Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma
The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li
Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh
Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet
This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…
Khalaila, R N Rabia
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.
The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…
Elizabeth K. Lenz
Full Text Available Evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB negatively impacts the health of adults but less is known about SB impact on older adult (OA health. Seventy OA (73.4±6years living in the southeast region of Wisconsin, United States of America (USA completed three SB diaries and had risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD assessed. Sedentary behaviors were quantified as time spent in sitting/lying activities. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA were performed to explore the relationship between SB and health. Older adults engaged in 620.3±91.2mins/d of SB with television watching (144.3±99.8mins/d being the most prominent. Total SB and television watching were correlated to multiple risk factors for CVD (r=-.241-.415, p=.009-.027 and these variables worsened as OA spent more time in those activities. Television watching was the only SB that increased across risk categories of CVD [F (2,67 =4.158, p=.020, eta squared=.11]. These results suggest SB, especially television watching to be related to risk factors of CVD in OA.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39.4% reported to have one or more cavities, 20.3% did not brush their teeth twice or more times a day, and 30.9% had never been to a dentist (or did not know it). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, living in a lower middle income country, consumption of chocolate or candy, having made a dental care visit, and poor mental health was associated with tooth ache in the past 12 months. Being male, being 20 to 21 years old, coming from a wealthier family background, living in a lower middle income country, frequent consumption of soft drinks, not having consulted with a dentist in the past 12 months and weak beliefs in the benefits of tooth brushing were associated with inadequate tooth brushing frequency (health status and oral health behaviors were found and various risk factors identified that can be utilized to guide interventions to improve oral health programs among university students.
Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid
This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity-a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college.
Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok
This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate
Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status
Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios
The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Erginer, Derya Kayar; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The aim of this study is to determine the physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness. A descriptive research design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 115 individuals with mental illness. The Health Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was used to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviors of the participants. Of the individuals, 49.6% were found to have metabolic syndrome. Individuals with mental illness obtained the lowest score from the physical activity dimension of the scale. Individuals with mental illness need to receive education and support, especially in terms of nutrition and exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Swart, W.; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and
Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality is a global health problem, and generally occurs mainly in developing countries. The main causes of maternal mortality still include bleeding, eclampsia and infections which contribute about 60% of total maternal deaths. Interventions to reduce the number of maternal deaths is pretty much done, especially in improving the nutritional status and health behavior of pregnant women, but have not yielded optimal results. Aim: This study aimed to determine the nutritional status and health behavior of pregnant women at health centers Bontomate'ne Jeneponto. Methods: This study uses survey design analytic descriptive approach. The population was all pregnant women in the working area Bontomate'ne health center with 189 people. All the population census or taken by total sampling. Data obtained through direct interviews and observations by using a questionnaire. Results: The results showed that normal nutritional status of pregnant women as much as 85.1% and maternal nutritional status category KEK as much as 14.9%. Knowledge of pregnant women about the risk factors of maternal death, danger signs of pregnancy, the importance of antenatal care (ANC, planning a pregnancy and a safe delivery and post natal care (PNC is categorized as less as much as 90.1%, and the mother's knowledge enough category only 9.9%. Pregnant women who have a positive attitude by 71.3% and amounted to 28.7% negative. Actions poor pregnant women as much as 34.7% and the capital measures both categories as much as 65.3%. Conclusion: Nutritional status and health behavior of pregnant mothers can provide chances for the occurrence of maternal deaths. Suggested the need to conduct needs to conduct education and training to build the knowledge and experience of pregnant women about the nutritional status and health behavior was good with involving the active participation of health workers, community, family, mother and husband.
Christine E. Blake
Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.
Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang
Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p Arab nationals in the UAE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121
Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Acton, G J; Malathum, P
Health-promoting self-care behavior emphasizing positive lifestyle practices may improve the health and quality of life of adults. One variable that may influence health-related decisions is the status of basic needs as described by Maslow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among basic need satisfaction, health-promoting self-care behavior, and selected demographic variables in a sample of community-dwelling adults. A convenience sample of 84 community-dwelling adults was recruited to complete the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and demographic information. Results of the study indicated that self-actualization, physical, and love/belonging need satisfaction accounted for 64% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behavior. The findings of this study are consistent with Maslow's theory of human motivation and suggest that persons who are more fulfilled and content with themselves and their lives, have physical need satisfaction, and have positive connections with others may be able to make better decisions regarding positive health-promoting self-care behaviors.
Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out
Jung, Minsoo; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Social determinants, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity are linked to striking health disparities across the cancer continuum. One important mechanism linking social determinants and health disparities may be communication inequalities that are caused by differences in accessing, processing and utilizing cancer information. In this context, we examined health information-seeking/avoidance as a potential mediator between social determinants and self-rated health (SRH) status among cancer survivors. Data came from the 2008 well-informed, thriving and surviving (WITS) study of post-treatment cancer survivors (n=501). We examined the mediating effect of health communication-related behavior between SES and disparities in SRH. The likelihood of belonging to the Low SRH group was higher among patients who had avoided health information and whose family members had not sought health information on behalf of the survivor, those in the lowest household income bracket, and those who had high school or less education after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences in SRH among cancer survivors are associated with SES as well as communication inequalities. It is necessary to provide a supportive environment in which health information is made available if disparities in health-related quality of life among cancer survivors are to be reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke
This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.
Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon
This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.
Peter D. Hart
Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.
Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N
The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Ajibade, Phoebe Butler
This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.
Baliatsas, Christos, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamp, Irene van, E-mail: email@example.com [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, Wim, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hooiveld, Mariëtte, E-mail: email@example.com [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Yzermans, Joris, E-mail: J.Yzermans@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands)
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other
Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Swart, Wim; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Yzermans, Joris
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other
Amanda A. Price
Full Text Available Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students ( N = 61 by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...
Satia, Jessie A; Campbell, Marci K; Galanko, Joseph A; James, Aimee; Carr, Carol; Sandler, Robert S
Lifestyle changes in persons diagnosed with cancer are important because they may impact prognosis, co-morbidities, and survival. This report describes longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status among colon cancer survivors (n = 278) and population-based controls (n = 459) in North Carolina (39% African American), and examines demographic and psychosocial correlates of healthy lifestyle changes following a colon cancer diagnosis. Data are from surveys of a population-based cohort of colon cancer patients on diagnosis (the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, NCCCS) and approximately 2 years post-diagnosis [the North Carolina Strategies to Improve Diet, Exercise, and Screening Study (NC STRIDES)], and population-based controls. Both studies collected information on demographic/lifestyle characteristics and medical history. The NCCCS reflects pre-diagnosis or pre-interview patterns, whereas NC STRIDES queried on current practices. Between the NCCCS and NC STRIDES, colon cancer survivors reported significant increases in vegetable intake, physical activity, and supplement use (all P dietary supplement post-diagnosis, whereas being retired correlated with increased vegetable intake, all P Colon cancer survivors reported making significant improvements in multiple health-related behaviors. Health care providers should communicate with persons diagnosed with colon cancer to ensure that they are making healthy lifestyle changes.
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...
Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Haertel-Petri, Roland; Kesting, Marco R
Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. In cooperation with two centers for addiction medicine, we assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine users and 100 matched-pair controls between March 2012 and November 2013. We investigated their socioeconomic status, details of methamphetamine consumption behavior, collateral consumption of sugar beverages, nicotine alcohol, and other addictive substances including cannabis, opioids, other stimulants, and hallucinogens, and dental care. We found considerably greater unstable social circumstances, a high collateral consumption of substances with pathogenic potential for the stomatognathic system, and significantly poorer dental care in the methamphetamine-user group. Various factors have to be considered with regard to methamphetamine use and its influence on oral health. These factors can trigger potential damage by the drug methamphetamine possibly leading to the symptoms of "Meth Mouth", and should be considered in prevention and therapy strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery
We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…
Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators
Faleiro, Jéssica Costa; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Chor, Dóra; Chagas, Maria da Conceição Almeida
Our objective was to investigate the association between lifetime socioeconomic status and intra-generational social mobility and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking among 13,216 men and women participating in the baseline of the ELSA-Brazil study (2008-2010). Socioeconomic status in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood was measured by maternal schooling, socio-occupational class of the first occupation, and socio-occupational class of the current occupation, respectively. Social disadvantages in adulthood were consistently associated with higher prevalence of the three behaviors analyzed in men and women. However, socioeconomic status in youth and childhood was less consistently associated with the behaviors. For example, while low maternal schooling reduced the odds of past smoking (women) and current smoking (men and women), it was associated with higher odds of leisure-time physical inactivity in women. Meanwhile, low socioeconomic status in youth increased the odds of past smoking (men and women) and current smoking (women). Analysis of social trajectories lent additional support to the relevance of disadvantages in adulthood for risk behaviors, since only individuals that rose to the high socio-occupational class did not show higher odds of these behaviors when compared to participants that had always belonged to the high socio-occupational class. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic disadvantages in adulthood appear to be more relevant for risk behaviors than disadvantages in childhood and adolescence.
Andrykowski, Michael A
Identify the current physical and mental health status and health behaviors of male breast cancer survivors. Using data from the national, population-based, 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 66 cases of male breast cancer were identified (mean age = 66.2 years, mean time since diagnosis = 12.0 years). Male breast cancer cases were matched with 198 male BRFSS respondents with no history of cancer (control group) on age, education, and minority status. The male breast cancer and control groups were compared on physical and mental health status and health behaviors, using t-test and logistic regression analyses. The male breast cancer group reported poorer physical and mental health than controls. Male breast cancer survivors were significantly (p mental health (Effect Size = 0.49), and physical health (Effect Size = 0.29) were not good. In contrast, the male breast cancer and control groups were similar with regard to current health behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, and health care. The diagnosis and treatment of male breast cancer may be associated with clinically important and long-term deficits in physical and mental health status, deficits which may exceed those evidenced by long-term female breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Past surveys of sexual behavior have demonstrated that female sexual behavior is influenced by medical and sociocultural changes. To be most attentive to women and their sexual lives, it is important to have an understanding of the continually evolving sexual behaviors of contemporary women in the United States. The purpose of this study, the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), was to, in a national probability survey of women ages 18-92, assess the proportion of women in various age cohorts who had engaged in solo and partnered sexual activities in the past 90 days and to explore associations with participants' sexual behavior and their relationship and perceived health status. Past year frequencies of masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were also assessed. A national probability sample of 2,523 women ages 18 to 92 completed a cross-sectional internet based survey about their sexual behavior. Relationship status; perceived health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse in the past year. Recent solo masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among women, decreased with age, and varied in their associations with relationship and perceived health status. Recent anal sex and same-sex oral sex were uncommonly reported. Solo masturbation was most frequent among women ages 18 to 39, vaginal intercourse was most frequent among women ages 18 to 29 and anal sex was infrequently reported. Contemporary women in the United States engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual activities, though sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O
Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Simsek, Hatice; Doganay, Sinem; Budak, Refik; Ucku, Reyhan
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of socioeconomic status on health behaviors and perceived health. The present cross-sectional study included 2947 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older. Dependent variables were health behaviors and self-perceived health. The independent variable was socioeconomic status. In men, the risk of unhealthy diet was higher among the uneducated group (OR 4.48) and among those with poor/very poor economic status (OR 3.31). Additionally, in men, having poor/very poor self-perceived health was found to be 3.50-fold significantly higher among the uneducated group than the secondary school and higher-educated group. Lower education level and lower social class were found to be protective factors for smoking in women. In women, the risk of unhealthy diet was found to be 1.54- and 2.18-fold significantly higher, respectively, among those who graduated from primary school and uneducated. There was also a relationship between poor/very poor economic status and unhealthy diet among elderly women (OR 2.80). In women, the risk of physical inactivity was found to be 1.98-fold significantly higher in the uneducated group and 1.79-fold significantly higher in those with poor/very poor economic status, 0.33-fold significantly lower in skilled employees/white collar workers. With regard to self-perceived health status, education level and perceived economic status were significantly related to poor/very poor health status in women (OR 2.09 and OR 4.08, respectively). In older men and women, lower socioeconomic status increases the risk of unhealthy diet and poor health perception. In older women, lower socioeconomic status is a protective factor for smoking, but it also increases physical inactivity. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
DiBello, Angelo M.; Benz, Madeline B.; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.
Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. Participants: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% females) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. Methods: Participants answered questions about…
Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.
Ravaghi, Vahid; Underwood, Martin; Marinho, Valeria; Eldridge, Sandra
This study investigated health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes among adolescents. The role of oral health behaviors and psychological factors in explaining oral health inequality was investigated using the hypothesis of mediation. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-completed questionnaires. This study sampled 639 (315 male and 324 female) 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (second and third grade high school students) of both sexes in the city of Sanandaj in the province of Kurdistan, western Iran. Socioeconomic indicators of the study were subjective socioeconomic status, wealth index, and parental education. Oral health behaviors were measured as toothbrushing frequency, dental flossing frequency, and dental visits. Psychological factors were self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Self-reported oral health outcomes were single item self-rated oral health and the experience of dental pain. Regression analysis was used to test four conditions for the hypothesis of mediation. The results showed that the inequality is present in oral health for some pairs of relationships between socioeconomic status and oral health outcomes. Adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors, individually and simultaneously, led to loss of statistical significance for some pairs of the relationships. However, adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors led to only small changes in the associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study found a graded oral health inequality, but no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that oral health behaviors and psychological factors mediate oral health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark
The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.
Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Flaherty, Sean; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Chase, Gary A; Weisman, Carol S; Dyer, Anne-Marie
We performed one of the first systematic, population-based surveys of women in Amish culture. We used these data to examine health status and health risks in a representative sample of 288 Amish women ages 18-45 living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in particular for risks associated with preterm and low birthweight infants, compared with a general population sample of 2,002 women in Central Pennsylvania. Compared with women in the general population, Amish women rated their physical health approximately at the same level, but reported less stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and had higher aggregate scores for mental health. Amish women reported low levels of intimate partner violence, high levels of social support, and they perceived low levels of unfair treatment owing to gender compared with the general population. Amish women also reported higher fertility, fewer low birthweight babies, but the same number of preterm births as the general population. The findings suggest that these outcomes may be due to higher levels of social support and better preconceptional behavior among Amish women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and mental health is important for coping with the high requirements of medical studies that are associated with a higher risk for severe stress, insomnia, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and easier access to drugs. Health behaviors of medical students influence not just their own health but also the health of their future patients. We examined whether socio-cultural factors can explain differences in students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey in Germany (Dresden, Munich and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs enclosed international medical students in their 1st, 3rd and 5th academic years. The students were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete a questionnaire on different aspects of health behavior during obligatory seminars and lectures in 2014. The response rate of the total sample was 56.2 % (n = 2935; the subgroup analysis enclosed data of German (n = 1289, Hungarian (n = 1057 and Norwegian (n = 148 students. Results A high number of Norwegian students (84.5 % assessed their health status as very good/excellent. In comparison, only 60.3 % of the Hungarian and 70.7 % of the German participants reported a very good/excellent health status. The distributions were comparable between the study sites. Although gender, financial situation and nationality were significant health status predictors, they could explain only 8.2 % of the total variance of health status in the multivariable model. A comparably high number of Hungarian students (95.3 % vs. 67.4 % German and 56.7 % Norwegian reported that they can currently do a lot/very much for their health. In contrast, a significant number of Norwegians (73.0 % vs. 63.7 % Hungarian and 51.5 % German reported that they currently do a lot/very much for their health (chi2-test, p ≤ 0.001. Financial situation, study site and study year were the strongest predictors for health
Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.
Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Ashbolt, Rosie; Green, Julie; Calache, Hanny; Keith, Benedict; Riggs, Elisha; Waters, Elizabeth
This study sought to advance understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on oral health by examining how parental self-efficacy (with regard to acting on their child's oral health needs) and oral health knowledge relate to parental and child oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Parents of children in grades 0/1 and 5/6 (n = 804) and children in grades 5/6 (n = 377, mean age 11.5 ± 1.0, 53.9% female) were recruited from a stratified random sample of 11 primary (elementary) schools. Participants completed surveys capturing psychosocial factors, oral health-related knowledge, and parental attitudes about oral health. Parents also rated their own oral health status and the oral health of their child. Correlations and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for socioeconomic status, child age, and gender) examined associations between psychosocial factors and the outcomes of interest (parent and child behaviors and self-rated oral health status). Higher parental self-efficacy was associated with more frequent toothbrushing (by parent and child), and more frequent visits to a dental professional. These associations were particularly strong with regard to dental visits for children, with parents with the highest tertile for self-efficacy 4.3 times more likely to report that their child attended a dentist for a checkup at least once a year (95%CI 2.52-7.43); and 3 times more likely to report their child brushing their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.04, 95%CI 1.64-5.64) compared with those parents in the lowest tertile for self-efficacy. No associations with oral health knowledge were found when examined by tertile of increasing knowledge. Oral health self-efficacy and knowledge are potentially modifiable risk factors of oral health outcomes, and these findings suggest that intervening on these factors could help foster positive dental health habits in families. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin
Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. Material and methods: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index, for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05. The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman’s rank. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.
Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke
mass index (BMI), depression symptoms, self-rated health, cognitive function, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: Among all 2350 individual twins, men who were divorced/widowed or never married had higher depression scores, lower cognitive test scores, lower physical activity....../widowed twin had higher average depression scores and was more likely to be a smoker. Never married twins had lower physical activity scores and never married male twins had higher BMI and higher depression scores than their married co-twin. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the relationships of adult...... divorce with depression and smoking in Danish twins are due to the stressful effects of marital dissolution, but that marital differences in other health and behavioral outcomes are most consistent with selection effects related to genetic or rearing environmental factors....
Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K
The aim of this study was to assess differences in self-reported health status, body mass index (BMI), and healthy lifestyle behaviors between Baby Boomer and Generation X faculty and staff at a southeastern university. Data were drawn from employee health risk assessment and BMI measures. A total of 730 Baby Boomer and 765 Generation X employees enrolled in a university health promotion and screening program were included in the study. Ordered logistic regressions were calculated separately for BMI, perceived health status, and three healthy lifestyle behaviors. After covariates such as job role, gender, race, education, and income were controlled, Baby Boomers were more likely than Generation X employees to report better health status and dietary habits. Baby Boomers were also more likely to engage in weekly aerobic physical activity (p generational differences when developing health promotion programs. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Harvey, Lisa; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Terry, Paul
To test whether changes in the patient activation measure (PAM) are related to changes in health status and healthy behaviors. Data for this secondary analysis were taken from a group-randomized, controlled trial comparing a traditional health promotion program for employees with an activated consumer program and a control program. The study population included 320 employees (with and without chronic disease) from two U.S. companies: a large, integrated health care system and a national airline. Survey and biometric data were collected in Spring 2005 (baseline) and Spring 2007 (follow-up). Change in PAM was associated with changes in health behaviors at every level (1-4), especially at level 4. Changes related to overall risk score and many of its components: aerobic exercise, safety, cancer risk, stress and mental health. Other changes included frequency of eating breakfast and the likelihood of knowing about health plans and how they compare. Level 4 of patient activation is not an end-point. People are capable of continuing to make significant change within this level. Interventions should be designed to encourage movement from lower to higher levels of activation. Even people at the most activated level improve health behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.
Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi
To investigate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behavior of computer professionals, we conducted a web-based investigation with Japanese IT-related company employees in 53 company unions. The questionnaire consisted of individual attributes, employment characteristics, working hour characteristics, company size and profitability, personal characteristics (i.e., Growth Need Strength), micro and macro stressors scale, and four outcome scales concerning the subjective health status and productive behavior. We obtained 1,049 Japanese IT-related company employees' data (response rate: 66%), and analyzed the data of computer engineers (80%; n=871). The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that each full model explained 23% in psychological distress, 20% in cumulative fatigue, 44% in job dissatisfaction, and 35% in intentions to leave, respectively. In micro stressors, "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. Furthermore, in macro stressors, "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of productive behavior as well. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors will enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behavior of computer professionals in Japan.
Warren, Charlotte; Abuya, Timothy; Obare, Francis; Sunday, Joseph; Njue, Rebecca; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben
Alternatives to the traditional 'supply-side' approach to financing service delivery are being explored. These strategies are termed results-based finance, demand-side health financing or output-based aid which includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that, they can increase access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in Kenya. A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level; and assessing the effect of vouchers on increasing access to, and quality of, and reducing inequities in the use of selected reproductive health services. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive health age using facilities and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in samples of health facilities - public, private and faith-based in: three districts; Kisumu, Kiambu, Kitui and two informal settlements in Nairobi which are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers for the services; and compared with a matched sample of non-accredited facilities. Health facility assessments (HFA) will be conducted at two stages to track temporal changes in quality of care and utilization. Facility inventories, structured observations, and
Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash
The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vozza, Iole; Capasso, Francesca; Marrese, Elisa; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of parents and caregivers about potential oral health risk factors for their children in their first months of life (3-30 months). The participation to the survey was proposed to all parents or caregivers of children attending the public consulting service in Latina for mandatory vaccinations during the period of June to August 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed to obtain information regarding demographic variables, infant feeding practice, maternal oral health during and after pregnancy, children's oral hygiene habits and risk behaviors (e.g., sharing cutlery, tasting of baby food, nightly using of baby bottles with sugared beverages, or sugared pacifier), and knowledge about caries and its transmission. The analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The variance analysis and chi-square test were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Overall, the parents of 304 children consented to fill the questionnaire. Data analysis showed that about 50% of respondents considered dental caries an infectious disease, however, 53.6% was not aware of the potential vertical transmissibility of cariogenic bacteria through contaminated saliva. It is a common trend in the early stages of weaning to taste the baby food (53%) and sharing cutlery (38.5%). With regard to children oral health care, parents reported no toothbrushing for 53.1% of the children in their first 3 years of life. The relationship between the two variables concerning caries transmissibility and tools sharing carried out on through Pearson chi-square test identified P = 0.32. From this survey, the need for parental oral health promoting program emerged to control children oral health risk status.
Kim, Jin Ah; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Seo, Yunhee; Kang, Dae Ryong
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among obesity, family socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors, and dental caries and to identify possible differences in factors related with dental caries according to gender among a representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2010 and 2012. This nationally representative cross-sectional survey included approximately 10,000 individuals, including adolescents, each year as a survey sample, and collected information on socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, quality of life, healthcare utilization, anthropometric measures, biochemical and clinical profiles for non-communicable diseases, and dietary intake via three component surveys (health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey). The health interview and health examination were conducted by trained staff members. A total of 1646 adolescents of ages 13 to 18 years old were included in this study; there were 879 males and 767 females. Data were analyzed by t-test, X 2 -test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using SAS 9.4 and 'R' statistical software for Windows to account for the complex sampling design. In males, significant associations between family income and dental caries on permanent teeth were noted after adjusting for confounding variables; the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals thereof were 0.43(0.24-0.76), 0.41(0.24-0.70), and 0.28(0.16-0.49) for low-middle, middle-high, and high family income, respectively. Smoking experience showed a significant association with dental caries on permanent teeth in females. Oral health behaviors, such as tooth brushing frequency, were associated with dental caries in only male adolescents. There was no association between obesity and dental caries on permanent teeth in either male or female adolescents. The present study demonstrated that
Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M
Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…
Choi, Namkee G; Bohman, Thomas M
This study examined the unique effects of four variable groups on changes in older adults' depressive symptoms for a 2-year period: (1) baseline health and disability status, (2) changes in health and disability since baseline, (3) stability and changes in marital and caregiving status and in work and volunteering, and (4) stability and changes in health-related behaviors. With data from the 1998 and 2000 interview waves of the Health and Retirement Study, the authors used gender-separate multistep (hierarchical) residualized regression analyses in which the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score at follow-up is modeled as a function of the effect of each group of independent variables. As hypothesized, changes in health, disability, marital, and caregiving status explained a larger amount of variance than the existing and stable conditions, although each group of variables explained a relatively small amount (0.3-3.4%) of variance in the follow-up CES-D score.
Arun Singh Thakur
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.
Hoffman, Steven J; Mansoor, Yasmeen; Natt, Navneet; Sritharan, Lathika; Belluz, Julia; Caulfield, Timothy; Freedhoff, Yoni; Lavis, John N; Sharma, Arya M
Celebrities are highly influential people whose actions and decisions are watched and often emulated by wide audiences. Many celebrities have used their prominent social standing to offer medical advice or endorse health products, a trend that is expected to increase. However, the extent of the impact that celebrities have in shaping the public's health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and status is unclear. This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Which health-related outcomes are influenced by celebrities? (2) How large of an impact do celebrities actually have on these health-related outcomes? (3) Under what circumstances do celebrities produce either beneficial or harmful impacts? Ten databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, Communication Complete, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, Journals @ Scholars Portal, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I. Two reviewers conducted title and abstract screening and full-text screening to identify primary studies that employed empirical methods (either quantitative or qualitative) to examine celebrities' impact on health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, or status outcomes. The results of this review will contribute to our understanding of celebrity influences and how to design positive evidence-based celebrity health promotion activities. In addition, these findings can help inform the development of media reporting guidelines pertaining to celebrity health news and provide guidance to public health authorities on whether and how to respond to or work with celebrities. PROSPERO CRD42015019268.
Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; White, Adrienne A; Brown, Onikia; Colby, Sarah; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kidd, Tanda; Greene, Geoffrey
To examine relationships of sleep, eating, and exercise behaviors; work time pressures; and sociodemographic characteristics by weight status (healthy weight [body mass index or BMI universities. Enrolled college students (N = 1252; 18-24 years; 80% white; 59% female). Survey included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI), National Cancer Institute Fruit/Vegetable Screener, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Work Time Pressure items, and sociodemographic characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests determined significant bivariate associations of sociodemographics, sleep behaviors, eating behaviors, physical activity behavior, and work time pressures with weight status (i.e., healthy vs. overweight/obese). Statistically significant bivariate associations with weight status were then entered into a multivariate logistic regression model that estimated associations with being overweight/obese. Sex (female), race (nonwhite), older age, higher Global PSQI score, lower ecSI total score, and higher TFEQ Emotional Eating Scale score were significantly (p obesity in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sex (female; odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-2.74), older age (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.21-1.50), higher Global PSQI score (OR = 1.07, CI = 1.01-1.13), and lower ecSI score (OR = .96, CI = .94-.98), were significantly (p obesity. Findings suggest that obesity prevention interventions for college students should include an education component to emphasize the importance of overall sleep quality and improving eating competence.
El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad
University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989
BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia
Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556
Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley
The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity (PA forms the basis for healthy growth and development. High volume of sedentary behavior (SB on the other hand is harmful for health. The purpose of the study was to describe objectively measured PA and SB in Finnish school children. Furthermore, the study aimed at analyzing the association between PA, SB and perceived health status. Methods The participants of this cross-sectional study were 7- to 14-year-old girls and boys (n = 1029, whose PA and SB during waking hours were measured with Hookie AM 20-accelerometer (Traxmeet Ltd, Espoo, Finland for seven days. Perceived health status was assessed by a questionnaire. Association between PA, SB and health status was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using SPSS (Inc, Chicago IL. Results Participants (age 10.3 ± 1.9, 52 % girls with sufficient accelerometer data (at least 4 days with ≥ 10 h/day were included into the study (n = 851, 88 %. The average measurement time was 13 h 27 min per day. Participants spent on average 54 % (7 h 18 min of waking hours sedentary, mainly sitting. They stood still on average 9 % of the time (1 h 15 min. Light PA covered on average 18 % (2 h 24 min and moderate-to-vigorous PA 19 % (2 h 30 min. Younger participants and boys were more active than the older ones and girls. Most (63 % of the participants perceived their health status as excellent. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis greater sedentary time decreased the odds for excellent perceived health status (p = 0.001. In contrast higher number of steps per day (p = 0.019 increased the odds. Conclusions Participants spent over half of their waking hours sedentary. Less SB and more steps were associated with excellent perceived health. There is a need for dose-response analyses between objectively measured PA and SB and specific health outcomes in children and adolescents. Also patterns of objectively measured
Das, Kirti V; Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A
The study examines the connections between minority status, park use behavior, and park-related perceptions using recent survey data from three low-income neighborhoods in Minneapolis, MN. Blacks and foreign-born residents are found to underutilize parks. Blacks, Asians, and American Indians perceive fewer health benefits of parks than whites, including the benefits of parks for providing exercise/relaxation opportunities and family gathering spaces. Foreign-born residents, blacks, and Hispanics perceive greater and unique barriers to park use in terms of not feeling welcome, cultural and language restrictions, program schedule and pricing concerns, and/or facility maintenance and mismatch concerns. When designing park strategies for addressing health disparities, we recommend to focus the efforts on increasing awareness of park-related health benefits and removing specific park use barriers among minority and foreign-born communities.
Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To explore the association among HIV status; negative psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and hostility; and risky sexual behaviors (multiple sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse in a Chilean sample of men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods This study had a cross-sectional design and a sample of 325 MSM whose ages ranged from 18 to 64 years (mean: 30.8; standard deviation: 9.8. Association tests (chi-squared and group mean comparisons (Student’s t-tests and F-tests were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were found for condom use or for the number of sexual partners between HIV-positive men and those who are not infected. In both groups, about 50% reported sexual encounters without condom use in the past six months. There were statistically significant differences in symptoms associated with depression between the two groups. Conclusions These results reveal the need to strengthen messages about the importance of condom use, as the only way to prevent HIV, and as a means of preventing HIV infection and reinfection, in national prevention and self-care programs for sexually active subjects. More studies are needed in Latin America to advance HIV prevention efforts for the MSM population. The data generated by this study can be used to inform the development of HIV prevention programming strategies and interventions targeting the MSM population in Latin America.
Riley, Elise D; Neilands, Torsten B; Moore, Kelly; Cohen, Jennifer; Bangsberg, David R; Havlir, Diane
Previous studies indicate multiple influences on the overall health of HIV-infected persons; however, few assess and rank longitudinal changes in social and structural barriers that are disproportionately found in impoverished populations. We empirically ranked factors that longitudinally impact the overall health status of HIV-infected homeless and unstably housed men. Between 2002 and 2008, a cohort of 288 HIV+ homeless and unstably housed men was recruited and followed over time. The population was 60% non-Caucasian and the median age was 41 years; 67% of study participants reported recent drug use and 20% reported recent homelessness. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was 349 cells/µl and 18% of eligible persons (CD4effects of behavioral, social, and structural factors on overall physical and mental health status (measured by the SF-36), and targeted variable importance (tVIM) was used to empirically rank factors by their influence. After adjusting for confounding, and in order of their influence, the three factors with the strongest negative effects on physical health were unmet subsistence needs, Caucasian race, and no reported source of instrumental support. The three factors with the strongest negative effects on mental health were unmet subsistence needs, not having a close friend/confidant, and drug use. ART adherence >90% ranked 5th for its positive influence on mental health, and viral load ranked 4th for its negative influence on physical health. The inability to meet food, hygiene, and housing needs was the most powerful predictor of poor physical and mental health among homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men in an urban setting. Impoverished persons will not fully benefit from progress in HIV medicine until these barriers are overcome, a situation that is likely to continue fueling the US HIV epidemic.
Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M
Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.
Charkhchi, Paniz; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C
The proportion of the United States population with chronic illness continues to rise. Understanding the determinants of quality of care-particularly social determinants-is critical to the provision of care in this population. To estimate the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among persons with common chronic conditions and to assess the independent effects of chronic illness and sociodemographic characteristics on (1) housing and food insecurity, and (2) health care access hardship and health status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the 11 states and one territory that completed the social context module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We estimated the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among patients with cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of housing and food insecurity, chronic conditions, and demographics on health care access and health status. Among the chronically ill, 36.71% (95% CI: 35.54-37.88) experienced housing insecurity and 30.60% (95% CI: 29.49-31.71) experienced food insecurity. Cardiovascular and lung disease increased the likelihood of housing (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.66 and OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12-2.60, respectively) and food insecurity (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.73 and OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.20-2.63, respectively). Housing and food insecurity significantly increased the risk of health care access hardship. Being insured or having an income level above 200% of the federal poverty level significantly reduced the likelihood of access hardship, while female gender significantly increased the likelihood. Chronic illness independently affects housing and food insecurity. In turn, food and housing anxiety leads to reduced access to care, likely due to cost concerns, and correlates with poorer health. A more complete understanding of the pathways by which chronic illness influences social determinants and
Jun 15, 1991 ... and measles is an important preventive health care strategy. I. In southern Africa, recent ... on pr~vious in-depth investigations. The reasons for ..... of the recent M immunisation campaign in Cape Town/ coupled with access to ...
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Rambousková, Jolana; Dlouhý, Pavel; Krízová, Eva; Procházka, Bohumír; Hrncírová, Dana; Andel, Michal
To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum. 76 Roma mothers and 151 mothers from the majority population. Infant length/weight; maternal height/weight; weight gain during pregnancy; duration of pregnancy; maternal smoking habits; dietary intake; use of food supplements during pregnancy; and maternal blood levels of folate, beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol. Comparison of ethnic groups by 2-sample Wilcoxon test, chi-square, Fischer's exact test, relative risk, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Pregnancy duration was about 1 week shorter in Roma women (P nutritional status of Roma mothers is worse than that of mothers from the majority Czech population. The dietary and smoking habits of pregnant Roma women should be of special concern to family doctors, obstetricians, nutrition educators, and social workers.
Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen
Millions of people surf the Internet every day as a source of health-care information looking for materials about symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and their possible adverse effects, or diagnostic procedures. Google is the most popular search engine and is used by patients and physicians to search for online health-related information. This study aimed to evaluate changes in Google search behavior occurring in English-speaking countries over time for the term "status epilepticus" (SE). Using Google Trends, data on global search queries for the term SE between the 1st of January 2004 and 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Search volume numbers over time (downloaded as CSV datasets) were analyzed by applying the "health" category filter. The research trends for the term SE remained fairly constant over time. The greatest search volume for the term SE was reported in the United States, followed by India, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Thailand, and Germany. Most terms associated with the search queries were related to SE definition, symptoms, subtypes, and treatment. The volume of searches for some queries (nonconvulsive, focal, and refractory SE; SE definition; SE guidelines; SE symptoms; SE management; SE treatment) was enormously increased over time (search popularity has exceeded a 5000% growth since 2004). Most people use search engines to look for the term SE to obtain information on its definition, subtypes, and management. The greatest search volume occurred not only in developed countries but also in developing countries where raising awareness about SE still remains a challenging task and where there is reduced public knowledge of epilepsy. Health information seeking (the extent to which people search for health information online) reflects the health-related information needs of Internet users for a specific disease. Google Trends shows that Internet users have a great demand for information concerning some aspects of SE
Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina
Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.
Choi, Y H; Kim, M S; Byon, Y S; Won, J S
This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practitioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonla Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climatization functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows: 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a Cronbach = 0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status; physical health status was the
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.
Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A
Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein
Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A
The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.
Conard, Mark W
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.
Proctor, Susan P
.... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...
Sano, Akane; Taylor, Sara; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Barger, Laura K; Klerman, Elizabeth; Picard, Rosalind
Wearable and mobile devices that capture multimodal data have the potential to identify risk factors for high stress and poor mental health and to provide information to improve health and well-being. We developed new tools that provide objective physiological and behavioral measures using wearable sensors and mobile phones, together with methods that improve their data integrity. The aim of this study was to examine, using machine learning, how accurately these measures could identify conditions of self-reported high stress and poor mental health and which of the underlying modalities and measures were most accurate in identifying those conditions. We designed and conducted the 1-month SNAPSHOT study that investigated how daily behaviors and social networks influence self-reported stress, mood, and other health or well-being-related factors. We collected over 145,000 hours of data from 201 college students (age: 18-25 years, male:female=1.8:1) at one university, all recruited within self-identified social groups. Each student filled out standardized pre- and postquestionnaires on stress and mental health; during the month, each student completed twice-daily electronic diaries (e-diaries), wore two wrist-based sensors that recorded continuous physical activity and autonomic physiology, and installed an app on their mobile phone that recorded phone usage and geolocation patterns. We developed tools to make data collection more efficient, including data-check systems for sensor and mobile phone data and an e-diary administrative module for study investigators to locate possible errors in the e-diaries and communicate with participants to correct their entries promptly, which reduced the time taken to clean e-diary data by 69%. We constructed features and applied machine learning to the multimodal data to identify factors associated with self-reported poststudy stress and mental health, including behaviors that can be possibly modified by the individual to improve
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with behavioral health measure data. VHA reports data on a set of core performance measures for Hospital-Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services...
Jan 31, 2014 ... High blood pressure and abnormal body mass have been observed to correlate negatively with health status. Of interest in this study, is the impact such health status have on visual function indicated by near point of convergence. In this community based cross sectional study, 250 randomly selected ...
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.
PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Elise D Riley
Full Text Available Previous studies indicate multiple influences on the overall health of HIV-infected persons; however, few assess and rank longitudinal changes in social and structural barriers that are disproportionately found in impoverished populations. We empirically ranked factors that longitudinally impact the overall health status of HIV-infected homeless and unstably housed men.Between 2002 and 2008, a cohort of 288 HIV+ homeless and unstably housed men was recruited and followed over time. The population was 60% non-Caucasian and the median age was 41 years; 67% of study participants reported recent drug use and 20% reported recent homelessness. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was 349 cells/µl and 18% of eligible persons (CD490% ranked 5th for its positive influence on mental health, and viral load ranked 4th for its negative influence on physical health.The inability to meet food, hygiene, and housing needs was the most powerful predictor of poor physical and mental health among homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men in an urban setting. Impoverished persons will not fully benefit from progress in HIV medicine until these barriers are overcome, a situation that is likely to continue fueling the US HIV epidemic.
Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon
We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)
Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Shinada, Kayoko; Wright, Fredrick A C; Kawaguchi, Yoko
This study aims to analyse the relationship between seven health practices, oral health behaviors, and oral health status in community dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8 ± 5.9 years). Questionnaires survey about sociodemographics, self-reported seven health practices and oral health behaviors were conducted by trained interviewers. Oral examinations investigated the number of teeth present, decayed teeth, periodontal status and functional tooth units (FTUs). Oral malodor was assessed by Organoleptic Test, and unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Five health practices (smoking, drinking, physical activity, breakfast and weight maintenance) were significantly related with oral health behaviors. ancova analysis demonstrated the following significant associations: (i) smoking behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (ii) drinking alcohol behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iii) eating breakfast behavior with periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iv) eating between-meal snack with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth and periodontal disease, (v) maintaining weight with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease and oral malodor, (vi) sleeping with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (vii) physical activity with periodontal disease and salivary flow rate. Good health practices were related with good oral health behaviors. Moreover, general health practices were associated with the clinical oral health status such as number of teeth present, decayed teeth, FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate. The elderly with good general health practices were considered to have good oral health status. Improving general health
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Wolitski, Richard J; Pals, Sherri L; Kidder, Daniel P; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Holtgrave, David R
HIV-related stigma negatively affects the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA experience myriad challenges and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV-related stigma. Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA from 3 U.S. cities (N = 637) completed computer-assisted interviews that measured demographics, self-assessed physical and mental health, medical utilization, adherence, HIV disclosure, and risk behaviors. Internal and perceived external HIV stigma were assessed and combined for a total stigma score. Higher levels of stigma were experienced by women, homeless participants, those with a high school education or less, and those more recently diagnosed with HIV. Stigma was strongly associated with poorer self-assessed physical and mental health, and perceived external stigma was associated with recent non-adherence to HIV treatment. Perceived external stigma was associated with decreased HIV disclosure to social network members, and internal stigma was associated with drug use and non-disclosure to sex partners. Interventions are needed to reduce HIV-related stigma and its effects on the health of homeless/unstably housed PLWHA.
De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira
Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine
The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experienc...
Background: A good school health programme is necessary to optimize the educational opportunities and make appropriate adjustments for optimal development of the school child. This study was done to determine some haematological parameters as a correlate of health status of new entrants in two mission owned ...
Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates behavioral economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses behavioral health from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method Firstly, NeM is used as framework...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... mechanism. In this case neuroeconomics may serve as an evidence-based public monitoring across specific historical meditation settings. Conclusion Neuroeconomics reveal the action-mechanism of dominant behavioral health interventions as integrated home care for patients suffering from stroke, heart failure...
Mayer, Gregory Lee
It was the goal of this study to examine the ecological validity of a number of measures of mental status for geriatric individuals. Subjects were 40 alert, ambulatory male VA patients. Mental status instruments included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS-R. Measures of functional behavior included the Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Parachek Geriatric Behavior Rating Scale (PGBRS). Sig...
Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…
Jarron M. Saint Onge
Full Text Available Existing research that studies individual health behaviors and conceive of behaviors as simplistically reflecting narrow intentions toward health may obscure the social organization of health behaviors. Instead, we examine how eight health behaviors group together to form distinct health behavior niches. Using nationally-representative data from U.S. adults aged 18 and over from the 2004–2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, we use Latent Class Analysis to identify classes of behavior based on smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, physician visits, and flu vaccination. We identify 7 distinct health behavior classes including concordant health promoting (44%, concordant health compromising (26%, and discordant classes (30%. We find significant race/ethnic, sex, regional, and age differences in class membership. We show that health behavior classes are associated with prospective mortality, suggesting that they are valid representations of health lifestyles. We discuss the implications of our results for sociological theories of health behaviors, as well as for multiple behavior interventions seeking to improve population health.
P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav
Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297
Connop, P J
Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.
Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva
The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates
Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan
Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...
Iqbal, S.; Qureshi, A.; Iqbal, N.; Khan, A.A.
Diabetes causes numerous oral and salivary changes leading to cariogenic and gingival lesions. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of diabetes mellitus in oral health. A cross-sectional study including 60 diabetic children (case group) and 30 non diabetic children (control group) of age 3-14 years was conducted. HbA1c and blood glucose level was measured along with the oral health including gingival status and dental caries status was visually assessed. Gingival status was coded for healthy, marginal gingivitis and calculus. Dental caries status (decayed and filled) for both deciduous and permanent dentition was assessed. Data was recorded in a pre-coded oral health proforma, which was then entered and analyzed in SPSS version 10.0. Descriptive analysis such as percentage frequencies and means was performed. Exact Chi-square test was used to analyze any significant changes observed amongst the study population, where level of significance was p < 0.05 with confidence interval 95%. The results show important difference between both groups of children. Dental caries level is significantly higher in diabetic children both in deciduous and permanent dentition than in non-diabetic children (p <0.05). Gingival health was also observed to be debilitated in diabetic children than nondiabetic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights that special preventive measures must be adopted to maintain a good oral health of the diabetic children. (author)
Green, L W
The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.
Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…
While it is well documented that economic expansions provide widespread and immediate financial benefits, the evidence on how an economic downturn affects individual's health behaviors is surprisingly mixed. In this paper, we take a structural approach to investigate the effects of wages and working hours on health behaviors of low-educated persons using variations in wages and hours caused by changes in local economic activity. In the empirical analysis, we adopt a two-sample instrumental variables approach to combine the data on individual health behaviors from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with the data on individual employment from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The total sample size of the combined CPS-BRFSS data for the time period of 1984-2005 is 967,594, while that of the combined CPS-NHIS data for the time period of 1976-2001 is 364,078. We find that increases in wages caused by economic expansions are associated with greater consumption of cigarettes in the United States. We also find that increases in hours of work caused by economic expansions are associated with more cigarette consumption, but less physical activity and physician visits. More importantly, the evidence suggests that most of such effects associated with changes in hours of work can be attributed to the changes at the extensive margin of employment, meaning the changes in employment status, rather than the changes at the intensive margin, meaning changes in hours of work conditional on being employed. These findings imply that changes in employment may have heterogeneous impacts on time-intensive and less time-intensive health behaviors and also provide additional evidence on the importance of time in health production, particularly for time-intensive activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fultz, Dwight E.
There appears to be no dominant conceptual model for the process and outcomes of neurofeedback among practitioners or manufacturers. Behaviorists are well-positioned to develop a neuroscience-based source code in which neural activity is described in behavioral terms, providing a basis for behavioral conceptualization and education of…
Ferrer, R; Palmer, R
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD
Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.
affiliative bonding. One psychiatric illness which manifests itself in social structural relationships in a profound was is sociopathic behavior. By the...very nature of the sociopathic individual, persons with the disorder display altered social behavior (Robins, 1966). The question as to whether such...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. Goldman, H., Lindner, L., Dinitz, S., and Allen, H. The simple sociopath : Physiologic and sociologic
Full Text Available Economic status played an important role in the modulation of economic decision making. The present fMRI study aimed at investigating how economic status modulated behavioral and neural responses to unfairness in a modified Ultimatum Game (UG. During scanning, participants played as responders in the UG, and they were informed of the economic status of proposers before receiving offers. At the behavioral level, higher rejection rates and lower fairness ratings were revealed when proposers were in high economic status than in low economic status. Besides, the most time-consuming decisions tended to occur at lower unfairness level when the proposers were in high (relative to low economic status. At the neural level, stronger activation of left thalamus was revealed when fair offers were proposed by proposers in high rather than in low economic status. Greater activation of right medial prefrontal cortex was revealed during acceptance to unfair offers in high economic status condition rather than in low economic status condition. Taken together, these findings shed light on the significance of proposers’ economic status in responders’ social decision making in UG.
Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua
A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294
Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M
Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.
Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz
Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.
.... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...
Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.
Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373
van den Hurk, Katja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; Prinsze, Femmeke J.; Merz, Eva-Maria; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.
In donor health research, the 'Healthy Donor Effect' (HDE) often biases study results and hampers their interpretation. This refers to the fact that donors are a selected 'healthier' subset of a population due to both donor selection procedures and self-selection. Donors with long versus short donor
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K
Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.
reducing cost, disability and death from diseases. (2). However, good health ... The Health Belief Model where the concept is the 'perceived susceptibility', which refers ... behavioral intentions and actions (6). ... integrated behavioral model.
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A
Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....
Harris, Jeffrey R; Huang, Yi; Hannon, Peggy A; Williams, Barbara
To help workplace health promotion practitioners reach low-socioeconomic status workers at high risk for chronic diseases. We describe low-socioeconomic status workers' diseases, health status, demographics, risk behaviors, and workplaces, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workers with household annual incomes less than $35,000, or a high school education or less, report more chronic diseases and lower health status. They tend to be younger, nonwhite, and have much higher levels of smoking and missed cholesterol screening. They are concentrated in the smallest and largest workplaces and in three low-wage industries that employ one-quarter of the population. To decrease chronic diseases among low-socioeconomic status workers, we need to focus workplace health promotion programs on workers in low-wage industries and small workplaces.
Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502
Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan
Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217
M. Yu. Arkhipova
Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.
Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan
Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.
Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G
The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.
Lum, O M
The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.
Youn Ho Shin
Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (nonwhite, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan
Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…
Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Daumit, Gail L.; LiJuan, Fang; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wohlheiter, Karen; Dixon, Lisa B.
We examined indices of the health of persons with serious mental illness. A sample of 100 adults with schizophrenia and 100 with major mood disorder were recruited from randomly selected outpatients who were receiving community-based psychiatric treatment. Participants were surveyed about health indicators using items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III and the National Health Interview Survey. Their responses were compared with those of matched samples from the general population surveys. A total of 1% of persons with serious mental illness, compared with 10% from the general population sample, met criteria for all 5 of selected health indicators: nonsmoker, exercise that meets recommended standards, good dentition, absence of obesity, and absence of serious medical co-occurring illness. Within the mentally ill group, educational level, but not a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus mood disorder, was independently associated with a composite measure of health behaviors. We conclude that an examination of multiple health indicators may be used to measure overall health status in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:16469943
Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K
To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fox, Rebecca A; Ladage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V
Individual variation in stable behavioral traits may explain variation in ecologically-relevant behaviors such as foraging, dispersal, anti-predator behavior, and dominance. We investigated behavioral variation in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), a North American parid that lives in dominance-structured winter flocks, using two common measures of behavioral profile: exploration of a novel room and novel object exploration. We related those behavioral traits to dominance status in male chickadees following brief, pair-wise encounters. Low-exploring birds (birds that visited less than four locations in the novel room) were significantly more likely to become dominant in brief, pairwise encounters with high-exploring birds (i.e., birds that visited all perching locations within a novel room). On the other hand, there was no relationship between novel object exploration and dominance. Interestingly, novel room exploration was also not correlated with novel object exploration. These results suggest that behavioral profile may predict the social status of group-living individuals. Moreover, our results contradict the idea that novel object exploration and novel room exploration are always interchangeable measures of individuals' sensitivity to environmental novelty.
Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung
The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...
Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha
This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.
Comportamentos de risco, auto-avaliação do nível de saúde e percepção de estresse entre trabalhadores da indústria Health risk behaviors, health status self-assessment and stress perception among industrial workers
Mauro V G de Barros
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência e analisar a associação entre comportamentos de risco à saúde, percepção de estresse e auto-avaliação do nível de saúde, em trabalhadores da indústria. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico transversal, utilizando questionário previamente testado em estudo-piloto realizado em Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram coletados dados sobre fumo, abuso de álcool, consumo de frutas e verduras, atividades físicas, percepção de estresse e auto-avaliação do nível de saúde de 4.225 trabalhadores (67,5% homens e 32,5% mulheres. Os sujeitos foram recrutados por meio de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios (erro de 5%. A análise estatística incluiu o teste de qui-quadrado e a análise de regressão logística, para um nível de significância de pOBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and association among health risk behaviors, stress perception, and health status self-assessment among industrial workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire previously tested in a pilot study in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data on smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetables intake, physical activity, stress perception, and self-assessment of health status were available for 4,225 workers (67.5% males and 32.5% females. Subjects were selected using a 3-stage cluster sampling (5% error margin. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, and logistic regression analysis (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean age was 29.7 years old (SD=8.6. The prevalence of smokers was 20.6%, higher among males (23.1% than females (15.6%. The proportion of heavy drinkers was high (57.2% among males and 18.8% among females. Almost half of the subjects (46.2% reported no leisure-time physical activity (67% females and 34.8% males. Approximately 14% of subjects reported high levels of stress and difficulty to cope with daily tasks. About 15% of the workers perceived their health status as regular
Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing
College students' health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual's health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students' eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants' health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, PeHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. Moreover, eHealth literacy played an intermediary role in the association between individual factors and health behaviors (Sobel test=2.09-2.72, PeHealth
Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane
High-quality diets play an important role in diabetes prevention. Appropriate dietary adherence can improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, and thus contribute to lifestyle improvement. However, previous research suggests that dietary adherence is arguably among the most difficult cornerstones of diabetes management. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate whether and to what extent individuals diagnosed with diabetes show significant differences in diet quality [healthy eating index (HEI)] compared to healthy individuals, (2) to quantify whether and to what extent diabetics experience significantly higher outcomes of body mass index (BMI), and (3) to estimate whether and to what extent dietary supplementation impacts diabetes patient's diet quality and/or BMI outcomes. We use data from the 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The NHANES is the primary, randomized, and nationally representative survey used to assess the health and nutritional status in the U.S. We apply propensity score matching (PSM) to account for selection bias and endogeneity between self-reported diet and health behavir (treatment) and BMI outcomes. We control for an individual's BMI as to capture the impact of past dietary behavior in its impact on HEI. Matching results suggest that regular dietary supplement consumption is associated with significant lower BMI outcomes of almost 1 kg/m(2). The close relationship between diabetes and obesity has been at the center of the diet-health policy debate across Canada and the U.S. Knowledge about this linkage may help to improve the understanding of the factors that impact dietary choices and their overall health outcomes, which may lead to a more efficient and effective promotion of dietary guidelines, healthy food choices, and targeted consumer health and lifestyle policies.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...
Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.
Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…
Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey
This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.
Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.
Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…
Jin-Won Noh; Hyo-Young Yun; Hyunchun Park; Shi-Eun Yu
Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p
Ko, Young; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok
To identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and differences in the factors associated with perceived health status of midlife women in four broad racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A secondary analysis of Web-based survey data. Internet communities/groups among midlife women and Internet communities/groups of racial/ethnic minorities. Participants included 491 women 40 to 60 years of age who self-identified into four broad racial/ethnic categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic [N-H] Asian American, N-H African American, or N-H White). Data related to participants' sociodemographic, behavioral, situational, and individual health factors and their coping resources were selected based on the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and race/ethnicity-specific factors associated with perceived health status among midlife women. Perceived health status did not differ by race/ethnicity; however, factors that were associated with perceived health status did vary by race/ethnicity. Among N-H White women, educational level, level of family income, obesity, and menopausal symptoms were significantly associated with perceived not healthy status. In Hispanic women, perceived level of physical activity and obesity were significantly associated with not healthy status. Perceived level of physical activity was the only factor significantly associated with not healthy status in N-H Asian American women, and the level of family income was the only factor associated with not healthy status in N-H African American women. In future intervention development, researchers need to consider differences among racial/ethnic groups in the factors associated with women's perceived health status. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung
Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (pchildren's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.
Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chang, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung
To understand the current status of health literacy and the relationship between health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among multiethnic groups of women in Taiwan. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit study participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We recruited community female adults who lived in greater Taipei or Taoyuan areas (northern Taiwan) from January 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. A total of 378 female participants were contacted, of which 351 consented to participate and 347 completed valid questionnaires for analysis. Health literacy was measured with the Taiwan Health Literacy Scale, and health-promoting behaviors were measured by the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Participants had a moderate level of health literacy, and one third of them had inadequate health literacy. Participants with inadequate health literacy were more likely to be younger, not a high school graduate, and Vietnamese; to have a low monthly family income and no diagnosed diseases; to use a second language; and to regard TV/radio as the most useful source of health information. Health literacy alone could significantly predict health-promoting behaviors among the participants. Our findings confirmed that low health literacy is prevalent among underprivileged women in Taiwan. Health-related programs that are literacy sensitive and culturally appropriate are needed to teach and encourage health-promoting behaviors. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Webster, I W; Rawson, G K
A comparison of health status between 779 Seventh-day Adventists, who have a strong commitment to heal-related life styles, and two other groups of people--8363 persons referred by general practitioners and 9825 volunteers--was made. The Seventh-day Adventists showed less impairment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, of plasma cholesterol and plasma urate concentrations, and of lung ventilatory capacity; and less obesity at most specific ages. With increasing age, the level of breathlessness, reported heart disease, hypertension, and hypertensive and diuretic therapy in this sample approached that of the comparative groups, possibly because of natural attrition of high-risk persons in the latter. Depression, sleeplessness, use of sedatives and tranquillizers were lower in the Seventh-day Adventists; although, once again, a drawing together of the three groups in older age categories was evident. It is concluded that the life style of Seventh-day Adventists is conducive to lessened morbidity, delayed mortality, and decreased call on health services in comparison with the general population.
Sherman, Bruce; Block, Lori
More and more employers recognize the business impact of behavioral health concerns in the workplace. This article provides insights into some of the current innovations in behavioral health benefits, along with their rationale for development. Areas of innovation include conceptual and delivery models, technological advance- ments, tools for engaging employees and ways of quantifying the business value of behavioral health benefits. The rapid growth of innovative behavioral health services should provide employers with confidence that they can tailor a program best suited to their priorities, organizational culture and cost limitations.
Eselius, Laura L; Cleary, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H
To develop a model for adjusting patients' reports of behavioral health care experiences on the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO) survey to allow for fair comparisons across health plans. Survey responses from 4,068 individuals enrolled in 21 managed behavioral health plans who received behavioral health care within the previous year (response rate = 48 percent). Potential case-mix adjustors were evaluated by combining information about their predictive power and the amount of within- and between-plan variability. Changes in plan scores and rankings due to case-mix adjustment were quantified. The final case-mix adjustment model included self-reported mental health status, self-reported general health status, alcohol/drug treatment, age, education, and race/ethnicity. The impact of adjustment on plan report scores was modest, but large enough to change some plan rankings. Adjusting plan report scores on the ECHO survey for differences in patient characteristics had modest effects, but still may be important to maintain the credibility of patient reports as a quality metric. Differences between those with self-reported fair/poor health compared with those in excellent/very good health varied by plan, suggesting quality differences associated with health status and underscoring the importance of collecting quality information.
Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.
Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae
For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers' intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers' behavioral intention of using HIT. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model's explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers' behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers' use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers' attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers' health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health consumers' behavioral intention. We categorized the concepts in
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian
Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006
J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral
Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...
Kayla de la Haye
Full Text Available In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related.The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics.Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.
An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.
Lalić, Maja; Aleksić, Ema; Gajić, Mihajlo; Malesević, Doka
The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children's oral health. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent--child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child's oral health status. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children's oral health.
Ayoola, Adejoke B; Sneller, Krista; Ebeye, Tega D; Dykstra, Megan Jongekrijg; Ellens, Victoria L; Lee, HaEun Grace; Zandee, Gail L
Preconception behaviors have a significant impact on birth outcomes, particularly among low-income minority groups, and women with unplanned pregnancies. This study examined women's perceived health status and behaviors such as drinking, smoking, exercise, and use of multivitamins and folic acid. This was a descriptive study based on a convenience sample of women living in urban underserved neighborhoods. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. The sample consisted of 123 women ages 18 to 51 years (mean = 30.57); 51.22% were Hispanic, 36.59% African American, and 12.2% Caucasian. Over 70% had a household income of less than $20,000, 57.72% had no health insurance in the last year, and 58.54% were not married. These women were below the Healthy People 2020 goals for drinking, smoking, and multivitamin use, especially those who were planning to get pregnant in the next 6 months or not sure of their pregnancy planning status. There were no significant differences on any of the preconception health behavior variables based on pregnancy intention. Nurses and healthcare providers should emphasize importance of practicing healthy behaviors during the preconception period among low-income ethnic minority women specifically those living in urban medically underserved areas who are unsure of their pregnancy planning status or are at risk of unintended pregnancy.
poverty aside from physical capital (Strauss J and Thomas D, 1998). ... factors on health status of children across poverty groups and sector. ...... Decomposing Inequalities in Nutritional Status of ... The causal effect of health on social and.
Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.
Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853
Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.
Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health
Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik
Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary
This paper intends to develop health status index among drug abuse prison inmates in Malaysia. A self-admistered questionnaire distributed to 1753 respondents. In this study, to calculate the health status index number of drug abuse inmates, descriptive and factor analyses applied. The data based on 10 indicators of ...
Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.
Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university
van den Berge, Jan C.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Hartman, Eline M. J.; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J.; van Domburg, Ron T.
Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included
Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline
Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta
Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.
Attlee, Amita; Kassem, Hanin; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker
To assess the physical status and feeding behavior among children with autism. Twenty three autistic children aged 5-16 y enrolled in Sharjah Autism Center were studied. A questionnaire was administered to the parents of these children. Demographic information; gastrointestinal symptoms; mealtime behavior through Brief Assessment of Mealtime Behavior Inventory, Food Preference Inventory; and nutrient intake through a 3 day food record were collected. Physical status was determined in terms of height, weight and body mass index. Male-female ratio of autism in the sample was 3.6:1. Twelve children were obese and another 5 were overweight. Mealtime behavior revealed that 69.6 % of the children never/rarely cried/screamed during mealtimes, turned their face or body away from food (52 %), or expelled food (61 %) that he/she has eaten. Food Preference Inventory showed food refusal of 59.1 ± 20.6 % for combined food groups in autistic children. Specifically, higher preference was found for starches (55.8 %) and least for protein (32.6 %). A 3 day food record revealed that their diets were repetitive with limited variety and evidence of nutrient inadequacy. Comparatively higher enrolment of males with autism was found and three-fourth of the total children had difficulty in maintaining normal weight. Mealtime behavior concerns were displayed occasionally including rigidity in mealtime routines, unwillingness to try new foods and not being able to be seated until the meal was finished. High rates of food rejection, notably protein and limited variety resulting into nutrient inadequacy were evident.
Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X
This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Few social network characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S
Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068
Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 409-420
Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 409-420
Jong Ju Seon
Full Text Available The effect of employment insecurity on employee health is an important public health issue due to the recent effects of neoliberalism and the global financial crisis (2007-2008 on labor markets. This study aims to evaluate the differences in cardiovascular health status and the use of preventive screening services between standard and nonstandard workers.Waged employees (N = 5,338 between the ages of 20 and 64 were grouped into standard (full-time, permanent and nonstandard (part-time, temporary, or daily employees. Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2009, a nationwide representative survey, were examined, including cardiovascular health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, physical inactivity, measured morbidities (blood pressure, blood glucose level, lipid profiles, body mass index, and the use of screening services for hypertension and diabetes mellitus.Female nonstandard employees tended to have higher blood pressure than did female standard employees (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02 to 1.98. However, nonstandard employees (both men and women were less likely to use preventive screening services for hypertension (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94 in men; aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.73 in women and diabetes (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79 in men; aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.71 in women.Nonstandard work is associated with the underuse of screening services and poorer cardiovascular health in a specific population. Policies to reduce employment insecurity and encourage nonstandard employees to receive health screening services should be prioritized.
Seon, Jong Ju; Lim, Yu Jin; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Jae Moon; Kim, Sang June; Choi, Seulggie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Park, Sang Min
The effect of employment insecurity on employee health is an important public health issue due to the recent effects of neoliberalism and the global financial crisis (2007-2008) on labor markets. This study aims to evaluate the differences in cardiovascular health status and the use of preventive screening services between standard and nonstandard workers. Waged employees (N = 5,338) between the ages of 20 and 64 were grouped into standard (full-time, permanent) and nonstandard (part-time, temporary, or daily) employees. Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2009, a nationwide representative survey, were examined, including cardiovascular health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, physical inactivity), measured morbidities (blood pressure, blood glucose level, lipid profiles, body mass index), and the use of screening services for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Female nonstandard employees tended to have higher blood pressure than did female standard employees (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02 to 1.98). However, nonstandard employees (both men and women) were less likely to use preventive screening services for hypertension (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94 in men; aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.73 in women) and diabetes (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79 in men; aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.71 in women). Nonstandard work is associated with the underuse of screening services and poorer cardiovascular health in a specific population. Policies to reduce employment insecurity and encourage nonstandard employees to receive health screening services should be prioritized.
Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.
In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled
Full Text Available Introduction: A very important role in the protection of human health is their life style, their habits and patterns of conduct. Early adulthood is the best period to achieve long-term benefits from a selection of healthy living. However, the results of studies on health-related behavior of youth in Poland and in the world are not satisfactory. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the research was to assess the health behaviors of students of higher education in Bydgoszcz. Material: The study involved 272 students (124 women and 148 men Bydgoszcz higher education students in the following fields of study: physiotherapy, nutrition, logistics and national security. The Inventory of Health-Related Behavior by Zygfryd Juczyński has been used in the research. The statistical analysis was performed using the package PQ Stat 1.6.2. Results: Throughout the treatment group an average level of health-related behavior has been shown. The results of the different categories of health-related behavior were lower than the results of the standardization groups. A higher level of health behavior has been shown in a group of medical students compared to non-medical students. The results for women were higher than men's results. Conclusions: The results of personal research and the research findings of other authors demonstrate that there is a need for implementation of programs of health promotion and health education in all fields of study.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M
Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.
Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L
The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.
Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme
to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Raad K. Faraj
Conclusion The study concluded that non-smoking is the most prevalent health behavior among the students that revealed by high perceived competence related to non-smoking. Health behavior is negatively influenced by gender, and positively influenced by smoking status.
People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.
Full Text Available Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the relationship between gambling behaviors and substance use disorders, review the data regarding health associations and screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling, and suggest a role for generalist physicians in assessing problem and pathological gambling. A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in the relationship between gambling and health status are presented. More research is needed to investigate directly the biological and health correlates associated with specific types of gambling behaviors and to define the role for generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling.
Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steinberg, Susan; Leon, Gloria; Dimsdale, Joel; Balkin, Thomas; Bono, Joyce; Caldwell, John; Joiner, Thomas; Paulus, Martin; Zaccaro, Stephen
The 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17 - 18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated research plan for the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload (Sleep Risk) and also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders (BMed Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (Team Risk).
Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram
Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.
Martin, Diane P.; And Others
The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is designed to measure health status in terms of sickness-related changes in behavior. Its content incorporates the perspectives of clinicians, patients, and the apparently healthy, and consists of 235 items. Its reliability and validity were supported in a study with both experienced physicians and residents.…
Hung, Dorothy Y; Glasgow, Russell E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Froshaug, Desireé B; Fernald, Douglas H; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Green, Larry A
The chronic care model (CCM) is a system-level framework used to guide quality improvement efforts in health care. However, little is known about its relationship to patient-level health measures. This study describes the implementation of the CCM as adapted for prevention and health behavior counseling in primary care practices, and examines relationships between the CCM and patient health measures, including general health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Baseline data from Round 2 of the Prescription for Health initiative (2005-2007) were used to assess CCM implementation in 57 practices located nationwide. Relationships between the CCM and three separate measures of health among 4735 patients were analyzed in 2007. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate categories of general health status, unhealthy days, and activity-limiting days, adjusting for patient covariates and clustering effects. Outcome variances were significantly accounted for by differences in practice characteristics (pPractices that used individual or group planned visits were more likely to see patients in lower health categories across all measures (OR=0.74-0.81, pPractices that used patient registries, health promotion champions, evidence-based guidelines, publicly reported performance measures, and support for behavior change were associated with higher patient health levels (OR=1.28-1.98, ppractice's implementation of the CCM was significantly related to patient health status and HRQOL. Adapting the CCM for prevention may serve to reorient care delivery toward more proactive behavior change and improvements in patient health outcomes.
Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less
Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S
To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.
address not only the problems of undernutrition, but also to monitor the weight and health ..... women of low socio-economic status were found to be at the greatest risk of an .... Public Health, Harvard University Press. 1996. 2. World Health ...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas
This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Srilatha, Adepu; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Madupu Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth
Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
identify and bring under control at workplaces all health risks; provide ... on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. ..... The assistance from the IPC/IS. National ... tions of the Healthcare Infection Prevention.
The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army...
Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L
As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p<0.05, having family members in South Korea (t=2.02, p<0.05, and subjective health status (t=4.96, p<0.01. Scores on health-responsible behaviors were higher with higher age (t=2.90, p<0.01 and for subjects without family or friends (t=2.43, p<0.05. Higher physical-activity behaviors were observed in males (t=3.32, p<0.01, in those with better subjective health status (t=3.46, p<0.05 and lower body mas index (t=3.48, p<0.05, and in smokers (t=3.17, p<0.01. Nutritional behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=2.17, p<0.05. Spiritual growth behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=4.21, p<0.001, had no family in South Korea (t=2.04, p<0.05, and had higher subjective health status (t=5.74, p<0.01. Scores on interpersonal relationships and stress-management behaviors were higher for those with higher subjective health status. A multiple regression analysis showed greater effects on health-promoting behaviors when subjective health status was better. Older people and non-smokers exhibited more health-responsible behaviors, while more physical-activity behaviors and spiritual growth activities were observed when subjective health status was better. Interpersonal relationship behaviors had positive effects on those with good subjective heath status and on non-smokers. Conclusions: Based on the results of the current study, an alternative was suggested for promoting health in North Korean adolescent refugees.
Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T
This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.
Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-sheng; Tian, Cui-huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-qing
Background: Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. Objectives: The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. Patients and Methods: The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. Results: This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Conclusions: Taxi drivers’ health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.
Saodah Abd. Rahman; Md Sayed Uddin.
Numerous studies have found that health-seeking behavior depends on the individual\\\\\\'s socio-cultural differences, demographic profiles, level of economic conditions, religiousness and religious affiliations, and the availability of health care providers. Existing literature indicates that health status and health behavior among poor and low-income groups was found to be very low and vulnerable under conditions. This study examines health status and health care seeking behaviors in household...
Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Nam, Sangbo; Han, Sae Hwang; Gilligan, Megan
The aim of this study was to examine the link between internet use and preventive health behaviors. We focused on couples to examine whether there were cross-partner associations between internet use and preventive health behaviors. The data for this study came from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the sample consisted of 5,143 pairs of coupled-individuals. Preventive health behaviors included cancer screenings (mammogram and prostate tests), cholesterol tests, and flu shots. Logistic multilevel actor-partner interdependence models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving prostate exams and cholesterol tests for husbands, net of demographic and health characteristics, and insurance status. We found that wives' internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving flu shots and prostate exams for husbands, but husbands' internet use was not associated with wives' preventive health behaviors. Research linking internet use and preventive health behaviors is important because such behaviors are associated not only with health of the older population but also with substantial reductions in health care expenditures. Our findings suggested that internet use of older adults is associated with their own preventive health behaviors, as well as their spouses' preventive health behaviors. Interventions and programs to facilitate older adults' preventive health behaviors should consider couple-based approaches.
Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn
In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.
Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; García-Peña, Carmen; Duran-Muñoz, Carlos; Reyes, Hortensia; Durán-Arenas, Luis
To evaluate health status of the elderly in Mexico through their self-perception and to describe social, organizational and health-related factors. A study was carried out on secondary data from the 2000 National Health Survey in Mexico. Multiple logistic regression models were used. The dependent variable health status was measured through self-perception. The independent variables included were: sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, accidents, disease diagnosis and clinical measures. A total of 7,322 adults aged 60 years and older were studied, which represents 7% of the total population in that age group in Mexico. Of them, 19.8% reported poor or very poor health status. Factors found to be associated to poor health were age, female sex, having no social security, being divorced, homemaker, disabled, unemployed, tobacco consumption, having a health condition, accidents and diagnosed with chronic diseases. The study allowed to identifying factors that may contribute to poor health status in the elderly. These findings could be taken into account in the development of actions and health care programs for this population in Mexico.
Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng
This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.
Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...
Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.
Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro
In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy-having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet-has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with high eHealth
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts, including family conflict and support, connectedness to school, and affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances, among Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents. A total of 251 aboriginal junior high school students in an isolated mountainous area of southern Taiwan were recruited, and the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts among them were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). The SEM revealed that family conflict and support had direct influences on mental health status and connectedness to school. Family conflict had a direct relationship with affiliation with peers who use substances, and family conflict and support were both indirectly linked with affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who used substances; these were mediated by a poor mental health status. Female and older age were directly linked with a poor mental health status and were indirectly linked with a greater number of peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances via the poor mental health status. Disruptive parenting was directly linked with affiliation with peers who use substances. The authors suggest that those who devise strategies to improve aboriginal adolescents' mental health and discourage substance use should take these relationships among mental health, demographic characteristics, and social contexts into account.
Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R
This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.
Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...
Rajan, R.; Satyanarayan, C.; Raghunathan, C.; Koya, S.S.; Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Venkataraman, K.
Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since...
population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.
Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica
The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs
Grossbard, Joel R; Lehavot, Keren; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew; Seal, Karen H; Simpson, Tracy L
Although many risk behaviors peak during young adulthood, little is known about health risk factors and access to care. This study assessed health indicators and health care access in a national sample of young adult veterans and civilians. Data were from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national telephone survey. Of 27,471 participants, ages 19-30 years, 2.2% were veterans (74.6% were male) and 97.7% were civilians (37.6% were male). Gender-stratified comparisons assessed health indicators and health care access by veteran status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine health indicators and health care access as a function of gender and veteran status. In the overall sample, women were more likely than men to have insurance, to have a regular physician, and to have had a routine checkup and yet were more likely to report financial barriers to care. Women also were more likely than men to report general medical and mental distress and higher lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders, whereas men were more likely to be overweight or obese and to report tobacco use and high-risk drinking. Adjusted analyses revealed a higher likelihood of general medical distress and higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders among veterans compared with civilians, although there were no differences between veterans and civilians regarding health care utilization and hazardous drinking. Findings extend the literature on health care status and modifiable risk factors for young adults by identifying differences between men and women and between veterans and civilians. Interventions may need to be tailored on the bases of gender and veteran status because of several differences in mental health and general health needs.
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.
Al'bitskii, V Iu; Makeev, N I
The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health.
Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Lee, Kheng Hock; Low, Lian Leng
It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status. A PubMed and Scopus search was conducted in January 2017 to identify suitable articles published from 1 January 2000 to 31 January 2017. Only studies that were done on Singapore public rental housing communities were included for review. A total of 14 articles including 4 prospective studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies were obtained for the review. Topics addressed by these studies included: (1) Health status; (2) Health seeking behaviour; (3) Healthcare utilisation. Staying in public rental housing was found to be associated with poorer health status and outcomes. They had lower participation in health screening, preferred alternative medicine practitioners to western-trained doctors for primary care, and had increased hospital utilisation. Several studies performed qualitative interviews to explore the causes of disparity and concern about cost was one of the common cited reason. Staying in public rental housing appears to be a risk marker of poorer health and this may have important public health implications. Understanding the causes of disparity will require more qualitative studies which in turn will guide interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness in improving health outcome of this sub-population of patients.
Watt, Richard G; Heilmann, Anja; Sabbah, Wael; Newton, Tim; Chandola, Tarani; Aida, Jun; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsakos, Georgios
Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. We analyzed data from three waves (1999-2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5-8 versus less than 5 friends). Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however mediate these associations. More research is
Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey
Raees A. Shaikh, MD, MPH
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2 . In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.
Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG cluster-randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. Methods The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1 Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH only (Comparison, (2 CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG], (3 CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT], and (4 CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined. The outcome variables include student’s weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Results Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369 and parents (n = 1206 at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and
Ueno, Masayuki; Ohara, Satoko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kawaguchi, Yoko
Several studies have shown that parity is associated with oral health problems such as tooth loss and dental caries. In Japan, however, no studies have examined the association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parity is related to dentition status, including the number of teeth present, dental caries and filled teeth, and the posterior occlusion, in a Japanese population by comparing women with men. A total of 1,211 subjects, who participated both in the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990 and the dental survey in 2005, were used for the study. Information on parity or number of children was collected from a self-completed questionnaire administered in 1990 for the JPHC Study Cohort I, and health behaviors and clinical dentition status were obtained from the dental survey in 2005. The association between parity or number of children and dentition status was analyzed, by both unadjusted-for and adjusted-for socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, using a generalized linear regression model. Parity is significantly related to the number of teeth present and n-FTUs (Functional Tooth Units of natural teeth), regardless of socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, in female subjects. The values of these variables had a significantly decreasing trend with the rise of parity: numbers of teeth present (p for trend = 0.046) and n-FTUs (p for trend = 0.026). No relationships between the number of children and dentition status were found in male subjects. Higher-parity women are more likely to lose teeth, especially posterior occluding relations. These results suggest that measures to narrow the discrepancy by parity should be taken for promoting women's oral health. Delivery of appropriate information and messages to pregnant women as well as enlightenment of oral health professionals about dental management of pregnant women may be an effective strategy.
Suarez-Almazor, M E
Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.
Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie
Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.
Apolinar Membrillo Luna
Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.
Michael A McClurkin
Full Text Available Little is known about the association between cardiovascular (CV health and health insurance status. We hypothesized that U.S. adults without health insurance coverage would have a lower likelihood of ideal cardiovascular health.Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data from 2007-2010, we examined the relationship between health insurance status and ideal CV health in U.S. adults aged ≥19 years and <65 (N = 3304. Ideal CV health was defined by the American Heart Association (AHA as the absence of clinically manifested CV disease and the simultaneous presence of 6-7 "ideal" CV health factors and behaviors. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between health insurance status and the odds of ideal CV health. Of the U.S. adult population, 5.4% attained ideal CV health, and 23.5% were without health insurance coverage. Those without health insurance coverage were more likely to be young (p<0.0001, male (p<0.0001, non-white (p<0.0001, with less than a high school degree (p<0.0001, have a poverty-to-income ratio less than 1 (p<0.0001 and unemployed (p<0.0001 compared to those with coverage. Lack of health insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of ideal CV health; however, this relationship was attenuated by socioeconomic status.U.S. adults without health insurance coverage are less likely to have ideal CV health. Population-based strategies and interventions directed at the community-level may be one way to improve overall CV health and reach this at-risk group.
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L
African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for
Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo
The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306
Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...
Trujillo, Anna C.
Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.
VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.
Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...
Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127
Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Listen as Dr. Machell Town, a branch chief and statistician with CDC's Division of Population Health, talks about her team's study on self-perceived health and reported mental distress among working-aged adults.
Xiao, Hong; Barber, Janet P
To examine the effect of perceived health status on three components of patient satisfaction. The Household Component of the 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for people 35-64 years of age was used to examine the effect of perceived health status on patient satisfaction measured in terms of access to care, provider quality and quality of care. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were used to describe the subjects and to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and perceived health status controlling for patient demographic factors, health factors and provider characteristics. All analyses used STATA 8.0 which is designed to analyze weighted data. A total of 4,417 patients (71% women) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Patients who rated their health excellent or good scored higher on the three dimensions of patient satisfaction. Higher scores on one or more components of patient satisfaction were associated with being older, married, better educated and having higher income, health insurance and good mental health. Seeing the health-care provider for an old problem resulted in lower levels of patient satisfaction. Provider characteristics significantly related to patient satisfaction were listening to the patient, being a specialist, seeing patients in an office setting and being located in the South. This study has shown that patient satisfaction is influenced by a person's self-perceived health status and other personal characteristics that are external to the delivery of health care. These findings suggest that patient satisfaction data should be used judiciously because a significant portion of the variation may be attributed to factors endogenous to the patient and therefore are not amenable to provider intervention.
Park, Soojin; Shin, Weon-Sun
This study aimed to determine whether there might be differences in masticatory performance and eating behaviors by gender and obesity status. Forty eight (24 males; 24 females) non-obese and pre-obese young adults were matched for age, gender, and dental health. Eating behaviors were assessed using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and chewing performance while eating 152g of boiled rice was measured using electromyography (EMG). Compared with non-obese participants, pre-obese participants had significantly higher levels of disinhibition according to the TFEQ (Pdifferent by gender but not by obesity status. Males had a greater bite size (Pobese) and chewing power (r=-0.581, Pobese and r=-0.446, Pobese) were negatively associated with disinhibition score. Results suggest that the effects of gender and, in part, obesity on eating responses may be explained as chewing performance. Therefore, gender-specific interventions and counseling aimed at slowing the rate of ingestion could be promising behavioral treatments for obese persons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Negeri, Gutema; Haile Mariam,Damen
Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...
Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence
To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Clement C. Azodo
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…
Cerulli, Catherine; Cerulli, Jennifer; Santos, Elizabeth J; Lu, Najii; He, Hua; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; White, Anne Marie; Tu, Xin
To explore whether the health status of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims warrants pharmacies to be portals for public health promotion. Specific objectives included (1) identifying prevalence of IPV including domestic violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in a community sample, (2) describing characteristics and correlates of DV/SA between participants who reported and did not report DV/SA, and (3) exploring whether DV/SA status is related to mental health medication use. Cross sectional. Upstate New York during 2006. English- and Spanish-speaking respondents younger than 65 years of age answering four questions to assess DV/SA. Secondary analysis of a countywide random telephone survey, the 2006 Monroe County Adult Health Survey, which collects prevalence data on health behaviors and health status indicators. To determine whether those reporting DV/SA are at increased odds for mental health medication use, controlling for other sociodemographic- and health-related variables. The survey response rate was 30.3%, with 1,881 respondents meeting inclusion criteria. Those reporting DV/SA were almost twice as likely to use mental health medications. However, when controlling for other variables, only poor mental and physical health were significant in increasing the odds of mental health medication use. The analyses reported here suggest that DV/SA victims in a community sample use mental health medications. When controlling for other variables, survey respondents reported worse physical and mental health. If pharmacies are suitable portals for DV/SA outreach, curricula would need to provide the knowledge and skills needed to take an active role in this public health promotion.
Full Text Available Lifestyle affects the physical, mental, social development, health and learning ability. It seems that there are differences in the health behaviors of young females and males, however these differences are not well described. The aim of the current study was to assess the lifestyle of eighteen-years old and to compare their health behaviors of young persons according to their gender. The study was conducted among 98 students of high schools in Bydgoszcz (35 females and 68 males. All participants were 18 years old. The questionnaire was prepared especially for the purposes of the study, a part of the questions of this questionnaire was taken from the Canada Fitness Survey. The physical activity, mode of nutrition, use of stimulants, hours of sleep, time spent in front of screens and the level of stress were taken into consideration while assessing the teenagers’ lifestyle. The lifestyle of high school graduates is worrisome. It is characterized by low level of physical activity, irregular nutrition, not enough fruits, vegetables and water consumed. A large group of young people drink alcohol, smoke tobacco and marijuana, sleep too short. Males also spend too many hours in front of a television, computer or other similar device. Differences in the health behaviors of women and men appear to be significant. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in this group is very high and affects both sexes. The sex differences in the health-promoting behaviors among men and women in this group of adolescents seems to diminish. Observed unhealthy behaviors indicates the urgent need for health education, especially those that educate the student about the value of the person, the value of health, and the development of social skills that underlie personal development. The foremost priority is risk prevention implementation in primary schools. Further research and continuous monitoring of health behaviors in different age groups is needed as well as to
Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane
Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.
Lewis, Fiona B; Boutrin, Marie-Claire; Dalrymple, Lisa; McNeill, Lorna H
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Black identity on wellbeing and health behaviors. Data from the third year (wave) of a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1316) from a large, majority Black, Protestant church of 16,000 members located in Houston, Texas, were used to conduct secondary data analyses. Univariate analyses were used to obtain participants' sociodemographic and health characteristics. ANCOVA and linear regression analyses and Bonferroni adjustments were used to examine the influence of the centrality, public and private regard aspects of Black identity as measured by the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity subscales on wellbeing (CES-D scores and self-reported general health) and health behaviors (diet and physical activity levels). Associations were noted between fruit consumption and centrality (F (95,1216) = 2.27) p = .046); soda consumption and private regard (F (5,1214) = 3.04; p = .010); public regard (F (2,1186) = 4.70; p = .009) and physical activity levels; self-reported general health status and private (F (4,1219) = 4.78; p = .001) and public regard (F (4,1211) = 8.53; p identity remain an important factor to consider in addressing health disparities. Racial identity influences mental health, general health, diet and the physical activity levels. Utilizing identity congruent health promotion interventions may positively impact mental, exercise levels, self-reported general health and diet.
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)
textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…
Bureau, Alexander T; Razon, Selen; Saville, Bryan K; Tokac, Umit; Judge, Lawrence W
According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, ppassion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = -.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = -.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = -.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics.
18 Theory of Planned Behavior.................................................. 19 Social Learning Theory and Locus of Control...these models have been applied to health behavior, and include the Social Learning Theory (Rotter, 1954), Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966...Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), and Social Cognitive Theory ( Bandura , 1994). These
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.
The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.
Mulusew G. Jebena
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents’ health and wellbeing in Ethiopia. Method We used data from the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth which began tracking a cohort of adolescents in 2005 to examine the social, behavioral and economic determinants of their health and well-being. A total of 1,919 sample were included in the main analyses. All youths provided data related to their food insecurity experiences and their health status. A mixed effect logistic regression using random intercept and trend model was used to examine the relationship between food insecurity and their health status. Fixed effects estimates were also computed to check the parsimoniousness of the random intercept and trend model. Results The results indicated that the mean (±SD age of adolescents was 18.6(±1.4. Nine hundred twenty three (48.1% of them were female. The magnitude of self-rated health status was relatively unstable ranging from 18.9%, 34.7% to 37.3% in each round. Similarly, 20.4%, 48.4% and 20.6% of adolescents were food insecure during each consecutive round of the survey respectively. Exposure to food insecurity is strongly associated with self-rated health status (β = 0.28, P < 0.001 and poor self-rated health was also more pronounced for some time (β =2.11, P < 0.001 and decline after a turning point (β = −0.38, P < 0.001. Conclusions These findings imply that any social, nutrition and public health interventions designed to improve adolescent health should consider underlying social determinants of health such as food insecurity.
Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...
Ch. M. Kristanti
Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in
Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...
Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...
Health status based on lifestyle-related disease is a concern in many developing countries, including Kenya. Factors related to such disease conditions, are important in ensuring economic sustainability in future. Currently there is limited research in this area. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship ...
The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...
Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.
Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and
Here a high infant mortality rate is examined against a low prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and syphilis and some of the effects of migrant labour on the health status of migrant hostel dwellers are identified. The low prevalence of disease among the Cape Town hostel residents suggests that migrant labour, by sifting ...
Schiffer, Angélique A; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, a subgroup of patients still report impaired health status, cardiac symptoms, and feelings of disability following CRT. The aims of this study were to examine (1) whether CHF patients treated...
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C
To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.
Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H
To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Rossi, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Lidia; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco
to evaluate self-perceived health status of immigrants in Italy. cross-sectional study based on the representative national samples of the multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" conducted in 2005 and 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). the study was conducted on the age group of 18-64: No. 80,661 in 2005, among which 3.2% were immigrants, and No. 72,476 in 2013, among which 7.1% were immigrants. prevalence rate ratios (PRR) calculated through log-binomial regression models, stratified by survey edition and gender, by evaluating the association between the Physical Component Score (PCS), the Mental Component Score (MCS), and the overall health index and citizenship. Adjustment for the following confounding factors was performed: age, educational level, working condition, perceived economic resources, body mass index (BMI). in 2005, immigrants had a lower probability of poor-perceived physical health, both among men (PRR: 0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.89) and women (PRR: 0.89; 95%CI 0.82- 0.97), compared to Italians. In 2013, the perceived health advantage of immigrants was reduced for both genders (PRR males: 0.87; 95%CI 0.80-0.95; PRR females: 0.94; 95%CI 0.88-0.99). In the considered period, the prevalence of people with worse mental health conditions increases, with lower PRR among immigrants, compared to Italians. Higher probability of «NOT good» overall perceived health was also observed among immigrants residing in Italy for at least 10 years (PRR men: 1.24; PRR women: 1.15) and among immigrants men from America (PRR: 1.35). from 2005 to 2013, immigrants seemed to maintain a better perception of health status than Italians. Nevertheless, study results show a decrease in self-perceived health, particularly mental health, in the considered period - apart from demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors - as well as a worse overall self-perceived health status among immigrants who stayed in Italy longer. Such
Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy
Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…
A recent study has suggested that overweight and obese people are more likely to consult a range of physicians (doctor shopping). The consistency of this finding with multiple measures of doctor shopping and controls for socioeconomic circumstances was interrogated. Ninety-nine thousand four hundred seven Australians aged 45 and over who had sought primary healthcare at least five times within 6 months of a survey (2006-2008). (i) The count of different physicians consulted; a binary indicator of (ii) >= three different physicians; (iii) >= five different physicians; and iv) a measure that took into account multiple consultations with the same physician were investigated. Weight status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. Controls included socioeconomic circumstances, demographics, health, and neighborhood factors. In comparison to people with "normal" BMI, the likelihood of doctor shopping was lower among overweight (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98) and obese people (0.95: 0.93, 0.96). This negative correlation between doctor shopping behavior and weight status was consistent after full adjustment and across different outcome measures. In contrast with recent evidence from the US, overweight and obese Australians are less prone to doctor shopping behavior than their peers with "normal" BMI. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…
Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima
Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.
Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Bell, Diana; Hanby, Duncan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Williams, Michelle D; Sturgis, Erich M
Patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have distinct risk factor profiles reflected in the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of their tumor, and these profiles may also be influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status (SES). The goal of this study was to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of a large cohort of patients with OPC according to HPV status, smoking status, and sexual behavior. Patients with OPC prospectively provided information about their smoking and alcohol use, socioeconomic characteristics, and sexual behaviors. HPV status was determined by a composite of immunohistochemistry for p16 expression, HPV in situ hybridization, and PCR assay in 356 patients. Standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare socioeconomic characteristics between patient subgroups. Patients with HPV-positive OPC had higher levels of education, income, and overall SES. Among patients with HPV-positive OPC, never/light smokers had more than 5 times the odds of having at least a bachelor's degree and being in the highest level of SES compared with smokers. Patients with HPV-positive OPC and those with higher levels of education and SES had higher numbers of lifetime any and oral sex partners, although not all of these differences were significant. Socioeconomic differences among subgroups of OPC patients have implications for OPC prevention efforts, including tobacco cessation, behavior modification, and vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I
The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no
Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.
Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E
The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.
... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Burke, Sara E.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Heimer, Robert
Marked overlap between the HIV and injection drug use epidemics in St. Petersburg, Russia, puts many people in need of health services at risk for stigmatization based on both characteristics simultaneously. The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of internalized HIV and drug stigmas on health status and health service utilization among 383 people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg. Participants self-reported internalized HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, health status (subjective rating and symptom count), health service utilization (HIV care and drug treatment), sociodemographic characteristics, and health/behavioral history. For both forms of internalized stigma, greater stigma was correlated with poorer health and lower likelihood of service utilization. HIV and drug stigmas interacted to predict symptom count, HIV care, and drug treatment such that individuals internalizing high levels of both stigmas were at elevated risk for experiencing poor health and less likely to access health services. PMID:26050155
Paul A Bourne
Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Chloe Morris1, Christopher AD Charles2, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell3, Tazhmoye V Crawford41Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica; 3King Graduate School, Monroe College, 2375 Jerome Avenue, Bronx, New York 10468 and Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USAAbstract: Health literacy is a measure of the patient’s ability to read, comprehend and act on medical instructions. This research article examines health literacy and health-seeking behaviors among elderly men in Jamaica, in order to inform health policy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. A 133-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2,000 men, 55 years and older, in St Catherine, Jamaica. In this study, 56.9% of urban and 44.5% of rural residents were health literate. Only 34.0% of participants purchased medications prescribed by the medical doctor and 19.8% were currently smoking. Despite the reported good self-related health status (74.4% and high cognitive functionality (94.1% of the older men, only 7.9% sought medical care outside of experiencing illnesses. Thirty-seven percent of rural participants sought medical care when they were ill compared with 31.9% of their urban counterparts. Thirty-four percent of the participants took the medication as prescribed by the medical doctor; 43% self-reported being diagnosed with cancers such as prostate and colorectal in the last 6 months, 9.6% with hypertension, 5.3% with heart disease, 5.3% with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 5.3% with diabetes mellitus, and 3.8% with kidney/bladder problems. Approximately 14% and 24% of the participants indicated that they were unaware of the signs and symptoms of hypertension
Duong, Tuyen-Van; Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, I-Feng; Lin, Ying-Chin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Peter Wushou
The role of health-related behaviors in the association between age and health literacy has not been well-elucidated. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the interactions between age and health-related behaviors in 942 women in Taiwan between February and October 2013. Women aged 18-78 years were randomly sampled and recruited from the national administrative system. Self-reported health literacy was measured by the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in Mandarin, asking about sociodemographics and essential health-related behaviors (watching health-related television, community involvement). The interviews were conducted confidentially by well-trained interviewers after having participants' consent. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for education attainment, self-perceived social status, ability to pay for medication, and health-related behaviors, health literacy was significantly negatively related to age (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = (-0.07; 0.00); p = .03). The lower health literacy among older women was significantly modified by watching health-related television programs (from "rarely/not-at-all", B = -0.08 (-0.12, -0.04), p women's health literacy and likely their health.
Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix
OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...
Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit
Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...
Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.
Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school...
Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan
Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is
Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan
Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral indicia of a healthy lifestyle. Poor work-recreation balance is associated with
Full Text Available Suboptimal health status (SHS—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0 were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3% is higher than health status (18.4% or disease status (35.3%. Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001 after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR: 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.49–1.92, and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes” were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81. These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and
Asbu, Eyob Zere; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Kaissi, Amer
Since the declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 1990, many countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region made some improvements in maternal and child health and in tackling communicable diseases. The transition to the global agenda of Sustainable Development Goals brings new opportunities for countries to move forward toward achieving progress for better health, well-being, and universal health coverage. This study provides a profile of health status and health financing approaches in the MENA region and their implications on universal health coverage. Time-series data on socioeconomics, health expenditures, and health outcomes were extracted from databases and reports of the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program and analyzed using Stata 12 statistical software. Countries were grouped according to the World Bank income categories. Descriptive statistics, tables and charts were used to analyze temporal changes and compare the key variables with global averages. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for more than three quarters of the disability-adjusted life years in all but two lower middle-income countries (Sudan and Yemen). Prevalence of risk factors (raised blood glucose, raised blood pressure, obesity and smoking) is higher than global averages and counterparts by income group. Total health expenditure (THE) per capita in most of the countries falls short of global averages for countries under similar income category. Furthermore, growth rate of THE per capita has not kept pace with the growth rate of GDP per capita. Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) in all but the high-income countries in the group exceeds the threshold for catastrophic spending implying that there is a high risk of households getting poorer as a result of paying for health care. The alarmingly high prevalence of NCDs and injuries and associated risk factors, health spending falling short of the GDP
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...
Devlin, Courtenay A.; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons
Objectives women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women’s psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants/Setting Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Design Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Measurements and findings Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Key Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Implications for practitioners Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: Based on house hold survei in 2001 it showed that the community behavior in maintaining dental health was still low. The dental condition of the people who complained of having dental problem was very bad, which was shown by the fact that from out of 6-7 teeth which were in bad condition, 4-5 teeth had already been pulled out. Methods: Data were based on the Riskesdas year 2007. The dependent variables were DMFT data in ordinal scales. The independent variables were the nutritional and consumption status, central obese, socioeconomic factors data in nominal scales. Multivariate analysis was done by ordinal regression. Results: Results indicated that the nutritional and consumption status, central obese; socioeconomic faktors: age, sex, household expenditure per capita, Jobs description were significantly associated toDMFT index p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, pada a< 0.05. Recommendation: Socialitation of dental health education was important enhance the awareness brushing teeth correctly and on right times. Socialization of using a pasta maintaining fluoride was for people to all various age group especially for female, because of female was much time for a message dental health education at family especially for a children. Dental health education was important enhance the awareness brushing teeth correctly and on right times for a pregnant women besides a comsumption calsium is enough to construct for bone and teeth was to sustain caries. It was also needed to encourage the important comsumption fruits and vegetable 5 a cup per ones day for a becomes system value of community. Key words: Index DMFT, Nutritional and Consumtive States, Socioeconomic factors
Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till
Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667
Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till
To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan
Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222
Full Text Available Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.
The complexity and diversity of primate behavior have long attracted the attention of ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, and neuroscientists. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the nature of genetic influences on differences in behavior among individuals within species. A number of analyses have focused on the genetic analysis of behavioral reactions to specific experimental tests, providing estimates of the degree of genetic control over reactivity, and beginning to identify the genes involved. Substantial progress is also being made in identifying genetic factors that influence the structure and function of the primate brain. Most of the published studies on these topics have examined either cercopithecines or chimpanzees, though a few studies have addressed these questions in other primate species. One potentially important line of research is beginning to identify the epigenetic processes that influence primate behavior, thus revealing specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which environmental experiences can influence gene expression or gene function relevant to behavior. This review summarizes many of these studies of non-human primate behavioral genetics. The primary focus is on analyses that address the nature of the genes and genetic processes that affect differences in behavior among individuals within non-human primate species. Analyses of between species differences and potential avenues for future research are also discussed. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Vukovic, Dejana S; Bjegovic, Vesna M
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren". Adolescents with a higher weekly disposable income, those who perceived their family as wealthy, and those with difficulties in communication with their mothers were more likely to have had been sexually active (odds ratios (OR)=2.497, 1.876, and 1.253, respectively). Adolescents with a higher weekly disposable income were more likely to use contraception (OR=0.233), but those who perceived their families as better-off and those living with only one parent were more likely not to use contraception (OR=4.794, 22.295 [living with father], and 6.169 [living with mother], respectively). The perceived family wealth was significantly associated with having sexual intercourse and having sexual intercourse without using contraception. Family structure had a limited independent association with sexual behavior.
Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.
Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R
Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807
Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R
Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Earl, Joanne K.; Minbashian, Amirali; Sukijjakhamin, Aun; Bright, Jim E. H.
This paper extends earlier research exploring the relationship between career decision status and work outcomes by examining resignation behavior in a group of new graduates five years after initial appointment. On appointment various measures were collected including career decision status variables. Earlier research identified a significant…
Background: Evidence shows that physicians and medical students who engage in healthy lifestyle habits are more likely to counsel patients about such behaviors. Yet medical school is a challenging time that may bring about undesired changes to health and lifestyle habits. Aims: This study assessed changes in students' ...
Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio‑economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between ...
Kanjirath, Preetha P; Kim, Seung Eun; Rohr Inglehart, Marita
The objective of this study was to explore oral health-related behavior, how patients with diabetes differ from patients not diagnosed with diabetes in their oral health and whether oral health-related behavior moderates the oral health status of patients with diabetes. Survey and chart review data were collected from 448 patients (52% male, 48% female, average age: 57 years) of which 77 were diagnosed with diabetes (17%). Patients with diabetes had a higher percentage of teeth with mobility than those not diagnosed with diabetes (14% vs. 8%, p=0.023), as well as gingival recession (16% vs. 12%, p=0.035) and more teeth with recession in the esthetic zone (1.17 vs. 0.88, p=0.046). They also had more decayed, missing and filled surfaces due to caries (101 vs. 82, pteeth due to caries (11 vs. 7, pbrushed and flossed less frequently. Patients with diabetes who did not brush regularly had poorer periodontal health (percentage of teeth with probing depth of teeth: 32% vs. 15%, p=0.033) than regularly brushing patients with diabetes. Educating patients with diabetes about the importance of good oral self care needs to become a priority for their oral health care providers.
Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F
UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.
Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu
Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)
Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke
Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....
Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that
Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use,
Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Armendariz, Marina; vanTwist, Victoria; Castillo, Yessenia
This study examined within-group differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors and the health status of 156 Latino students at risk for diabetes due to family history. Approximately 58% of students were overweight and/or obese, with female students reporting a greater risk for diabetes. Consumption of meats, fried potatoes, breads, and…
Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.
Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N
Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.
Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yu, M Y; Sarri, R
This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a woman's life cycle focusing on infancy girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950-1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate, expressed as a percentage of all deaths, and the burden of disease, measured in terms of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), are used to reflect the changing patterns of female diseases and causes of deaths. Significant improvement in the health status of Chinese women since 1950 is widely acknowledged as a major achievement for a developing country with the largest population in the world, but the differentials in women's health by region and urban/rural areas are considerable. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) indicates that the overall level of physical well-being of Chinese women has increased in recent decades, but disparity in health between men and women still exists. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) further reveals that China has achieved significant progress in women's health during the past four decades, but far less has been achieved with respect to gender equality overall. The final sections of the paper focus on the discussion of some health problems faced by the female population during the process of economic reform since the 1980 s. In order to promote gender equality between women and men, concerns on women's health care needs are highlighted.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine health-related behaviors, profile of health locus of control (HLC, and to assess the relationships between these constructs among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-hundred adult patients suffering from various chronic diseases participated in the study. The patients' mean age was 54.6 years (SD = 17.57. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the different clinical groups in health-related behavior, acceptance of illness, internal HLC or chance HLC. Patients with neurologic conditions showed slightly lower powerful others HLC than did some other clinical groups. Health-related behavior was significantly positively related to all three categories of HLC, with most prominent associations observed with powerful others HLC. Only one type of health-related behavior--preventive behavior--correlated significantly and negatively with acceptance of illness. Differences in the frequency of health-related behavior were also found due to gender (women showing more healthy nutritional habits than men, age (older subjects showing more frequent health-promoting behavior, education (higher education was associated with less frequent health-promoting behavior and marital status (widowed subjects reporting more frequent health-promoting behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related behavior in patients with chronic diseases seems to be unrelated to a specific diagnosis; however it shows associations with both internal and external HLC. Sociodemographic factors are also crucial factors determining frequency of health-related behavior in such patients.
Galvin Alaan Galeon
Full Text Available Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R, Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.
Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M
Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.
Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Reid, Allecia E; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M; Kershaw, Trace
This study examined the relationship between the traditional masculine norms ("status," "toughness" and "antifemininity") of 296 ethnically and racially diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood and substance use (smoking, alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs) and health behaviors (diet, exercise). Participants were recruited from urban obstetric clinics in the Northeast United States. Logistic and multiple regression equations were constructed to examine the relationship between masculine norms and health behaviors. Moderator effects were also examined. Masculine norm "status" was most endorsed and "antifemininity" was least endorsed. African American young men had higher masculine norm scores than Latino and Whites. Different masculine norms were associated with health-promoting and health-undermining behaviors. Different racial groups who had higher scores on some masculine norms were more likely to engage in either health-promoting or health-undermining behaviors when compared with other ethnic groups in this study. These results observed different relationships between the traditional masculine norms measured and the substance use and health behaviors of diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood. This may have implications for intervention strategies and future research.
Sun, Ye-Huan; Yu, Tak-Sun Ignatius; Tong, Shi-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Li, Wei
This study examined the status of health-related behaviors among rural residents and the factors influencing the practice of such behaviors. One thousand and ninety subjects aged 15 years or over in a rural community, Anhui Province, China were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the health knowledge, attitude and behavior of the subjects. Information on health behavior included smoking, drinking, dietary habits, regular exercises, sleeping pattern and oral health behavior. The prevalence of smoking and drinking in the male subjects was 46.5% and 46.9%, respectively. There was a positive significant association between smoking and drinking. Only 8.3% of all subjects ate three regular meals a day regularly. Among subjects who ate two meals a day, 89.7% did not have breakfast. Only 1.7% of subjects took part in regular exercise. About 85% of subjects slept 6 to 8 h per day. Only 38.4% of the respondents had the habit of hand washing before eating and after using the lavatory. 79.3% of the subjects brushed their teeth every day, and among them, only 10.6 percent brushed their teeth twice a day. Further analyses showed that 64.8% of subjects had 3-5 items of positive health behaviors out of 8 items and only 16.9% had six or more items. Logistical regression analyses suggested that better health behavior was affected by sex, age, years of education, income and health knowledge. The status of health behaviors among rural residents was generally poor. It is thus urgent to reinforce health education in rural communities in China.
Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía
This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song
status among the eighth graders of South Korea. The overall satisfaction of life was associated with the socioeconomic position indicators. Further research efforts are needed to explore the mechanisms on how and why the socioeconomic position affects the health and health related behaviors in this age group.
Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.
Wilke, Sarah; Jones, Paul W; Müllerova, H
BACKGROUND: Poor health status has been associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. To date, the impact of changes in health status on these outcomes remains unknown. AIMS: To explore the relationship of clinically relevant changes in health status with exacerbation, hospitalis...
Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.
Noh, Jin-Won; Yun, Hyo-Young; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi-Eun
The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, pKorea (t=2.02, preligion (t=2.17, preligion (t=4.21, pKorea (t=2.04, pNorth Korean adolescent refugees.
Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon
Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019
Full Text Available There is little information on the oral health status on the visual impairment in Thailand. Objective: To investigate the oral health status and dental treatment needs of visual impaired Thai. Method: The subjects were 146 visual impairment (70 males and 76 females, mean age 48.8+5.9, who live in Phitsanuloke, Thailand. Information on self-perceived oral health problems, oral function and oral health behavior was obtained via questionnaires. Oral examinations investigated the DMFT, The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index:(OHI-S and prosthetic needs index. Results: The mean DMFT score was 16.0 (DT=4.4, MT=10.2, FT=1.4, the mean number of teeth present was15.5. Thirty-five percent of subjects needed dental fillings and 12.3% required tooth extractions. The percentage of visual impairment had periodontal disease were 34.8 and mean OHIS score were 2.52. Thirty-eight percent of subjects need both upper and lower partial dentures. Visual impaired suffer from oral function problems (speaking problem 26.5%, swallow problem 32.6%, taste problem 29.2 and chewing problem 45.2%. Conclusion: The oral health status of visual impairment was poor due to high levels of tooth loss, caries experience and periodontal disease. Oral health and oral function amongst the visual impairment is a public health concern. Therefore, the important of a preventive approach and service delivery programs to improve the oral health condition of this population.
Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan
To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320
Full Text Available To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS, we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7% occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P=0.000 and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45 compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70, but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P<0.05. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS.
Brewer, Noel T; DeFrank, Jessica T; Gilkey, Melissa B
Risk beliefs are central to most theories of health behavior, yet many unanswered questions remain about an increasingly studied risk construct, anticipated regret. The authors sought to better understand anticipated regret's role in motivating health behaviors. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies of anticipated regret and behavioral intentions or health behavior. They used random effects meta-analysis to synthesize effect sizes from 81 studies (n = 45,618). Anticipated regret was associated with both intentions (r+ = .50, p emotions and risk appraisals. Anticipated inaction regret has a stronger and more stable association with health behavior than previously thought. The field should give greater attention to understanding how anticipated regret differs from similar constructs, its role in health behavior theory, and its potential use in health behavior interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.
Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...
Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua
To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.
McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A
Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.
Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam
Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254
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Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel
Publisher's version, source: http://10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00727. Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being i...
Glascoe, Frances Page
This study was undertaken to determine which parental concerns are most associated with significant behavioral/emotional problems and the extent to which parents' concerns can be depended on in the detection of mental health problems. An additional goal is to view how well a recently published screening test relying on parents' concerns, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), detects behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects were a national sample of 472 parents and their children (21 months to 8 years old) who were participants in 1 of 2 test standardization and validation studies. Sites included various pediatric settings, public schools, and Head Start programs in 5 diverse geographic locations. Subjects were representative of U.S. demographics in terms of ethnicity, parental level of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. At each site, psychological examiners, educational diagnosticians, or school psychologists recruited families, and obtained informed consent. Examiners disseminated a demographics questionnaire (in English or Spanish) and a developmental screening test that relies on parents' concerns (PEDS). Examiners were blinded to PEDS' scoring and interpretation administered either by interview or in writing, the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) or the Possible Problems Checklist (PPC), a subtest of the Child Development Inventory that includes items measuring emotional well-being and behavioral self-control. PEDS was used to sort children into risk for developmental disabilities according to various types of parental concern. Those identified as having high or moderate risk were nominated for diagnostic testing or screening followed by developmental and mental health services when indicated. Because their emotional and behavioral needs would have been identified and addressed, these groups were removed from the analysis (N = 177). Of the 295 children who would not have been nominated for further scrutiny on PEDS due to their
Full Text Available To analyze the relationship of nutritional status with oral health status among visual impairment. The subjects were 146 elderly people (70 males and 76 females aged 20-72 years (mean 48.8±6.2 years, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA questionnaires were administered. Oral examinations investigated the number of present teeth, DMFT and Functional Tooth Units (FTUs. According to the MNA score, 44.5% of subjects were categorized as normal nutrition, 47.3% as questionable, and 8.2 % as malnutrition. The mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs were 17.8±6.9 and 6.9±3.2, respectively. Subjects with malnutrition had lower numbers of present teeth (10.7±1.4 and FTUs (4.3±1.7 than those with normal nutrition (20.2±0.7 and 12.3±0.5 (p≤0.05. Nutritional status of visual impaired Thai was associated with mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs. Keeping many natural teeth or having appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures would prevention malnutrition.
Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael
Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18-64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N = 1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael
Background Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. Objective We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Methods Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18–64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N=1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Results Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs. 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs. 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs. 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Conclusion Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower-income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. PMID:26242551
Full Text Available Background Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is one of the fastest stages of human development which is simultaneous to start of puberty. This study aimed to investigate the puberty health status among adolescent girls through a model- based educational program. Materials and Methods The current study was an interventional quasi-experimental research. It was conducted on 152 girls aged 13 to 15 years old on the city of Qom- Iran. To select the subjects, first an education zone was randomly selected. In that zone, two schools were randomly selected as the intervention and control groups (76 for interventional group and 76 for control group.After confirming the reliability and validity of a researcher-made questionnaire, it was used to collect the required data via self-reports. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results The mean age and menarche of the students were 13.59 ± 0.87 and 12.38 ± 0.99 years, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge and behavior in intervention and control groups after educational intervention, so that the mean scores of knowledge and behavior about puberty health in the intervention group were higher than the control group (P 0.05. Conclusion As the results showed, before the intervention the status of knowledge, attitude toward puberty health, and behavior about puberty health of the studied students was not favorable. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the need for educational interventions and the role of health professionals in this field.
Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco
Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…
Wang, Qing; Zhang, Huyang; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai
Childhood health in China was poor in the 1950s and 1960s because of limited nutrition. In the last three decades, China has distinguished itself through its tremendous economic growth and improvements in health and nutrition. However, prior to such growth, access to good nutrition was more variable, with potentially important implications, not only for childhood health, but also for adult health, because of its long-term effects lasting into adulthood. To shed light on these issues, this study examined the long-run association between childhood health and adult health outcomes among a middle-aged Chinese population and addresses the endogeneity of childhood health. A nationwide database from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was employed. Three adult health outcomes variables were used: self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function. The local variation in grain production in the subjects' fetal period and the first 24 months following birth was employed as an instrument for childhood health in order to correct for its endogeneity. Childhood health recalled by the respondents was positively and significantly associated with their adult health outcomes in terms of self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function in single-equation estimates that did not correct for the endogeneity of childhood health. A good childhood health status increased the probabilities of good adult health, good adult cognitive function, and good adult physical function by 16% (95% CI: 13-18%), 13% (95% CI: 10-15%), and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%), respectively. After correcting for endogeneity, the estimated effects of good childhood health were consistent but stronger. We also studied the male and female populations separately, finding that the positive effects of childhood health on adult health were larger for males. In China, childhood health significantly affects adult health. This suggests that early interventions to promote
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Silverman, Barry G; Mosley, Josh; Johns, Michael; Weaver, Ransom; Green, Melanie; Holmes, John; Kimmel, Stephen; Holmes, William
There is increasing evidence that interactive learning systems have an important role in reducing health risks and improving general health status. This theater style demonstration is aimed at harnessing people's passions for videogames and the movies, and a major purpose of this research is to explore alternative ways for a game generator to help authors to introduce entertainment and free play as well as learning by teaching into role playing games and interactive dramas that are behavioral interventions in disguise.
Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Zarafshan, Hadi; Wissow, Lawrence
The need for mental health care among children and adolescents in Iran, as in other low and middle income countries (LAMIC) remains mostly unmet. In this paper, we sought to provide an overview of the extent of unmet need and mental health services in Iran. We also aimed to propose approaches to address this gap. We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies of child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems in Iran. We also examined the current status of child mental health services and the gaps between current needs and available services based on published literature that included papers published in scientific journals, as well as governmental and other administrative reports. The contextual issues relevant to child mental health care were also explored, as well as the possibilities to introduce new or scale up promising services. Child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems are highly prevalent in Iran. Different studies have estimated that 16.7% to 36.4% of children and adolescents suffer from one or more mental health problems. However, there is a serious scarcity of resources to meet this need. Available services are delivered by independent public organizations (e.g., Ministry of Health, Welfare Organization, and Ministry of Education) or private sector with inefficient communication and collaboration among them and no mandatory national mental health policy. Available specialized child and adolescent services are mostly confined to small inpatient units and university outpatient facilities in larger cities, and there is a scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the available services. Expansion of primary care's role in timely detection and management of child and adolescent mental health problems, implementation of task-shifting and -sharing initiatives, as well as improved collaboration among responsible governmental and non-governmental sectors are some of the most promising future venues to improve mental health care for
Merrill, Ray M
To evaluate the effectiveness of a wellness program delivered by WellSteps, LLC, aimed at improving employee health behaviors in small companies that lack the resources to independently develop and manage a wellness program. Analyses are based on 618 employees from five diverse companies that completed an initial personal health assessment. Exercise and dietary behaviors significantly improved across the five companies. Significant improvements in health perception and life satisfaction also resulted and were associated with improvements in health behaviors. Three of the five companies, each with fewer than 50 employees, were most effective in influencing positive health behaviors, health perceptions, and life satisfaction. The worksite wellness program effectively improved health behaviors, health perceptions, and life satisfaction.
Reuben, Cynthia A; Pastor, Patricia N
Past studies have shown that specific child conditions are associated with poor school outcomes. A national health survey with noncategorical measures of health and indicators of school functioning offers the opportunity to examine this association. To compare links between two health measures (children with special health care needs and general health status) and multiple school outcomes. The analysis was based on 59,440 children aged 6-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Child health was assessed using the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) screener and a question on general health status. CSHCN were classified by the complexity of their health care needs. Indicators of school functioning included special education use, many problem reports, repeated a grade, lack of school engagement, and many missed school days. Overall 22% of children were identified as CSHCN: 13% with more complex needs (C-CSHCN) and 9% with medication use only (CSHCN-RX). Approximately 17% of children were in less than optimal health. After controlling for a child's sociodemographic characteristics C-CSHCN had an increased risk of all of the negative school outcomes compared to children without SHCN, while CSHCN-RX had an increased risk of only one school outcome (many missed school days). Children in less than optimal health were at an increased risk of all negative school outcomes compared to children in optimal health. The CSHCN screener and health status question identify related, but distinct, groups of children with worse outcomes on the indicators of school functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
van Berkel, Kelly; Reeves, Brenda
Problem: While stress is universal for graduate students, the difference in terms of stress symptoms and the effects on health behavior is how students cope. While numerous research studies have linked stress and negative health behaviors, few studies have objectively assessed these variables. Purpose: Utilize current health and fitness technology…
Weaver, James B; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Mays, Darren; Hopkins, Gary L; Kannenberg, Wendi; McBride, Duane
Converging evidence from culturally diverse contexts indicates that sexually explicit media use behavior (SEMB; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with risky sexual health perceptions and behaviors, many that involve high risks of HIV/STD transmission. Essentially unexplored, and the focus here, are potential relationships between SEMB and nonsexual mental- and physical-health indicators. Variability in six continuously measured health indicators (depressive symptoms, mental- and physical-health diminished days, health status, quality of life, and body mass index) was examined across two levels (users, nonusers) of SEMB. A sample of 559 Seattle-Tacoma Internet-using adults was surveyed in 2006. Multivariate general linear models parameterized in a SEMB by respondent gender (2 × 2) factorial design were computed incorporating adjustments for several demographics. SEMB was reported by 36.7% (n = 205) of the sample. Most SEMB users (78%) were men. After adjusting for demographics, SEMB users, compared to nonusers, reported greater depressive symptoms, poorer quality of life, more mental- and physical-health diminished days, and lower health status. The findings show that mental- and physical-health indicators vary significantly across SEMB, suggesting the value of incorporating these factors in future research and programmatic endeavors. In particular, the findings suggest that evidence-based sexual health promotion strategies simultaneously addressing individuals' SEMB and their mental health needs might be a useful approach to improve mental health and address preventable sexual health outcomes associated with SEMB. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Gil-Montoya, J A; Subirá, C; Ramón, J M; González-Moles, M A
This study examines whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with malnutrition risk in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was designed using a representative sample of Spaniards over 65 years old. Data on sociodemographics and oral health status were gathered by interview and examination. Oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and malnutrition risk using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The final sample included 2,860 elderly, 41.7 percent males and 58.3 percent females, with a mean age of 73.7 +/- 6.8 years. Mean GOHAI score was 52.1 +/- 7.2, with 70.7 percent of the sample needing oral health care according to this index. The mean MNA score was 24.0 +/- 3.31; 3.5 percent of the elderly were malnourished, 31.5 percent were at risk of malnutrition, and 65.0 percent were considered adequately nourished. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...
Rundle, Andrew G; Revenson, Tracey A; Friedman, Michael
Assess associations between business travel and behavioral and mental health. Cross-sectional analyses of de-identified electronic medical record data from EHE International, Inc. a provider of corporate wellness programs. Higher levels of business travel were associated with poorer outcomes. Compared to traveling 1-6 nights/month for work, those who traveled 21 + nights were more likely to: smoke (prevalence ratio = 3.74, 95% CI 2.56, 5.46), report trouble sleeping (PR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71), be sedentary (PR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.56, 2.43) and score above clinical thresholds for alcohol dependence (CAGE score>1: PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.26, 3.29), and mild or worse anxiety (GAD-7 Score>4: PR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.29, 2.21) and depression symptoms (PHQ-9 Score>4: PR = 2.27, 95%CI 1.70, 3.03). Employers should provide programs to help employees manage stress and maintain health while traveling for work.
Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.
Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.
Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius
Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.
da Silva Dalben, Gisele; Teixeira das Neves, Lucimara; Ribeiro Gomide, Marcia
There is a lack of data on the oral health status of individuals with craniofacial syndromes. A group of 15 children with Treacher Collins syndrome, aged 5 to 15 years old, was examined and evaluated for plaque, caries and gingival problems. The ability of the patients to clean their teeth was also investigated. A high plaque index and poor efficacy of tooth-brushing was recorded. The caries and gingival indexes were not proportionally as high as the plaque accumulation. There was no association between the gingival index and presence of mouth breathing. There was predominance of the D component in both the dmft and DMFT indexes; this was associated with a need for restorative dental treatment in 60% of the patients, which indicated the need for dental care for these patients. Caretakers should be informed of the importance of oral health and oral hygiene and encouraged to take responsibility for the oral care of the children living at home.
Arnold, C W
Race, ethnicity, and gender are significant indicators of occupational status, general health status, and thus, occupational health status. Although African-American women constitute only 6.8% of the total U.S. labor force, they hold 20% of the jobs in the health care industry and are disproportionately represented in those jobs that have the highest levels of workplace exposure to hazards. As a result, they are therefore more likely to be at greater exposure and risk to the spectrum of occupational health problems. In order to gain insight into the effects of race and gender on the occupational health status of African-American women health care workers, this article uses three data sources that provide different but complementary sources of information on the demographic characteristics of workers, location of categories of occupations, working conditions of jobs, and other job and worker characteristics. Given the concentration of African-American women in health care positions where there exists a greater likelihood of being exposed to occupational hazards, it is therefore both logical and appropriate for primary care physicians, especially those engaged in office-based practices, to identify this target population for special services and to be more aware of the type of health issues with which these patients are more likely to present and to experience during their working lives. Health care providers have a responsibility to assess occupational factors related to a patient's health problems and to incorporate this information into their treatment protocols and into the design and explanation of each patient's care plan.
Stanley, Christopher T.; Stanley, Lauren H. K.
An individual's identity related to health is critically important in terms of the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, and guides approaches to health change across the lifespan. This article presents a review of the literature and proposes a health socialization and health identity framework, which may be used to clarify challenges in…
Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng
Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.
Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran
To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.
Parrish, Amanda T; Hammerback, Kristen; Hannon, Peggy A; Mason, Caitlin; Wilkie, Michelle N; Harris, Jeffrey R
The aim of this study was to identify alignments between wellness offerings low socioeconomic status (SES) employees need and those large companies can provide. Focus groups (employees); telephone interviews (large companies). Employees were low-SES, insured through their employers, and employed by large Washington State companies. Focus groups covered perceived barriers to healthy behaviors at work and potential support from companies. Interviews focused on priorities for employee health and challenges reaching low-SES employees. Seventy-seven employees participated in eight focus groups; 12 companies completed interviews. Employees identified facilitators and barriers to healthier work environments; companies expressed care for employees, concerns about employee obesity, and reluctance to discuss SES. Our findings combine low-SES employee and large company perspectives and indicate three ways workplaces could most effectively support low-SES employee health: create healthier workplace food environments; prioritize onsite physical activity facilities; use clearer health communications.
Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana
This cross-sectional pilot project measured differences by HIV status in chronic health conditions, primary care and emergency department use, and high-risk behaviors of homeless persons through self-report. Using selective random sampling, 244 individuals were recruited from a homeless shelter. The reported HIV prevalence was 6.56% (n = 16), with the odds of HIV higher in persons reporting crack cocaine use. HIV-infected persons were more likely to report a source of regular medical care and less likely to use the emergency department than uninfected persons. Validation of findings through exploration of HIV and health care access in homeless persons is needed to confirm that HIV-infected homeless persons are more likely to have primary care. Distinctions between primary care and specialty HIV care also need to be explored in this context. If findings are consistent, providers who care for the homeless could learn more effective ways to engage homeless patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.
Merglova, Vlasta; Hecova, Hana; Stehlikova, Jaroslava; Chaloupka, Pavel
The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies. A case-control study of 142 pregnant women was conducted. The case group included 81 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies, while 61 women with normal pregnancies served as controls. The following variables were recorded for each woman: age, general health status, DMF, CPITN, and PBI index, amounts of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental treatment needs. The Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-squared test were used for statistical analyses. Statistically significant differences were detected between the PBI indices and dental treatment needs of the two groups. Out of the entire study cohort, 77% of the women in the case group and 52% of the women in the control group required dental treatment. In this study, women with complications during pregnancy had severe gingivitis and needed more frequent dental treatment than those in the control group.
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
Full Text Available Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school.The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval. The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year; 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report.For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems.In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki
Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could
Arruda, Marco A; Querido, Cícero Nardini; Bigal, Marcelo E; Polanczyk, Guilherme V
To assess the prevalence of ADHD, mental health status, and risk factors in a sample of Brazilian children. Target sample consisted of all children from 5 to 13 years registered in the public elementary school. Children with ADHD were compared with those without ADHD for sociodemographic, risk factors, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) symptom dimensions. Multivariate models estimated determinants of ADHD diagnosis. Of the target sample, consents and complete information were obtained from 1,830 children (91.8%). The prevalence rate of ADHD was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 6.2]). In contrast to controls, children with ADHD presented higher levels of symptoms in the CBCL dimensions. In multivariate analyses, the diagnosis of ADHD was significantly influenced by maternal educational status (p = .019), income class (p = .012), and prenatal exposure to tobacco (p = .032). Prevalence and demographic features of ADHD in Brazil are similar to what has been reported worldwide. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. It is generally recognized that those poorer and less educated are more likely to have unhealthy behaviors. These disparities by socio-economic status (SES are observed with regards to different behaviors known to influence health outcomes in terms of diseases and deaths. However, this consistent pattern was found in population-wide studies in developed countries, while in certain demographic groups it was not seen. So the objective was to check if the SES-behavior association pattern was present in available data collected in Ukraine.METHODS. For current study, all available datasets were considered if they included data on SES, education, and gender. Outcomes were measurements of health behaviors including use of psychoactive substances, food consumption, and physical activity.RESULTS. Prevalence of many health behaviors differs in men and women in Ukraine. More men than women use legal and illegal drugs. With regard to education and SES, Ukrainian data reveals either absence of association found in developed countries or its inverted pattern: till recently, women with university education were more likely to smoke than those less educated; teenagers from more affluent families use alcohol more likely than those from poorer ones.CONCLUSION. Inconsistency of SES-behavior association patterns in Ukraine with those seen in the West may be due to a different perception of health behaviors in people who grew up in the former Soviet Union. Behaviors pertinent to men were considered rather masculine and risky than those health-related. We theorize that the revealed absence of SES-behavior association may be because the behaviors are not perceived as those related to health which is an important resource for life. If a behavior is not known as a ‘health behavior’, the society is less likely to stratify with regard to its practicing. So, if the hypothesis is correct, there may be more disparities in younger cohorts than in older ones
Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G
The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social
Condição socioeconômica, frequência de escovação dentária e comportamentos em saúde em adolescentes brasileiros: uma análise a partir da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE Socioeconomic status, toothbrushing frequency, and health-related behaviors in adolescents: an analysis using the PeNSE database
Mario Vianna Vettore
Full Text Available Investigou-se a associação entre comportamentos relacionados à saúde bucal e geral e condição socioeconômica, e a relação entre comportamentos relacionados à saúde e escovação dentária em adolescentes. A base de dados utilizada foi da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, um estudo transversal de base populacional realizado em 2009 com alunos das 27 capitais brasileiras. Informações sociodemográficas e comportamentos relacionados à saúde foram coletados. O estudo envolveu 49.189 adolescentes (47,5% do sexo masculino, sendo a maioria com 14 anos de idade e de escola pública. A frequência de escovação dentária assim como outros comportamentos relacionados à saúde se associou com a condição socioeconômica de maneira distinta entre sexos. Foram observadas associações entre hábitos relacionados à saúde e a frequência de escovação dentária em ambos os sexos, porém com variações conforme a condição socioeconômica. O planejamento de intervenções para promoção da saúde de adolescentes deve levar em conta suas características individuais, o contexto familiar e social.This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE, a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males, the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to
Yoon, Hyun-Suk; Cho, Young-Chae
The present study was intended to assess the mental health of nurses working for university hospitals and to establish which factors determine their mental health. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1,486 nurses employed in six participating hospitals located in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province between July 1st and August 31st, 2006. The questionnaire items included sociodemographic, job-related, and psychosocial factors, with job stress factors (JCQ) as independent variables and indices of mental health status (PWI, SDS and MFS) as dependent variables. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables, with hierarchical multiple regression used for determining the factors effecting mental health. The influence of psychosocial and job-related factors on mental health status was assessed by covariance structure analysis. The statistical significance was set at pnurses included sociodemographic characteristics such as age, number of hours of sleep, number of hours of leisure, and subjective health status; job-related characteristics such as status, job satisfaction, job suitability, stresses such as demands of the job, autonomy, and coworker support; and psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, locus of control and type A behavior patterns. Psychosocial factors had the greatest impact on mental health. Covariance structure analysis determined that psychosocial factors affected job stress levels and mental health status, and that the lower job stress levels were associated with better mental health. Based on the study results, improvement of mental health status among nurses requires the development and application of programs to manage job stress factors and/or psychosocial factors as well as sociodemographic and job-related characteristics.
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status of a sample of prisoners at the Federal Prison in Enugu. The health status of inmates in the prison system needs to be incorporated into data and reports that summarize the state of the nation's health; this will encourage the provision of health care to ...
Background: Oral health is an important and often neglected component of an older person's general health and well- being. Objectives: To determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods: The oral health status of 95 elderly patients who presented at the General outpatient clinic of the Obafemi ...
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita
Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.
Ghatak, S; Singh, B B
Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.
Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke
The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu
The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.
Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka
Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...
Myers, Dennis R; Rogers, Robin K; LeCrone, Harold H; Kelley, Katherine
Types of compromised resident behaviors licensed nursing facility social workers encounter, the behavioral health role they enact, and effective practices they apply have not been the subject of systematic investigation. Analyses of 20 in-depth interviews with Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)/Master of Social Work (MSW) social workers averaging 8.8 years of experience identified frequently occurring resident behaviors: physical and verbal aggression/disruption, passive disruption, socially and sexually inappropriateness. Six functions of the behavioral health role were care management, educating, investigating, preventing, mediating, and advocating. Skills most frequently applied were attention/affirmation/active listening, assessment, behavior management, building relationship, teamwork, and redirection. Narratives revealed role rewards as well as knowledge deficits, organizational barriers, personal maltreatment, and frustrations. Respondents offered perspectives and prescriptions for behavioral health practice in this setting. The findings expand understanding of the behavioral health role and provide an empirical basis for more research in this area. Recommendations, including educational competencies, are offered.
Murray, Terra C; Rodgers, Wendy M; Fraser, Shawn N
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between control beliefs, socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. Specifically, we examined whether distal and proximal control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. A one time, cross sectional mail out survey (N = 350) was conducted in a large urban Canadian city. Distal (i.e., personal constraints) and proximal (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise, explaining approximately 30% of the variance. Proximal control beliefs (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) partially mediated the association between socioeconomic status and intentions, with the models explaining approximately 50% of the variance. Compared to individuals with lower socioeconomic status, individuals with higher socioeconomic status reported more exercise and stronger intentions to exercise. This was at least partly because higher socioeconomic status respondents reported fewer barriers in their lives, and were more confident to cope with the scheduling demands of exercise.
Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.
McBride, Colleen M; Bryan, Angela D; Bray, Molly S; Swan, Gary E; Green, Eric D
The National Human Genome Research Institute recommends pursuing "genomic information to improve behavior change interventions" as part of its strategic vision for genomics. The limited effectiveness of current behavior change strategies may be explained, in part, by their insensitivity to individual variation in adherence responses. The first step in evaluating whether genomics can inform customization of behavioral recommendations is evidence reviews to identify adherence macrophenotypes common across behaviors and individuals that have genetic underpinnings. Conceptual models of how biological, psychological, and environmental factors influence adherence also are needed. Researchers could routinely collect biospecimens and standardized adherence measurements of intervention participants to enable understanding of genetic and environmental influences on adherence, to guide intervention customization and prospective comparative effectiveness studies.
Felipe Q. da Luz
Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.
da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth
Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484
Health status of the under-fives. Fifty-nine (87%) of the 68 children were examined, and 29% were found to have a condition considered as requiring medical treatment. These were: upper respiratory infections in 5, scabies in 4~ impetigo in 4, and severe malnutrition in 4 children. Three children had Tinea capiris infections.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...
Full Text Available Under the Japan – Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement, more than 1,000 of Indonesian health care workers have migrated to Japan. Social adjustment during the process of migration is linked to mental health changes. This study aimed to figure out the strongest predictor that influences the change in mental health status as a result of migration. Baseline data were collected in Jakarta in 2013 during pre-departure orientation. Follow-up study was conducted one year after the study participants migrated to Japan in 2014. Using longitudinal design, this study employed 92 participants consisting of nurse and certified care worker candidates. The multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to figure out the predictors that influence the change in mental health status. The prediction model expected to explain 39.9% of the change in mental health status, p value < 0.01, while sex (b = 0.201, p value < 0.05, economic conditions in pre-migration (b = -0.200, p value < 0.05, and the socio cultural adaptation competency (b = -0.238, p value < 0.05. This finding assumed that female candidates and those who have economic constraint in pre-migration stage, and those who have declining in socio-cultural adaptation competency tend to have lower mental health one year after the migration.
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...
Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Ward, Michael M
Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one's thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the association between time perspective and both education level and occupation. We asked participants (N=525) to complete a questionnaire that included three subscales (future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic) of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Participants with more formal education and those with professional occupations had higher scores on the future time perspective subscale, and lower scores on the present-fatalistic subscale, than participants with less formal education or a non-professional occupation. Present-fatalistic scores were also higher among participants whose parents had less formal education. Present-hedonistic scores were not associated with either education level or professional occupation. Time perspective scores were not independently associated with the likelihood of obesity, smoking, or exercise. In this community sample, future time perspective was associated with current socioeconomic status, and past-fatalistic time perspective was associated with both current and childhood socioeconomic status.
Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Cloud computing technology has recently been seen as an important milestone in medical informatics development. Despite its great potential, there are gaps in our understanding of how users evaluate change in relation to the health cloud and how they decide to resist it. Integrating technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives, this study develops an integrated model to explain healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud service and their intention to resist it. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from healthcare professionals; a structural equation model was used to examine the data. A valid sample of 209 healthcare professionals was collected for data analysis. The results show that healthcare professionals' resistance to the use of the health cloud is the result of regret avoidance, inertia, perceived value, switching costs, and perceived threat. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control are shown to have positive and direct effects on healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud. The results also indicate a significant negative effect in the relationship between healthcare professionals' intention and resistance to using the health cloud. Our study illustrates the importance of incorporating user resistance in technology acceptance studies in general and in health technology usage studies in particular. This study also identifies key factors for practitioners and hospitals to make adoption decisions in relation to the health cloud. Further, the study provides a useful reference for future studies in this subject field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling
The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…
Full Text Available Background: People at or over the age of 60, constitute above 7.7% of total population. Traditionally this segment of population depends on their children for their health and social welfare, However owing to the social and cultural changes that are taking place within the Indian society, this support may not be as readily available, as it is believed. With the changing demography of India, there is urgent need to look at the health status of elderly for planning appropriate health facilities for them. Objectives: To study biosocial, nutritional and chronic disease risk factor profile of elderly population. Methods: Cross-sectional Study was conducted in Doiwala block of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. 122 elderly persons of age 60 years and above were interviewed on predesigned questionnaire by house to house visit in the selected village. Results: Overall prevalence of risk factors found to be higher amongst elderly females. Unutrition was higher amongst elderly males. In all, 48.6% elderly were underweight ,10.3% were overweight and 5.6% cases were in obese category. As per the Waist and hip ratio 47.2% elderly belonged to the moderate to high risk category. 30.8% people were hypertensive. Conclusions: Prevalence of high-risk factors for chronic diseases is quite high amongst elderly population, especially amongst elderly females.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Krause, Neal; Emmons, Robert A; Ironson, Gail
This study has two goals. The first is to assess whether a benevolent image of God is associated with better physical health. The second goal is to examine the aspects of congregational life that is associated with a benevolent image of God. Data from a new nationwide survey (N = 1774) are used to test the following core hypotheses: (1) people who attend worship services more often and individuals who receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., informal assistance that is intended to increase the religious beliefs and behaviors of the recipient) will have more benevolent images of God, (2) individuals who believe that God is benevolent will feel more grateful to God, (3) study participants who are more grateful to God will be more hopeful about the future, and (4) greater hope will be associated with better health. The data provide support for each of these relationships.
Anne Marie Chomat
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain background information about maternal health and health-seeking behaviors among indigenous mothers living in rural Mam-Mayan communities of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 100 pregnant and breastfeeding women in four communities was performed to determine prevalence and determinants of service utilization. RESULTS: Extreme poverty, poor education, and poor access to basic resources were prevalent. Out of 100 women 14-41 years old, 33% did not use the formal health care sector for antenatal care; the majority consulted a traditional birth attendant. Only 13% delivered in a hospital. Lower socioeconomic status, lack of fluency in Spanish, and no ownership of a motorized vehicle were associated with the highest likelihood of poor utilization of services. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of factors affect utilization of maternal health services by indigenous women in rural Quetzaltenango. These include socioeconomic disparities, ethnic and linguistic differences, and poor access to basic resources. The current reproductive needs of women should be addressed to improve their health and increase their chance of having healthy children.
Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J
Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.
Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo
The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Alias, Siti Noormi; Ismail, Maimunah
Purpose: This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of philanthropic behavior of volunteers in the health care sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on an extensive review of past research on philanthropic behavior. To conduct the literature review, keywords such as philanthropy, philanthropic behavior, giving, donating,…
Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health ...
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.
Ohaeri Jude U
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional
Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare
Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jie-Yu; Yang, Le-Bin; Jiang, Ping-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Fei; Wu, Sheng-Wei; Ji, Yan-Zhao; Zhao, Xiao-Shan; Luo, Ren
To investigate associations between health-promoting lifestyle and suboptimal health status (SHS) in the population of Guangdong province. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a clustered sample of 24 159 individuals aged 12-80 years from 2012 to 2013. Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), and SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24159 participants, subjects with SHS (46.0%) and disease status (35.2%) accounted for a much higher percentage than healthy subjects (18.8%). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (PUnhealthy lifestyle was an important risk factor for SHS and disease, especially the former. Compared with the participants with a healthy lifestyle (minimal exposure), after demographic adjustment, subjects with a 'poor' lifestyle (maximal exposure) were at a 43 times higher risk of developing SHS (OR: 42.825, 95% CI: 30.567-59.997), those with a general lifestyle were at a 21 times higher risk of SHS (OR: 21.072, 95%CI: 17.258-25.729), and those with a suboptimal lifestyle had a 4 times higher risk (OR: 4.085, 95%CI: 3.352-4.979). In the general population, the major risk factors for SHS included poor stress management, poor self-actualization, inactive exercise and poor interpersonal relationship. s Unhealthy lifestyles are significantly related to an increased risk of SHS. Intervention of unhealthy lifestyles, controlling the risk factors of SHS, and rigorous management of the time window of SHS are necessary to promote the heath status.
Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.
This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
Janssen, Onne; Gao, Liping
We investigated the role of employees' status appraisals within their work group in relation to their challenging-promotive voice behavior. We argued that fair and respectful treatment of their voice input by the authority figure of the group (i.e., supervisory responsiveness) enhances employees'
McGrath, Marianne P.; Brown, Bethany C.
Developmental theories of prosocial reasoning and behavior posit a transition from concrete (e.g., give a toy to receive one) to abstract (e.g., spend time to make someone happy) forms and have been supported with research on middle-socioeconomic status (SES), White samples. The methodology that researchers have used to date has restricted the…
Pouwels, J.L.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we
Schwehr, Ethan; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.
This study was an examination of the possible influence of a child's pre-identified disability on parent and teacher behavior ratings and whether a child's disability status affected parent ratings, when controlling for parenting stress. The sample included 206 kindergarten through third grade students and their teachers and parents from a…
Janssen, Onne; Gao, Liping
We investigated the role of employees' status appraisals within their work group in relation to their challenging-promotive voice behavior. We argued that fair and respectful treatment of their voice input by the authority figure of the group (i.e., supervisory responsiveness) enhances employees'
Mitchell, Linda G.
A review of research suggests that female participation in the work force in the United States creates change in the socioeconomic status of women and thus in their consumer behavior. In 1950, 25 percent of married women were in the labor force; in 1975, 44 percent worked outside the home. The increasing number of married working women has led to…
So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo
This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.
Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…
Rosenberger, J.; van Dijk, J.P.; Nagyova, I.; Roland, R.; Geckova, A.M.; van den Heuvel, W.J.; Groothoff, J.W.
Background. Quality of life and perceived health status (PHS) are important indicators of patient care together with morbidity, mortality and health-care resource utilization. The aim of this study is to explore how various medical conditions might influence perceived health status. Methods. The
Tishuk, E A; Plavunov, N F; Soboleva, N P
Based on vast comprehensive medical statistical database, the authors analyze the health status of the population and the efficacy of public health service in Moscow. The pre-crisis tendencies and the modern status of public health under modern socioeconomic conditions are noted.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.
Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael
This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic <