continuous engagement by Brazilian society as a whole in securing the right to health for all Brazilian people.
In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.
Roos, Eva; Burström, Bo; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Lahelma, Eero
The main aim of this study is to compare the patterning of health by family status and employment status among women in Finland and Sweden and to explore whether the patterning of health by family status is influenced by employment status and income. An additional aim was to identify which combinations of family status and employment status are especially disadvantageous for women's health . The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1994/1995. The analyses were restricted to ages 25-49; 2282 women in Finland and 2685 in Sweden. Firstly, age-adjusted prevalence percentages were presented by family status and employment status. Secondly, the patterning of health by family status and employment status, and the influence of adjusting for income, were studied by logistic regression analysis. The main results showed that women living in couples with children had the best health in both countries. Additional analyses showed that in Finland particularly poor health can be found among women who are simultaneously non-partnered and non-employed, whereas in Sweden poor health can be found among all non-employed groups of women. Income did not explain the poor health among the non-partnered and non-employed. This study confirmed that health is patterned by family status and employment status both among Finnish and Swedish women. It was found that non-employed women without a partner are likely to have poor health. In order to reduce inequalities in health among women, more efforts should be put on promoting health among these groups.
Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...
Subramaniam, P; Gupta, M; Mehta, A
Advances in pediatric nephrology have resulted in increased survival rates of children with renal disorders. Renal disease is characterized by multiple organ involvement, including soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Data regarding the oral health status of Indian children with renal disorders is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of children with renal disorders in Jaipur city, India. Thirty six children in the age-group of 4-14 years, diagnosed with renal disorders were selected Data pertaining to demographics, medication history, body mass index and blood investigations were obtained from the hospital records. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to diagnose dental caries. Enamel defects were recorded according to Developmental Defects of Enamel index. Oral hygiene status, salivary pH and buffering capacity were also assessed. The mean blood hemoglobin value was 9.75 gm/dl, blood urea nitrogen 43.06 gm/dl and serum creatinine 1.5 mg/dl. Enamel defects were seen in 58.3% of children. Their mean deft and DMFT scores were 1.5 and 0.5, respectively. The mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S) score was 1.56. Gingival overgrowth was not present. Mean salivary pH was 6.92 and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva was 9.86. It is necessary for pediatric dentists to follow preventive oral health regimens that are tailored to these patients.
Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.
Garib, Balkees Taha; Qaradaxi, Sarhang S
There are conflicting reports as to whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at high risk for periodontal disease (PD). However, analogous mechanisms of tissue destruction have been reported for the 2 conditions. The present study was undertaken to determine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems and periodontal conditions in patients with RA in relation to their rheumatologic status and identify their periodontal needs. One hundred patients with PD, 50 with RA and 50 without RA, were assigned to 1 of 2 age groups (30 to 39 or 40 to 50 years). The plaque index, bleeding index, clinical attachment loss, radiographic bone loss, tooth loss, and TMJ problems were assessed in the 2 groups. Disease duration, level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Health Assessment Questionnaire, and Verbal Descriptor Pain Scale score were assessed in the RA group. Patients with RA were predominantly women, with longer illness duration (11.84 years), higher ESR (32.08 mm/hour), and higher scores on the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.82). Patients with RA were characterized by significant increases in clinical attachment loss (3.24 mm), bone loss (1.79 mm), missing teeth (6.22), and TMJ problems (54%) than controls. Their periodontal status significantly correlated with illness duration, Health Assessment Questionnaire score, and Verbal Descriptor Pain Scale score. However, no difference in plaque index and bleeding index were observed between the RA and control groups. Unexpectedly, 30- to 40-year-old patients with RA had a significantly higher plaque index (1.54) and greater TMJ deviation (15%) than the older subjects. Patients with advanced RA are more likely to develop more significant periodontal and TMJ problems compared with patients with PD and without RA. There is a great need to instruct patients with RA to consult a dentist to at least decrease PD severity. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc
Oyhenart, Evelia E; Castro, Luis E; Forte, Luis M; Sicre, Maria L; Quintero, Fabian A; Luis, Maria A; Torres, Maria F; Luna, Maria E; Cesani, Maria F; Orden, Alicia B
We analyzed the nutritional status of urban and rural schoolchildren from Mendoza (Argentina), but avoided rural and urban categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socioenvironmental characteristics. We transformed weight and height data into z-scores using the CDC/NCHS growth charts; defined underweight, stunting, and wasting by z-scores of less than -2 SD; and calculated overweight and obesity, according to the cutoff proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioenvironmental characteristics included housing, public services, parental resources, and farming practices; we processed these variables by categorical principal-component analysis. The two first axes defined four subgroups of schoolchildren: three of these were associated with urban characteristics, while the remaining subgroup was considered rural. Nutritional status differed across groups, whereas overweight was similar among the groups and obesity higher in urban middle-income children. Urban differences were manifested mainly as underweight, but rural children exhibited the greatest stunting and wasting. Thus, the negative effects of environment on nutritional status in children are not restricted to poor periurban and rural areas, though these are indeed unfavorable environments for growth: some urban families provide children with sufficient quantity and diversity of foods to expose them to obesity. By contrast, the more affluent urban families would appear to have greater possibilities for allowing their children to adopt a healthy life-style. Although the causes of differences in nutritional status between middle- and high-income urban groups are not clear, these determinants probably involve economic as well as educational influences. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sanders, Anne E.; Slade, Gary D; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Greenspan, Joel D.; Maixner, William; Ohrbach, Richard
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) overlap with other health conditions but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18–44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006–08 at four U.S. study sites in the OPPERA prospective cohort study. First-...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5% were boys and 700 (38.4% were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and
Ulukanligil, Mustafa; Seyrek, Adnan
The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7-14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5%) were boys and 700 (38.4%) were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections) and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools) were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in
... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim...
Andreotti, Alessandra; Minicuci, Nadia; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted the World Health Survey (WHS) between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM) modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. Principal Findings This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies) for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. Conclusions These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision-making and resource
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO conducted the World Health Survey (WHS between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision
Solon, Orville C.
How does housing affect households’ health status? How does housing interact with other health inputs? What trade-offs exist between housing and medical care, housing and education and housing and nutrition? It is hoped that from this paper, other efforts towards the resolution of these questions shall be initiated.
Tkacz, Borys [USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1601 North Kent Street, RPC7-FHP, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Moody, Ben [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castillo, Jaime Villa [Comision Nacional Forestal, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States)
Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution.
Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda
Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.
Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C
Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...
Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan
The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years.
Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane
At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.
Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can preserve their BMD better and thus are less prone to fracture. Observations on men with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency indicate that estrogen is equally important in the maintenance of bone health status. This had been validated in several epidemiological studies which found that the relationships between estrogen and bone health indices are significant and sometimes stronger than testosterone. Studies on the relationship between quantitative ultrasound and bone remodeling markers suggest that testosterone and estrogen may have differential effects on bone, but further evidence was needed. In conclusion, both testosterone and estrogen are important in the maintenance of bone health in men.
Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan
Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is associated with
Oredugba, Folakemi A.
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye
Conclusion: Majority of the CKD patients reviewed had poor periodontal status with code 2 TN. We, therefore, recommend nonsurgical periodontal treatment for all CKD patients to improve their oral health and forestall the systemic effects of periodontal pathology.
Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean
There have been few reports about adolescent experiences with and expectations of health service utilization in an Asian societal setting. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of healthcare services in relation to health status and explore adolescents' preferences for youth-friendly service among Taiwanese high school students. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted on Taiwanese adolescents aged 12–18 years in 2010.We invited participants to rate their health status, report their previous healthcare service use, and rank their health service preferences.We used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between self-rated health status and healthcare utilization and used nonparametric analysis to compare health service preferences among sociodemographic subgroups. A total of 4,907 students (97.2 % response rate) returned valid questionnaires for analysis. Poor health status and chronic illness were most salient factors independently associated with frequent healthcare service use. Only 40 % of respondents reported having a regular doctor, and pediatrics (57.7 %) was the most commonly identified professional source of medical care. A great majority (86.2 %) of respondents made clinical visits with parents. For characteristics of youth-friendly clinician, the top-ranked items included competency and patience, while having helpful and friendly personnel was highlighted for clinical setting. Family participation is critical in healthcare for adolescents in Asian cultures. Health service use is significantly influenced by health status and chronic illness in the general health insurance system. Understanding these background influences on expectations for healthcare may help to create youth-friendly health services that are more culturally appropriate.
Veen-de Vries, N.R.; Luteijn, A.J.; Nasiiro, R.S.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.
The health status and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma and visual disorders of 123 elderly people (56 men, 67 women) in the Marigot Health District, Dominica, were assessed by means of four questionnaires, collection of data from their medical records; physical
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.
Veen-de Vries, N.R.; Luteijn, A.J.; Nasiiro, R.S.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.
The health status and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma and visual disorders of 123 elderly people (56 men, 67 women) in the Marigot Health District, Dominica, were assessed by means of four questionnaires, collection of data from their medical records; physical examination
Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke
Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....
Health status within the precincts of a nickel-copper mining and smelting environment. ... Objective: This paper elucidates on the human health status of residents ... frequent headaches, loss of body weight, regular constipation, diarrhoea, ...
Katsoulis, Joannis; Huber, Sandra; Mericske-Stern, Regina
Dental undertreatment is often seen in the older population. This is particularly true for the elderly living in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. The progression of chronic diseases results in loss of their independence. They rely on daily support and care due to physical or mental impairment. The visit of a dentist in private praxis becomes difficult or impossible and is a logistic problem. These elderly patients are often not aware of oral and dental problems or these are not addressed. The geriatric hospital Bern, Ziegler, has integrated dental care in the concept of physical rehabilitation of geriatric patients. A total of 139 patients received dental treatment in the years 2005/2006. Their mean age was 83 years, but the segment with > 85 years of age amounted to 46%. The general health examinations reveald multiple and complex disorders. The ASA classification (American Society of Anesthesiologists, Physical Status Classification System) was applied and resulted in 15% = P2 (mild systemic disease, no functional limitation), 47% = P3 (severe systemic disease, definite functional limitations) and 38% = P4 (severe systemic disease, constant threat to life). Eighty-seven of the patients exhibited 3 or more chronic diseases with a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, musculoskelettal disorders and dementia. Overall the differences between men and women were small, but broncho-pulmonary dieseases were significantly more frequent in women, while men were more often diagnosed with dementia and depression. Verbal communication was limited or not possible with 60% of the patients due to cognitive impairment or aphasia after a stroke. Although the objective treatment need is high, providing dentistry for frail and geriatric patients is characterized by risks due to poor general health conditions, difficulties in communication, limitations in feasibility and lack of adequate aftercare. In order to prevent the problem of undertreatment, elderly independently living
Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.
... delay diabetes is lost. Generations of racism and poverty also play a part. So do lack of ... information about behaviors to avoid, as well as lifestyle changes you can make to improve your health. ...
Potapov, A I; Istomin, A V; Shushkova, T S; Ustiushin, B V; Iudina, T V; Maĭmulov, V G; Raengulov, B M; Shagdarova, A N
A range of multi-sided studies, carried out in various regions of Far North (Jamalo-Nenets autonomous region, Komi republic, Sakha republic (Yakutia)) have established the leading hygienic risk factors of population health deterioration, including those characteristic of small nationalities of North. The consideration of the obtained data, including regional alimentary status peculiarities, the condition of metabolic processes and antioxidant balance of the organism, allowed establishment of effective approaches to the maintenance of notherners' health. These approaches are based upon the optimization of nutrition as an element of population health control under extremal conditions.
Ncho, Claudette D; Wright, Susan C D
The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n=17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.
Feb 8, 2010 ... There is little information on the health workers' perceptions of working conditions in ..... Supervision and interpersonal relationships. One hundred sixty-six ..... understand factors that motivate health workers and cause job ...
Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía
This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; García, Ana M; García-Benavides, Fernando; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; López-Jacob, M José; Porthé, Victoria; Sousa, Emily
To describe the migratory process (reasons for migrating, time of residence), legal status and the personal, working and health characteristics of the immigrants with work experience in Spain. We performed a cross sectional survey in a sample stratified by country of origin (Colombia, Ecuador, Morocco and Romania), legal status and sex. Personal interviews were conducted with 2434 workers (57.4% men). Information on the migratory process, working conditions, health profile, and work and life expectations was analyzed. A frequency comparison by country of origin was carried out. Ninety percent of the sample was agedpolicies and strategies.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.
Blieden, N; Flinders, S; Hawkins, K; Reid, M; Alphs, L D; Arfken, C L
The study examined the effect of clozapine treatment on the health care costs and health status of people with schizophrenia who are supported by public funds. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in a state facility were interviewed within one week of starting clozapine and six months later. Health status was assessed with four clinical rating scales measuring severity of psychopathology, negative symptoms, depression, and quality of life. Cost and health care utilization data were collected for the six months before and after initiation of clozapine. Only 52 percent of the subjects stayed on clozapine for six months. Subjects who continued on clozapine were more likely to be discharged within six months than those who did not continue. Six months after clozapine was started, health care costs showed a sayings of $11,464 per person, even after adjustment for pretreatment costs, and health status was improved. For subjects who continued on clozapine for six months, clozapine treatment was associated with reduced days of psychiatric hospital care, reduced overall costs despite increased outpatient treatment and residential costs, and improved health status.
Palmquist, Mike; Doe, Sue; McDonald, James; Newman, Beatrice Mendez; Samuels, Robert; Schell, Eileen
In this paper, the authors call for an approach that, in recognizing the economic realities facing most institutions, attempts to put aside objections that funding is simply not available to support an expansion of the current tenure system. In calling for the changes in faculty working conditions, the authors recognize that change will…
Yi Huang, MD
Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.
Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.
Full Text Available Background: Actually there is no survey on the oral health of elderly in Lazio region or in Rome. Study aims to assess the dental and oral health status and treatments needs of the elderly population in Rome in order to assess need for care. Materials and Methods: 316 non institutionalized patients all living in Rome underwent a complete oral and dental examination following the WHO's criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Inc, ver. 13.0, Chicago, IL, USA. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of edentulousness was 4.4%. Missing teeth were 3346 (37,81%. After grouping patients by age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80 and over we found that only in the first group (65-69 women had a lower number (p<0.001 of missing teeth than men: women 359 (23,31%, men 393 (35,08%. Mean number of remaining teeth per subject was 17,41. Both genders in the mandible presented a greater number of teeth present (9.02 on average than the maxilla (8.27 on average; p=0.002. Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth index (DMFT index was 14.65 (D:7,73%, M:81,57% and F:10,69%.. Regarding Community Periodontal Index (CPI 14,5% of the sextants resulted healthy, 4.9% had gingival bleeding on probing, 20.7% had dental calculus, 17.0% periodontal pockets 4-5mm deep, 1.4% pockets 6 or more mm deep and 41.5% of the sextants were excluded. Conclusions: The findings illustrated a promising oral and dental health status compared to other European countries. The status of oral health was significantly better in women than in men in the first age group 65-69, increase in age results in a worsening of all indices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Humberto Lauro Rodrigues Junior
Full Text Available Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT. The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. RESULTS: Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%, followed by the use of dentures (30.3% and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%. 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029. CONCLUSION: The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases.
RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima
Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE, health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1% and girls (52.9% ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6% reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04, and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly.
Singh, Gopal K; Ghandour, Reem M
We examine the impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of parent-reported behavioral problems among US children aged 6-17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used to develop a factor analytic index and a dichotomous measure of serious behavioral problems (SBP) in children. The outcome measures were derived from 11 items capturing parents' ratings of their children on a set of behaviors, e.g., arguing, bullying, and feelings of worthlessness, depression, and detachment. Dichotomous measures of perceived safety, presence of garbage/litter, poor/dilapidated housing, and vandalism were used to assess neighborhood social conditions. Household SES was measured using parental education and household poverty status. Logistic and least squares regression models were used to analyze neighborhood and household socioeconomic effects on the continuous and binary outcome measures after controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, including behavioral risk factors, family cohesion, social participation, and geographic mobility. Higher levels of behavioral problems were associated with socially disadvantaged neighborhoods and lower household SES. Adjusted logistic models showed that children in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (those characterized by safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter in streets, and vandalism) had 1.9 times higher odds, children in poverty had 3.7 times higher odds, and children of parents with less than high school education had 1.9 times higher odds of SBP than their more advantaged counterparts. Improvements in neighborhood conditions and household SES may both help to reduce childhood behavioral problems.
Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the conditions of health and wellness in older adults beneficiaries to ISSSTE and IMSS of the Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study samples of users to health services in primary care ISSSTE (n = 161) and IMSS (n = 176) in Southwest Mexico City. Were determined chronic health conditions, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, use of health services, nutritional status, functioning and disability and quality of life related to health. It is observed that there is a difference between samples ISSSTE vs. IMSS in comorbidity conditions (ISSSTE 53.4% vs. IMSS 57.9%), nutritional status (malnutrition risk ISSSTE 25.8% us. IMSS 36.4%; overweight ISSSTE 23.3% vs. IMSS 11.6%) (p IMSS us. ISSSTE in cognitive function, depression, use of health services, abdominal obesity, functioning and disability, and quality of life related to health. The conditions of health and wellness in older adults beneficiaries to ISSSTE and IMSS users are similar, with meaning in comorbidity conditions, nutritional status.
Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of ... Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting ...
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Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Kieser, J A; Preston, C B
The dental and oral health status of 202 Lengua Indians of Paraguay was determined using DMT, Russell's PI and the Greene & Vermillion OHIS. Caries experience in young Lenguas was shown to be positively associated with exposure to Western culture. Mean DMT increased from 8.36 for 15-19 yr-olds to 9.44 in 20-24 yr-olds. For the 25-29 yr age group the DMT was 9.10 whilst 30-34 yr-olds had a mean DMT of 8.67. The mean DMT of 9.64 for 35-40 yr-olds increased to 9.84 for the over 40 age group. Oral hygiene and periodontal status were found to be similar to those reported in other Chaco Indian groups.
Full Text Available Background: The paper advances literature on earlier-life socioeconomic status (SES and later-life health in a number of ways, including conceptualizing later-life health as a developmental process and relying on objective rather than retrospective reports of childhood and adult SES and health. Methods: Data are from the Utah Population Database (N=75,019, which contains variables from Medicare claims, birth and death certificates, and genealogical records. The morbidity measure uses the Charlson Comorbidity Index. SES is based on converting occupation to Nam-Powers scores and then dividing these scores into quartiles plus farmers. Analyses are conducted in two steps. Group-based trajectory modeling estimates patterns of morbidity and survival and divides the sample into sex-specific groups ordered from least to most healthy. Multilevel ordered logistic regression incorporating Heckman selection predicts group trajectory membership by SES in adulthood conditioned upon childhood SES. Results: Higher SES in childhood is associated with membership in groups that have more favorable morbidity trajectories and survival probabilities. SES in adulthood has additive impact, especially for females. For example, if a female is characterized as being in the lowest SES quartile during childhood, her probability of having the most favorable health trajectory improves from 0.12 to 0.17 as her adult SES increases from the lowest to highest quartile. Conclusions: Results suggest both childhood and adult SES independently impact upon old-age health trajectories.
Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise
This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assam is the highest tea producer state in the country. There is scarcity of reliable information on health and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam to enable initiating public health response to their health needs. AIMS: To describe health problems and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional survey in eight randomly selected tea gardens of Dibrugarh district of Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of participants were recorded. Health problems and nutritional status were assessed through medical examination, evaluation of medical records, anthropometry and laboratory investigations. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Percentage prevalence; Chi-square test was applied wherever applicable. RESULTS: Out of 4,016 participants, 1,863 were male and 2,153 were female. They were mostly illiterate, and nearly 52.9% (1,197 of 2,264 of adults were manual workers in the garden. Alcohol and oral tobacco use were common. Prevalence of underweight among children was 59.9% (357 of 596, and thinness among adults was 69.9% (1,213 of 1,735. Anemia was widespread. Worm infection (65.4%, 217 of 332; skin problems; respiratory infections, including tuberculosis; filariasis were present in a significant way. Children suffered more in various diseases. Major noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, stroke were emerging in the community and were associated with modifiable risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use. CONCLUSION: Health status of the population can be ameliorated through better hygienic practices, environmental sanitation, creating health awareness, nutritional intervention and overall improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the population.
Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.
Blanco, María; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Smyth, Ernesto
The aim of this study is to determine the oral health and hygiene status in 12 year-old Galician schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1267 schoolchildren. The fieldwork was carried out in the 2010-2011 academic year. Information regarding socio-demographic status, dietary habits, and oral hygiene practices was obtained through a structured self-report questionnaire given to the children at school. Dental examination to evaluate plaque and caries was carried out according to World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence and mean with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and logistic regression models were ajusted. Out of a total of 1045 pupils who participated in the study, 35% showed incorrect removal of dental plaque, and the prevalence of caries was 39.3%. Those who belonged to a lower socioeconomic group showed a higher prevalence of caries. Those who brushed their teeth daily had better oral hygiene. Educational programmes need to be designed and implemented in order to improve dental health and hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Davis, Ann M; Boles, Richard E; James, Rochelle L; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E; Swirczynski, Deborah L; Goetz, Jeannine
Pediatric overweight is currently reaching epidemic proportions but little information exists on differences in weight related behaviors between urban and rural children. To assess health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural school-age children. Fifth-grade children at two urban and two rural schools were invited to participate in an assessment study of their health behaviors and weight status. A total of 138 children (mean age = 10 years; % female = 54.6) chose to participate. Children in rural and urban areas consumed equivalent calories per day and calories from fat, but rural children ate more junk food and urban children were more likely to skip breakfast. Urban children engaged in more metabolic equivalent tasks and had slightly higher total sedentary activity than rural children. The BMI percentile was equivalent across rural and urban children but rural children were more often overweight and urban children were more often at risk for overweight. Although some variables were equivalent across urban and rural children, results indicate some key health behavior differences between groups. Results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small and there were demographic differences between urban and rural samples.
Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.
A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.
Basu, Sharmishtha; Sidh, Shiv Narayan
The paper examines the net effect of work status on women's health and whether the effect persists after controlling for the influence of socio-economic factors. Our hypothesis is that working women face a greater risk of morbidity and mortality, given that most would be expected to shoulder dual responsibilities: market and household. The paper also examines whether the risk varies across regions. In particular, we examine whether the work status-health relationship differs between the southern and northern regions of India, which are known to be distinct in female autonomy. While women in India face many serious health concerns, this analysis focuses on only two issues: nutritional status (as measured by body mass index and prevalence of anemia) and reproductive health (as assessed by the presence of reproductive health problems) of women from villages in the study area. Results show that though both work status and socio-economic factors influence health status, the latter are more important; most of the gross effect of work status is due to socio-economic conditions rather than work participation. This calls for policy intervention in providing better health facilities, female education and supplementary nutrition programs for poor women.
Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive, gynecological, sexual and clinical aspects of women with mental disorders. This is an exploratory research with quantitative approach performed in a Psychosocial Care Center, Type III, in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with 39 women with mental disorders. Data collection took place from October to December 2012, through used semi-structured interviews and checked blood pressure, blood glucose, weight and height. The results revealed normal levels of blood pressure and postprandial blood glucose, change in body mass index, presence of menstrual flow, nulliparity, first sexual intercourse in adolescence, early menarche, and lack of climacteric symptoms and history of abortion. Comprehensive health care for women involves more than the demands and needs of the mental health field.
Jan C. van den Berge
Conclusions: SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.
Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali
There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming
Rasu, Rafia; Agbor-Bawa, Walter; Rianon, Nahid
Polypharmacy is common among older patients and is linked to increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to explore the association of polypharmacy and self-perceived health status (SPHS) among geriatric patients. This cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal observational research used national survey data from 2005-2008. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the likelihood of having a good/poor SPHS and polypharmacy. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data provided by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used in this study. Overall, SPHS was assessed using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey health and well-being variable. Polypharmacy status was defined when patients were taking ≥5 medications. The study included a total of 102,309,656 weighted individuals reported from the survey of 4775 actual individuals from 2005-2008. Patients' mean age was 74.7 years (standard error ± 0.138), and 58.1% were women, 87.3% were white, 55.2% were married, and 37.3% were from the southern region of the United States. Approximately 69.4% of patients reported polypharmacy. The most prevalent disease reported was hypertension (62.7%). We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics based on SPHS and polypharmacy status. Overall, 78.09% of seniors reported their SPHS as good, whereas 21.91% reported their SPHS as poor. Among polypharmacy users, 72.52% reported good SPHS and 27.48% reported poor SPHS. Among older adults who were nonpolypharmacy users, 90.8% reported good and 9.02% reported poor SPHS. Logistic regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors showed that nonpolypharmacy users are approximately three times more likely to report their SPHS as good (odds ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 2.12-3.57, P polypharmacy users. Interventions to reduce polypharmacy may improve SPHS. One such intervention, medication reconciliation, may have a positive ripple effect on the patient-centered care delivery system.
Siti Zahara Nasution
Full Text Available In Indonesia, the Central Bureau of Statistics of North Sumatra Province (2011, estimates that in 2010 the infant mortality rate of 24.5 per 1,000 live births. This figure decreased when compared to the previous year at 26.90 per 1,000 live births. There are several factors influencing the reduction in infant mortality, among others, the availability of various facilities or accessibility factors and health services from skilled medical personnel and the willingness of people to change the traditional life to the norm of modern life in the field of health .this study aims to explore how families with Mandailing culture care for pregnant mother in in term of nutritional support. Informants in this study are mandailing Natal community. This study found that If there are health workers or health care in they place, pregnant mother will come to check their condition and their nutritional status at health workers during childbirth although later they are more happy assisted by traditional birth attendants or village shaman, it can reduce the complications or problems that the pregnant women who will ultimately reduce maternal mortality and infant mortality rate. Mandailing Natal society is a society that is not closed to new information, the community here is relatively easy in receiving information or a new thing, it's just that sometimes less precise methods of delivery that makes people not obey the things delivered. To improve community health status Mandailing Natal especially pregnant mother and childbirth it is advisable: That the government is aggressively disseminating health programs so that the public is more familiar with the health programs in a way reproduce health workers, especially midwives who will assist communities in improving the health of pregnant mothers especially in term of their nutrition and health services in Mandailing Natal to be more proactive in providing community especially related information to the
Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire
This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low- and middle-income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long-term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.
Full Text Available In this article, key points are discussed concerning knowledge representation for clinical decision support systems in the domain of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Information models, classifications and terminologies, such as the “virtual medical record” (vMR, the “international classification of functioning, disability and health” (ICF, the “international classification of diseases” (ICD and the “systematized nomenclature of medicine—clinical terms” (SNOMED CT, are used for knowledge integration and reasoning. A system is described that supports the measuring of functioning status, diversity, prognosis and similarity between patients in the post-acute stage, thus helping health professionals’ prescription of recommendations.
O. V. Severynovs’ka
Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.
Fisher-Owens, S A; Soobader, M J; Gansky, S A; Isong, I A; Weintraub, J A; Platt, L J; Newacheck, P W
To ascertain differences across states in children's oral health care access and oral health status and the factors that contribute to those differences. Observational study using cross-sectional surveys. Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined state variation in parents' report of children's oral health care access (absence of a preventive dental visit) and oral health status. We assessed the unadjusted prevalences of these outcomes, then adjusted with child-, family-, and neighbourhood-level variables using logistic regression; these results are presented directly and graphically. Using multilevel analysis, we then calculated the degree to which child-, family-, and community-level variables explained state variation. Finally, we quantified the influence of state-level variables on state variation. Unadjusted rates of no preventive dental care ranged 9.0-26.8% (mean 17.5%), with little impact of adjusting (10.3-26.7%). Almost 9% of the population had fair/poor oral health; unadjusted range 4.1-14.5%. Adjusting analyses affected fair/poor oral health more than access (5.7-10.7%). Child, family and community factors explained ∼¼ of the state variation in no preventive visit and ∼½ of fair/poor oral health. State-level factors further contributed to explaining up to a third of residual state variation. Geography matters: where a child lives has a large impact on his or her access to oral health care and oral health status, even after adjusting for child, family, community, and state variables. As state-level variation persists, other factors and richer data are needed to clarify the variation and drive changes for more egalitarian and overall improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke
The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.
Wilke, Sarah; Jones, Paul W; Müllerova, H
BACKGROUND: Poor health status has been associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. To date, the impact of changes in health status on these outcomes remains unknown. AIMS: To explore the relationship of clinically relevant changes in health status with exacerbation, hospitalis......BACKGROUND: Poor health status has been associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. To date, the impact of changes in health status on these outcomes remains unknown. AIMS: To explore the relationship of clinically relevant changes in health status with exacerbation......, hospitalisation or death in patients with COPD. METHODS: Characteristics and health status (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ) were assessed over a period of 3 years in 2138 patients with COPD enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study...... in patients with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00292552, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov....
J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk
This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young
Full Text Available Background: School, as a reliable place in student's education, has an important role in training. If health principles do not comply with in schools, students may be suffering from infectious diseases. Health trainer can be effective in improving school health. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of health trainer on environmental health level of schools in Bushehr province. Material and Methods This study was a descriptive - analytic study. A total of 20 samples were selected from each of the elementary schools have and not have health trainer using the method of stratified random sampling in the Bushehr province in the year 91-92. Data collected by researcher direct observation and using an assessment form of school environmental health contains 30 questions in 9 different sections. The statistical method used to analyze and test questions in this study were the chi square and Fisher exact test. Results: Based on findings of this research, between the environment health situation in schools with and without health trainer in 19 cases of health variables the significant difference was observed. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between health status of toilets (p<0.005, drinking water taps and buffet (p<0.001, yard and corridors (p<0.01, and solid waste disposal (p<0.025 in schools with and without health trainer in the year 91-92. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate that the presence of health trainers in schools can lead to improved health status of the school. The schools without health trainer had very poor health status this issue required further try of concerned authorities to employee health trainers in schools.
Bu, So Young; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong
Previous studies have suggested that silicon (Si) had positive effects on bone, but such benefits from Si may be dependent on calcium status. Also, several biochemical roles of Si in osteoblastic mineralization, the regulation of gene expression related to bone matrix synthesis, and the decrease in reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators were reported, but these effects were mostly shown in cell culture studies. Hence, we tested the effect of Si supplementation on bone status and the gene expression related to bone metabolism and inflammatory mediators in young estrogen-deficient rats under calcium-replete condition (0.5 % diet). Results showed that 15-week supplementation of both high and very high doses of Si (0.025 and 0.075 % diet, respectively) could not restore the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebrae, femur, and tibia. Also, several bone biochemical markers (ALP, osteocalcin, CTx) and mRNA expression of COL-I, RANKL, IL-6, and TNF-α in femur metaphysis were not significantly changed by Si in OVX rats. However, a very high dose (0.075 %) of Si supplementation significantly increased OPG expression and decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG in mRNA expression comparable to that of sham-control animals. Taken together, Si supplementation did not increase BMD under calcium-replete condition but the decrease in the ratio of RANKL/OPG expression to the normal level suggests the possibility of a bone health benefit of Si in estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.
Ward, Michael J; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B; Wang, Thomas J; Speroff, Theodore; Munoz, Daniel; Dittus, Robert S; Harrell, Frank E; Self, Wesley H
Lack of health insurance is associated with interfacility transfer from emergency departments for several nonemergent conditions, but its association with transfers for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which requires timely definitive care for optimal outcomes, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether insurance status is a predictor of interfacility transfer for emergency department visits with STEMI. We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample examining all emergency department visits for patients age 18 years and older with a diagnosis of STEMI and a disposition of interfacility transfer or hospitalization at the same institution. For emergency department visits with STEMI, our multivariate logistic regression model included emergency department disposition status (interfacility transfer vs hospitalization at the same institution) as the primary outcome, and insurance status (none vs any [including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance]) as the primary exposure. We found that among 1,377,827 emergency department STEMI visits, including 249,294 (18.1%) transfers, patients without health insurance (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) were more likely to be transferred than those with insurance. Lack of health insurance status was also an independent risk factor for transfer compared with each subcategory of health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance. In conclusion, among patients presenting to United States emergency departments with STEMI, lack of insurance was an independent predictor of interfacility transfer. In conclusion, because interfacility transfer is associated with longer delays to definitive STEMI therapy than treatment at the same facility, lack of health insurance may lead to important health disparities among patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
Full Text Available To analyze the relationship of nutritional status with oral health status among visual impairment. The subjects were 146 elderly people (70 males and 76 females aged 20-72 years (mean 48.8±6.2 years, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA questionnaires were administered. Oral examinations investigated the number of present teeth, DMFT and Functional Tooth Units (FTUs. According to the MNA score, 44.5% of subjects were categorized as normal nutrition, 47.3% as questionable, and 8.2 % as malnutrition. The mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs were 17.8±6.9 and 6.9±3.2, respectively. Subjects with malnutrition had lower numbers of present teeth (10.7±1.4 and FTUs (4.3±1.7 than those with normal nutrition (20.2±0.7 and 12.3±0.5 (p≤0.05. Nutritional status of visual impaired Thai was associated with mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs. Keeping many natural teeth or having appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures would prevention malnutrition.
Full Text Available There is little information on the oral health status on the visual impairment in Thailand. Objective: To investigate the oral health status and dental treatment needs of visual impaired Thai. Method: The subjects were 146 visual impairment (70 males and 76 females, mean age 48.8+5.9, who live in Phitsanuloke, Thailand. Information on self-perceived oral health problems, oral function and oral health behavior was obtained via questionnaires. Oral examinations investigated the DMFT, The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index:(OHI-S and prosthetic needs index. Results: The mean DMFT score was 16.0 (DT=4.4, MT=10.2, FT=1.4, the mean number of teeth present was15.5. Thirty-five percent of subjects needed dental fillings and 12.3% required tooth extractions. The percentage of visual impairment had periodontal disease were 34.8 and mean OHIS score were 2.52. Thirty-eight percent of subjects need both upper and lower partial dentures. Visual impaired suffer from oral function problems (speaking problem 26.5%, swallow problem 32.6%, taste problem 29.2 and chewing problem 45.2%. Conclusion: The oral health status of visual impairment was poor due to high levels of tooth loss, caries experience and periodontal disease. Oral health and oral function amongst the visual impairment is a public health concern. Therefore, the important of a preventive approach and service delivery programs to improve the oral health condition of this population.
Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-Sheng; Tian, Cui-Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-Qing
Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Taxi drivers' health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions to improve knowledge and change in behaviors are necessary and
Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G
The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social
Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T
To clarify migrant population characteristics, we examined the relationship between out-migration from study areas during a 3 year follow-up period and health status, life style, and socioeconomic factors obtained at the initial baseline survey in a cohort study involving 15, 493 males and 17,440 females. Characteristics of inter-prefectural out-migrants were summarized as follows: 1) A significantly higher proportion of inter-prefectural out-migrants were employees of relatively large companies, family members of these employees, white collar workers in the case of males, and housewives in the case of females. 2) Inter-prefectural out-migrants had relatively good health status and high participation in cancer screening tests. 3) The dietary habits of inter-prefectural out-migrants were more westernized and well-balanced. 4) Male inter-prefectural out-migrants had a higher proportion of heavy smokers and daily drinkers, while females had lower proportion of smokers and drinkers. When comparing in-migrants to out-migrants, the characteristics were similar for males, but opposite for females.
Liang, W; Chikritzhs, T
Over several decades, many cohort studies from the medical epidemiology literature have observed that compared with abstainers, moderate drinkers experience lower risk for a range of diseases. It was very difficult to separate the hypothesised physiological protective effect of moderate drinking from its well-correlated confounders in observational study settings. To investigate the association between current alcohol consumption levels of randomly selected family members and the current self-reported health status of other members living within the same family, using a large-scale representative general population survey. Poisson regression models of the association between randomly selected key respondent alcohol consumption and health status of cohabiting family members using data from the 2008, 2009 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Self-reported alcohol consumption of randomly selected key participants and self-reported health status of adult and child (parent reported) family members living in the same household were measured and compared. After controlling for a large range of commonly reported confounders, inverse associations were evident between light and moderate alcohol consumption of key participants and the prevalence of adverse health status among their family members, including children. The superior health status attributed to family members of light and moderate drinkers is highly likely to be spurious and due to residual confounding rather than physiologically protective effects of alcohol. Unaccounted for confounding is likely to underpin apparent 'protective effects' due to moderate drinking commonly reported from observational studies of all-cause mortality, heart disease, stroke and other chronic diseases. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J
Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.
Rhoades, Everett R.
Objectives. This study summarizes current health status information relating to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) males compared with that of AI/ANfemales. Methods. I analyzed published data from the Indian Health Service for 1994 through 1996 to determine sex differences in morbidity and mortality rates and use of health care facilities. Results. AI/AN males’ death rates exceed those of AI/AN females for every age up to 75 years and for 6 of the 8 leading causes of death. Accidents, suicide, and homicide are epidemic among AI/AN males. Paradoxically, AI/AN males contribute only 37.9% of outpatient visits, versus 62.1% for females, and only 47% of hospitalizations excluding childbirth. Conclusions. AI/AN males suffer inordinately from a combination of increased burden of illness and lack of utilization of health care services. Programs targeted to anomie, loss of traditional male roles, and violence and alcoholism are among the most urgently needed. PMID:12721143
Full Text Available The health status of the rural community under the study is measured in terms of vital statistics, and living conditions in relation to demographic data. The findings reveal that this rural population can be considered a very unhealthy one. For instance, the infant mortality rate is 98.4 per 1000 live births, and 80.0 per cent of the total population were found to be infected by one or more parasitic diseases. Allocation of resources has been recommended to raise the standard of living, in order to bring about a better hygienic environment. Accessibility of health services through expansion of primary health care, and in this sphere the use of health auxiliaries should yet again receive special consideration.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...
E-mail: email@example.com. &. Awoniyi, O. A. ... unobservable factors that affect health status of children is explored based on the ..... specific physical activities such as walking for 1 kilometre or mortality. ..... Overweight BMI>25. -. -. -. 15.2.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and
Coussons-Read, M E; Dykstra, L A; Lysle, D T
Prior work in our laboratory has shown that morphine's immunomodulatory effects can become conditioned to environmental stimuli that predict drug administration. These immune alterations include conditioned changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 production, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. The present study examined the involvement of opioid receptor activity in the establishment and expression of conditioned morphine-induced alterations of immune status. During the training phase of the experiment, Lewis rats received two conditioning sessions during which a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate was paired with exposure to a distinctive environment. On the test day, animals were re-exposed to the distinctive environment alone prior to sacrifice. Saline or naltrexone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) was administered during either the training or the test session. Administration of naltrexone prior to training antagonized the development of all of the conditioned alterations of immune status including changes in the mitogenic responsiveness of splenocytes, suppression of natural killer cell activity, and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes. Naltrexone administration prior to testing also was effective in antagonizing the expression of a subset of morphine-induced conditioned alterations in immune status. Taken together, these studies indicate that opioid receptor activity is involved in the establishment of conditioned morphine-induced immune alterations, as well as in the expression of a subset of these conditioned alterations of immune status.
Ring, David; Kadzielski, John; Fabian, Lauren; Zurakowski, David; Malhotra, Leah R; Jupiter, Jesse B
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is the most widely used upper extremity-specific health-status measure. The DASH score often demonstrates greater variability than would be expected on the basis of objective pathology. This variability may be related to psychosocial factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the DASH score and psychological factors for specific diagnoses with relatively limited variation in objective pathology. Two hundred and thirty-five patients with a single, common, discrete hand problem known to have limited variations in objective pathology completed the DASH questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) to assess neuroticism, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale to quantify depressive symptoms, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Forty-five patients had carpal tunnel syndrome, forty-four had de Quervain tenosynovitis, forty-eight had lateral elbow pain, and seventy-one had a single trigger finger. In addition, twenty-seven patients were evaluated six weeks after a nonoperatively treated fracture of the distal part of the radius. Relationships between psychosocial factors and the DASH score were determined. A significant positive correlation between the DASH score and depression was noted for all diagnoses (r = 0.38 to 0.52; p Quervain tendinitis, r = 0.46; lateral elbow pain, r = 0.42; and trigger finger, r = 0.24) (p < 0.05 for all). The DASH score was not correlated with neuroticism for any diagnosis. There was a highly significant effect of depression (as measured with the CES-D score) on the DASH score for all diagnoses. Both the CES-D score (F = 62.68, p < 0.0001) and gender (F = 11.36, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of the DASH score. Self-reported upper extremity-specific health status as measured with the DASH score correlates with depression and pain anxiety but not neuroticism. These data
Full Text Available Background: People at or over the age of 60, constitute above 7.7% of total population. Traditionally this segment of population depends on their children for their health and social welfare, However owing to the social and cultural changes that are taking place within the Indian society, this support may not be as readily available, as it is believed. With the changing demography of India, there is urgent need to look at the health status of elderly for planning appropriate health facilities for them. Objectives: To study biosocial, nutritional and chronic disease risk factor profile of elderly population. Methods: Cross-sectional Study was conducted in Doiwala block of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. 122 elderly persons of age 60 years and above were interviewed on predesigned questionnaire by house to house visit in the selected village. Results: Overall prevalence of risk factors found to be higher amongst elderly females. Unutrition was higher amongst elderly males. In all, 48.6% elderly were underweight ,10.3% were overweight and 5.6% cases were in obese category. As per the Waist and hip ratio 47.2% elderly belonged to the moderate to high risk category. 30.8% people were hypertensive. Conclusions: Prevalence of high-risk factors for chronic diseases is quite high amongst elderly population, especially amongst elderly females.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? ■Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderlyii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization.Study Design: Population based cross sectional study.Setting: Community Development Block -LakhanmajraParticipants: Persons above the age of 65 years.Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years.Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system.Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions.Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Firenze, Alberto; Restivo, Vincenzo; Bonanno, Valentina; Aleo, Nicola; Pace, Stella; Marsala, Maria Grazia Laura; Palermo, Mario
To analyze the factors involved in access to Emergency Department (ED) of undocumented immigrants in Lampedusa according to the country of origin. This is a retrospective observational study, carried out on newly arrived undocumented immigrants transferred to ED. Data were collected from medical records of Lampedusa ED between January 2012 and May 2013 on 326 undocumented immigrants. The outcomes evaluated are demographics characteristics and health condition of undocumented immigrants. In multivariate analysis associated factors to ED visits are: other pathologies rather than traumatic diseases (OR 0.22; p undocumented immigrants cannot be considered as a single population, because they generate a diversified set of pathological conditions.
Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme
This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 69 mentally challenged individuals. They were subjected to detailed clinical evaluation for dentofacial abnormalities and oral health status. Of the 69 mentally handicapped individuals 27 had Downs syndrome and 42 had cerebral palsy. Characteristic facial abnormalities were seen in children with Downs syndrome. In cerebral palsy, fracture maxillary anteriors were more evident. All the Downs syndrome cases had abnormal TMJ movements but in cerebral palsy only 35.7% of individuals had abnormal TMJ movements. In both the groups, submandibular lymph adenopathy was reported. Present study revealed dental caries in 56.0% of the individuals. Fair clinical level of oral hygiene in 60% of the individuals was seen.
Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A
Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination.
... women, women with disabilities and their unique challenges, osteoporosis and bone health, and menopause « Condition ... No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds Couples with obesity may ...
Krokavcova, Martina; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.
This review of literature gives an overview of recent studies about perceived health status as measured by the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The SF-36 is one of the tools measuring health status in patients used in international research and clinical p
Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.
Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…
Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.
Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…
Full Text Available Background: The United Arab Emirates (UAE is a rapidly developing country composed of a multinational population with varying educational backgrounds, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, which pose a challenge for population-based public health strategies. A number of public health issues significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the UAE. This article summarises the findings of a panel of medical and public health specialists from UAE University and various government health agencies commissioned to report on the health status of the UAE population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles on health in the UAE, and unpublished data were provided by government health authorities and local hospitals. Results: The panel reviewed and evaluated all available evidence to list and rank (1=highest priority the top four main public health issues: 1 Cardiovascular disease accounted for more than 25% of deaths in 2010; 2 Injury caused 17% of mortality for all age groups in 2010; 3 Cancer accounted for 10% of all deaths in 2010, and the incidence of all cancers is projected to double by 2020; and 4 Respiratory disorders were the second most common non-fatal condition in 2010. Conclusion: The major public health challenges posed by certain personal (e.g. ethnicity, family history, lifestyle, occupational, and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic disease are not isolated to the UAE; rather, they form part of a global health problem, which requires international collaboration and action. Future research should focus on population-based public health interventions that target the factors associated with the development of various chronic diseases.
Loney, Tom; Aw, Tar-Ching; Handysides, Daniel G; Ali, Raghib; Blair, Iain; Grivna, Michal; Shah, Syed M; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Sharif, Amer A; El-Obaid, Yusra
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a rapidly developing country composed of a multinational population with varying educational backgrounds, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, which pose a challenge for population-based public health strategies. A number of public health issues significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the UAE. This article summarises the findings of a panel of medical and public health specialists from UAE University and various government health agencies commissioned to report on the health status of the UAE population. A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles on health in the UAE, and unpublished data were provided by government health authorities and local hospitals. The panel reviewed and evaluated all available evidence to list and rank (1=highest priority) the top four main public health issues: 1) Cardiovascular disease accounted for more than 25% of deaths in 2010; 2) Injury caused 17% of mortality for all age groups in 2010; 3) Cancer accounted for 10% of all deaths in 2010, and the incidence of all cancers is projected to double by 2020; and 4) Respiratory disorders were the second most common non-fatal condition in 2010. The major public health challenges posed by certain personal (e.g. ethnicity, family history), lifestyle, occupational, and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic disease are not isolated to the UAE; rather, they form part of a global health problem, which requires international collaboration and action. Future research should focus on population-based public health interventions that target the factors associated with the development of various chronic diseases.
Loney, Tom; Aw, Tar-Ching; Handysides, Daniel G.; Ali, Raghib; Blair, Iain; Grivna, Michal; Shah, Syed M.; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Sharif, Amer A.; El-Obaid, Yusra
Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a rapidly developing country composed of a multinational population with varying educational backgrounds, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, which pose a challenge for population-based public health strategies. A number of public health issues significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the UAE. This article summarises the findings of a panel of medical and public health specialists from UAE University and various government health agencies commissioned to report on the health status of the UAE population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles on health in the UAE, and unpublished data were provided by government health authorities and local hospitals. Results The panel reviewed and evaluated all available evidence to list and rank (1=highest priority) the top four main public health issues: 1) Cardiovascular disease accounted for more than 25% of deaths in 2010; 2) Injury caused 17% of mortality for all age groups in 2010; 3) Cancer accounted for 10% of all deaths in 2010, and the incidence of all cancers is projected to double by 2020; and 4) Respiratory disorders were the second most common non-fatal condition in 2010. Conclusion The major public health challenges posed by certain personal (e.g. ethnicity, family history), lifestyle, occupational, and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic disease are not isolated to the UAE; rather, they form part of a global health problem, which requires international collaboration and action. Future research should focus on population-based public health interventions that target the factors associated with the development of various chronic diseases. PMID:23394856
Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather
We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.
Tanimoto, S; Minowa, M
The number of homeless people in Tokyo is estimated to be 3,200-3,300. While studies on the health status of homeless people, including illness, injury and deaths have been previously reported, most of these reports concern the homeless who resided in housing facilities for the homeless or who admitted to hospitals. We undertook a comparison of lifestyle and health status between homeless people and people who live in houses (as a control group). Health status was also analyzed for differences among homeless people. Subjects were asked by questionnaire regarding their age, the length of being homeless, former and present employment, sleeping condition, food, whether they have friends or not, the amount of smoking per day, and Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36). As objective findings, measurement of blood pressure and blood testing were also performed. Fifty-three homeless people, 49 male, 4 female, average age 52, from the areas around Shibuya station and Yoyogi park, were enrolled. While 98% of the homeless people had previous employment, 73% were not working when the study was performed. Compared with control group, the homeless had fewer meals per day, fewer friends, excessive smoking, greater history of gastro-duodenal ulcer and injury, greater limitation due to physical problems, and higher general mental health as measured by SF36. The diastolic blood pressure of the homeless was higher than that of the control. The blood testing showed higher white blood cell counts and platelet counts. It was suggested that changes in the social structures were largely influential in causing life, and that access to health care was limited because of financial and social barriers. Further studies with more samples, survey of social volunteers involved in care of homeless and qualitative data would be necessary to find and develop better support system for the homeless.
Full Text Available Karim Qayumi,1 George Pachev,2 Bin Zheng,3 Amitai Ziv,4 Valentyna Koval,1 Sadia Badiei,5 Adam Cheng6 1Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Surgical Simulation Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 4Israel Center for Medical Simulation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 5Centre of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Research Program, Alberta Children’s Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure
Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.
Mohammad Hosein Baghianimoghadam
Full Text Available Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002, anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003. The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7 than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially.
Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate).
Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). W
Morgitan, Judith; Bushmiaer, Margo; DeSisto, Marie C.; Duff, Carolyn; Lambert, C. Patrice; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Roland, Sharon; Selser, Kendra; Wyckoff, Leah; White, Kelly
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that students with chronic health conditions have access to a full-time registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). School districts should include school nurse positions in their full-time instructional support personnel to provide health services…
Prognostics and health management is not a new concept. It has been used in relatively mature industries, such as aviation and electronics, to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In the wind industry, prognostics and health management is relatively new. The level for both wind industry applications and research and development (R&D) has increased in recent years because of its potential for reducing O&M cost of wind power, especially for turbines installed offshore. The majority of wind industry application efforts has been focused on diagnosis based on various sensing and feature extraction techniques. For R&D, activities are being conducted in almost all areas of a typical prognostics and health management framework (i.e., sensing, data collection, feature extraction, diagnosis, prognosis, and maintenance scheduling). This presentation provides an overview of the current status of wind turbine prognostics and health management that focuses on drivetrain condition monitoring through vibration, oil debris, and oil condition analysis techniques. It also discusses turbine component health diagnosis through data mining and modeling based on supervisory control and data acquisition system data. Finally, it provides a brief survey of R&D activities for wind turbine prognostics and health management, along with future opportunities.
Nakos, Giorgos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna; Mantas, John
The aim of the current paper is the imparting of useful information to both patients and people in general regarding the development of mental conditions based on drug addictions, through e-health. It will provide all related information in order to achieve the empowerment of the selected sample regarding their conditions in terms of conceptualizing their health status. The general part is consisting of an overview on patient empowerment and e-health. The special part refers to the details of developing and presenting the above mentioned website. The information presented in the web site is addressing the general population and not only patients suffering a mental condition or addiction. The website contains the related articles and information obtained from the related bibliographical search. The main goal of the website is to impart concise information on the related issues.
Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores
The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.
Paul Andrew Bourne; Chloe Morris; Denise Eldemire-Shearer
Background : Empirical evidences have shown that happiness, life satisfaction and health status are strongly correlated with each other. In Jamaica, we continue to collect data on health status to guide policies and intervention programs, but are these wise? Aims: The current study aims to fill the gap in the literature by examining life satisfaction, health status, and happiness in order to ascertain whether they are equivalent concepts in Jamaica as well as the coverage of the estimates. Ma...
Bi, Jianlu; Huang, Ying; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, JingRu; Li, Fei; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Wu, Liuguo; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan
Objectives Suboptimal health status (SHS) is considered to be an intermediate status between disease and health, and is characterised by a decline in vitality, in physiological function and in the capacity for adaptation. Although the incidence of SHS is high, the underlying causes remain unclear. Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health status; however, the relationship between SHS and lifestyle has not been elucidated. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting A question...
Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Clementino, Marayza Alves; Pinto-Sarmento, Tassia Cristina de Almeida; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins
The aim of the present study was to evaluate parental perceptions of oral health status in preschool children. A cross-sectional study was carried with 843 Brazilian children between 3 and 5 years of age. Parents/guardians answered a self-administered questionnaire on the health of their children and sociodemographic data. Parental perceptions of their child's oral health were determined by the responses to the following question: "How would you describe your child's oral health?" The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) was answered by parents/guardians and used to measure the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on preschool children and their families. Three examiners performed oral exams on the children (K= 0.85-0.90). Descriptive analytical statistics were carried out, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α=5%). The following variables were significantly associated with parental perceptions of children's oral health: parental perception of general health as poor (OR=18.25; 95% CI: 3.36-98.96), negative impact on family's OHRQoL (OR=13.82; 95% CI: 4.27-44.72), child aged five years (OR=7.40; 95% CI: 1.49-36.63) and the interaction between history of toothache and dental caries (OR=10.02; 95% CI: 1.17-85.61). Thus, parental perceptions of oral health are influenced only by clinical conditions with symptoms, such as dental caries with toothache. Other oral conditions, such as malocclusion or traumatic dental injury, were not associated with parental perceptions of their child's oral health.
D'Aoust, L; Munbodh, P; Sookram, C; Paratian, U; Gaüzère, B A; Aubry, P
Mauritius is an island nation off the coast of Africa in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Improved socio-sanitation conditions over the past years have dramatically decreased the incidence of tropical diseases to levels comparable with those observed in developed countries. Some tropical illnesses including malaria, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis and lymphatic filariasis have been eradicated. Others such as amibiasis, typhoid fever and leprosy have become rare. However, because of the island's geographical proximity to countries with uncontrolled and suboptimal socio-sanitation conditions and its humid subtropical climate, there is a continued risk for certain vector transmitted tropical diseases such as Chikungunya and dengue. In addition, the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS has been rising rapidly since 2004 and tuberculosis remains a public health problem. Better living conditions have also been accompanied by an increase in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that, along with cancer, are now the main causes of morbidity and mortality.
Mazza, Clelia; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo
Aim. In order to set up the needs for intervention and to plan oral health prevention and care programmes, this paper aims to describe the oral health status and behaviour in children living in the municipality of Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso. Design. The sample size was 692 children, 334 females (48.......3%) and 358 males (51.7%). Clinical and oral health related behaviours were collected. Results. 83.4% of the children were caries-free. Fluorosis was recorded in 41.3% of the sample, while only 37.9% of children showed healthy gingival condition. Toothbrushing was reported by 35.7% of children...... the dental needs of the local population are necessary for children living in this area of Africa....
Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank
We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
McDonald, Patricia E; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; DeHelian, Laura; Morris, Diana L
This pilot trial investigated the short and long-term effects of Acceptance Training (ACT) intervention on acceptance, perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression in elders with chronic conditions living in retirement communities (RCs). The ACT intervention combined Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with music, relaxation, and guided imagery during six weekly 2-hour sessions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 African-American and 46 White elders across four data collection points in six randomly selected RCs using well-established measures of perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression, and a measure of acceptance of chronic conditions adapted from a previous measure of acceptance of diabetes. While changes were found in perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression, the most significant changes occurred in the elders' acceptance of chronic conditions immediately after the intervention (t = -2.62, p < .02), and these changes persisted for 6 and 12 weeks (t's = -2.74, -3.32, p's < .01), respectively. Although a 40% attrition rate reduced the sample size from 62 (N = 62) to 37 (N = 37), the significant increases in acceptance over time provide initial evidence for the fidelity of the ACT intervention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determining how migraineurs manage their condition from the viewpoint of health resource utilization (including both medical and personal resources may provide insights that could lead to more effective care strategies.
Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Cullen, Mark R.
Background Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual’s overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of “big data,” researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such “health risk score,” the DxCG Intelligence tool. Methods We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996–2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score’s association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score’s association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. Results and Conclusions We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers. PMID:25951622
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to demonstrate intelligent health and maintenance status determination and predictive fault diagnosis techniques for NASA rocket...
Manfredini, M; Breschi, M; Mazzoni, S
Military medical information and data from civil registers of death and marriage have been used to study the role of physical characteristics and health conditions in explaining access to marriage for the male population of Alghero, a small city located in Sardinia Island (Italy), at the turn of 19th century. Literature data about contemporary populations have already demonstrated the influence of somatic traits in the mate choice. The results presented here show that men with low height and poor health status at the age of 20 were negatively selected for marriage. This holds true also in a society where families often arranged marriages for their children. This pattern of male selection on marriage was found to be particularly marked among the richest and wealthiest SES groups. Our hypothesis is that this social group carefully selected for marriage those individuals who were apparently healthier and therefore more likely to guarantee good health status and better life conditions to offspring. In evolutionary terms, the mate choice component of sexual selection suggests that the height of prospective partners could be claimed as one of the determinants, along with other environmental causes, of the observed higher stature of men belonging to the wealthiest social strata of the Alghero population.
Brabant, Zoé; Raynault, Marie-France
Migrants with precarious status (MPS) are an understudied population. Yet there are indications that they could be particularly vulnerable and confronted to health inequalities. This review of Canadian and international literature highlights that MPS, like other migrants, are confronted with deleterious living conditions and multiple obstacles to access healthcare. However, their status brings additional challenges and harmful health determinants. The situation of MPS may well be similar in Canada, where they could be numerous. Therefore it is crucial to better document this issue within the Canadian context. Part B of this article, reported elsewhere, further explores this topic.
Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; Bos, Sven
BACKGROUND: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular tribeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Because of its genetic underpinnings and physical disease burden, noncompaction cardiomyopathy is expected to be associated with a lower health status...... and increase in pscyhological distress. PURPOSE: This study determined the health status and psychological distress in NCCM patients. We also examined the potential contribution of genetic predisposition and cardiac symptoms to health status and distress in NCCM, by comparing NCCM patients with (1) patients...... patients and 42 DCM patients. Outcome measures were health status (Short Form Health Survey-12), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale). RESULTS: NCCM patients showed significantly worse health status (Physical Component Score F(1...
Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.
Jovanović Jovica M.
Full Text Available Introduction Occupational injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among workers. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of occupational injuries and health status of workers. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 3.750 workers with health disorders. The control group included 1.800 healthy workers. Both groups were similar in terms of many factors that could contribute to the occurrence of occupational injuries. The injury rates were calculated in both groups. Results Workers with psychomotor and sensorimotor disorders, neuroses, obstructive sleep apnea, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hearing, vascular and sight impairments have been frequently injured compared to workers with other diseases. Discussion Due to the belief that accidents and occupational injuries are preventable, it is an imperative to study those factors which are likely to contribute to occurrence of accidents. The contributing factors could be the physical and mental state of workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries are significantly more common in the examined group than in controls.
Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde
Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.
Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James
Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.
Pawar, A T; Kakrani, V A
A cross sectional study was conducted on health status of hotel workers of Pune city. Out of estimated 1000 hotel workers 516 were selected by stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 71.5% hotel workers were suffering from one or other type of morbid condition. Anemia was the commonest morbidity with prevalence of 40.3%. 187 (36.2%) of hotel workers had extramarital sexual relations. A total of 77 (14.9%) hotel workers were having STDs at the time of study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.
The homeless population in Germany is continually increasing. Featuring prominently among those on the increase are women, young persons and homeless people from East Germany. Studies of the health of homeless individuals in recent years show that indices of illness are far higher for many disorders than for comparable groups who are housed. One result from a recent study by the University of Mainz (1994) was that more than 90% of homeless people urgently need medical treatment. According this research, the main health problems of the homeless are: cardiac disease (hypertension, CAD) (52.5%), skin disease (scabies, lice, leg ulcers, abscesses, pyodermias) and acute infections (50%), lower respiratory tract (COAD) (47.5%) and trauma victims (50%), followed by liver (30%), kidney (25%) and gastrointestinal diseases (GU) (20%). The problems of alcoholism and mental disorders of various sorts are added to this picture. Violence to homeless people is increasing. A lot of homeless people are multi-morbid. The relationship between the time of homelessness and the state of illness was not linear. It was found that in the beginning of homelessness most of the homeless people were in a poor physical condition. The poor physical condition of homeless people does not stem from only one cause, but results from a combination of different factors: individual social conditions (social class; social relations; sedentary lifestyle), personal or family life crisis (life events and coping behaviour), the individual risk behaviour (for instance the bizarre sleeping accommodations, alcohol and cigarette consumption unemployment in a depressed economy, structure of the society (cutbacks in government welfare and social service programmes). As a result of bad experiences with existing medical institutions, homeless persons do not consult the doctor or too late. Many are afraid of large institutions; most are not members of a health insurance scheme (uninsured); and many are perceived in
Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Oliveira, Roberval Passos de; Machado, Jorge H; Minayo-Gomez, Carlos; Perez, Marco Antonio Gomes; Hoefel, Maria da Graça L; Santana, Vilma Sousa
This paper was prepared for the Employment Conditions and Health Inequalities Knowledge Network (EMCONET), part of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We describe the Brazilian context of employment conditions, labor conditions and health, their characteristics and causal relationships. The social, political and economic factors that influence these relationships are also presented with an emphasis on social inequalities, and how they are reproduced within the labor market and thereby affect the health and wellbeing of workers. A literature review was conducted in SciELO, LILACS, Google and Google Scholar, MEDLINE and the CAPES Brazilian thesis database. We observed that there are more workers operating in the informal sector than in the formal sector and these former have no social insurance or any other social benefits. Work conditions and health are poor in both informal and formal enterprises since health and safety labor norms are not effective. The involvement of social movements and labor unions in the elaboration and management of workers' health polices and programs with universal coverage, is a promising initiative that is underway nationwide.
Conclusions: The presence of both diseases was associated with lower physical scores of perceived health status. Health status was also affected by various demographic and clinical characteristics. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the study′s limitations.
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França
Full Text Available Objective. To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Methodology. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. Results. The group under study was predominantly male (92%, under 40 years of age (47%, and had low educational level (76%. The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%, alcohol consumption (36%, coffee consumption (92% and being physically inactive (64%. Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. Conclusion. The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.
Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.
This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the healt
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are no population norms currently available in Poland for any generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL questionnaire for adults. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of a representative sample of the general Polish population using the EQ-5D questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult subjects who were visiting patients in 8 medical centers in Warsaw, Skierniewice, and Puławy, were interviewed during the Polish EQ-5D valuation study. Stratified quota sampling was used. The respondents completed the EQ-5D questionnaire and provided information on age, sex, marital status, education, employment, income, housing conditions, medical history, and smoking habits. The inter views were conducted between February and May 2008. RESULTS: The final sample (n = 317 was representative of the general Polish population with respect to age and sex. Moderate problems in at least 1 dimension of the HRQoL were reported by 57% of the respondents, while extreme problems by 4.7%. Pain or discomfort was reported by 40% of the respondents, anxiety or depression by 38%. Problems with mobility were reported by 16% of the respondents, with usual activities (work, school by 13%, and with self-care by 3%. The mean state of health recorded on the visual analogue scale (VAS was 81.6 ±14.4 points. The mean VAS value decreased from 87 and 91 points in the youngest age group to 67 and 72 points in the oldest age group, in men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pain and anxiety are commonly reported problems in the Polish population, especiallyby young women. EQ-5D is a valuable tool for studying health outcomes and differences in health status within the Polish population.
Full Text Available Background: Orphans lack parental support and receive little oral health care. Therefore there is a propensity to develop a variety of oral lesions. Sometimes these lesions are exclusive to oral cavity or may present as an initial manifestation of a more complex underlying problem. Objective: This study hereby aims to compare the oral and dental health status of children living in orphanages and children living with their families. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Lucknow city among children of age group 5-14 years living in orphanages and school children living with their parents of Lucknow city. A total of 80 orphan children and 80 school children of age group 5-14 years were taken for the study. To obtain the requisite number of school children, three schools of the similar socio economic strata as of orphanages were selected randomly from nearby area of orphanages. Results: About 21.8 percent school children were without any clinical finding whereas only 2.5 percent orphan children had no clinical finding. The hard tissue lesions were found in 83.7 percent while these were in 57.2 percent school children. The soft tissue lesions were found in 70.0 percent orphan children while these were in 31.2 percent school children. Conclusions: Majority of orphan children were suffering from oral and dental problem. Most common hard tissue finding was dental caries and soft tissue finding were Aphthous and Coated tongue in orphanages. Overall oral and dental health of orphan children were poorer than school children.
Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro
Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••:••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: Caribbean scholars continue to dichotomise self-reported health status without empirical justification for inclusion or exclusion of moderate health status in the dichotomisation of poor health. Aims This study will 1 evaluate which cut-off point should be used for self-reported health status; 2 assess whether dichotomisation of self-reported data should be practiced; 3 ascertain any disparity in dichotomisation by some covariates (i.e., marital status, age cohort, social class; and 4 examine the odds of reporting poor or moderate-to-very poor self-reported health status if one has an illness. Materials and Methods: The current study used cross-sectional survey data for 2007. The survey used stratified probability sampling techniques to collect the data from Jamaicans. The sample consisted of 6,783 respondents, with a focus on participants aged 46+ years (n=1,583 respondents. Self-reported health status was a 5-item Likert scale question. The dichotomisation was poor health status or otherwise and poor (including moderate self-reported health. Odds ratios were calculated in order to estimate the effect of the covariates. Result: When moderate self-reported health status was used in poor health status, the cut-off revealed moderate effect on specified covariates across the age cohorts for women. However, for men, exponential effects were used on social class, but not on area of residence or marital status across the different age cohorts. Conclusions: The cut-off point in the dichotomisation of self-reported health status does not make a difference for women and must be taken into consideration in the use of self-reported health data for Jamaica.
Yamada, Chizumi; Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko
To evaluate the usefulness of self-rated health (SRH) as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status by examining the relationships between SRH and: (1) history of cancer and cardiovascular disease; (2) treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia; (3) abnormalities in clinical parameters including blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipids; and (4) lifestyle habits. 3744 health-check examinees at Tokai University Hachioji Hospital seen between April 2009 and March 2010 were enrolled. SRH was graded as "good," "relatively good," "relatively poor," or "poor." For statistical comparison, the differences among "healthy" (=good), "relatively healthy" (=relatively good), and "unhealthy" (=relatively poor plus poor) groups were examined. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were calculated to remove the confounding effect of age, using the healthy group as the reference. The Mantel-extension method was used as a trend test. 1049 subjects rated their health as good, 2194 as relatively good, 428 as relatively poor, and 73 as poor. The prevalence of all diseases showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated. Obesity, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipids deteriorated significantly as SRH became poorer, and a trend was observed in all parameters. Weight change, exercise, smoking, and rest showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated. SRH appears useful as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status.
South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WHO World Mental Health (WMH Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate. We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS score (0, worst to 100, best measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS, including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities, family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1. Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8, depression (8.2 and bipolar disorder (8.1. Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5% of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions. Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of
Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok
This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atella, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Marianna; Maestas, Nicole
Health risk is increasingly viewed as an important form of background risk that affects household portfolio decisions. However, its role might be mediated by the presence of a protective full-coverage national health service that could reduce households' probability of incurring current and future out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We use SHARE data to study the influence of current health status and future health risk on the decision to hold risky assets, across ten European countries with different health systems, each offering a different degree of protection against out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We find robust empirical evidence that perceived health status matters more than objective health status and, consistent with the theory of background risk, health risk affects portfolio choices only in countries with less protective health care systems. Furthermore, portfolio decisions consistent with background risk models are observed only with respect to middle-aged and highly-educated investors.
Sithey, Gyambo; Wen, Li Ming; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Mu
Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas. The study included 6476 participants aged 15-98 y. The main outcome variable of interest was self-reported health status. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 10 h, and ≥ 11 h. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status. The mean sleep duration was 8.5 (± 1.65) h. Only 9% of the respondents slept for 7 h; 6% were short sleepers (≤ 6 h) and 84% were long sleepers (21%, 8 h; 28%, 9 h; 22%, 10 h; 13%, ≥ 11 h). We found that both short (≤ 6 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 11 h) were independently associated with poor self-reported health status. This study found that people with shorter and longer sleep durations were more likely to report poorer health status.
Lee, Sunghee; Grant, David
Current practices recommend placing a self-rated health question before specific health items in survey questionnaires to minimize potential order effects. Because this recommendation is based on data collected in English, its applicability to other languages is unknown. This study examines whether there is an order effect associated with self-rated health for interviews conducted in English and Spanish languages. An experiment was conducted by using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, where questions on self-rated health were inserted in 1 of 2 locations: preceding and following question items on specific chronic conditions. Respondents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 versions of the locations by the split-half method. Although no order effect was present in the English interviews, the authors found a significant and large effect with Spanish interviews: Self-rated health appeared much worse when asked before chronic conditions than when asked after them. This order effect was larger among females than males. Order effects for self-rated health differ by interview language; inferences about the health status of Spanish-speaking populations (and potentially Latinos) depend on question order. If maintaining comparability is important, the authors' finding contradicts current recommendations, as inserting the self-rated health question before specific questions led to larger differences in health status between English and Spanish speakers.
Ruers Theo JM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found discrepancies in valuations for health states between the general population (healthy people and people who actually experience illness (patients. Such differences may be explained by referring to various cognitive mechanisms. However, more likely most of these observed differences may be attributable to the methods used to measure these health states. We explored in an experimental setting whether such discrepancies in values for health states exist. It was hypothesized that the more the measurement strategy was incorporated in measurement theory, the more similar the responses of patients and healthy people would be. Methods A sample of the general population and two patient groups (cancer, rheumatoid arthritis were included. All three study groups judged the same 17 hypothetical EQ-5D health states, each state comprising the same five health domains. The patients did not know that apart from these 17 states their own health status was also included in the set of states they were assessing. Three different measurement strategies were applied: 1 ranking of the health states; 2 placing all the health states simultaneously on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 3 separately assessing the health states with the time trade-off (TTO technique. Regression analyses were performed to determine whether differences in the VAS and TTO can be ascribed to specific health domains. In addition, effect of being member of one of the two patient groups and the effect of the assessment of the patients' own health status was analyzed. Results Except for some moderate divergence, no differences were found between patients and healthy people for the ranking task or for the VAS. For the time trade-off technique, however, large differences were observed between patients and healthy people. The regression analyses for the effect of belonging to one of the patient groups and the effect of the value assigned to the patients' own
Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Kawamura, M; Toma, Carmen; Lascu, Viorica
Our aim was to examine the impact of social intelligence and social desirability on students' self-rated oral health and oral health-related behaviors. The present study sample consisted of 217 first year dental students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioral factors, self-reported oral health status, social intelligence (Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale-TSIS) and social desirability (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form C). Social desirability was correlated with age, perceived dental health, current nontreated caries, toothache last time, self-reported gum bleeding and reason for the dental visit. Other measures were not influenced by social desirability: current extracted teeth, satisfaction with appearance of own teeth, self-reported gingival condition, daily toothbrushing, flossing, mouthrinse and dental visit frequency. It was revealed that participants with stronger social intelligence tended to evaluate as excellent their self rated oral health status, to be less dissatisfied by the appearance of their teeth, not to have untreated dental decays, extracted teeth (others than third molars) or gingival bleeding, to brush their teeth more than twice a day, to use everyday dental floss and to visit their dentist mainly for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling. Multiple regression analyses models demonstrated significant contributions of social awareness, social skills and social information processing were observed to oral health behaviours: toothbrushing, flossing and dental visit frequency. The results support the view that social desirability should be considered as a factor which may impact measurements and decisions, while social intelligence has a significant association with oral health behaviours.
Vincent, Helen; Edwards, Francois; Baker, Roger; Dunbar, Mike; Clarke, Ralph
The WFD requires Member States to determine the ecological status of rivers and streams with respect to deviation from a type-specific reference condition. It is essential that Member States can demonstrate that the biological datasets used to define reference conditions meet the criteria of the WFD. The approach requires that reference sites be at their ecological optima, and are assumed to not change because by definition they are not impacted. We used RIvPACS reference site data and UK Env...
Full Text Available Aim: scientific basement for the hygienic, medical and prophylactic activities, excluding the adverse impact of the harmful and dangerous industrial factors on the workers' health. Material and methods. It was extensively studied the health of 327 workers who belong to the important for the hygienic investigations professions in the bakery production, experiencing the impact of harmful industrial factors. To assess the subjective characteristics of the working conditions, the labor process, and the health status of workers the questionnaire was composed. The 214 respondents participated in the survey. Results: Analysis of the results of the extensive medical examinations showed that the first place takes the pathology of the organs of the urogenital system — 71.4% (per 100 women. The gastrointestinal tract diseases were also largely presented (62.3%. Among the major disadvantages of the working conditions, according to the respondents, were the microclimate conditions, dust, and poor light (91.2%, 87.6%, 83.0% responses, respectively. Conclusion. It was found that the morbidity among the workers in the bakery production industry had the professional features: the polysystemic and polyorganic pathology. With the purpose of the optimization of the factors of the industrial environment, a set of organizational, technological and medical activities, the implementation of which will allow to reduce the harmful effects of adverse working conditions was developed.
This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.
Kilanowski, Jill F; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A
One goal of Healthy People 2010 (2003) is to close the gap of disparities in access to care and health. The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study was to evaluate health status indicators in the children of itinerant carnival and migrant farmworkers aged birth to 12 years. Health status outcomes (immunization records, well-child examinations, dental health status, and growth parameters) were compared between the two groups and to national averages to identify health disparities. All forms were available in Spanish and English. A total of 97 children were recruited for this study: 45 carnival children and 52 migrant farmworker children.
Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p iron (r = 0.362), riboflavin (r = 0.364), and vitamin C (r = 0.476). Workload was negatively correlated with protein intake (r = 0.346; p < 0.05). Meal frequencies for more than 70% of the farmers and petty traders and 42% of the teachers were dependent on the availability of food in the household. Food taboos had no effect on their nutrient intake, since only 5-11% of women adhered to taboos. Although most women gave their children and husbands preference in food distribution, not much difference was found in the amount of food consumed by these women. The ratio of wife's portion to husband's was 1:1.4 for the farmers, 1:1.3 for the traders, and 1:1.2 for the teachers. FGDs revealed that sex discrimination in education prevailed where resources were limited. The
Full Text Available Adolescence is described by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare as the healthiest period in life. However, adolescent girls differ in that they self-report that their health decreases with age. The aim of this hermeneutical study was to describe the meaning of living conditions in relation to adolescent girls’ health. Guided by principles of reflective lifeworld research, 15 interviews with adolescent girls were analysed. The result section consists of four narratives with their existential interpretations illustrating different ways of approaching living conditions and their meaning for health and well-being. The narratives are: Approaching everyday life in a balanced way—feeling harmonious; approaching everyday life with ambiguity—feeling confused; approaching everyday life as an intellectual project—striving for control; approaching everyday life as a struggle—feeling forlorn. In addition, a comprehensive understanding was developed by using the lifeworld dimensions: lived body, lived room, lived time, and lived relations. These dimensions may deepen the understanding of important parts of those living conditions which are meaningful for the girls’ health and well-being. By using the dimensions, complex living conditions have been explored and the meaning of different parts clarified. The girls’ thoughts and feelings are often ambiguous and sometimes contradictory, depending on the situation. The health of adolescent girls needs to be understood against the background of their experiences of living conditions. One way to support their health and well-being seems to be to supply them with forums where they can talk about their living conditions.
Lowery, Kamilan Aurielle
While limited health literacy has been associated with poorer health decisions and poorer health outcomes, there remains a gap in the literature related to the influence of health literacy on weight and weight-related behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of child and parent health literacy status on childs body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors, within an adapted evidence-based family-based childhood obesity intervention, iChoose, implemented in the medical...
Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason
Health impact assessment is a structured decision support tool used to systematically characterize the anticipated health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of societal decisions. In San Francisco, the use of health impact assessments has not only produced evidence to inform health policy decision making but has also contributed to the political conditions needed to achieve optimal population health. Health impact assessments have helped increase public awareness of the determinants of health, routine monitoring of these determinants, cooperation among institutions, health-protective laws and regulations, and organizational networks for health advocacy and accountability. Drawing on more than a decade of local experience, we identify the direct and indirect effects of the assessments on the politics of governance as well as on health. We demonstrate that health impact assessment is both an analytic tool and a process that helps build the social institutions that can improve health.
Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios
The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Rousseau, Cécile; ter Kuile, Sonia; Munoz, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Kirmayer, Laurence; Crépeau, François
Migration flux is being transformed by globalization, and the number of people with either undocumented or with a precarious status is growing in Canada. There are no epidemiological data on the health and social consequences of this situation, but clinicians working in primary care with migrants and refugees are increasingly worried about the associated morbidity. This commentary summarizes findings from a pilot study with health professionals in the Montreal area and suggests that the uninsured population predicament is a national problem. Although ethical and legal issues associated with data collection by clinicians, institutions and governments need to be examined, estimating the public health consequences and long-term cost associated with problems in access to health care due to migratory status should be a priority. Current regulations and administrative policies appear to be at odds with the principles of equal rights set out by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Beyond the commitment of individual clinicians, Canadian medical associations should take an advocacy role and scrutinize the ethical and medical implications of the present system.
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José
to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.
Becker, Heather; Kang, Sook Jung
Older cancer survivors, who often cope with multiple disabling conditions, can find health promotion challenging. This study's purpose was to explore predictors of health promotion for older cancer survivors with a disabling condition that existed prior to their cancer diagnosis. The 92 cancer survivors were predominantly women with preexisting neuromuscular impairments and an average age of 69 years. Half were breast cancer survivors, and 58% were 6 or more years since their cancer diagnosis. In hierarchical regression analyses, self-efficacy for health promotion and social support were the strongest predictors of the total HPLPII and its subscales. The findings suggest that nursing interventions to assist older cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions in building their social support and perceived self-efficacy may help them lead more healthy lives. PMID:22765516
Full Text Available In our country, there is present extensive, semi-intensive and intensive growing of cyprinid fish species. The quality of food is an essential prerequisite for obtaining optimal production results in fish production. Fish food is being produced as a complete pellet meal, and raw materials used are of plant, animal, mineral and vitamin origin. Out of plant feed, the most commonly used ones are corn, wheat, barley, oats, soy and others. By applying additional carbohydrate food, energetic needs of an organism are being met. In this paper, we presented the results of hygienic safety of carbohydrate feed (corn, wheat, barley investigated in the laboratory of Veterinary Research Institute of Serbia in Belgrade within regular control, or with the aim of establishing the causes of disturbance of health status and decreased production results in the pond. During 2004 we performed microbiology and mycotoxicology investigations of the total of 43 samples, namely: 31 corn samples, 8 barley samples and 4 wheat samples. The obtained results point at a high level of mould contamination (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus and the presence of their secondary mycotoxin metabolites (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes and zearalenone in feed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate
Dreyer, R.P.; van Zitteren, M.; Beltrame, J.F.; Fitridge, R.; Denollet, J.; Spertus, J.A.; Smolderen, K.G.E.
Background Few studies have examined gender differences in health status and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study assessed (1) self‐reported health status at PAD diagnosis and 12‐months later, and explored (2) whether outcomes in women with PAD differ
Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didnt affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 357-363
Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily
Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.
Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek
OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... aged 6 and 12 years were carried out in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000; questionnaire surveys of a sample of mothers and schoolteachers were conducted in 1999. SETTING: The surveys in schools intended to aid planning and evaluation of the revitalised school oral health programme in Poland. SUBJECTS...... conditions in children and wanted to become involved in oral health education. In conclusion, the need for oral health education of children and mothers was shown and the continuous implementation of school oral health programmes is most relevant....
Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.
Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen
Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632
Chun Nok Lam
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39.4% reported to have one or more cavities, 20.3% did not brush their teeth twice or more times a day, and 30.9% had never been to a dentist (or did not know it). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, living in a lower middle income country, consumption of chocolate or candy, having made a dental care visit, and poor mental health was associated with tooth ache in the past 12 months. Being male, being 20 to 21 years old, coming from a wealthier family background, living in a lower middle income country, frequent consumption of soft drinks, not having consulted with a dentist in the past 12 months and weak beliefs in the benefits of tooth brushing were associated with inadequate tooth brushing frequency (chocolate or candy, frequent consumption of soft drinks and low physical activity was associated with inadequate or never dental care visit. Poor dental health status and oral health behaviors were found and various risk factors identified that can be utilized to guide interventions to improve oral health programs among university students.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.
For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and
Mª Visitación Sanchón-Macias
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and subjective social status and explain how subjective social status predicts health in immigrant women. METHODS: cross-sectional study based on data from 371 Latin American women (16-65 years old from a total of 7,056 registered immigrants accesse through community parthers between 2009-2010. Socioeconomic status was measured through education, income and occupation; subjective social status was measured using the MacArthur Scale, and perceived health, using a Likert scale. RESULTS: a weak correlation between socioeconomic and subjective social status was found. In the bivariate analysis, a significantly higher prevalence of negative perceived health in women with no education, low income, undocumented employment was observed. In the multivariate analysis, higher odds of prevalence of negative perceptions of health in the lower levels of the MacArthur scale were observed. No significant differences with the rest of the variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that subjective social status was a better predictor of health status than the socioeconomic status measurements. Therefore, the use of this measurement may be relevant to the study of health inequalities, particularly in socially disadvantaged groups such as immigrants.
Tuchtenhagen, Simone; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Tomazoni, Fernanda; da Rosa, Guilherme Nascimento; Del Fabro, Joana Possamai; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado
Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as "the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably". It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11-14-ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants' parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11-14-ISF: 16. A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment
Puneet Singh Talwar
Full Text Available Background: Women′s oral health is affected by certain conditions such as pregnancy, puberty, menstrual cycle, menopause and nonphysiological conditions such as hormonal contraception and hormonal therapy. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of pregnant women and to correlate periodontal health with adverse pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth (PTB and low birth weight (LBW. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken at a Government Hospital in Haryana. Pregnant women who were in their third trimester of pregnancy and visited the hospital for routine ante-natal check-up constituted the final sample size (223. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed using a WHO Proforma-1997. None of the subjects were in the habit of taking alcohol, chewing and smoking tobacco. The main outcome measures were gestational age and weight of the newborn. Data were analyzed using SPSS package version 13. Results: Decayed, missing and filled teeth index of the subjects was 2.87. Extraction was indicated in younger subjects when compared to the older ones. Bleeding was the main finding, which was present in 47.5% of the study subjects, followed by calculus. 63 more than 60% of subjects of subjects with 4-5 mm attachment loss belonged to 20-24 years age-group. There was a statistically significant association of probing depths and attachment loss with adverse pregnancy outcomes (P < 0.05 (PTB and LBW. Conclusion: There is a significant association between maternal periodontitis and pregnancy outcomes in the present study. It is recommended that suitable measures be undertaken by various health organizations to prevent periodontal problems among this particular group.
Krul-Poel, Y H M; Westra, S; van Wijland, H J
AIMS: To test whether vitamin D status was associated with health-related quality of life in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life scores, were obtained from 241 adult patients with Type 2 diabetes managed...... associations were found between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status was not associated with health-related quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This could be explained by the relatively high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, good glycaemic...
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin
This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems.
Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K
In preparation for an outcomes study of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), two measures of disease-specific health status were developed to supplement a symptom score and overall health status measures. The symptom problem index (SPI) captures how troublesome patients find their urinary symptoms. The BPH impact index (BII) measures how much their urinary problems affect various domains of health. A prospective revalidation of the refined instruments (N = 108 BPH patients and 50 controls) documented that both indices had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88 and 0.79, respectively) and test-retest (r = 0.88 for both) reliabilities, correlated strongly with symptom scores (r = 0.86 and 0.77), and discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver-operating characteristic areas = 0.87 and 0.85, respectively). These indices were nearly as responsive as symptom scores in 50 men actively treated for BPH, and much more responsive than a non-disease-specific General Health Index (GHI), a Mental Health Index (MHI), and an Activity Index (AI). Finally, these measures capture most of the health status significance of BPH symptoms. In linear regression models constructed to predict scores on the GHI, MHI, and AI, symptom scores added little explanatory power to the SPI and, particularly, to the BII. These measures help clarify how BPH affects overall health status and function. Such measures have an important role to play in studies of the outcomes of treatment for BPH, and probably for other conditions that interfere with health status and function.
Rupali V Sabale
Full Text Available Background: Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route. They are not aware of their rights. Studies have been conducted on beedi workers but not many studies are carried out in urban areas. Thus, study was carried out to understand working condition and health hazards in beedi workers residing in the urban slums of Mumbai and to know whether beedi roller are in better condition in urban areas. Aim: To study working condition and health hazard in beedi rollers in the urban slums. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, community based study was carried in the urban slums of Mumbai with population of 8985 from April 2011 to June 2011. With snow balling sampling technique, 52 beedi workers were interviewed regarding their socio-economic status, working conditions and health problems after informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS windows version 14.0 software. Results: The mean age was 45 years with SD of 12 years. All were Hindu females. Around 42.31% were illiterate. Mean years of service were 30 years and they work on an average for eight hours. Children were not involved in beedi rolling. Most common morbidity was fatigue. None were aware of the benefits provided for them. Awareness regarding health hazard and safety measures was poor. Conclusions: The working condition of beedi rollers in the urban areas is not favourable.
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. We used data from the National surveys on "Health conditions and use of health services" carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. Regardless to the presence of mental health problems, young people were more likely to be unemployed. Among people who reported mental health problems, males were more likely to be unemployed than females. People with low education level were more likely to be unemployed, particularly during the recession and in presence of mental health problems. Changes in unemployment rates due to the crisis showed different patterns across different regions of the Country. These analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.
González-López, J R; Rodríguez-Gázquez, M A; Lomas-Campos, M M
The immigrant population in Seville has grown over the last 10 years, most of which are Latin Americans. Our aim was to describe the health status perceived in this emerging population. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 190 Latin American immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 years residing in Seville (Spain). The self-sensed health status was 18% excellent, 28% very good, 42% good, 11% regular, and 1% poor. The average number of days of satisfactory health status during the last month was 22. Statistically significant differences were found: (a) higher satisfactory perception of health in men than in women (30 vs. 9%) and (b) higher average number of days with excellent health in people with satisfactory perception than those with an unsatisfactory perception of their health status (23 and 15, respectively). Logistic regression, educational level, number of days of good health, and doing physical exercise were the variables that best explained the satisfactory perception of health status. Most people studied have a positive self-assessment of their health status, especially men, who engage in physical activity and those who have 3 and more weeks of good health per month. Our results permit us to support, to a large extent, the theory of the "healthy immigrant".
Lagarde, Mylene; Haines, Andy; Palmer, Natasha
Conditional cash transfers (CCT) provide monetary transfers to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-defined requirements. CCT programmes have been justified on the grounds that demand-side subsidies are necessary to address inequities in access to health and social services for poor people. In the past decade they have become increasingly popular, particularly in middle income countries in Latin America. To assess the effectiveness of CCT in improving access to care and health outcomes, in particular for poorer populations in low and middle income countries. We searched a wide range of international databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, in addition to development studies and economic databases. We also searched the websites and online resources of numerous international agencies, organisations and universities to find relevant grey literature. The original searches were conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. An updated search in MEDLINE was carried out in May 2009. CCT were defined as monetary transfers made to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-determined requirements in relation to health care. Studies had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: health care utilisation, health expenditure, health outcomes or equity outcomes. Eligible study designs were: randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, or controlled before-after study of the impact of health financing policies following criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. We performed qualitative analysis of the evidence. We included ten papers reporting results from six intervention studies. Overall, design quality and analysis limited the risks of bias. Several CCT programmes provided strong evidence of a positive impact on the use of health services, nutritional status and health outcomes
Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung
This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (pcollege students have tended to have a better perception of health when they have better body image perception, body weight satisfaction and dietary behaviors.
out-patient clinics had poor natural lighting, small windows and had to rely on massive air conditioning sets for ventilation. ... proper disposal of excreta and health care waste, vector control, building design to ... drainage system. It was however ... tropical environment because it encourages heat loss from the building, even ...
Saeedian, Radka Ghorbani; Nagyova, Iveta; Klein, Daniel; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitze
Aims and objectives To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Background Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health c
Park, Hyoung Sook; Jeong, Seong Hee; Park, Kyung Yeon
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among job stress, family stress and perceived health status of middle school teachers and to present basic information about promoting health and coping with stress. Participants(N=547) was recruited in B city from November 2005 to December 2005. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and multiple regression. The degree of job stress of the middle school teachers was 54.47 out of a total score of 88; that of family stress was 46.57 out of a total score of 96; and that of perceived health status was 78.59 out of the perfect score 100. There was a significantly negative relationship between job stress and perceived health status (r=-.274, pfamily stress and perceived health status(r=-.408, pfamily stress(r=.298, pFamily stress, gender, charging subject, job stress, charging grade and number of family member was 27.1% of the variance in perceived health status of middle school teachers. Family stress has the most important impact on perceived health status with middle school teachers. Based on the finding, we could conclude that both job stress and family stress management should be required to improve perceived health status.
Hayes, Samuel A; Kutty, Shelby; Thomas, Joshua; Johnson, Joyce T; Yetman, Anji T
Patients with Trisomy 21 are now living well into adulthood. Little data exists to assist the cardiologist in the care of these patients. We sought to examine the cardiac and general health status of adults with Trisomy 21 undergoing cardiac evaluation. A retrospective review of all affected adults >21years followed at 2 tertiary care institutions was performed. Of 193 patients identified, median age was 31 (range 21.1-60.5) years. Cardiac surgery was performed in childhood in 127 with 30 patients who did not undergo surgery developing Eisenmenger syndrome. The remaining 36 patients did not warrant early surgical intervention. Six patients were lost to follow-up. Significant cardiac residua were present in 117 (62%). Arrhythmias were present in 53 (28%) with 15 having atrial fibrillation (8%). Non-cardiac comorbidities were common and included sleep apnea, pulmonary hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, thromboses and recurrent infections. Hospitalization in adulthood occurred in 58 patients (51%); pneumonia and cardiac related surgeries being the most common reasons for hospitalization. Average age of death (n=23) was 39.8±8.5years. Transition of care to an adult provider was uncommon occurring in 54 (27%) patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of younger age and absence of pulmonary hypertension were the sole predictors of survival for the group as a whole, as well as those patients without Eisenmenger syndrome. Adults with Trisomy 21 have frequent cardiac and non-cardiac co-morbidities. Cardiologists caring for these patients should be familiar with the adult acquired medical problems these patients encounter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess health status of regular and part-time mines rescue brigadesmen. Material and Methods: A group of 685 mines rescue brigadesmen was examined within the preventive testing – a basic internal, biochemistry and anthropometric examination, physical fitness testing. Results: The average age of the subjects was 41.96±7.18 years, the average exposure in mining was 20±8.1 years, out of that 11.95±7.85 years as mines rescue brigadesmen. Elevated levels of total serum cholesterol (T-CH and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH were found in over 1/2 of the subjects. Systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg was confirmed in 34%, overweight (body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 in 62.3% and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 in 20.4% of the examined mines rescue brigadesmen. The metabolic syndrome was found in 15.2% of persons. The highest physical fitness was found in mines rescue brigadesmen and the lowest in mine officers. Limit values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max/kg determined by the management of the mine rescue station were not reached by every 3rd of all mines rescue brigadesmen. Compared with the control group of the Czech and Slovak population, the rescuers are taller, have greater BMI, higher percentage of body fat in all age categories and proportionally to that they achieve a higher maximum minute oxygen uptake; however, in relative values per kg of body weight their physical fitness is practically the same as that of the controls. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and VO2 max/kg in the group of the mines rescue brigadesmen is comparable with that in the general untrained Czech population.
Tomaskova, Hana; Jirak, Zdenek; Lvoncik, Samuel; Buzga, Marek; Zavadilova, Vladislava; Trlicova, Michaela
The aim of the study was to assess health status of regular and part-time mines rescue brigadesmen. A group of 685 mines rescue brigadesmen was examined within the preventive testing - a basic internal, biochemistry and anthropometric examination, physical fitness testing. The average age of the subjects was 41.96±7.18 years, the average exposure in mining was 20±8.1 years, out of that 11.95±7.85 years as mines rescue brigadesmen. Elevated levels of total serum cholesterol (T-CH) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH) were found in over 1/2 of the subjects. Systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg) was confirmed in 34%, overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25) in 62.3% and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) in 20.4% of the examined mines rescue brigadesmen. The metabolic syndrome was found in 15.2% of persons. The highest physical fitness was found in mines rescue brigadesmen and the lowest in mine officers. Limit values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max/kg) determined by the management of the mine rescue station were not reached by every 3rd of all mines rescue brigadesmen. Compared with the control group of the Czech and Slovak population, the rescuers are taller, have greater BMI, higher percentage of body fat in all age categories and proportionally to that they achieve a higher maximum minute oxygen uptake; however, in relative values per kg of body weight their physical fitness is practically the same as that of the controls. The prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and VO2 max/kg in the group of the mines rescue brigadesmen is comparable with that in the general untrained Czech population. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.
This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, contends that the school is in a unique position to supplement efforts by home and community in raising the levels of physical, mental, and social-emotional health for each child. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover observing…
Engstrom, E M; Anjos, L A
The relationship between stunting in Brazilian children with their mother's nutritional status and their social-environmental situation was assessed in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population in 1989. Data from 12644 mother-son pairs were analyzed. Maternal nutritional status was classified based on the body mass index and stunting was identified in children with stature or length for age Z relationship between the level of stunting and maternal education, income and house living conditions. Children of illiterate mothers showed more stunting (OR = 17.2) than children whose mothers had had at least 9 years of formal education. Stunting was more frequently observed in children whose mothers were underweight (OR = 2.5), and who were from the first quartile of family income in comparison to the fourth quartile (OR = 11.0) and lived in the poorest living conditions (OR = 7.6). These results suggest a positive association between stunted children and underweight mothers.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15-75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. RESULTS: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. CONCLUSION: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.
The Association of Israeli and Palestinian Physicians for Human Rights was established during the first months of the uprising, against the background of a severe situation in which people were killed and wounded daily. AIPPHR works for the protection of human dignity and human life; defending physicians and patients in a state of political conflict out of loyalty to the principles of universal morality which constitute an inseparable part of the medical profession. This report, which is the result of months of research and investigation, is aimed, among other purposes, at bringing reliable information to the knowledge of the medical community in Israel and the Israeli Medical Association (IMA)--the body which organizes them. The silence of the medical community in the face of the phenomena described above is foreign to the spirit of doctors and medicine. The association's activity is aimed at creating a change in this situation out of the belief that the silence on the part of a large section of the medical community in Israel stems from a lack of regular and reliable information. In order to describe the situation of the medical services in the Gaza Strip, one must note two contrasting trends: on one hand, there is advancement in the population's health conditions, which is expressed by a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 86/1000 in 1970 to 28.1/1000 in 1988); a decline in the number of cases of whooping cough among children (30.1 in 1970 in contrast to 0 in 1988); and a decline in the number of cases of polio (14.3 in 1970 in contrast to 1 in 1980). On the other hand, the tendency of stagnation must be noted, especially in the development of independent local health services. Medicine in the Gaza Strip has been during the entire period of the occupation, and remains, completely dependent on Israeli medicine. Modern equipment and modern medical technology have been at the service of the residents of the Gaza Strip in Israeli hospitals, but they were not
Oropesa, R S; Landale, Nancy S; Hillemeier, Marianne M
Family legal status is a potentially important source of variation in the health of Mexican-origin children. However, a comprehensive understanding of its role has been elusive due to data limitations and inconsistent measurement procedures. Using restricted data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we investigate the implications of measurement strategies for estimating the share of children in undocumented families and inferences about how legal status affects children's health. The results show that inferences are sensitive to how this "fundamental cause" is operationalized under various combinatorial approaches used in previous studies. We recommend alternative procedures with greater capacity to reveal how the statuses of both parents affect children's well-being. The results suggest that the legal statuses of both parents matter, but the status of mothers is especially important for assessments of child health. The investigation concludes with a discussion of possible explanations for these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tinetti, Mary E; McAvay, Gail J; Chang, Sandy S; Newman, Anne B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Fried, Terri R; Peduzzi, Peter N
To determine the relative effect of five chronic conditions on four representative universal health outcomes. Cross-sectional. Cardiovascular Health Study. Five thousand two hundred and ninety-eight community-living participants aged 65 and older. Multiple regression and Cox models were used to determine the effect of heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis, depression, and cognitive impairment on self-rated health, 12 basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs), six-item symptom burden scale, and death. Each condition adversely affected self-rated health (P < .001) and ADLs and IADLs (P < .001). For example, persons with HF performed 0.70 ± 0.08 fewer ADLs and IADLs than those without; persons with depression and persons with cognitive impairment performed 0.59 ± 0.04 and 0.58 ± 0.06 fewer activities, respectively, than those without these conditions. Depression, HF, COPD, and osteoarthritis were associated with 1.18 ± 0.04, 0.40 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.05, and 0.57 ± 0.03 more symptoms, respectively, in individuals with these conditions than in those without. HF (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.97-4.10), COPD (2.62, 95% CI = 1.94-3.53), cognitive impairment (2.05, 95% CI = 1.47-2.85), and depression (1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-2.01) were each associated with death within 2 years. Several paired combinations of conditions had synergistic effects on ADLs and IADLs. For example, individuals with HF plus depression performed 2.0 fewer activities than persons with neither condition, versus the 1.3 fewer activities expected from adding the effects of the two conditions together. Universal health outcomes may provide a common metric for measuring the effects of multiple conditions and their treatments. The varying effects of the conditions across universal outcomes could inform care priorities. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral Health status has a direct impact on general health and conversely, general health influences oral health. It has also become clear that causative and risk factors in oral diseases are often the same as those implicated in the major general diseases.Hence this study was done to estimate the prevalence, type and degree of oral diseases in the study area. Materials and Method: It is a cross- sectional study design conducted among schools in , Multan Nagar which is the field practice area of department of Community Medicine, SMC (Subharti Medical College, Meerut.A total of 534 school going children aged 9 to 12 years old were examined using standard WHO Oral Health Survey methods. Results: One third of the study population (34.3% had good oral hygiene according to oral hygiene index simplified. The overall prevalence of gingivitis among children was 53.4 percent.The prevalence of dental caries among 9 to 12 year old school going children was 60.1 %. The mean DMFT score of the study population was 0.89.The index study findings revealed a strong relationship between oral health status and socio economic status and mother’s educational status. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of dental caries was high in the study subjects.Mother’s educational status has a significant role in improving the oral health status of children.
Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko
We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.
Harrison, Marc-Allen; Milgrom, Peter
Background: The Amish are a growing population who live a traditional, rural way of life, which makes them less accepting of modernism. Most Amish live in poverty and are detached from modern health care. In addition, the recent change of their lifestyle has been reported, such as consuming a nontraditional diet and the usage of electronic devices. As a result, their lifestyle change may have impacted their oral health. However, since only a single report about oral health among Amish children has been published approximately three decades ago it has not yet been updated. This study describes oral health among Amish children and their medical conditions during visits to a mobile dental unit (MDU). Material and Methods: The dental records of all patients (N=216) who visited a mobile dental unit were reviewed, which covers 1 year from May 20, 2011, the first date of service. The following factors were taken into consideration during the review process: parental perceptions of their children’s oral health care, dental care experiences, and general health information. Results: Fifty-four (27.8%) children, ages 3 to 17, have never received dental treatment before visiting the MDU; the average number of untreated decayed teeth was 6.8. In spite of this, most parents rated their children’s oral health as good or very good (87.7%). The high cost and long distance travel associated with routine, professional dental care makes it difficult for children to maintain good oral hygiene. Our analysis revealed that bleeding disorders were more prevalent among this gene pool compared to the nation at large; however, asthma was less common. Conclusions: There are oral and general health disparities among Amish children. There is a lack of awareness among Amish parents with regard to their children’s oral health. Key words:Amish, child, dental caries, mobile health units. PMID:28298971
Yau, Ivan; Kendall, Claire
To identify whether socioeconomic status is associated with allied health use among patients in a large academic family health team (FHT). Data were collected through a retrospective chart review using an electronic medical record system. A large academic FHT in Ottawa, Ont. Patients with at least 1 in-person clinician encounter between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patients who accessed allied health services with those who did not. We conducted logistic regression analyses to determine whether income quintile was independently associated with allied health use after adjusting for other patient characteristics. The inclusion criteria identified 2938 unique patients, of whom 949 (32.3%) saw an allied health provider(AHP) during the study period. While patients in the fourth income quintile had the greatest AHP use per person (41.2% of patients had at least 1 AHP visit), those in the lowest income quintile had the greatest mean number of AHPs seen(mean [SD] = 1.48 [0.80]). After adjustment, the odds of seeing an AHP were significantly increased with older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.02) and female sex (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.22). Compared with patients in the highest income quintile, patients in the lowest (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.72) and fourth (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.66) income quintiles had significantly higher odds of seeing AHPs. Within an academic FHT, lower-income patients were more likely to use allied health services, suggesting equitable allocation of resources. We encourage other FHTs to similarly assess their allied health resource allocation as an important outcome for investments in Ontario FHTs.
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen
A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH
Wierenga, M E
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among variables which are associated with life-style modification, knowledge of diabetes, social support, health practices, and body mass index, to examine their effect on health status, and to test the effectiveness of a community based life-style modification program for weight control. Adults (n = 66) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in either a treatment or control group. The treatment consisted of 5 weekly 90-min sessions on modifying eating and exercise patterns. All participants completed a personal resource questionnaire (PRQ), health practices survey (HPS), and diabetes health status questionnaire (DHS) at intake, 5 weeks, and 4 months. Knowledge of diabetes was assessed only at intake. Knowledge of diabetes, social support, and health practices explained 27% of the variance in health status, but health practices explained the largest (18%) proportion of the variance and was the only study variable significantly affected by the life-style modification program.
Bellos, Christos C; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Rosso, Roberto; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I
The CHRONIOUS system offers an integrated platform aiming at the effective management and real-time assessment of the health status of the patient suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An intelligent system is developed for the analysis and the real-time evaluation of patient's condition. A hybrid classifier has been implemented on a personal digital assistant, combining a support vector machine, a random forest, and a rule-based system to provide a more advanced categorization scheme for the early and in real-time characterization of a COPD episode. This is followed by a severity estimation algorithm which classifies the identified pathological situation in different levels and triggers an alerting mechanism to provide an informative and instructive message/advice to the patient and the clinical supervisor. The system has been validated using data collected from 30 patients that have been annotated by experts indicating 1) the severity level of the current patient's health status, and 2) the COPD disease level of the recruited patients according to the GOLD guidelines. The achieved characterization accuracy has been found 94%.
Oliva López Arellano
Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Mexico has faced major crises in its political, economic, and social life. These crises have affected living conditions and health. With the implementation in the 1980's of structural adjustment and economic stabilization policies, Mexico saw a rapid growth of poverty accelerating trends toward social polarization and social division. The current crisis, fueled by deregulation of the global financial markets, only deepens the tendency towards economic stagnation. It has led to an increase in unemployment, worsening income inequalities, and generalized inflation. The increase in food prices, in particular, has made life more difficult for the Mexican population. The crisis has had a palpable and concrete impact on living conditions, health status, and food security for diverse social groups.
Mastenbroek, Mirjam H.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Meine, Mathias
PURPOSE: It is well known that a significant proportion of heart failure patients (10-44 %) do not show improvement in symptoms or functioning from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), yet no study has examined patient-reported health status trajectories after implantation. METHODS: A cohort...... levels after implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of disease-specific health status vary considerably across subgroups of CRT-D patients. Classification into poorer disease-specific health status trajectories was particularly associated with patients' psychological profile and NYHA classification...
梁渊; 曾尔亢; 吴植恩; 陈仲文; 李谨邑; 卢祖洵
Perceived health status is one of the important meansof evaluating quality of life,1 and has attracted increas-ing attention as a focus of research. Studies have pointedout that perceived health status is important in affectinghealth seeking behaviors because people will only seekmedical attention when they perceive that they areunhealthy. Furthermore, aside from age and sex, per-ceived health status has been recognized as the stron-gest “early-warning index” for pre-estimating deathrates.2-5 Prior studies ...
Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. .... determined using an enzyme immunoassay (Ramco-Ferritin,. AEC Amersham). .... anaemia (haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 11.5 g/dl) and. There is a ...
Aguilar-Palacio, I; Gil-Lacruz, M; Gil-Lacruz, A I
This paper aims to identify the inter-relationships between the social factors that influence epidemiological patterns in the city neighbourhood of Casablanca, Zaragoza (Spain). Data for a cross-sectional survey were collected between January 2008 and April 2008 from a representative random sample of 1032 residents aged more than 15 years. The study interview contained information scales on healthcare behaviours, treatment evaluation, the number of medical consultations in the weeks pervious to the interview and the perceived health status of the respondents, using The Health Perception Questionnaire. The global index (continuous variable) allowed inferences to be made on the individual's perception of his/her own health. The assessment of social vulnerability was based on the occupational, educational and economic conditions of the interviewees. An individual was considered to belong to a vulnerable subeconomic group if he/she had a personal income of 6000 euros or less; or had no formal education or had been educated up to primary school level only; or was not in paid employment at the time of the interview. A descriptive and comparative analysis of the vulnerable and non-vulnerable population groups for perceived and diagnosed health variables was undertaken using parametric and non-parametric tests. A total of 550 interviewees (53.3%) were considered vulnerable people. Low level of instruction (primary or no education) was the main characteristic of this group (356 subjects, 64.7% of those identified as vulnerable). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the association between belonging to the vulnerable group and a number of health variables adjusted for gender, age and area of residence. The vulnerable group had worse levels of perceived health even when controlled for gender and area of residence. In Casablanca, the place of residence is an important social stratification indicator reflected in the characteristics of the vulnerable population group
Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)
This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.
Khodadadi, Effat; Niknahad, Ayshe; Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Motallebnejad, Mina
Because parents play a key role in children's dental health, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parents' oral health literacy (OHL) and their children's dental health status in Babol, Iran. In this cross sectional study a total of 384 children aged 21 months to 84 months who attended the dental clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences between September 2015 and February 2016 were examined. We measured dmft index only for primary dentition; during examination the accompanying parent completed the "Oral Health Literacy-Adults Questionnaire". Comparing mean analysis, such as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an independent-samples t-test, served to compare children's dental caries, missing, and dental fillings' mean differences, between subgroups. In addition, the relationship between OHL, children's dental caries, and dental fillings was assessed using multiple linear regression models while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. All data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. Children's mean age was 55.1 months (SD: 13.7), while 47% were girls. Mean children's dental caries, missing, filling, and mean dmft index were 6.5, 0.4, 1.2, and 8.2 respectively. Parents with inadequate OHL had children with more dental caries (p=0.005), however this relation had no significance while controlling for background factors. Increasing children's dental fillings was significantly related with families living in urban regions (p=0.01, 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.12), and parents with adequate OHL (p=0.02, 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.05). Inadequate parents' OHL was associated with children having high dental caries and less dental fillings. Therefore, providing interventions to improve parents' OHL would be valuable in children's dental health promotion programs, especially in countries with a developing oral health system.
Full Text Available Background -The introduction of school health services in India dates back to 1909, when school children in the city of Baroda were given the first medical examination. School Health programme ,promoting basic check up of school children for a variety of health related problems, is a systematic effort in raising awareness about health issues among school children and their families. Good health increases enrollment and reduces absenteeism. It also ensures attendance of the poorest and most disadvantaged children to school, many of whom are girls. Aim- To study the morbidity status of the school children & elicit relationship of healthy habits with morbidity pattern. Study Type- Observational study Methodology- A cross sectional survey to find out the morbidity pattern was conducted on 757 school children (340 boys and 417girls, aged 5-16 years studying in class I-VIII in five different schools of Doiwala, Dehradun under Rural Health training centre, Rajeev Nagar. Results- Overall students attendance was 78.2%. Clinical anaemia was higher in Girls (46.7% as compared to Boys (34.1%. Worm infestation was higher in boys (65.1% as compared to Girls(57.3%. Over all abnormal Visual acquity(8.5% or eye abnormality (14% was noticed among study subjects. Dental Caries (53.1% and dermatitis (16.3% were more in boys. Healthy habits like daily bathing (82.6%, daily teeth brushing (61.1%, mouth rinsing after meal (53% and hair clean/combed (80.2% were more in girls as compared to boys while trimmed nail was equally (55% noticed among both the groups. Conclusion- Morbidities found amongst students are basically due to low awareness & negligent behaviour about personal hygiene are the key areas of concern and by active involvement of school teachers improvement in personal hygiene of school children and reduction in related morbidities can be achieved.
Havercamp, Susan M.; Tassé, Marc J.; Navas, Patricia; Benson, Betsey A.; Allain, Dawn; Manickam, Kandamurugu
Background: People with developmental disabilities experience worse health than typically developing peers. This health differential is often described in terms of health disparities, which refers to differences caused or exacerbated by social or access issues. Objective: the goal of this study was to compare the weight status and health…
Ferrer, Robert L.; Palmer, Ray; Burge, Sandra
PURPOSE Clinical studies have shown strong family influences on individual health, but the aggregate importance of family effects for population health is unknown. Our objective was to estimate, at a population level, the variance in individual health status attributable to the family.
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI. Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states.
Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha
Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.
Rusin, M N; Amirov, N Kh; Sibgatullin, A S; Krasnoshchekova, V N
There was performed an analysis of the working conditions and health status of workers of the chemical enterprise. In male electrical staff exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of 50 Hz and chemicals, according to data of periodic medical examinations there was revealed statistically higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases and autonomic disorders. The obtained preliminary results allow to suggest the upsurge of the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in response to the combined effects of EMF of 50 Hz and chemicals.
Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Dik, Natalia; Yu, Dickie C. T.; Chateau, Dan; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika
Background: Little information exists on health of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Method: The present authors linked 12 years of administrative data and compared health status, changes in health and access to health and social services between children with (n = 1877) and without (n = 5661) DDs…
大原, 啓志; 堀川, 俊一; 久繁,哲徳; 畑田,一憲; 鈴木,順一郎; 吉田, 健男; 井谷, 徹; 太田, 武夫; 青山,英康; 大平, 昌彦
Problems in life styles and health status according to family type and the presence or lack of a spouse among the aged in a rural area were investigated. The subjects were all residents of 65 or over who lived at home in Ohgata Town, Kochi Prefecture, in March of 1982. Responses to the questionnaire survey were obtained from 1,545 (92.5%) out of 1,671. The subjects were divided into three groups of family type, that is, "single", "couple" and "other", and into two groups by marital status, th...
Akbar Azizi Zeinalhajlu
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Health, being as an important social and individual value, has many influences and consequences all through the social and individual levels. Individual’s health is one of those fundamental issues and a great target regarding countries development. Nowadays, we are witnessing changes in disease patterns from infectious to chronic in one hand and on the other hand, we can see a widening gap between health condition, life expectancy and death rate in the worldwide. Based on global statistics, chronic diseases are rapidly increasing regardless the fact that there have been remarkable achievements in health promotions. There are many kinds of differences between various countries or social levels in terms of health conditions, life expectancy and death rate. In order to determine above mentioned changes, comprehensive perspectives with biomedical orientations should be applied alongside the concentration on health social factors at the same time. The present study is aimed at investigating socio-economical issues on individuals’ health. Material and Methods: The present study is a review. UN and WHO databases, English/Persian databases containing ISI, PUBMED, MEDLINE, SID, reports by health organizations, books, thesis, magazines and journals concerning health policies in Iran have been scrutinized. Conclusion: Health is a multi-dimensional structure and can be influenced by several factors. In fact, provision, protecting and promotion of public health can go beyond the abilities of Health Ministry. In order to achieve a healthy society, it is needed to focus on social health factors and intersectional cooperation. Without any comprehensive approach to determine health and disease and replacing health based orientation with treatment based orientations, it is impossible to achieve appropriate level of health and development and will lead in wasting society resources.
Full Text Available Rotational speed and load usually change when rotating machinery works. Both this kind of changing operational conditions and machine fault could make the mechanical vibration characteristics change. Therefore, effective health monitoring method for rotating machinery must be able to adjust during the change of operational conditions. This paper presents an adaptive threshold model for the health monitoring of bearings under changing operational conditions. Relevance vector machines (RVMs are used for regression of the relationships between the adaptive parameters of the threshold model and the statistical characteristics of vibration features. The adaptive threshold model is constructed based on these relationships. The health status of bearings can be indicated via detecting whether vibration features exceed the adaptive threshold. This method is validated on bearings running at changing speeds. The monitoring results show that this method is effective as long as the rotational speed is higher than a relative small value.
Fan, Yingling; Chen, Qian
This study examines whether the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health can be indirect and operate through aspects of family functioning. We use data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health in the United States with the interviewed parents/guardians as the only source of the data. Our study sample includes 53,023 children aged between 6 and 17 years. Using structural equation modeling, we test both direct and indirect relationships between a family functioning index, a general indicator of children's health status, and three neighborhood factors: neighborhood physical resources, environmental threats, and collective efficacy. Covariates in the analysis include gender, age, income, race, family structure, parental education, and health insurance coverage. All the three neighborhood factors show direct associations with children's general health status, as well as indirect associations mediated by aspects of family functioning. Among the three neighborhood factors, collective efficacy and environmental threats are found to have much stronger associations with children's general health than physical resources. When designing health-promoting neighborhoods for children and families, it may be more efficient for urban planners and health professionals to focus on community programs that reduce environmental stressors and foster neighborhood cohesion than programs that solely improve physical infrastructure. This study also verifies that aspects of family functioning mediate the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health. It is recommended that both family and neighborhood are critical points for child health intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Härter, Martin; Dwinger, Sarah; Seebauer, Laura; Simon, Daniela; Herbarth, Lutz; Siegmund-Schultze, Elisabeth; Temmert, Daniel; Bermejo, Isaac; Dirmaier, Jörg
Objective: This study aimed to investigate how patients with chronic conditions evaluate telephone health coaching provided by their health insurance company. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted among coaching participants ("n" = 834). Outcomes included the general evaluation of the coaching, the evaluation of process and…
Lyles, Robert H; Kupper, Lawrence L; Barnhart, Huiman X; Martin, Sandra L
Planned interventions and/or natural conditions often effect change on an ordinal categorical outcome (e.g., symptom severity). In such scenarios, it is sometimes desirable to assign a priori scores to observed changes in status, typically giving higher weight to changes of greater magnitude. We define change indices for such data based upon a multinomial model for each row of a c × c table, where the rows represent the baseline status categories. We distinguish an index designed to assess conditional changes within each baseline category from two others designed to capture overall change. One of these overall indices measures expected change across a target population. The other is scaled to capture the proportion of total possible change in the direction indicated by the data, so that it ranges from -1 (when all subjects finish in the least favorable category) to +1 (when all finish in the most favorable category). The conditional assessment of change can be informative regardless of how subjects are sampled into the baseline categories. In contrast, the overall indices become relevant when subjects are randomly sampled at baseline from the target population of interest, or when the investigator is able to make certain assumptions about the baseline status distribution in that population. We use a Dirichlet-multinomial model to obtain Bayesian credible intervals for the conditional change index that exhibit favorable small-sample frequentist properties. Simulation studies illustrate the methods, and we apply them to examples involving changes in ordinal responses for studies of sleep deprivation and activities of daily living.
Víctor M Prieto
Full Text Available With the proliferation of social networks and blogs, the Internet is increasingly being used to disseminate personal health information rather than just as a source of information. In this paper we exploit the wealth of user-generated data, available through the micro-blogging service Twitter, to estimate and track the incidence of health conditions in society. The method is based on two stages: we start by extracting possibly relevant tweets using a set of specially crafted regular expressions, and then classify these initial messages using machine learning methods. Furthermore, we selected relevant features to improve the results and the execution times. To test the method, we considered four health states or conditions, namely flu, depression, pregnancy and eating disorders, and two locations, Portugal and Spain. We present the results obtained and demonstrate that the detection results and the performance of the method are improved after feature selection. The results are promising, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.7 and 0.9, and f-measure values around 0.8 and 0.9. This fact indicates that such approach provides a feasible solution for measuring and tracking the evolution of health states within the society.
Song, Insu; Marsh, Nigel V
A health social network is an online information service which facilitates information sharing between closely related members of a community with the same or a similar health condition. Over the years, many automated recommender systems have been developed for social networking in order to help users find their communities of interest. For health social networking, the ideal source of information for measuring similarities of patients is the medical information of the patients. However, it is not desirable that such sensitive and private information be shared over the Internet. This is also true for many other security sensitive domains. A new information-sharing scheme is developed where each patient is represented as a small number of (possibly disjoint) d-words (discriminant words) and the d-words are used to measure similarities between patients without revealing sensitive personal information. The d-words are simple words like "food,'' and thus do not contain identifiable personal information. This makes our method an effective one-way hashing of patient assessments for a similarity measure. The d-words can be easily shared on the Internet to find peers who might have similar health conditions.
Wang, Jian; Wu, Kuihua; Zhu, Wenbing; Gu, Chao
To improve the forecasting accuracy and ensure reliable and stable operation of transformer, based on health index estimation model is proposed. The transformer data is divided into different levels and parts, so multi-parameter statistical analysis is carried on. The indicator system is scored and weighted by computing history data (inspection and maintenance, family defects, basic information and loading history) and condition data (such as routine test data). The condition parameters, which are classified on the component level, are scored and weighted, using statistical tools calculation. By using the statistical tools SPSS (statistical product and service solutions), multivariate statistical analysis was carried out. On the basis of studying the relationship between various parameters, a health evaluation model, which is based on contribution analysis, is presented. A condition-based evaluation tool, that quantifies power transformer degradation and clarifies the relationship between each health index, is put forward. Results are presented to verify the validity and feasibility of evaluating model and assessment algorithm. This paper provides a scientific method for the transmitting and transforming field.
Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.
Wu, Si-ying; Li, Huang-yuan; Lin, Shao-wei
To explore the effects of workplace violence on sub-health status of nurses and to provide the theoretical basis for preventing the workplace violence in the hospitals and improving the health status of nurses. A total of 679 nurses were selected by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of workplace violence scale (WVS) and sub-health scale were used to measure workplace violence and sub-health status, respectively. The subjects with middle age (30-45 years) were found to have the highest incidence of physical assault (24.5%) and emotional assault (52.2%) as compared with other subjects (Pworkplace violence of nurses in the psychiatric department and emergency department was significantly higher than that of nurses in other departments (Pworkplace violence was an important risk factor for sub-health status of nurses when other potential confounding factors were taken into account. The results of present study showed that workplace violence plays an important role in sub-health status of nurses after adjusting other potential confounding factors. It is important to develop the prevention strategies for reducing the incidence of workplace violence and improving the sub-health status of nurses.
Ghinescu, Minerva; Olaroiu, Marinela; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Olteanu, Tatiana; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.
AimAging is affecting health care all over Europe, but it is expected to have a much greater impact in Eastern Europe. Reliable data on various indicators of health of older adults in Eastern Europe are lacking. The objectives of the present study were to describe the health of older Romanian adults
Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects o
Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...
Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.
The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…
Bultmann, U.; Franche, R.L.; Hogg-Johnson, S.; Cote, P.; Lee, H.; Severin, C.; Vidmar, M.; Carnide, N.
Background The purpose of this study was to describe the health status and work limitations in injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders at 1 month post-injury, stratified by return-to-work status, and to document their return-to-work trajectories 6 months post-injury. Methods A sample of 632 w
Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck
Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…
Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects o
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Parental employment status is an important and often overlooked contextual factor that may influence parent adolescent relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental support on adolescents' health within the context of parental employment status. Data on perceived mother's
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Parental employment status is an important and often overlooked contextual factor that may influence parent adolescent relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental support on adolescents' health within the context of parental employment status. Data on perceived mother's
Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.
The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…
Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an account of work undertaken in spring of 1981 in a continuing study of the health and status of the North Pacific walrus population. This...
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status. PMID:22900235
Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly
.... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...
Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua
To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sgan-Cohen Harold D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from Western countries indicates that there are fundamental discrepancies between self-perceived illness of immigrants and the provision of health care, according to the Western bio-medical health service model. These need to be understood in the planning and implementation stages of public health care programs for new immigrants. The objectives of the present study were to investigate self-perceived versus clinically diagnosed dental and periodontal health status among immigrants from Ethiopia. Methods During 2004–2005, dental and periodontal health status was recorded among 340 Ethiopian immigrants, utilizing the DMFT and CPI indices. Additionally, participants were interviewed using a questionnaire which included perceived dental and periodontal health status. Sensitivity and specificity levels of this perception were calculated and compared with the published scientific literature. Results Regarding dental caries, according to the three operational cut-off points, sensitivity ranged from 70% to 81%, and specificity ranged from 56% to 67%. Regarding periodontal status, 75% of the subjects clinically diagnosed with periodontal pockets self-perceived a "bad" health status of gums (sensitivity and 54% of the subjects diagnosed without periodontal pockets, reported a "good" health status of gums (specificity. These indications of perception levels were higher than a previous study conducted among native born Israelis. Conclusion Minority ethnic groups should not be prejudicially regarded as less knowledgeable. This is illustrated by the unexpected high level of oral health status perception in the present population. Oral health promotion initiatives among immigrants should be based upon optimal descriptive data in order to accomplish the inherent social commitment to these diverse populations.
Abiodun Olatunji Abisuga
Full Text Available In order to maintain a healthy learning environment, diagnosis and management of defects in the educational facility are paramount. The preliminary results of the ongoing research reported here seek to identify defects associated with educational buildings and their effects on the health of polytechnic students and staff in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey, including 34 defects based on a post-occupancy evaluation (POE was used to establish relationships with the health of polytechnic students and staff. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected based on their schools (faculty within Lagos State Polytechnic. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis of the collected data. The results of the study indicate that defects such as plumbing and dampness problems, cobwebs and dust, are prominent in the institution. Also the relationship between building conditions (defects and health problems was established, with the predictors of the health problems. Based on the findings, it is important for designers and managers of facilities within tertiary institutions to develop and implement design and maintenance policies targeted at minimizing the likelihood of plumbing, dampness, electrical, cobweb and dust problems in educational buildings due to the health risks induced by the defects. It is evident that effective maintenance schedules and policies should be put in place to ensure that facilities are not left to decay before replacement.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Complete health of physical, social and intellectual development is an appropriate plan of human development and raises the quality of life in communities. If the development plan is integrated into the local community it will create peace and generosity. Good health is also fundamental to sustainable development which will create a peaceful society where community members are happy and content. Approach: The purpose of this research in Phase 1, is to (1 Identify leaders in communities at village and sub-district level to drive the ongoing research study and development to achieve good community health conditions in all aspects and dimensions. (2 To have the participants and researchers identify the key elements and indicators of health issues that communities feel are most important to their way of life. Results: Village communities were selected by cluster sampling from the provinces of Roi-Et and Maha Sarakham. The developed model for developing community health for living happily in communities is an appropriate and practical method that can be utilized in other communities. Conclusion: The model is in accordance with Participatory Action Research (PAR and the procedures are flexible and the development plans which are the results of Phase 1 can be extended to other communities and backgrounds.
Tunçbilek, E; Unalan, T; Coşkun, T
The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), conducted in 1993, provided data on the magnitude of malnutrition in a sample of 3152 preschool children from five geographical regions, and on its causal and conditioning factors. Stunting was found to be the dominant form of malnutrition (21 per cent). Altogether 10 per cent of children were underweight and 3 per cent were wasted. There were urban-rural (16 v. 27 per cent, P rank of children, birth spacing, number of children in an individual family, family size, and mother's welfare and hygiene indices. The need for an intersectoral approach for the development of remedial programs to reduce the effect of these factors and for periodic assessment of nutritional status of preschool children is stressed.
Vinita A Mary
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of school teachers in Chennai. Materials & Method: The cluster sampling methodology was used to select the samples. The selection of a school was done in such a way that the particular school type was present in adequate numbers in all the zones. The final sample consisted of 1059 school teachers who were examined from various zones of Chennai. Results: The shallow pockets were seen in 15.8% whereas deep pockets were almost negligible (0.3%; 73.7% had carious lesions with mean DMFT being 4.63±4.04.The most commonly needed treatment modalities were one surface restorations and extraction in 55.2% and 31.4% of subjects respectively. Conclusions: The school teachers had a wide variety of dental diseases/conditions, the most prevalent being periodontal disease and dental caries which increased with age.
Joyce, Kerry; Pabayo, Roman; Critchley, Julia A; Bambra, Clare
, risk of selection bias and reliance on largely self-reported outcome data. Four CBA studies on self-scheduling of shifts and one CBA study on gradual/partial retirement reported statistically significant improvements in either primary outcomes (including systolic blood pressure and heart rate; tiredness; mental health, sleep duration, sleep quality and alertness; self-rated health status) or secondary health outcomes (co-workers social support and sense of community) and no ill health effects were reported. Flexitime was shown not to have significant effects on self-reported physiological and psychological health outcomes. Similarly, when comparing individuals working overtime with those who did not the odds of ill health effects were not significantly higher in the intervention group at follow up. The effects of contractual flexibility on self-reported health (with the exception of gradual/partial retirement, which when controlled by employees improved health outcomes) were either equivocal or negative. No studies differentiated results by socio-economic status, although one study did compare findings by gender but found no differential effect on self-reported health outcomes. The findings of this review tentatively suggest that flexible working interventions that increase worker control and choice (such as self-scheduling or gradual/partial retirement) are likely to have a positive effect on health outcomes. In contrast, interventions that were motivated or dictated by organisational interests, such as fixed-term contract and involuntary part-time employment, found equivocal or negative health effects. Given the partial and methodologically limited evidence base these findings should be interpreted with caution. Moreover, there is a clear need for well-designed intervention studies to delineate the impact of flexible working conditions on health, wellbeing and health inequalities.
Full Text Available Acupuncture has been used to treat a variety of childhood problems; however, the efficacy and safety of pediatric acupuncture remains unclear. This article reviews the existing empirical literature relating to the use of acupuncture for medical conditions in children. A systematic search of the literature revealed that acupuncture has been used to treat five main conditions in children, including pain, nocturnal enuresis, postoperative nausea/vomiting, laryngospasm/stridor, and neurological disorders. Despite a number of methodological issues, including limited sample sizes, lack of randomization, and inappropriate control groups, it is concluded that acupuncture represents a promising intervention for a variety of pediatric health conditions. To further address the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of acupuncture in children, large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed.
Peltzer, Karl; Tepirou, Chher; Pengpid, Supa
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior, as well as their correlates, among adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3806 Cambodian school children (mean age 15.7 years, SD=1.8 years) who took part in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. Overall, 7.8% of the students reported poor perceived teeth status, 18.0% had missed school in the past year because of a toothache, 26.7% engaged in combined oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often = 79.8%, using fluoride toothpaste = 59.9%, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day = 53.6%), and 59.9% had never visited a dentist for a routine examination or other dental work. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, being female, missing school because of a toothache, having a toothache in the past 12 months, poor oral health behavior and sedentary leisure time were associated with poor perceived teeth status. Older age, good perceived teeth status, having had a dental check-up, washing hands before eating and after toilet use, and not eating fast food were associated with a positive oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often, using fluoride toothpaste, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day). Significant proportions of poor perceived teeth status and poor oral health behavior were found among school children in Cambodia. Various risk factors (sociodemographic, dental variables, general health risk behaviors) for perceived poor teeth status, oral health behavior and never having had a dental check-up were identified, which can be utilized for intervention programs. PMID:28008205
This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...
Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B
We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.
Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.
Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Moreno-Jimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Forjaz, Maria Joao
To analyze the influence of different health status dimensions and quality of life (QoL) domains on older adults' subjective health, and to assess the role that residential satisfaction plays in these relationships. A QoL survey was conducted on a representative sample of the community-dwelling older adult population in Madrid province (Spain).…
Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace,Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie
Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...
Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C
Our study measured minority individuals' social status factors and frequency of discrimination experiences, in order to delineate social mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to mental status (specifically, to current mood/anxiety disorder and self-rated mental health). In this nationally representative secondary research, our data analyses drew on the cross-sectional "Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys," dating 2001-2003. The sample for the final model numbered 9368 respondents (2016 Asians, 2676 Latinos, 4676 blacks). Across races/ethnicities, better mental health was associated with male gender, higher income, marriage, more education, and less-frequent discrimination experiences; discrimination experiences could impair health, especially among blacks. Marriage's strong contribution to Asians' mental health did not hold among blacks; education's contribution to Latinos' mental health did not hold among blacks either. Blacks' mental health was unaffected by immigration status, but Asian and Latino immigrants showed less-robust mental health than native-born counterparts. Across the three racial/ethnic groups studied, differences were noted in relationships between self-reported mental health status and the employed social status and discrimination factors.
Full Text Available Context: Santal is the third largest tribal community of India leading a very poor standard of education and life style. There are, however, few population-based studies evaluating the oral health status among Santal children in West Bengal. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral health status of Santal children of West Bengal by assessing prevalence of dental caries and inflammatory condition of gingival. Settings and Design: Santal children aged between 2-14 years (N = 1205 were randomly selected from different Santal communities of West Bengal for this study. The children were divided into three different groups according to dentition. Materials and Methods: Caries for permanent dentition Decayed Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT, for deciduous dentition decayed extracted filled (def index was used. For mixed dentition DMF and def was measured respectively and then added together. Inflammatory condition of gingival was assessed by papillary marginal attachment (PMA index. Statistical Analysis Used: the data was analyzed statistically by SPSS software version 11. Results: The study showed there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the average decayed extracted filled teeth (deft/DMFT for boys and girls in deciduous and permanent dentition. But in mixed dentition this value for the boys was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than girls. ′Z′ values were found to be non significant when compared mild, moderate and severe gingivitis between boys and girls in each dentition group, but mild gingivitis significantly increases from deciduous dentition to mixed to permanent dentition (P <0.001.
Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis
Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate selected reproductive parameters in sows. Observed parameters were analysed in two herds with different health status. The experiment involved 160 hybrid sows from the 1st to the 5th litter (80 sows with health status A and 80 sows with health status B. Highly statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.001 and significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were found between the two groups in length of gravidity, total numbers of piglets, numbers of live-born piglets, numbers of stillborn piglets, numbers of reared piglets and losses of piglets per litter in favor of group B with declared health status. Evaluation of phenotypic correlation between the total number of piglets and the live-born piglets in the sows without declared health status revealed high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01. Strong positive dependence was found also between the live-born and the reared piglets in this group. In the sows with declared health status, high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was found also between the total number of piglets and the number of live-born piglets and between the number of live-born and reared piglets.
Castrejón-Pérez, Roberto Carlos; Borges-Yáñez, S Aída; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis M; Avila-Funes, J Alberto
Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR = 1.9), those who reported
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being
Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi
To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Paul A. Boume
Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims: To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials: The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results: Approximately one-quarter (25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. Significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.
Paul A Boume
Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims : To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials : The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results : Approximately one-quarter ( 25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. S ignificant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work . Conclusion : Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.
Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Dave, Bela Dilip; Brahmbhatt, Nilam Ashokkumar; Parekh, Rishikesh
Aim: We evaluated the periodontal health status and oral health behavior among hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to assess the association of COPD with dental health. Materials and Methods: A group of 100 hospitalized patients with COPD and a group of 100 age, sex, and race-matched control patients were included in this study. Detailed case histories along with standardized measures of oral health including gingival index, plaque index (PI), and simplifie...
Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; te Velde, Saskia J; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes
Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview of the self-reported health status and health behaviours of pregnant women under midwife-led primary care in the Netherlands. Our second aim was to identify potential differences in these health status indicators and behaviours according to educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) and ethnicity (as a proxy for immigration status). Our cross-sectional study (data obtained from the DELIVER multicentre prospective cohort study conducted from September 2009 to March 2011) was based on questionnaires about maternal health and prenatal care, which were completed by 6711 pregnant women. The relationships of education and ethnicity with 13 health status indicators and 10 health behaviours during pregnancy were examined using multilevel multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, parity, number of weeks pregnant and either education or ethnicity. Lower educated women were especially more likely to smoke (Odds Ratio (OR) 11.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6- 16.8); have passive smoking exposure (OR 6.9; 95% CI 4.4-11.0); have low health control beliefs (OR 10.4; 95% CI 8.5-12.8); not attend antenatal classes (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8) and not take folic acid supplementation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.7-4.4). They were also somewhat more likely to skip breakfast daily, be obese, underweight and depressed or anxious. Non-western women were especially more likely not to take folic acid supplementation (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.7); have low health control beliefs (OR 4.1; 95% CI 3.1-5.2) and not to attend antenatal classes (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.4). They were also somewhat more likely to have nausea, back pains and passive smoking exposure. Substantial socio-demographic inequalities
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kian Kamyab; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation ...
Turner, R; Hartley, R
Research suggests that there is some confusion among quality improvement managers about the differences between quality management and traditional quality assurance. This lack of understanding would appear to be the same among rural and urban health staff, although there is a higher percentage of staff engaged in multidisciplinary activities in the rural health services. Education of staff and commitment from top management would seem to be the factors inhibiting the health industry from incorporating quality management into their cultures.
Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.
US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable
Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne
This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.
Full Text Available Curricula of health education institutions need to be periodically revised to be aligned with its context. This study explored the status of physiotherapy curricula in South Africa as point of departure for benchmarking by individual institutions. A document analysis was done of the university physiotherapy departments (N=8 in South Africa. institutional ethical clearance and permission from the heads of departments were obtained. Content analysis was used to analyse the South African Qualifications Authority exit-level outcomes and the university study guides for community placements. Most universities employed a form of service-learning, with interventions in a range of settings. Five themes emerged: practice of evidence-based physiotherapy, rendering physiotherapy services, acting professionally, communication, and collaboration. The country’s priority conditions were addressed. Teaching-learning strategies included group activities (class or education sessions, community projects, home visits and portfolios of evidence. Personal and small-group reflections were prominent. The undergraduate community physiotherapy curricula in South Africa address the health profile of the population and priorities in the health system to different degrees. The variation between universities should be interpreted with caution as the study guides only gave a limited snapshot into each institution’s curriculum. However, findings suggest that each physiotherapy university department may have gaps in preparing physiotherapy undergraduate students for the needs of the South African population and expectations of the government. Possible ways to share teaching-learning resources are recommended
Pelegrí Calvo, C.; Soriano del Castillo; J. M., Mañes Vinuesa, J
Full Text Available Introduction: In adult patients, the diagnostic process for coeliac disease (CD is usually very late (eleven years on average, which leads to health complications that could be avoided with earlier diagnosis.Therefore, we have studied some aspects about thehealth status of the celiac patients interviewed. Objectives: The objective of this study is to quantify the prevalence of health-related issues, such as reproductive problems, other associated diseases, possible triggers of CD, bone health, anemia and otherautoimmune diseases or tumors, and the presence ofCD in first grade relatives.Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 98adult celiac through a validated questionnaire specificfor coeliac patients. Results: The 23% of women had reproductive problems, most of the coeliac patients showed associatedconditions and 51% of CD cases was triggered after aphysical or psychological event. Conclusions: High prevalence of celiac disease inindividuals concomitant diseases as iron deficiency anemia, depression, hypothyroidism, lactose intolerance,IgA deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest theneed of diagnostic tests to determine or rule out CD. The presence of one or more symptoms or conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, lactose intolerance, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or IgA deficiency in first-degree relatives of a celiac should raise suspicions abouta non-diagnosed EC.
The study aims to estimate the relationship between the individual/local socioeconomic status and the health of internal elderly migrants in China. A multilevel logistic model was used to estimate this association. The estimations were undertaken for 11,111 migrants aged over 60 years, using nationally representative data: the 2015 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey (MDMS), which was carried out in China. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Both the household income per capita and the area-level average wage were positively associated with migrants' self-reported health; however, public service supply was not significantly related to their health. In addition, given the household income, migrants living in communities with a higher average wage were more likely to report poor health. Migrants' health benefited from individual socioeconomic status, but not from the local socioeconomic status, which the migrants cannot enjoy. This study highlights the importance of multilevel and non-discriminatory policies between migrants and local residents.
Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M
Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics.
Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C; Westaway, Jacob; Williams, Peter; Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G
Dietary intake/status of the trace mineral Se may affect the risk of developing hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, i.e. pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PE/PIH). In the present study, we evaluated Se status in U.K. pregnant women to establish whether pre-pregnant Se status or Se supplementation affected the risk of developing PE/PIH. The samples originated from the SPRINT (Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention) study that randomised 230 U.K. primiparous women to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at 12 and 35 weeks, toenail Se concentration at 16 weeks, plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12, 20 and 35 weeks. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Participants completed a FFQ. U.K. pregnant women had whole-blood Se concentration lower than the mid-range of other populations, toenail Se concentration considerably lower than U.S. women, GPx3 activity considerably lower than U.S. and Australian pregnant women, and low baseline SEPP1 concentration (median 3.00, range 0.90-5.80 mg/l). Maternal age, education and social class were positively associated with Se status. After adjustment, whole-blood Se concentration was higher in women consuming Brazil nuts (P= 0.040) and in those consuming more than two seafood portions per week (P= 0.054). A stepwise logistic regression model revealed that among the Se-related risk factors, only toenail Se (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17, 0.87, P= 0.021) significantly affected the OR for PE/PIH. On excluding non-compliers with Se treatment, Se supplementation also significantly reduced the OR for PE/PIH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09, 1.00, P= 0.049). In conclusion, U.K. women have low Se status that increases their risk of developing PE/PIH. Therefore, U.K. women of childbearing age need to improve their Se status.
The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided.
Seid, Abdu Kedir
In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.
data." Social Indicators Research 3 (1976), pp. 257-271. 18. Elinson, Jack. "Toward sociomedical health indicators." Social Indicators Research 1...34Comprehensive population health index based on mortality and disability data." Social Indicators Research 3 (1976), pp. 257-271. Chen, Martin K. "The G index
Marx, John H.; Spray, S. Lee
Concludes that personal relations, professional experiences and occupational success form a network of relationships which integrate the occupational and nonoccupational roles of highly specialized practitioners. Part of a Study of Careers in the Mental Health Field, supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH-09192 and directed by…
K. Stronks (Karien); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J. van den Bos (Johannes); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the relatively strong association between income and health compared to that between education/occupation and health, can partly be interpreted in terms of an association between employment sta
Full Text Available Background: This article presents the diagnosis of the socio-economic status and health condition of Polish workers living in urban areas. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the nationwide group of occupationally active people aged 19–65 years. The interview questionnaire comprised an extensive socio-demographic part and a psychometric part, containing questionnaires measuring the status of mental health, work ability, work satisfaction and family functioning. Results: Slightly more than half of the respondents (54% worked in occupations related to their profession. The majority (88% worked full-time, 8 h a day (65% being employed by 1 employer (92%. Most respondents were satisfied with their job (apart from the financial aspect and family life; 59% of employees were stressed by their job, including 15% of those who experienced strong stress. The family situation was emphasized by 31% of the respondents. At least one health disorder was diagnosed in 42% of the respondents. Musculoskeletal disorders (19%, cardiovascular diseases (13% and respiratory disorders (11% were most frequently reported. At the same time 76% of respondents assessed their health as rather good and good. The mental health index fell within the average values, but 12% of patients reached the score indicating the risk of serious mental health problems. Most of employees assessed their work ability as rather good and good. Conclusions: The data presented show the direction of the activities that need to be undertaken in the workplace, namely prevention of occupational stress, musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, which significantly limit work ability. It is also necessary to implement educational programs in the workplace. Such activities, if organized on a regular basis, bring the best results. Med Pr 2014;65(6:785–797
Zereyesus, Yacob A; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L; Shanoyan, Aleksan
Given that women in rural communities in developing countries are responsible for the nutrition and health-related decisions affecting children in their care, their empowerment may influence the health status of their children. The association between women's empowerment, measured by using a recently developed Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index, and children's health status is examined for a sample of households in Northern Ghana applying a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model. The MIMIC approach is used to link multiple indicator variables with multiple independent variables through a "single underlying" latent variable. Height-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores are used as indicators of the underlying children's health status and women's empowerment in agriculture and control variables are used as the multiple independent variables. Our results show that neither the composite empowerment score used to capture women's empowerment in agriculture nor its decomposed components are statistically significant in their association with the latent children's health status. However, the associations between children's health status and control variables such as mother's education, child's age, household's hunger scale and residence locale are statistically significant. Results also confirm the existence of the 'single underlying' common latent variable. Of the two health status indicators, height-for-age scores and weight-for- height scores, the former exhibited a relatively stronger association with the latent health status. While promoting women's empowerment to enhance their ability to make strategic life choices, it is important to carefully consider how the achievement of these objectives will impact the women's well-being and the well-being of the children in their care.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support
Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Zhu, Ling; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Nakajima, Ichiro; Langham, Clive S; Lin, Wang; Otsuka, Kichibee; Komiyama, Kazuo
A survey was carried out to compare periodontal health status and oral health behavior between Japanese and Chinese dental students. Subjects consisted of 118 students at Nihon University School of Dentistry and 92 students at the school of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University. Saliva occult blood test was performed to classify whether subjects may have periodontal disease. Further questionnaires were given to evaluate different lifestyles and oral hygiene habit. The positive rate of the saliva occult blood test in Japanese dental students was 13.6%, and that of Chinese dental students was 43.5%. Bleeding from gingiva as a subjective symptom was as follows: Japansese 7.6%, Chinese 37.0%. Japanese dental students brushed for 13.5 min each day. The rate for Chinese students was 4.6 min. Use of interdental devices was as follows: Japanese 33.1%, Chinese 7.6%. Differences of periodontal disease rates between Japanese and Chinese dental students are thought to be differences in oral hygiene, indicating the need for improvements in hygiene measures in Nanjing City. The establishment and strengthening of oral hygiene education, including the importance of tooth brushing for prevention of periodontal disease, has been proposed.
Full Text Available Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem.
Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D
Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.
Ward, Michael J.; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B.; Wang, Thomas J.; Speroff, Theodore; Munoz, Daniel; Dittus, Robert S.; Harrell, Frank E.; Self, Wesley H.
Lack of health insurance is associated with inter-facility transfer from emergency departments for several non-emergent conditions, but its association with transfers for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which requires timely definitive care for optimal outcomes, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether insurance status is a predictor of inter-facility transfer for emergency department visits with STEMI. We analyzed data from the 2006 through 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample examining all emergency department visits for patients age 18 years and older with a diagnosis of STEMI and a disposition of inter-facility transfer or hospitalization at the same institution. For emergency department visits with STEMI, our multivariable logistic regression model included emergency department disposition status (inter-facility transfer vs hospitalization at the same institution) as the primary outcome, and insurance status (none vs. any [including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance]) as the primary exposure. We found that among 1,377,827 emergency department STEMI visits, including 249,294 (18.1%) transfers, patients without health insurance (adjusted odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.7) were more likely to be transferred than those with insurance. Lack of health insurance status was also an independent risk factor for transfer compared to each sub-category of health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance. In conclusion, among patients presenting to United States emergency departments with STEMI, lack of insurance was an independent predictor of inter-facility transfer. In conclusion, because inter-facility transfer is associated with longer delays to definitive STEMI therapy than treatment at the same facility, lack of health insurance may lead to important health disparities among patients with STEMI. PMID:27282834
Andressa Ribeiro Contreira
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship among motor performance and nutritional status in students. Methods: Attended by 27 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 11-13 years (average 11.74 ± 0.70 years from a private school in Florianópolis/SC. The motor performance was assessed using the MABC-2. For assess the nutritional status was used the BMI calculus. Results: Among 27 participants, 6 had a risk / indicative of motor difficulties and 9 had overweight. The vast majority of participants had adequate height for age. There was negative significant statistically correlation, but moderate, among BMI and total performance in the MABC-2, indicating that as higher the BMI, worse is the motor performance. Conclusion: Based on these results and the literature, it is suggested that in addition to the identification of children with overweight and motor difficulties, programs targeted physical activity and motor interventions are implemented, especially in the school environment, aiming to maintain the health conditions.
Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical/health status of veal calves in 3 farms that adopt large group housing and automatic feeding stations in Italy. Visits were scheduled in three phases of the rearing cycle (early, middle, and end. Results showed a high incidence of coughing, skin infection and bloated rumen particularly in the middle phase while cross-sucking signs were present at the early stage when calves’ nibbling proclivity is still high. Throughout the rearing cycle, the frequency of bursitis increased reaching 53% of calves at the end. The percentage of calves with a poorer body condition than the mid-range of the batch raised gradually as well, likely due to the non-proportioned teat/calves ratio that increases competition for feed and reduces milk intake of the low ranking animals. The remarked growth differences among pen-mates and the mortality rate close to 7% showed by the use of automatic feeding devices for milk delivery seem not compensating the lower labour demand, therefore its sustainability at the present status is doubtful both for the veal calves’ welfare and the farm incomes.
James, Leonard E.; Foreman, Milton E.
This investigation was designed to evaluate the relationship of therapy technician A-B status and the outcomes of a specific behavior treatment; namely, Mowrer's conditioning paradigm for the treatment of enuresis. Results support the hypothesis that B-status technicians would be associated with higher successful outcomes than A-status…
Jessamyn Schaller; Ann Huff Stevens
Job loss in the United States is associated with long-term reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short- to medium-term changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 9800 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related measures and outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, includin...
Karacic, Silvana; Oreskovic, Stjepan
The research examines the influence of internet addiction of adolescents in Croatia and Germany and its impact on the subjective feeling of health status. The purpose of this paper is also to give insight into how the Internet addiction which is a risky health behavior affects the health status of adolescents. The excessive use of Internet is linked with the lower health status of Croatian adolescents as well as of the adolescents in Germany. Respondents are defined as students who attend school regularly ages 11-18. The modified SF-36 questionnaire and IAT for Internet addiction were used. The Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated -0.23 with N=459 and p<0.001. Accordingly, the correlation between health quality and Internet addiction is negative but statistically significant (p<0.001). There is a strong correlation between adolescents' mental health and quality of life and the level of their Internet addiction. Out of the total number of adolescents in ill-health, 39% of them are moderately or severely addicted to the Internet. 20% out of the total number of adolescents in medium health is moderate of severely addicted to the Internet. Finally, out of the total number of adolescents in good health 13% has been moderate of highly addicted to the Internet. Therefore, the better the adolescents' health, the fewer the Internet addicts. And vice versa, the worse the health, the more the Internet addicts.
Ziad D. Baghdadi
Full Text Available This comprehensive community health intervention aimed to improve the oral health and reduce the incidence of dental caries in Tabuk schoolchildren. The program supports the public health pyramid that provides a framework to improve health and included creating and evaluating a school oral health surveillance system, applying fluoride varnish and dental sealants on high- and medium-caries risk children, and providing treatment for existing diseases. In a pilot phase, 48 children (26 males 22 females; mean age 6.42; dmft 9.33, Decayed, Missing, or Filled Primary and Permanent Teeth (DMFT 3.27 received the dental services, both treatment and prevention. Three hundred seventy-eight composite resin or resin-modified light-cured glass ionomer restorations were placed. One-hundred and eighteen teeth received pulp therapy (pulpotomy or pulpectomy, ten of which received stainless steel crowns. A total of 72 teeth were extracted due to caries. To understand the effects of dental disease on children, as perceived by parents, an oral health-related quality of life survey was completed and analyzed. Results found an underestimation of the role the teeth play, particularly primary teeth, in the general health and wellbeing of the child. The program’s main evaluation effort focused on the process and outcome objectives, including the number of children received care, number of teeth received restorations and sealants, and number of children received fluoride varnish, etc. Analyzing the effect of the program on oral hygiene revealed an improvement in oral health, as a direct result of oral health educational sessions and one-to-one counseling. There is an urgent need to expand the program to include all primary schools.
Thompson, Mark G; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Naleway, Allison; Thaker, Swathi; Ball, Sarah
As part of a prospective cohort study of 1354 female and 347 male healthcare personnel, we examined the stability of subjective social status over ~7 months and the prospective association between subjective social status and self-rated health status. Most (82%) subjective social status ratings were stable (within ±1 point). Lower baseline subjective social status among healthcare personnel was associated with more subsequent reports of fatigue and headache and worsening global self-rated health status. Healthcare personnel who placed themselves on the bottom half of the subjective social status ladder were four times more likely to experience a decline in global self-rated health status and half as likely to improve to excellent self-rated health status.
Duncan, Edward; Best, Catherine; Hagen, Suzanne
One person in every four will suffer from a diagnosable mental health condition during their life course. Such conditions can have a devastating impact on the lives of the individual, their family and society. Increasingly partnership models of mental health care have been advocated and enshrined in international healthcare policy. Shared decision making is one such partnership approach. Shared decision making is a form of patient-provider communication where both parties are acknowledged to bring expertise to the process and work in partnership to make a decision. This is advocated on the basis that patients have a right to self-determination and also in the expectation that it will increase treatment adherence. To assess the effects of provider-, consumer- or carer-directed shared decision making interventions for people of all ages with mental health conditions, on a range of outcomes including: patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and health service outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1980 to November 2008), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2008), CINAHL (1982 to November 2008), British Nursing Index and Archive (1985 to November 2008) and SIGLE (1890 to September 2005 (database end date)). We also searched online trial registers and the bibliographies of relevant papers, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs); and interrupted time series (ITS) studies of interventions to increase shared decision making in people with mental health conditions (by DSM or ICD-10 criteria). Data on recruitment methods, eligibility criteria, sample characteristics, interventions, outcome measures, participant flow and outcome data from each study were extracted by one author and checked by another. Data are presented in a narrative
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.
Fujishiro, Kaori; Xu, Jun; Gong, Fang
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been widely documented. However, the role of occupation in this association is not clear because occupation is less often used than income and education as an indicator of SES, especially in the United States. This may be caused by the ambiguity in what occupation represents: both health-enhancing resources (e.g., self-affirmation) and health-damaging hazards (e.g., job stress). SES has two aspects: resources and status. While income and education represent resources and imply status, occupational prestige is an explicit indicator of the social status afforded by one's occupation. Using data from the US General Social Survey in 2002 and 2006 (n = 3151), we examine whether occupational prestige has a significant association with self-rated health independent from other SES indicators (income, education), occupational categories (e.g., managerial, professional, technical, service), and previously established work-related health determinants (job strain, work place social support, job satisfaction). After all covariates were included in the multiple logistic regression model, higher occupational prestige was associated with lower odds of reporting poor/fair self-rated health. We discuss potential mechanisms through which occupational prestige may impact health. Our findings not only suggest multiple ways that occupation is associated with health, but also highlight the utility of occupational prestige as an SES indicator that explicitly represents social standing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Stroemberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny
Aim: To explore thoughts about death