The work of health service access points highlights the process of exclusion through marginalisation, the phenomenon of precarity and anthropological tensions between hospitality and inhospitality or between the desirable and undesirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest
as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.
Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia
The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Adolescent sexual and reproductive health access continues to dominate the development agenda since the historic 1994 Cairo Conference and becomes a huge public health concern for the increasing diverse of undocumented adolescents who have become an important component as irregular migration patterns and ...
socio-economic development because it is essential for a virile labour force ... Poverty and access to health care services are major development problems ..... including preventive, curative and palliative intervention, whether directed to.
Kimerling, Rachel; Baumrind, Nikki
The Anderson behavioral model was used to investigate racial and ethnic disparities in access to specialty mental health services among women in California as well as factors that might account for such disparities. The study was a cross-sectional examination of a probability sample of 3,750 California women. The main indicators of access to services were perceived need, service seeking, and service use. Multivariate models were constructed that accounted for need and enabling and demographic variables. Significant racial and ethnic variations in access to specialty mental health services were observed. African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women were significantly less likely to use specialty mental health services than white women. Multivariate analyses showed that Hispanic and Asian women were less likely than white women to report perceived need, even after frequent mental distress had been taken into account. Among women with perceived need, African-American and Asian women were less likely than white women to seek mental health services after differences in insurance status had been taken into account. Among women who sought services, Hispanic women were less likely than white women to obtain services after adjustment for the effects of poverty. Need and enabling factors did not entirely account for the observed disparities in access to services. Additional research is needed to identify gender- and culture-specific models for access to mental health services in order to decrease disparities in access. Factors such as perceived need and decisions to seek services are important factors that should be emphasized in future studies.
Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Lefèvre, Fernando; Lefèvre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão
To analyze the difficulties in accessibility to health services experienced by persons with disabilities. A qualitative study was performed with individuals who reported having a certain type of disability (paralysis or amputation of limbs; low vision, unilateral or total blindness; low hearing, unilateral or total deafness). A total of 25 individuals (14 women) were interviewed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between June and August 2007, responding to questions about transportation and accessibility to health services. Collective Subject Discourse was the methodology used to analyze results and analyses were performed with the Qualiquantisoft software. The analysis of discourses on transportation to health services revealed a diversity in terms of the user going to the service alone or accompanied; using a private car, public transportation or ambulance or walking; and requiring different times to arrive at the service. With regard to the difficulties in accessibility to health services, there were reports of delayed service, problems with parking, and lack of ramps, elevators, wheelchairs, doctors and adapted toilets. Individuals with a certain type of disability used various means of transportation, requiring someone to accompany them in some cases. Problems with accessibility to health services were reported by persons with disabilities, contradicting the principle of equity, a precept of the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Vinot, Anne-Laure; Rein, Lucile; Parigot, Chantal; Lambert, Fanny; Billon, Louise; Blanc, Myriam
Part of the health and social care landscape since 1998, health service access points (in French, permanences d'accès aux soins de santé) were set up in response to a health and social care problem. The objective is to help disadvantaged people integrate the healthcare pathway. The ultimate aim is to ensure everyone has access to the appropriate care at a fair price. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Rotarius, Timothy; Honrado, Jed C
Mental ill-health is a public health threat that is prevalent throughout the United States. Tens of millions of Americans have been diagnosed along the continuum of mental ill-health, and many more millions of family members and friends are indirectly affected by the pervasiveness of mental ill-health. Issues such as access and the societal stigma related to mental health issues serve as deterrents to patients receiving their necessary care. However, technological advances have shown the potential to increase access to mental health services for many patients.
Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A
The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peter M. Macharia
Full Text Available At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.
The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. It is a startling paradox that about two – thirds of Nigerians are poor despite living in a country with vast potential wealth. Apart from looking at the theoretical ...
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert
The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin
The perceived stigma represents a sociocultural barrier to access mental health services and prevents individuals who meet criteria for a mental disorder the possibility of receiving comprehensive and integred care. To update institutional mechanisms by which stigma related to mental disorders, perceived and perpetrated, acts as a barrier to mental health access. Stigma as a barrier to access to mental health services is due to a reduction in service requests, the allocation of limited resources to mental health, the systematic process of impoverishment of the people who suffer a mental disorder, increased risk of crime, and implications in contact with the legal system, and the invisibility of the vulnerability of these people. Structured awareness and education programs are needed to promote awareness about mental disorders, promote community-based psychosocial rehabilitation, and reintegration into productive life process. In Colombia, the frequency and variables associated with the stigma of mental disorders needs to be studied. This knowledge will enable the implementation of measures to promote the social and labor inclusion of people who meet the criteria for mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J
Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Gómez Gómez, Elsa
This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.
New research from the Africa Mental Health Foundation (AMHF), funded by the Global ... In 2004 he founded AMHF to address this gap in services. ... in an informal urban settlement to determine whether this strategy for mental health service ...
Tayyab Ikram Shah
Full Text Available Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods.This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population, was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons. An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations.The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs.The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood
Pérez-Urdiales, Iratxe; Goicolea, Isabel
To determine the perception of health professionals working in alternative health centres on the barriers and facilitators in the access by immigrant women to general public health services and sexual and reproductive health in the Basque Country. Basque Country. Analysis of qualitative content based on 11 individual interviews. Health professionals working in alternative health centres of Primary Care and sexual and reproductive health. Data collection was performed between September and December 2015 in four alternative health centres. After transcription, the units of meaning, codes and categories were identified. Four categories emerged from the analysis, which represented how the characteristics of immigrant women (Tell me how you are and I will tell you how to access), the attitude of the administrative and health staff ("When they are already taken care of"), the functioning of the health system (Inflexible, passive and needs-responsive health system), and health policies ("If you do not meet the requirements, you do not go in. The law is the law") influence access to health services of immigrant women. This study shows that there are a considerable number of barriers and few facilitators to the access by immigrant women to public health and sexual and reproductive health services in the Basque Country. The alternative health centres were presented as favouring the improvement of the health of the immigrant population and in their access. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa
Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or demographics affect TMH use. It was concluded that staff in neither deaf mental health services nor general mental health services had adequate knowledge of or access to TMH. Staff expressed concerns over TMH's appropriateness in their work. Previous use of videoconferencing was assosciated significantly with confidence, but previous use of videophones was not. Neither staff in deaf services nor deaf staff were more experienced with or more confident about videoconferencing, whereas, within deaf services, deaf staff were significantly more confident about videophone use. Training implications are discussed.
Munro-Ludders, Bruce; Simpatico, Thomas; Zvetina, Daria
Illinois Deaf Services 2000 (IDS2000), a public/private partnership, promotes the creation and implementation of strategies to develop and increase access to mental health services for deaf, hard of hearing, late-deafened, and deaf-blind consumers. IDS2000 has resulted in the establishment of service accessibility standards, a technical support and adherence monitoring system, and the beginnings of a statewide telepsychiatry service. These system modifications have resulted in increase by 60% from baseline survey data in the number of deaf, hard of hearing, late-deafened, and deaf-blind consumers identified in community mental-health agencies in Illinois. Depending on the situation of deaf services staff and infrastructure, much of IDS2000 could be replicated in other states in a mostly budget-neutral manner.
Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.; Wantz, Molly S.
The second National Health Education Standard states the importance of student demonstration of the ability to access valid health information and services. The teaching technique presented in this article provides an opportunity for children and adolescents to develop their health literacy and advocacy skills by contributing to a class resource…
AJRH Managing Editor
... Women's Access to SRH. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2015; 19 (1): 73 ... Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto,. South Africa. 1,2* ...... 04-164-020) (pp. i–91). Washington, DC: The.
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be highly affected with the HIV infection worldwide. Studies have shown that the organization of healthcare systems and how the MSM perceive it play a major role in granting or denying them access to healthcare services. Little is known in Tanzania regarding ...
McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J; Humphreys, John S
Objective Improving access to primary health care (PHC) remains a key issue for rural residents and health service planners. This study aims to show that how access to PHC services is measured has important implications for rural health service and workforce planning. Methods A more sophisticated tool to measure access to PHC services is proposed, which can help health service planners overcome the shortcomings of existing measures and long-standing access barriers to PHC. Critically, the proposed Index of Access captures key components of access and uses a floating catchment approach to better define service areas and population accessibility levels. Moreover, as demonstrated through a case study, the Index of Access enables modelling of the effects of workforce supply variations. Results Hypothetical increases in supply are modelled for a range of regional centres, medium and small rural towns, with resulting changes of access scores valuable to informing health service and workforce planning decisions. Conclusions The availability and application of a specific 'fit-for-purpose' access measure enables a more accurate empirical basis for service planning and allocation of health resources. This measure has great potential for improved identification of PHC access inequities and guiding redistribution of PHC services to correct such inequities. What is known about the topic? Resource allocation and health service planning decisions for rural and remote health settings are currently based on either simple measures of access (e.g. provider-to-population ratios) or proxy measures of access (e.g. standard geographical classifications). Both approaches have substantial limitations for informing rural health service planning and decision making. What does this paper add? The adoption of a new improved tool to measure access to PHC services, the Index of Access, is proposed to assist health service and workforce planning. Its usefulness for health service planning is
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today health perpectives has been changing widly. Now social determinants of health are more influence in disease rather than biological causes. If these determinants being ignored, achievement to health Golas would be impossible. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between Social determinants of health and access to health care in GonbadKavoos.Materials and Methods: This study was a correlation and cross-sectional. The populations were urban residents of GonbadKavoos, and the sample size was four hundred households, and the data collection tool was a questionnaire. For statistical analyze between variables these tests were used: independent sample test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA.Results: Among determinants of health, the variables like: socio-economic status of household (P<0.0001, educational level of household breadwinner (P<0.0001, family dimension (P<0.018, employment (P<0.003, residential area (P<0.001, access to internet (P<0.0001, doing exercise (P<0.0001, and having insurance (P<0.0001, had significant relationship with access to health care, spatially dental services and periodical checkup.Conclusion: Social determinants of health have very important relationship with access to health care. Then to decline these inequities in access to health care, development of social and economic equality for all people is so crucial.
Bruno Pereira Nunes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ≥ 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days for assistance, and waiting time (in hours in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services.
Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.
Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…
Davy, Carol; Harfield, Stephen; McArthur, Alexa; Munn, Zachary; Brown, Alex
Indigenous peoples often find it difficult to access appropriate mainstream primary health care services. Securing access to primary health care services requires more than just services that are situated within easy reach. Ensuring the accessibility of health care for Indigenous peoples who are often faced with a vast array of additional barriers including experiences of discrimination and racism, can be complex. This framework synthesis aimed to identify issues that hindered Indigenous peoples from accessing primary health care and then explore how, if at all, these were addressed by Indigenous health care services. To be included in this framework synthesis papers must have presented findings focused on access to (factors relating to Indigenous peoples, their families and their communities) or accessibility of Indigenous primary health care services. Findings were imported into NVivo and a framework analysis undertaken whereby findings were coded to and then thematically analysed using Levesque and colleague's accessibility framework. Issues relating to the cultural and social determinants of health such as unemployment and low levels of education influenced whether Indigenous patients, their families and communities were able to access health care. Indigenous health care services addressed these issues in a number of ways including the provision of transport to and from appointments, a reduction in health care costs for people on low incomes and close consultation with, if not the direct involvement of, community members in identifying and then addressing health care needs. Indigenous health care services appear to be best placed to overcome both the social and cultural determinants of health which hamper Indigenous peoples from accessing health care. Findings of this synthesis also suggest that Levesque and colleague's accessibility framework should be broadened to include factors related to the health care system such as funding.
Juliana Pires Ribeiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accessibility to primary health care services in the state of Goiás. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the National Program to Improve Access to and Quality of Primary Health Care. The study sample was composed of health professionals from 1,216 primary health care units. Results showed that 68.5% of the health units miss a screening room, thus considerably damaging prompt decision-making by professionals. The lack of medical offices in 2% of the sites hinders the primary health care services accessibility in Goiás. As regards opening hours and work shifts, 86% of the units are open five days a week in eight-hour shifts, which does not favor accessibility for users. This study confirms the lack of accessibility to health services and the need for additional investments to strengthen primary health care.
Azañedo, Diego; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Casas-Bendezú, Mixsi; Gutiérrez, César; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cortés, Sandra
Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES). Children's access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No), and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers' educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex) and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance) were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family). Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged oral health services among children aged oral health services.
Poort, J.P.; Groot, I.; Kok, L.; de Graaf, D.; Hof, B.J.F.
The accessibility of certain products and services to all people, irrespective of their income, age, health and geographical location is considered to be of great social importance. Think for instance of health care, education, electricity, and sanitation. Accessibility can be secured in a variety
Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Thumé, Elaine; Tomasi, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ≥ 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days) for assistance, and waiting time (in...
Hees, S. van; Cornielje, H.; Wagle, P.; Veldman, E.
Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary
Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia
This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.
Full Text Available Background Given that the protection of children's health is of special importance due to their special age and physical conditions, the present study aimed to investigate the condition of children's Geographic access to health services (Health Centers and Clinical Laboratories in Kermanshah city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this applied study, the research approach was descriptive-analytic using quantitative models in Geographic information system (GIS environment. The statistical population was the whole population of young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah, Iran. Moreover, to evaluate the spatial deployment pattern of health services and the correct and true access of this groupto such services, all data and information were collected through the Iranian Statistics Center and evaluated using the Arc-GIS Software. The latest published population statistics on the Population and Housing Census in 2011 were considered the basis for the analyses. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that more than 40% and 60% of the young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah were deprived of proper access to health centers and clinical laboratories, respectively. In terms of the status of children’s access in the Second Scenario (access to health services by vehicles and during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, about 5.53%, 93.1% and 15.1% lacked access to health centers, respectively. In addition, in terms of the status of children’s access to clinical laboratories during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, 17.26%, 65.4% and 51% lacked access to clinical laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: The access of young girls aged 0-14 years old to health services in Kermanshah was undesirable in the access to health services through walking. Additionally, the access of this groupto health services in the access to health services by vehicles was far better than the first one.
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Reviews what is known about the effect of managed care on access to health services, as well as utilization of hospital care, emergency department visits, primary care services, and specialty pediatric services. The effect of managed care appears dependent on several factors and, thus, is likely to vary according to the population served. (SLD)
Whittle, Erin Louise; Fisher, Karen R.; Reppermund, Simone; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Trollor, Julian
Background: It is well established that people with an intellectual disability have high rates of mental health problems, yet rates of uptake of services do not match need. Aim: To identify the current literature pertaining to the barriers and facilitators to access to mental health services for people with an intellectual disability. Method: A…
Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando
The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services. A systematic review conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS, considering the period from 2004 to 2014. The studies were evaluated according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criterias. Were included manuscripts written in English or Portuguese, articles examining the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population's access to health services and original articles with full text available online. The electronic databases search resulted in 667 studies, of which 14 met all inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles were predominant, showing the country of United States of America to be the largest producer of research on the topic. The studies reveal that the homosexual population have difficulties of access to health services as a result of heteronormative attitudes imposed by health professionals. The discriminatory attendance implies in human rights violations in access to health services. The non-heterosexual orientation was a determinant factor in the difficulties of accessing health care. A lot must still be achieved to ensure access to health services for sexual minorities, through the adoption of holistic and welcoming attitudes. The results of this study highlight the need for larger discussions about the theme, through new research and debates, with the aim of enhancing professionals and services for the health care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega
Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
... develops formal arrangements with community-based providers, such as community mental health clinics... effectiveness of community partnerships in helping to meet the mental health needs of veterans in a timely way... networks that supports the use of community mental health services, including telehealth services and...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.
Sundari Ravindran, T K; Fonn, Sharon
A social franchise in health is a network of for-profit private health practitioners linked through contracts to provide socially beneficial services under a common brand. The early 21st century has seen considerable donor enthusiasm for promoting social franchises for the provision of reproductive health services. Based on a compendium of descriptive information on 45 clinical social franchises, located in 27 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper examines their contribution to universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services. It finds that these franchises have not widened the range of reproductive health services, but have mainly focused on contraceptive services, and to a lesser extent, maternal health care and abortion. In many instances, coverage had not been extended to new areas. Measures taken to ensure sustainability ran counter to the objective of access for low-income groups. In almost two-thirds of the franchises, the full cost of all services had to be paid out of pocket and was unaffordable for low-income women. While standards and protocols for quality assurance were in place in all franchises, evidence on adherence to these was limited. Informal interviews with patients indicated satisfaction with services. However, factors such as difficulties in recruiting franchisees and significant attrition, franchisees' inability to attend training programmes, use of lay health workers to deliver services without support or supervision, and logistical problems with applying quality assurance tools, all raise concerns. The contribution of social franchises to universal access to reproductive health services appears to be uncertain. Continued investment in them for the provision of reproductive health services does not appear to be justified until and unless further evidence of their value is forthcoming. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This was due to lack of confidentiality, fear of stigma and ... in discouraging these men from seeking healthcare treatment at their leisure. ... Understanding the perceptions that MSM have towards healthcare services will help .... the MSM who did no, 6.9% were self-medicating and 3.4% did nothing due to lack of financial.
Monteiro, C.N. (Camila Nascimento); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); Barros, M.B.A. (Marilisa Berti de Azevedo); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractThe study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic
Government policies over the years has centered on the provision and delivery of healthcare to all. Spatial distribution of health facilities is subject to a number of social and commercial influences and healthcare needs of the population. The objective of this paper analyzed the service radii and accessibility of health ...
Nokulunga H. Cele; Maureen N. Sibiya; Dudu G. Sokhela
Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. Aim of...
Luz Mery Mejía O
Full Text Available This article is the result of a product of a study elaborated with the aim of systematizing the available information related to the accessibility to the health services of the prison population in the penitentiary centers. To this end, we reviewed the literature and systematic collection of the academic available material in the principal university libraries in the city of Medellin, scientific databases and the web pages of national and international organizations that have dealt with this topic. The information was systematized considering some historical references to prisons and health, the record of experiences in some countries and the current regulations for health care in the prison population in the Colombian case. We conclude that although significant progress has been made to ensure health care for the prison population, in the prison there are still obstacles and limitations that infringe the right to health of this population. Likewise, it is evidenced that it has not been considered a public health problem in the country, which it is considered a challenge to incorporate it as such.
Full Text Available Background: The utilization of Reproductive, Maternal, and Newborn and Child health (RMNCH services is often influenced by the socio-cultural, financial, access, political barriers acting at the community, family and individual level. Yet, very little attention has been given, either by policy makers or researchers for minimizing their effect. Aim and objective: To examine the demand and supply side barriers in accessing the maternity services and to understand the perception on maternal healthcare services. Material & Methods: The study was carried out in four districts of Odisha state, with a well representative sample of 1194 women, who delivered a child in last 2 years. Quantitative and qualitative study design was followed to collect the data. Results: The supply side barriers such as physical access and facilities were faced by the service providers. The demand side barriers such as socio-cultural, financial and access barriers were faced by the service receivers in order to avail the services. Conclusions: In order to overcome the barriers faced by the women of Odisha it is important to improve the access to services so that they get them easily. Some of the imperative actions such as strengthening community mobilization through inter-personal communication, dialogue with the key influencers in the community as well as continuous engagement with and sensitization of the service providers
Full Text Available Background: The utilization of Reproductive, Maternal, and Newborn and Child health (RMNCH services is often influenced by the socio-cultural, financial, access, political barriers acting at the community, family and individual level. Yet, very little attention has been given, either by policy makers or researchers for minimizing their effect. Aim and objective: To examine the demand and supply side barriers in accessing the maternity services and to understand the perception on maternal healthcare services. Material & Methods: The study was carried out in four districts of Odisha state, with a well representative sample of 1194 women, who delivered a child in last 2 years. Quantitative and qualitative study design was followed to collect the data. Results: The supply side barriers such as physical access and facilities were faced by the service providers. The demand side barriers such as socio-cultural, financial and access barriers were faced by the service receivers in order to avail the services. Conclusions: In order to overcome the barriers faced by the women of Odisha it is important to improve the access to services so that they get them easily. Some of the imperative actions such as strengthening community mobilization through inter-personal communication, dialogue with the key influencers in the community as well as continuous engagement with and sensitization of the service providers
Gomes, Silvana Cardoso; Esperidião, Monique Azevedo
This study aimed to evaluate indigenous peoples' access to medium and high-complexity health services in the municipality of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, through the Casa de Saúde Indígena or Indigenous Peoples' Clinic (CASAI Cuiabá). A single case study with a qualitative approach was conducted at CASAI Cuiabá. Data were obtained from observation of the work routines at CASAI Cuiabá, semi-structured interviews with health professionals and administrators from the Cuiabá Special Indigenous Health District (DSEI) and CASAI Cuiabá, and document analysis. Data analysis used a matrix derived from the theoretical and logical model of accessibility, validated by the Delphi method with a group of experts on indigenous peoples' health. Despite advances achieved by CASAI in improving indigenous peoples' access, there are persistent social, organizational, cultural, and geographic barriers in access to medium and high-complexity health services in Cuiabá. The study highlights the need for specific strategies to improve access to health services by indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso State.
Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg
Full Text Available Background: Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured population in the Western Cape, South Africa. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6% was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01, accessibility (p = < 0.01 and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ² test. Conclusion: The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.
Stellenberg, Ethelwynn L
Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right. The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured) population in the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6%) was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01), accessibility (p = < 0.01) and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ²) test. The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.
Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Rangel, Marianne de Lucena; da Silva, Marcos André Azevedo; de Lucena, Brunna Thaís Lucwu; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo
The Specialized Dental Clinics (SDCs) represent the first government initiative in Latin America aimed at providing specialized oral health services. This study sought to evaluate the organizational accessibility to specialized oral health care services in Brazil and to understand the factors that may be associated with accessibility from the user’s perspective. This epidemiological, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted by means of interviews with individuals who sought specialized public oral health services in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and consisted of a sample of 590 individuals. Users expressed a favorable view of the classification and resolutive nature of specialized services offered by Brazilian public health. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed weak points highlighting the difficulty involved in obtaining such treatments leading to unfavorable evaluations. In the resolutive nature item, difficulty in accessing the location, queues and lack of materials and equipment were highlighted as statistically significant unfavorable aspects. While many of the users considered the service to be resolutive, weaknesses were mentioned that need to be detected to promote improvements and to prevent other health models adopted worldwide from reproducing the same flaws. PMID:27775584
Cele, Nokulunga H; Sibiya, Maureen N; Sokhela, Dudu G
Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC) services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN). A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.
Fisher, Rohan; Lassa, Jonatan
Modelling travel time to services has become a common public health tool for planning service provision but the usefulness of these analyses is constrained by the availability of accurate input data and limitations inherent in the assumptions and parameterisation. This is particularly an issue in the developing world where access to basic data is limited and travel is often complex and multi-modal. Improving the accuracy and relevance in this context requires greater accessibility to, and flexibility in, travel time modelling tools to facilitate the incorporation of local knowledge and the rapid exploration of multiple travel scenarios. The aim of this work was to develop simple open source, adaptable, interactive travel time modelling tools to allow greater access to and participation in service access analysis. Described are three interconnected applications designed to reduce some of the barriers to the more wide-spread use of GIS analysis of service access and allow for complex spatial and temporal variations in service availability. These applications are an open source GIS tool-kit and two geo-simulation models. The development of these tools was guided by health service issues from a developing world context but they present a general approach to enabling greater access to and flexibility in health access modelling. The tools demonstrate a method that substantially simplifies the process for conducting travel time assessments and demonstrate a dynamic, interactive approach in an open source GIS format. In addition this paper provides examples from empirical experience where these tools have informed better policy and planning. Travel and health service access is complex and cannot be reduced to a few static modeled outputs. The approaches described in this paper use a unique set of tools to explore this complexity, promote discussion and build understanding with the goal of producing better planning outcomes. The accessible, flexible, interactive and
Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H; Khalil, Hesham S
The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Using the Arksey O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet.
Goodridge, Donna; Hawranik, Pamela; Duncan, Vicky; Turner, Hollie
Home health care services are expanding at a rapid pace in order to meet the needs of the growing population of older adults and those with chronic illnesses. Because of current restrictions on home health care as an insured service in some countries, individuals may be required to pay for some or all of their home care services out of pocket. These payments may potentially limit access to needed home care services for persons in the lowest socioeconomic strata. Previous research demonstrates a clear socioeconomic gradient in access to acute and primary care services, where those most in need of services are the most disadvantaged and under-serviced. There has been little attention paid thus far, however, to the way in which socioeconomic status may affect the receipt of home health care services. To determine what is known from existing literature about socioeconomic disparities in home health care access and utilization. A scoping review was used to map the extent and nature of the literature in this area. A search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, SocIndex and Sociological Abstracts as well as Dissertations International. A total of 206 potentially relevant articles were published between 2000 and April 2011. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 15 research articles to be included in the scoping review. The majority of articles reported secondary analyses of administrative datasets related to utilization of home health care. Several studies examined access and utilization using qualitative approaches. The distinction between professional and supportive home care services was not always clear in the articles. Individual and composite measures of socioeconomic status were reported, with the most frequently used indicator being income. Several studies used more complex composite ecological indicators of socieconomic status. There was general agreement that utilization of home health services favored persons with greater economic disadvantage
Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Albar-Marín, M A Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel
To identify and describe the needs and problems of the immigrant population related to access and utilization of health services. A descriptive, qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted using focus groups. The study area was the county of Campo de Gibraltar (Spain), which represents the gateway to Europe for immigration from Africa. The final sample size (51 immigrants from 11 countries) was determined by theoretical saturation. A narrative analysis was conducted with QSR NVivo9 software. Immigrants' discourse showed four categories of analysis: response to a health problem, system access, knowledge of social and health resources, and health literacy needs. Responses to health problems and the route of access to the health care system differed according to some sociodemographic characteristics (nationality/culture of origin, length of residence, and economic status). In general, immigrants primarily used emergency services, hampering health promotion and prevention. The health literacy needs identified concerned language proficiency and the functioning of the health system. There is a need to promote interventions to enhance health literacy among immigrants. These interventions should take into account diversity and length of residence, and should be based on an action-participation methodology. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Health indices, regarding to their role in the development of society, are one of the most important indices at national level. Success of national development programs is largely dependent on the establishment of appropriate goals at the health sector, among which access to healthcare facilities is an essential requirement. The aim of this study was to examine the disparities in health services access across the Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study sample included the cities of Kerman province, ranked based on 15 health indices. Data was collected from statistical yearbook. The indices were weighted using Shannon entropy, then using the TOPSIS technique and the result were classified into three categories in terms of the level of development across towns. Results: The findings showed distinct regional disparities in health services across Kerman province and the significant difference was observed between the cities in terms of development. Shannon entropy introduced the number of pharmacologist per 10 thousand people as the most important indicator and the number of rural active health center per 1000 people as the less important indicator. According to TOPSIS, Kerman town (0.719 and Fahraj (0.1151 ranked the first and last in terms of access to health services respectively. Conclusion: There are significant differences between cities of Kerman province in terms of access to health care facilities and services. Therefore, it is recommended that officials and policy-makers determine resource allocation priorities according to the degree of development for a balanced and equitable distribution of health care facilities.
Julián Vargas J
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the characteristics of access to the General System of Social Security in health (SGSS, from the perspective of doctors, nurses, administrators and users. Methodology: based on the grounded theory we present a study in six cities in Colombia: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Bogota, Leticia, Medellín and Pasto, for which interviews were conducted in-depth with health professionals involved in service delivery and focus groups with service users. Results: The findings indicate that insurance has become an end in itself, and being affiliated to SGSSS does not guarantee effective access to services. The dominance of the market, the financial profitability of insurers, imposed cost-containment mechanisms over the right to health. There are limitations from the rules, benefit plans that create geographical, economic and cultural barriers from the various actors involved in the chain of decisions. Additionally, display individual and institutional ethical shortcomings, clientelism and corruption in the management of resources, coupled with poverty and geographical dispersion of communities, mean that further limiting access to health services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
de Lusignan, Simon; Mold, Freda; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Gronlund, Toto Anne; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Barker, Fiona; Ellis, Beverley; Koczan, Phil; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; McCarthy, Mary; Jones, Simon; Rafi, Imran
To investigate the effect of providing patients online access to their electronic health record (EHR) and linked transactional services on the provision, quality and safety of healthcare. The objectives are also to identify and understand: barriers and facilitators for providing online access to their records and services for primary care workers; and their association with organisational/IT system issues. Primary care. A total of 143 studies were included. 17 were experimental in design and subject to risk of bias assessment, which is reported in a separate paper. Detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria have also been published elsewhere in the protocol. Our primary outcome measure was change in quality or safety as a result of implementation or utilisation of online records/transactional services. No studies reported changes in health outcomes; though eight detected medication errors and seven reported improved uptake of preventative care. Professional concerns over privacy were reported in 14 studies. 18 studies reported concern over potential increased workload; with some showing an increase workload in email or online messaging; telephone contact remaining unchanged, and face-to face contact staying the same or falling. Owing to heterogeneity in reporting overall workload change was hard to predict. 10 studies reported how online access offered convenience, primarily for more advantaged patients, who were largely highly satisfied with the process when clinician responses were prompt. Patient online access and services offer increased convenience and satisfaction. However, professionals were concerned about impact on workload and risk to privacy. Studies correcting medication errors may improve patient safety. There may need to be a redesign of the business process to engage health professionals in online access and of the EHR to make it friendlier and provide equity of access to a wider group of patients. A1 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO
de Lusignan, Simon; Mold, Freda; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Gronlund, Toto Anne; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Barker, Fiona; Ellis, Beverley; Koczan, Phil; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; McCarthy, Mary; Jones, Simon; Rafi, Imran
Objectives To investigate the effect of providing patients online access to their electronic health record (EHR) and linked transactional services on the provision, quality and safety of healthcare. The objectives are also to identify and understand: barriers and facilitators for providing online access to their records and services for primary care workers; and their association with organisational/IT system issues. Setting Primary care. Participants A total of 143 studies were included. 17 were experimental in design and subject to risk of bias assessment, which is reported in a separate paper. Detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria have also been published elsewhere in the protocol. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcome measure was change in quality or safety as a result of implementation or utilisation of online records/transactional services. Results No studies reported changes in health outcomes; though eight detected medication errors and seven reported improved uptake of preventative care. Professional concerns over privacy were reported in 14 studies. 18 studies reported concern over potential increased workload; with some showing an increase workload in email or online messaging; telephone contact remaining unchanged, and face-to face contact staying the same or falling. Owing to heterogeneity in reporting overall workload change was hard to predict. 10 studies reported how online access offered convenience, primarily for more advantaged patients, who were largely highly satisfied with the process when clinician responses were prompt. Conclusions Patient online access and services offer increased convenience and satisfaction. However, professionals were concerned about impact on workload and risk to privacy. Studies correcting medication errors may improve patient safety. There may need to be a redesign of the business process to engage health professionals in online access and of the EHR to make it friendlier and provide equity of
Silal Sheetal P
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa’s maternal mortality rate (625 deaths/100,000 live births is high for a middle-income country, although over 90% of pregnant women utilize maternal health services. Alongside HIV/AIDS, barriers to Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care currently impede the country’s Millenium Development Goals (MDGs of reducing child mortality and improving maternal health. While health system barriers to obstetric care have been well documented, “patient-oriented” barriers have been neglected. This article explores affordability, availability and acceptability barriers to obstetric care in South Africa from the perspectives of women who had recently used, or attempted to use, these services. Methods A mixed-method study design combined 1,231 quantitative exit interviews with sixteen qualitative in-depth interviews with women (over 18 in two urban and two rural health sub-districts in South Africa. Between June 2008 and September 2009, information was collected on use of, and access to, obstetric services, and socioeconomic and demographic details. Regression analysis was used to test associations between descriptors of the affordability, availability and acceptability of services, and demographic and socioeconomic predictor variables. Qualitative interviews were coded deductively and inductively using ATLAS ti.6. Quantitative and qualitative data were integrated into an analysis of access to obstetric services and related barriers. Results Access to obstetric services was impeded by affordability, availability and acceptability barriers. These were unequally distributed, with differences between socioeconomic groups and geographic areas being most important. Rural women faced the greatest barriers, including longest travel times, highest costs associated with delivery, and lowest levels of service acceptability, relative to urban residents. Negative provider-patient interactions, including staff inattentiveness, turning
Nokulunga H. Cele
Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.
Rocha, T A H; da Silva, N C; Amaral, P V; Barbosa, A C Q; Rocha, J V M; Alvares, V; de Almeida, D G; Thumé, E; Thomaz, E B A F; de Sousa Queiroz, R C; de Souza, M R; Lein, A; Toomey, N; Staton, C A; Vissoci, J R N; Facchini, L A
Studies of health geography are important in the planning and allocation of emergency health services. The geographical distribution of health facilities is an important factor in timely and quality access to emergency services; therefore, the present study analyzed the emergency health care network in Brazil, focusing the analysis at the roles of small hospitals (SHs). Cross-sectional ecological study. Data were collected from 9429 hospitals of which 3524 were SHs and 5905 were high-complexity centers (HCCs). For analytical purposes, we considered four specialties when examining the proxies of emergency care capability: adult, pediatrics, neonatal, and obstetric. We analyzed the spatial distribution of hospitals, identifying municipalities that rely exclusively on SHs and the distance of these cities from HCCs. More than 14 and 30 million people were at least 120 km away from HCCs with an adult intensive care unit (ICU) and pediatric ICU, respectively. For neonatal care distribution, 12% of the population was more than 120 km away from a health facility with a neonatal ICU. The maternities situation is different from other specialties, where 81% of the total Brazilian population was within 1 h or less from such health facilities. Our results highlighted a polarization in distribution of Brazilian health care facilities. There is a concentration of hospitals in urban areas more developed and access gaps in rural areas and the Amazon region. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of emergency services in Brazil is not facilitating access to the population due to geographical barriers associated with great distances. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly
Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in
Nic Carthaigh, Niamh; De Gryse, Benoit; Esmati, Abdul Sattar; Nizar, Barak; Van Overloop, Catherine; Fricke, Renzo; Bseiso, Jehan; Baker, Corinne; Decroo, Tom; Philips, Mit
The Afghan population suffers from a long standing armed conflict. We investigated patients' experiences of their access to and use of the health services. Data were collected in four clinics from different provinces. Mixed methods were applied. The questions focused on access obstacles during the current health problem and health seeking behaviour during a previous illness episode of a household member. To access the health facilities 71.8% (545/759) of patients experienced obstacles. The combination of long distances, high costs and the conflict deprived people of life-saving healthcare. The closest public clinics were underused due to perceptions regarding their lack of availability or quality of staff, services or medicines. For one in five people, a lack of access to health care had resulted in death among family members or close friends within the last year. Violence continues to affect daily life and access to healthcare in Afghanistan. Moreover, healthcare provision is not adequately geared to meet medical and emergency needs. Impartial healthcare tailored to the context will be vital to increase access to basic and life-saving healthcare. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif; Rabbani, Fauziah; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Imran, Syeda Nida; Pradhan, Nouhseen Akber; Khan, Gul Nawaz
The case of contracting out government health services to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been weak for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services, with documented gains being mainly in curative services. We present an in-depth assessment of the comparative advantages of contracting out on MNCH access, quality, and equity, using a case study from Pakistan. An end-line, cross-sectional assessment was conducted of government facilities contracted out to a large national NGO and government-managed centres serving as controls, in two remote rural districts of Pakistan. Contracting out was specific for augmenting MNCH services but without contractual performance incentives. A household survey, a health facility survey, and focus group discussions with client and spouses were used for assessment. Contracted out facilities had a significantly higher utilization as compared to control facilities for antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care, emergency obstetric care, and neonatal illness. Contracted facilities had comparatively better quality of MNCH services but not in all aspects. Better household practices were also seen in the district where contracting involved administrative control over outreach programs. Contracting was also faced with certain drawbacks. Facility utilization was inequitably higher amongst more educated and affluent clients. Contracted out catchments had higher out-of-pocket expenses on MNCH services, driven by steeper transport costs and user charges for additional diagnostics. Contracting out did not influence higher MNCH service coverage rates across the catchment. Physical distances, inadequate transport, and low demand for facility-based care in non-emergency settings were key client-reported barriers. Contracting out MNCH services at government health facilities can improve facility utilization and bring some improvement in quality of services. However, contracting out of health facilities is insufficient to increase
Burns, Barbara J; Phillips, Susan D; Wagner, H Ryan; Barth, Richard P; Kolko, David J; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John
This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were weighted to provide population estimates. Nearly half (47.9%) of the youths aged 2 to 14 years (N = 3,803) with completed child welfare investigations had clinically significant emotional or behavioral problems. Youths with mental health need (defined by a clinical range score on the Child Behavior Checklist) were much more likely to receive mental health services than lower scoring youth; still, only one fourth of such youths received any specialty mental health care during the previous 12 months. Clinical need was related to receipt of mental health care across all age groups (odds ratio = 2.7-3.5). In addition, for young children (2-5 years), sexual abuse (versus neglect) increased access to mental health services. For latency-age youths, African-American race and living at home significantly reduced the likelihood of care. Adolescents living at home were also less likely to receive services, whereas having a parent with severe mental illness increased (odds ratio = 2.4) the likelihood of service use. Routine screening for mental health need and increasing access to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment should be a priority for children early in their contact with the child welfare system.
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William
With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care-seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non-camp settings in Jordan. A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brenman, Natassia F; Luitel, Nagendra P; Mall, Sumaya; Jordans, Mark J D
Nepal is experiencing a significant 'treatment gap' in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME's integrated care plan advocate strategic awareness raising initiatives to improve the reach
Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.
Gele, Abdi A; Torheim, Liv Elin; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette
Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women's knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.
Abdi A. Gele
Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women’s knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.
Kambourakis, G; Maglogiannis, I; Rouskas, A
Recent research works examine the potential employment of public-key cryptography schemes in e-health environments. In such systems, where a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is established beforehand, Attribute Certificates (ACs) and public key enabled protocols like TLS, can provide the appropriate mechanisms to effectively support authentication, authorization and confidentiality services. In other words, mutual trust and secure communications between all the stakeholders, namely physicians, patients and e-health service providers, can be successfully established and maintained. Furthermore, as the recently introduced mobile devices with access to computer-based patient record systems are expanding, the need of physicians and nurses to interact increasingly with such systems arises. Considering public key infrastructure requirements for mobile online health networks, this paper discusses the potential use of Attribute Certificates (ACs) in an anticipated trust model. Typical trust interactions among doctors, patients and e-health providers are presented, indicating that resourceful security mechanisms and trust control can be obtained and implemented. The application of attribute certificates to support medical mobile service provision along with the utilization of the de-facto TLS protocol to offer competent confidentiality and authorization services is also presented and evaluated through experimentation, using both the 802.11 WLAN and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) networks.
McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish
Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de
Mladovsky, Philipa; Ba, Maymouna
Plan Sésame (PS) is a user fee exemption policy launched in 2006 to provide free access to health services to Senegalese citizens aged 60 and over. Analysis of a large household survey evaluating PS echoes findings of other studies showing that user fee removal can be highly inequitable. 34 semi-structured interviews and 19 focus group discussions with people aged 60 and over were conducted in four regions in Senegal (Dakar, Diourbel, Matam and Tambacounda) over a period of six months during 2012. They were analysed to identify underlying causes of exclusion from/inclusion in PS and triangulated with the household survey. The results point to three steps at which exclusion occurs: (i) not being informed about PS; (ii) not perceiving a need to use health services under PS; and (iii) inability to access health services under PS, despite having the information and perceived need. We identify lay explanations for exclusion at these different steps. Some lay explanations point to social exclusion, defined as unequal power relations. For example, poor access to PS was seen to be caused by corruption, patronage, poverty, lack of social support, internalised discrimination and adverse incorporation. Other lay explanations do not point to social exclusion, for example: poor implementation; inadequate funding; high population demand; incompetent bureaucracy; and PS as a favour or moral obligation to friends or family. Within a critical realist paradigm, we interpret these lay explanations as empirical evidence for the presence of the following hidden underlying causal mechanisms: lacking capabilities; mobilisation of institutional bias; and social closure. However, social constructionist perspectives lead us to critique this paradigm by drawing attention to contested health, wellbeing and corruption discourses. These differences in interpretation lead to subsequent differential policy recommendations. This demonstrates the need for the adoption of a "multi
Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.
Ana Cláudia Conceição da Silva
Full Text Available Study aimed to characterize the studies on access and use of health services by the Roma population. A systematic review was performed by searching for articles from databases OvidSP/Medline, ProQuest, Web of Science and LILACS, between 2003 and 2013. Initially, 115 citations were selected: (51 Medline, (17 ProQuest, ( 47 Web of Science, (0 Lilacs. After thorough reading, 10 articles were selected which were related to access and health of Roma population. Many studies seemed to meet inclusion criteria by reading the title and abstract, but after thorough reading they did not meet the requirements. All are in English idiom. Most of the UK in the period of 2012-1013, quantitative studies. They presented varied methods, without methodological rigor and detail, with unrepresentative samples and little comparability findings.
Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael
The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Araujo, Miguel; Moraga, Cecilia; Chapman, Evelina; Barreto, Jorge; Illanes, Eduardo
Synthesize evidence on effectiveness of interventions designed to improve access to health services by indigenous populations. Review of systematic reviews published as of July 2015, selecting and analyzing only studies in the Region of the Americas. The bibliographic search encompassed MEDLINE, Lilacs, SciELO, EMBASE, DARE, HTA, The Cochrane Library, and organization websites. Two independent reviewers selected studies and analyzed their methodological quality. A narrative summary of the results was produced. Twenty-two reviews met the inclusion criteria. All selected studies were conducted in Canada and the United States of America. The majority of the interventions were preventive, to surmount geographical barriers, increase use of effective measures, develop human resources, and improve people's skills or willingness to seek care. Topics included pregnancy, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, substance abuse, child development, cancer, mental health, oral health, and injuries. Some interventions showed effectiveness with moderate or high quality studies: educational strategies to prevent depression, interventions to prevent childhood caries, and multicomponent programs to promote use of child safety seats. In general, results for chronic non-communicable diseases were negative or inconsistent. Interventions do exist that have potential for producing positive effects on access to health services by indigenous populations in the Americas, but available studies are limited to Canada and the U.S. There is a significant research gap on the topic in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is two fold: first, to analyze the spatial distribution of health services that different public institutions offer in the metropolitan peripheral municipalities of Mexico City; and second, give some reasons that explain that distribution. The analysis tries to demonstrate a lack of territorial approach in the construction of the social policy in the particular case of the health sector. The spatial range of health service, coverage and accessibility in the eastern part of the State of Mexico was calculate through variables much as number of doctors, nurses, beds and medical center, that the different public institution particularly IMSS, ISSSTE and ISSEMYM, offer. Results tend to show an unequal distribution of health resources either human or material, as well as a territorial disorden in their distribution with a high concentration in urban areas. Thus, analysis shows that space plays a fundamental role as a structuring factor in the application of health policies and in the planning of such services.
Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs, developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health
Kangolle Alfred CT
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1 Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2 Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3 Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1 Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2 Development of high-quality health data sources. (3 More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4 Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and
Hanna, Timothy P; Kangolle, Alfred C T
Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1) Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2) PROCESS: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3) OUTCOME: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1) Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2) Development of high-quality health data sources. (3) More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4) Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and international collaboration as well as political
Svetlana A. Firsova
Full Text Available Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones. The main attention is paid to such components of methodological system, as the principles and teaching methods classified according to the degree of learners’ active cognitive activity. The most interesting is the diagram of the relationship of learning principles, teaching methods and specific types of requests. Materials and Methods: the authors used comparative analysis of literature, syllabi, curricula in medical informatics taught at leading medical universities in Russia. Results: the original technique of training in putting queries with databases of MICROSOFT ACCESS is presented for analysis of information models in practical health care. Discussion and Conclusions: it is argued that the proposed pedagogical technology will significantly improve the effectiveness of teaching the course “Medical Informatics”, that includes development and application of models to simulate the operation of certain facilities and services of the health system which, in turn, increases the level of information culture of practitioners.
Ganle, John K; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon
Inequities in accessibility to, and utilisation of maternal healthcare services impede progress towards attainment of the maternal health-related Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which maternal health services are utilised in Ghana, and whether inequities in accessibility to and utilization of services have been eliminated following the implementation of a user-fee exemption policy, that aims to reduce financial barriers to access, reduce inequities in access, and improve access to and use of birthing services. We analyzed data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey for inequities in access to and utilization of maternal health services. In measuring the inequities, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to compare rates of service utilization by region, residence and selected socio-demographic variables. Findings show marginal increases in accessibility to and utilisation of skilled antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services following the policy implementation (2003-2007). However, large gradients of inequities exist between geographic regions, urban and rural areas, and different socio-demographic, religious and ethnic groupings. More urban women (40%) than rural, 53% more women in the highest wealth quintile than women in the lowest, 38% more women in the best performing region (Central Region) than the worst (Upper East Region), and 48% more women with at least secondary education than those with no formal education, accessed and used all components of skilled maternal health services in the five years preceding the survey. Our findings raise questions about the potential equity and distributional benefits of Ghana's user-fee exemption policy, and the role of non-financial barriers or considerations. Exempting user-fees for maternal health services is a promising policy option for improving access to maternal health care, but might be insufficient on its own to secure equitable access to
Holanda, Cristina Marques de Almeida; De Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes; Bezerra, Maria Aparecida; Nascimento, João Paulo da Silva; Neves, Robson da Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Ribeiro, Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva
This study seeks to identify the formation of social support networks of people with physical disabilities, and how these networks can help facilitate access to health services and promote social inclusion. It is a cross-sectional study, with data collected via a form applied to physically disabled persons over eighteen years of age registered with the Family Health Teams of the municipal district of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. It was observed that the support networks of these individuals predominantly consist of family members (parents, siblings, children, spouses) and people outside the family (friends and neighbors). However, 50% of the interviewees declared that they could not count on any support from outside the family. It was observed that the support network contributes to access to the services and participation in social groups. However, reduced social inclusion was detected, due to locomotion difficulties, this being the main barrier to social interaction. Among those individuals who began to interact in society, the part played by social support was fundamental.
Fonseca, Luciara Leão Viana; Nehmy, Rosa Maria Quadros; Mota, Joaquim Antônio César
Oral healthcare provided by the Unified Health System (SUS) faces the challenge of attending the epidemiological profile of Brazil's adult population. Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews was conducted to understand the experiences, expectations and perception of SUS users to services in Diamantina, State of Minas Gerais, and content analysis was used to assess the data. Discussion of the results was based on dialogue between the symbolic interactionism of Goffman and Bourdieu's concept of habitus. The results show that the users did not give importance to dental care during childhood and adolescence because care was unknown to them. There was no offer of treatment besides dental extraction. Today, they value teeth and suffer the embarrassment caused by rotten teeth. However, access to dental restoration via SUS is not possible. For their children, they perceive better access to information and care, but for specialized procedures there are barriers. They express resignation both in relation to the poor state of the teeth and the difficulties of access to dental care, which can be understood by the constant exclusion experienced by them in the past, shaping their actions in the present. It was concluded that oral health in SUS should incorporate the social value and the aesthetic dimension of teeth as a social right.
We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Shariati, Mohammed; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii
Adolescence is a critical period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In today's world, to pass through this period successfully it is necessary to have adequate information and knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. In Iran, it is crucial that special attention be paid to reproductive health services for adolescents, especially for girls. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults around the barriers to access of Iranian adolescent girls to SRH information and services. In this qualitative study, data were gathered through focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 247 adolescent girls and 71 key adults including mothers, teachers, health providers, governmental, nongovernmental and international managers of health programmes, health policymakers, sociologists and clergy in four Iranian cities. Data were coded and categorised using content analysis by MAXQDA10. The main barriers identified were classified in four categories: (1) social and cultural barriers such as taboos; (2) structural and administrative barriers such as inappropriate structure of the health system; (3) political barriers such as lack of an adopted strategy by the government and (4) non-use of religious potential. Adolescent SRH in Iran should be firmly established as a priority for government leaders and policymakers. They should try to provide those services that are consistent with the community's cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Duda, Catherine; Rajaram, Kumar; Barz, Christiane; Rosenthal, J Thomas
There has been an increasing emphasis on health care efficiency and costs and on improving quality in health care settings such as hospitals or clinics. However, there has not been sufficient work on methods of improving access and customer service times in health care settings. The study develops a framework for improving access and customer service time for health care settings. In the framework, the operational concept of the bottleneck is synthesized with queuing theory to improve access and reduce customer service times without reduction in clinical quality. The framework is applied at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center to determine the drivers for access and customer service times and then provides guidelines on how to improve these drivers. Validation using simulation techniques shows significant potential for reducing customer service times and increasing access at this institution. Finally, the study provides several practice implications that could be used to improve access and customer service times without reduction in clinical quality across a range of health care settings from large hospitals to small community clinics.
Cheung, Winnie; Davey, Jeanette; St John, Winsome; Bydeveldt, Carmen; Forsingdal, Shareen
This study aimed to explore how mothers use information in home therapy programs within child development services. A grounded theory study using semistructured interviews was conducted with 14 mothers of children aged 3-6 years accessing occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology services for developmental needs. A conceptual model of mothers' information use was developed. Findings showed that the mothers went through a cyclical process of information use and decision making: acquisition (collaboration, learning preferences), appraisal (understanding, relevance), application (capacity, resourcefulness) and review (evaluation, modification), with contextual factors including information characteristics, environment, personal characteristics and relationships. Mothers who used information effectively had a sense of confidence, control and mastery, and were empowered to apply information to make decisions and adapt their child's home therapy. This study adds to knowledge about health literacy, specifically how mothers interpret and use health-related information at home. Findings will enable health professionals to address families' unique health literacy needs and empower them to support their child's optimal development, functioning and participation at their stage of life.
Grant, Kiran L; Simmons, Magenta Bender; Davey, Christopher G
To provide evidence for wider use of peer workers and other nonprofessionals, the authors examined three approaches to mental health service provision-peer support worker (PSW) programs, task shifting, and mental health first-aid and community advocacy organizations-summarizing their effectiveness, identifying similarities and differences, and highlighting opportunities for integration. Relevant articles obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar searches are discussed. Studies indicate that PSWs can achieve outcomes equal to or better than those achieved by nonpeer mental health professionals. PSWs can be particularly effective in reducing hospital admissions and inpatient days and engaging severely ill patients. When certain care tasks are given to individuals with less training than professionals (task shifting), these staff members can provide psychoeducation, engage service users in treatment, and help them achieve symptom reduction and manage risk of relapse. Mental health first-aid and community organizations can reduce stigma, increase awareness of mental health issues, and encourage help seeking. Most PSW programs have reported implementation challenges, whereas such challenges are fewer in task-shifting programs and minimal in mental health first-aid. Despite challenges in scaling and integrating these approaches into larger systems, they hold promise for improving access to and quality of care. Research is needed on how these approaches can be combined to expand a community's capacity to provide care. Because of the serious shortage of mental health providers globally and the rising prevalence of mental illness, utilizing nontraditional providers may be the only solution in both low- and high-resource settings, at least in the short term.
Li, Alan Tai-Wai; Wales, Joshua; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Owino, Maureen; Perreault, Yvette; Miao, Andrew; Maseko, Precious; Guiang, Charlie
As people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) achieve more stable health, many have taken on active peer support and professional roles within AIDS service organizations. Although the increased engagement has been associated with many improved health outcomes, emerging program and research evidence have identified new challenges associated with such transition. This paper reports on the results of a qualitative interpretive study that explored the effect of this role transition on PHA service providers' access to mental health support and self care. A total of 27 PHA service providers of diverse ethno-racial backgrounds took part in the study. Results show that while role transition often improves access to financial and health-care benefits, it also leads to new stress from workload demands, emotional triggers from client's narratives, feeling of burnout from over-immersion in HIV at both personal and professional levels, and diminished self care. Barriers to seeking support included: concerns regarding confidentiality; self-imposed and enacted stigma associated with accessing mental health services; and boundary issues resulting from changes in relationships with peers and other service providers. Evolving support mechanisms included: new formal and informal peer support networks amongst colleagues or other PHA service providers to address both personal and professional challenges, and having access to professional support offered through the workplace. The findings suggest the need for increased organizational recognition of HIV support work as a form of emotional labor that places complex demands on PHA service providers. Increased access to employer-provided mental health services, supportive workplace policies, and adequate job-specific training will contribute to reduced work-related stress. Community level strategies that support expansion of social networks amongst PHA service providers would reduce isolation. Systemic policies to increase access to insurance
Memon, Anjum; Taylor, Katie; Mohebati, Lisa M; Sundin, Josefin; Cooper, Max; Scanlon, Thomas; de Visser, Richard
In most developed countries, substantial disparities exist in access to mental health services for black and minority ethnic (BME) populations. We sought to determine perceived barriers to accessing mental health services among people from these backgrounds to inform the development of effective and culturally acceptable services to improve equity in healthcare. Qualitative study in Southeast England. 26 adults from BME backgrounds (13 men, 13 women; aged >18 years) were recruited to 2 focus groups. Participants were identified through the registers of the Black and Minority Ethnic Community Partnership centre and by visits to local community gatherings and were invited to take part by community development workers. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes about perceived barriers to accessing mental health services. Participants identified 2 broad themes that influenced access to mental health services. First, personal and environmental factors included inability to recognise and accept mental health problems, positive impact of social networks, reluctance to discuss psychological distress and seek help among men, cultural identity, negative perception of and social stigma against mental health and financial factors. Second, factors affecting the relationship between service user and healthcare provider included the impact of long waiting times for initial assessment, language barriers, poor communication between service users and providers, inadequate recognition or response to mental health needs, imbalance of power and authority between service users and providers, cultural naivety, insensitivity and discrimination towards the needs of BME service users and lack of awareness of different services among service users and providers. People from BME backgrounds require considerable mental health literacy and practical support to raise awareness of mental health conditions and combat stigma. There is a need for improving information about services
Aberdein, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Emerging evidence indicates the extreme forms of violence and acute and longer-term mental health consequences associated with trafficking and exploitation. However, there has been little research on post-trafficking mental health and psychosocial support services for survivors. This study explored the availability and accessibility of mental health and psychosocial support services in Cambodia for women, men and children trafficked and exploited for sex or labour purposes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of representatives from seven service organizations providing mental health and psychosocial support services for people who have been trafficked. This qualitative method was selected to gain insights into the service approaches and challenges faced by the small number of post-trafficking service providers in Cambodia. A conceptual framework outlining access dimensions associated with service provision guided the structure of the study. Findings indicate that among the available post-trafficking services, there are few trained mental health specialists, an over-representation of shelter services in urban versus rural areas and limited services for males, people with disabilities, individuals exploited for labour (versus sexual exploitation) and those with more serious mental illnesses. Providers believe that discrimination and stigma related to both mental health and human trafficking hinder trafficked people's willingness to access services, but suggest that awareness-raising may reduce these prejudices. Care in this sector is precarious due to over-reliance on financial support by donors versus government. Recent increases in newly qualified professionals and providers suggest potential improvements in the quality and availability of psychological support for trafficking survivors. Psychological support for the growing number of identified trafficking survivors in Cambodia will depend on improved geographical
Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; Del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M
Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires, which were available in 15
Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Ellis, Beverley
Online access to medical records by patients can potentially enhance provision of patient-centred care and improve satisfaction. However, online access and services may also prove to be an additional burden for the healthcare provider. To assess the impact of providing patients with access to their general practice electronic health records (EHR) and other EHR-linked online services on the provision, quality, and safety of health care. A systematic review was conducted that focused on all studies about online record access and transactional services in primary care. Data sources included MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EPOC, DARE, King's Fund, Nuffield Health, PsycINFO, OpenGrey (1999-2012). The literature was independently screened against detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria; independent dual data extraction was conducted, the risk of bias (RoB) assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the evidence conducted. A total of 176 studies were identified, 17 of which were randomised controlled trials, cohort, or cluster studies. Patients reported improved satisfaction with online access and services compared with standard provision, improved self-care, and better communication and engagement with clinicians. Safety improvements were patient-led through identifying medication errors and facilitating more use of preventive services. Provision of online record access and services resulted in a moderate increase of e-mail, no change on telephone contact, but there were variable effects on face-to-face contact. However, other tasks were necessary to sustain these services, which impacted on clinician time. There were no reports of harm or breaches in privacy. While the RoB scores suggest many of the studies were of low quality, patients using online services reported increased convenience and satisfaction. These services positively impacted on patient safety, although there were variations of record access and use by specific ethnic and socioeconomic groups
Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Ellis, Beverley
Background Online access to medical records by patients can potentially enhance provision of patient-centred care and improve satisfaction. However, online access and services may also prove to be an additional burden for the healthcare provider. Aim To assess the impact of providing patients with access to their general practice electronic health records (EHR) and other EHR-linked online services on the provision, quality, and safety of health care. Design and setting A systematic review was conducted that focused on all studies about online record access and transactional services in primary care. Method Data sources included MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EPOC, DARE, King’s Fund, Nuffield Health, PsycINFO, OpenGrey (1999–2012). The literature was independently screened against detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria; independent dual data extraction was conducted, the risk of bias (RoB) assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the evidence conducted. Results A total of 176 studies were identified, 17 of which were randomised controlled trials, cohort, or cluster studies. Patients reported improved satisfaction with online access and services compared with standard provision, improved self-care, and better communication and engagement with clinicians. Safety improvements were patient-led through identifying medication errors and facilitating more use of preventive services. Provision of online record access and services resulted in a moderate increase of e-mail, no change on telephone contact, but there were variable effects on face-to-face contact. However, other tasks were necessary to sustain these services, which impacted on clinician time. There were no reports of harm or breaches in privacy. Conclusion While the RoB scores suggest many of the studies were of low quality, patients using online services reported increased convenience and satisfaction. These services positively impacted on patient safety, although there were variations of
Ramos, Raquel de Souza; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Marques, Sergio Corr?a; Spindola, Thelma; Nogueira, Virginia Paiva Figueiredo
Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro....
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor.
, but there are still significant ... Recent studies in Tanzania have shown that when healthcare systems are addressed (including barriers to health services and ... and Child Health in Africa program, a seven-year $36 million initiative funded by ...
Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
The objective of this study was to analyze the association between the socioeconomic characteristics and the access to or use of health services among older adults. This is a systematic review of the literature. The search has been carried out in the databases PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science, without restriction of dates and languages; however we have included only articles published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. The inclusion criteria were: observational design, socioeconomic factors as variables of interest in the analysis of the access to or use of health services among older adults, representative sample of the target population, adjustment for confounding factors, and no selection bias. We have found 5,096 articles after deleting duplicates and 36 of them have been selected for review after the process of reading and evaluating the inclusion criteria. Higher income and education have been associated with the use and access to medical appointments in developing countries and some developed countries. The same association has been observed in dental appointments in all countries. Most studies have shown no association between socioeconomic characteristics and the use of inpatient and emergency services. We have identified greater use of home visits in lower-income individuals, with the exception of the United States. We have observed an unequal access to or use of health services in most countries, varying according to the type of service used. The expansion of the health care coverage is necessary to reduce this unequal access generated by social inequities. Analisar a associação entre características socioeconômicas e acesso ou utilização de serviços de saúde entre idosos. Revisão sistemática da literatura. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs e Web of Science, sem restrição de datas e idiomas, entretanto foram incluídos somente os artigos publicados em português, inglês e espanhol. Foram critérios de inclusão: ter
Thin Zaw Phyu Phyu
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity of accessibility to and utilization of reproductive health (RH services among youths is a global concern, especially in resource-limited areas. The level of inequity also varies by cultural and socio-economic contexts. To tailor RH services to the needs of youths, relevant solutions are required. This study aimed to assess baseline information on access to and utilization of RH services and unmet needs among youths living in resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in all resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. A total of 444 randomly selected youths aged between 15 and 24 years were interviewed for three main outcomes, namely accessibility to and utilization of RH services and youth's unmet needs for these services. Factors associated with these outcomes were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results Although geographical accessibility was high (79.3%, financial accessibility was low (19.1% resulting in a low overall accessibility (34.5% to RH services. Two-thirds of youths used some kind of RH services at least once in the past. Levels of unmet needs for sexual RH information, family planning, maternal care and HIV testing were 62.6%, 31.9%, 38.7% and 56.2%, respectively. Youths living in the south or south-western suburbs, having a deceased parent, never being married or never exposed to mass media were less likely to access RH services. Being a young adult, current student, working as a waste recycler, having ever experienced a sexual relationship, ever being married, ever exposed to mass media, having a high knowledge of RH services and providers or a high level of accessibility to RH services significantly increased the likelihood of utilization of those services. In addition to youths’ socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to mass media, norm of peer exposure and knowledge
Jennings, Larissa; Omoni, Adetayo; Akerele, Akunle; Ibrahim, Yisa; Ekanem, Ekpenyong
Mobile communication technologies may reduce maternal health disparities related to cost, distance, and infrastructure. However, the ability of mHealth initiatives to accelerate maternal health goals requires in part that women with the greatest health needs have access to mobile phones. This study examined if women with limited mobile phone access have differential odds of maternal knowledge and health service utilization as compared to female mobile phone users who are currently eligible to participate in maternal mHealth programs. Using household survey data from Nigeria, multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of maternal knowledge and service utilization by mobile phone strata. Findings showed that in settings with unequal access to mobile phones, mHealth interventions may not reach women who have the poorest maternal knowledge and care-seeking as these women often lacked mobile connectivity. As compared to mobile users, women without mobile phone access had significantly lower odds of antenatal care utilization (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.64), skilled delivery (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.45-0.70), and modern contraceptive use (OR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.33-0.76) after adjusting for demographic characteristics. They also had significantly lower knowledge of maternal danger signs (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.53-0.90) and knowledge of antenatal (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.36-0.59) and skilled delivery care benefits (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.82). No differences were observed by mobile phone strata in uptake of emergency obstetric care, postnatal services, or breastfeeding. As maternal mHealth strategies are increasingly utilized, more efforts are needed to improve women's access to mobile phones and minimize potential health inequities brought on by health systems and technological barriers in access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
video conferencing can help remote service members and dependents access needed care. These two promising avenues for improving access to care can...Corporation ISBN 978-0-8330-8872-7 www.rand.org Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are...RAND Corporation View document details Support RAND Browse Reports & Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria
Purpose Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet
Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.
Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…
Raquel de Souza Ramos
Full Text Available Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. Results: the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. Conclusion: considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health.
Ramos, Raquel de Souza; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Marques, Sergio Corrêa; Spindola, Thelma; Nogueira, Virginia Paiva Figueiredo
the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health.
Ramos, Raquel de Souza; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Marques, Sergio Corrêa; Spindola, Thelma; Nogueira, Virginia Paiva Figueiredo
Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. Results: the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. Conclusion: considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health. PMID:27143542
Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.
Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas
Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.
Davidoff, Amy; Hill, Ian; Courtot, Brigette; Adams, Emerald
Our goal was to estimate the effects of managed care program type on service use and access for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions. Data on Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program managed care programs were linked by county and year to pooled data from the 1997-2002 National Health Interview Survey. We used multivariate techniques to examine the effects of managed care program type, relative to fee-for-service, on a broad array of service use and access outcomes. Relative to fee-for-service, managed care program assignment was associated with selected reductions in service use but not with deterioration in reported access. Capitated managed care plans with mental health or specialty carve-outs were associated with a 7.4-percentage-point reduction in the probability of a specialist visit, a 6.3-percentage-point reduction in the probability of a mental health specialty visit, and a 5.9-percentage-point decrease in the probability of regular prescription drug use. Reductions in use associated with primary care case management and integrated capitated programs (without carve-outs) were more limited, and integrated capitated plans were associated with a reduction in unmet medical care need. We failed to find significant effects of special managed care programs for children with chronic health conditions. Managed care is associated with reduced service use, particularly when capitated programs carve out services. This finding is of key policy importance, as the proportion of children enrolled in plans with carve-out arrangements has been increasing over time. It is not possible to determine whether reductions in services represent better care management or skimping. However, despite the reductions in use, we did not observe a corresponding increase in perceived unmet need; thus, the net change may represent improved care management.
Rhoades, Harmony; Rusow, Joshua A; Bond, David; Lanteigne, Amy; Fulginiti, Anthony; Goldbach, Jeremy T
LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.
We undertook a postal survey of GPs to establish their current access to radiological and endoscopic tests. More than one fifth of GPs do not have direct access to abdominal (n = 42, 21.4%) or pelvic (n = 49, 24.6%) ultrasound in the public system. Where access is available public patients have an average 14 week waiting period. In stark contrast in the private system virtually all GPs have direct access (n = 159, 99.2% and n = 156, 98.8% respectively for abdominal and pelvic ultrasound) with an average wait of just over four days. Direct access to CT scan in the public system is available to the minority of GPs, e.g. n = 31, 18.4% for chest scan, in the public system; even where available, there is an average 12 week wait for this. In comparison 151 (88.6%) GPs have access to CT chest scanning in the private sector with an average waiting time of 5.4 working days. Such limited access to diagnostics impacts on the delivery of a quality service.
Full Text Available Background: Health care access is complex and multi-faceted and, as a basic right, equitable access and services should be available to all user groups. Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore how service delivery impacts on access to healthcare for vulnerable groups in an urban primary health care setting in South Africa. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled participants and analysed through thematic content analysis. Results: Service delivery factors are presented against five dimensions of access according to the ACCESS Framework. From a supplier perspective, the organisation of care in the study setting resulted in available, accessible, affordable and adequate services as measured against the DistrictHealth System policies and guidelines. However, service providers experienced significant barriers in provision of services, which impacted on the quality of care, resulting in poor client and provider satisfaction and ultimately compromising acceptability of service delivery. Although users found services to be accessible, the organisation of services presented them with challenges in the domains of availability, affordability and adequacy, resulting in unmet needs, low levels of satisfaction and loss of trust. These challenges fuelled perceptions of unacceptable services. Conclusion: Well developed systems and organisation of services can create accessible, affordable and available primary healthcare services, but do not automatically translate into adequate and acceptable services. Focussing attention on how services are delivered might restore the balance between supply (services and demand (user needs and promote universal and equitable access.
Full Text Available Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia study engaged diverse organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS. Methods. Participants were home nursing clients with diabetes. The intervention included tailored diabetes self-management education according to preferred learning style, a standardised diabetes education tool, resources, and teach-back method. Results. Needs analysis of 113 quota-sampled clients showed difficulties managing health and finding and appraising health information. The service-wide diabetes education intervention was applied to 24 clients. The intervention was well received by clients and nurses. Positive impacts on clients’ diabetes knowledge and behaviour were seen and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand effective diabetes self-management.
Sánchez-Torres, Diana Alejandra
This paper presents the theorical development of accesibility as process and product. The process consists of the elements that converge to meet the objectives of providing medical care in a timely manner. As product is a component of effective care. Accesibility itself is subject to a combination of economic, cultural, social, geographic and contextual aspects. Beyond the right of persons to receive health care, availability of institutions and the means to achieve.
Rivers, J E; Komaroff, E; Kibort, A C
Publicly funded drug-user treatment programs in both urban and rural areas are under unprecedented pressure to adapt to multiple perspectives of their mission, reduced governmental funding, diminished entitlement program resources for clients, managed care reforms, and continuing unmet need for services. This article describe an ongoing health services research study that is investigating how these and related health and human service programs currently serve and cross-refer chronic drug users and how they perceive and are reacting to systemic pressures. Interim analysis on intra-agency diversity and managed care perceptions are reported.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M
To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP is the most populous state in India. The maternal mortality ratio, infant mortality rate, and fertility rates are all higher than the national average. Sixty percent of UP inhabitants live in rural communities. The reasons behind the poor state of health and services in many areas of UP are inadequate knowledge and availability in communities of healthy behaviors, and information on available government health services. Methods: World Vision, Inc. implemented a three-and-half year mobilizing plan for maternal and neonatal health through a birth spacing and advocacy project (MOMENT, partnering with local organizations in rural Hardoi and urban slums of Lucknow districts in UP. World Vision used print, audio, visual media, and house-to-house contacts to educate communities on timing and spacing of pregnancies; and the benefits of seeking and using maternal and child health services (MCH including immunization and family planning (FP.This paper focuses on World Vision’s social accountability strategy – Citizen Voice and Action (CVA and interface meetings – used in Hardoi that helped educate and empower Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs and village leaders to access government untied funds to improve community social and health services. Results: Forty VHSNCs were revived in 24 months. Nine local leaders accessed government untied funds. In addition, increased knowledge of the benefits of timing and spacing of pregnancies, maternal child health, family planning services, and access to community entitlements led the community to embrace and contribute their time to rebuild and re-open 17 non-functional Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM sub-centers. Seventeen ANMs received refresher training to provide quality care. Sub-center data showed that 1,121 and 3,156 women opted for intra-uterine contraceptive device and oral pills, respectively, and 29,316 condoms were distributed. Conclusion: In Hardoi
Ajaegbu, Okechukwu Odinaka
Pregnancy and childbirth complications are leading causes of death and disability among women of reproductive age, especially in developing countries, with Nigeria experiencing 576 deaths in every 100,000 births. This is particularly worrisome when most of these deaths could be prevented if pregnant women seek prenatal health care services. It is in the light of the foregoing that this research investigates the level of access and factors that influence use of prenatal health care services in Isiekenesi. Secondary and primary data were used for this study. The study adopted questionnaire, IDI, and FGD as data collection instruments. The data was analyzed at univariate and bivariate levels. The high cost of prenatal health care services was identified as a major factor that influences a woman's decision not to use prenatal health care services. Finally, while all stakeholders should intensify awareness of the importance of using prenatal health care services, concerted effort should be channeled toward reduction of cost or outright free services at least in government-owned health centers in rural areas.
Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Kimani, James; Kanya, Lucy; Korongo, Allan; Mukanya, Collins; Bracke, Piet; Bellows, Ben; Warren, Charlotte E
Current assessments on Output-Based Aid (OBA) programs have paid limited attention to the experiences and perceptions of the healthcare providers and facility managers. This study examines the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of healthcare providers and facility managers in the Kenya reproductive health output-based approach voucher program. A total of 69 in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and facility managers in 30 voucher accredited facilities were conducted. The study hypothesized that a voucher program would be associated with improvements in reproductive health service provision. Data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting a thematic framework analysis approach. A combination of inductive and deductive analysis was conducted based on previous research and project documents. Facility managers and providers viewed the RH-OBA program as a feasible system for increasing service utilization and improving quality of care. Perceived benefits of the program included stimulation of competition between facilities and capital investment in most facilities. Awareness of family planning (FP) and gender-based violence (GBV) recovery services voucher, however, remained lower than the maternal health voucher service. Relations between the voucher management agency and accredited facilities as well as existing health systems challenges affect program functions. Public and private sector healthcare providers and facility managers perceive value in the voucher program as a healthcare financing model. They recognize that it has the potential to significantly increase demand for reproductive health services, improve quality of care and reduce inequities in the use of reproductive health services. To improve program functioning going forward, there is need to ensure the benefit package and criteria for beneficiary identification are well understood and that the public facilities are permitted greater autonomy to utilize revenue generated from the voucher program.
Stepurko, Tetiana; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim
The measurement of consumer satisfaction is an essential part of the assessment of health care services in terms of service quality and health care system responsiveness. Studies across Europe have described various strategies health care users employ to secure services with good quality and quick access. In Central and Eastern European countries, such strategies also include informal payments to health care providers. This paper analyzes the satisfaction of health care users with the quality of and access to health care services. The study focuses on six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). We use data on past experience with health care use collected in 2010 through uniform national surveys in these countries. Based on these data, we carry out a multi-country analysis to investigate factors associated with the satisfaction of health care users in the six countries. The results indicate that about 10-14 % of the service users are not satisfied with the quality of, or access to health care services they used in the preceding year. However, significant differences across countries and services are observed, e.g. the highest level of dissatisfaction with access to outpatient services (16.4 %) is observed among patients in Lithuania, while in Poland, the level of dissatisfaction with quality of outpatient and inpatient services are much lower than dissatisfaction with access. The study also analyses the association of users' satisfaction with factors such as making informal payments, inability to pay and relative importance of service attributes stated by the service users. These multi-country findings provide evidence for health policy making in the Central and Eastern European countries. Although the average rates of satisfactions per country are relatively high, the results suggest that there is ample room for improvements. Specifically, many service-users still report dissatisfaction especially those
Mold, Freda; Ellis, Beverley; de Lusignan, Simon; Sheikh, Aziz; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Cavill, Mary; Michalakidis, Georgios; Barker, Fiona; Majeed, Azeem; Quinn, Tom; Koczan, Phil; Avanitis, Theo; Gronlund, Toto Anne; Franco, Christina; McCarthy, Mary; Renton, Zoë; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Jones, Simon; Rafi, Imran
Innovators have piloted improvements in communication, changed patterns of practice and patient empowerment from online access to electronic health records (EHR). International studies of online services, such as prescription ordering, online appointment booking and secure communications with primary care, show good uptake of email consultations, accessing test results and booking appointments; when technologies and business process are in place. Online access and transactional services are due to be rolled out across England by 2015; this review seeks to explore the impact of online access to health records and other online services on the quality and safety of primary health care. To assess the factors that may affect the provision of online patient access to their EHR and transactional services, and the impact of such access on the quality and safety of health care. Two reviewers independently searched 11 international databases during the period 1999-2012. A range of papers including descriptive studies using qualitative or quantitative methods, hypothesis-testing studies and systematic reviews were included. A detailed eligibility criterion will be used to shape study inclusion. A team of experts will review these papers for eligibility, extract data using a customised extraction form and use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument to determine the quality of the evidence and the strengths of any recommendation. Data will then be descriptively summarised and thematically synthesised. Where feasible, we will perform a quantitative meta-analysis. Prospero (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) registration number: crd42012003091.
McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I
Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace) that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service's funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people's consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from providing more timely appointments with therapists. The service's funding
Galloway, Charlotte T.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Dixon, Rena P.; Fuller, Taleria R.
Purpose Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens? 1) preferen...
Full Text Available Abstract Background NICE recommends computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT for the treatment of several mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. cCBT may be one way that services can reduce waiting lists and improve capacity and efficiency. However, there is some doubt about the extent to which the National Health Service (NHS in the UK is embracing this new health technology in practice. This study aimed to investigate Scottish health service infrastructure and policies that promote or impede the implementation of cCBT in the NHS. Methods A telephone survey of lead IT staff at all health board areas across Scotland to systematically enquire about the ability of local IT infrastructure and IT policies to support delivery of cCBT. Results Overall, most of the health boards possess the required software to use cCBT programmes. However, the majority of NHS health boards reported that they lack dedicated computers for patient use, hence access to cCBT at NHS sites is limited. Additionally, local policy in the majority of boards prevent staff from routinely contacting patients via email, skype or instant messenger, making the delivery of short, efficient support sessions difficult. Conclusions Conclusions: Overall most of the infrastructure is in place but is not utilised in ways that allow effective delivery. For cCBT to be successfully delivered within a guided support model, as recommended by national guidelines, dedicated patient computers should be provided to allow access to online interventions. Additionally, policy should allow staff to support patients in convenient ways such as via email or live chat. These measures would increase the likelihood of achieving Scottish health service targets to reduce waiting time for psychological therapies to 18 weeks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leading to significant measurement errors. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for geographical accessibility of selected health care services for residential areas (i.e. census tracts computed using different distance types and aggregation methods. Results First, the comparison of distance types demonstrates that Cartesian distances (Euclidean and Manhattan distances are strongly correlated with more accurate network distances (shortest network and shortest network time distances across the metropolitan area (Pearson correlation greater than 0.95. However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and network distances were observed notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances were less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: in comparison to the most accurate aggregation method (population-weighted mean of the accessibility measure for census blocks within census tracts, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 5% to 10% of census tracts. Conclusion Although errors associated to the choice of distance types and aggregation method are only important for about 10% of census tracts located mainly in suburban areas, we should not avoid using the best estimation method possible for evaluating geographical accessibility. This is especially so if these measures are to be included as a dimension of the
Sundari Ravindran, T K
Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.
Feng, Xing Lin; Martinez-Alvarez, Melisa; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Beibei; Meng, Qingyue; Balabanova, Dina
China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China. We systematically synthesized the best available evidence on how China achieved universal access to essential services in resource-scarce rural settings, with a particular emphasis on the experiences learned before the 1980s, when the country suffered a particularly acute lack of resources. The search identified only three peered-reviewed articles that fit our criteria for scientific rigor. We therefore drew extensively on government policy documents, and triangulated them with other publications and key informant interviews. We found that China's three-tier health service delivery system was established in response to acute health challenges, including high fertility and mortality rates. Health system resources were extremely low in view of the needs and insufficient to extend access to even basic care. With strong political commitment to rural health and a "health-for-all" policy vision underlying implementation, a three-tier health service delivery model connecting villages, townships and counties was quickly established. We identified several factors that contributed to the success of the three-tier system in China: a realistic health human resource development strategy, use of mass campaigns as a vehicle to increase demand, an innovative financing mechanisms, public-private partnership models in the early stages of scale up, and an integrated approach to service delivery. An
Choi, Stephanie; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John
respectively during a year followed by the baseline. For those who were depressed, we found that non-English speakers were two times less likely (OR:0.48;95%CI:0.31-0.77) to use of primary mental health services and were having 37%(IRR:0.63;95%CI:0.42-0.98) fewer encounters when compared to their English...... on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(Scores> ) or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale(Scores>=23). The use of primary and specialty mental health services was measured during the 12 months followed by the assessment at the baseline. Logistic and Negative binominal regression models were...... speaking counterparts. For accessing specialist care, we found that those who were identified as homosexual/gay, non-English speakers, immigrants, having low income and residing in rural area were two times less likely to use these services. However, being a homosexual/gay, being an immigrant, and having...
McCann Terence V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from
Galloway, Charlotte T; Duffy, Jennifer L; Dixon, Rena P; Fuller, Taleria R
Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens' 1) preferences for finding health information, 2) perceptions of accessing reproductive health services, and 3) beliefs about contraception. As a part of this community-wide initiative, eight focus groups were conducted in the Fall of 2012 with African American and Latino male and female youth from two communities in South Carolina. Among eight focus groups of youth, teens most often reported parents, other trusted relatives, and the Internet as sources of health information. Participants discussed the value of social media and television advertisements for reaching young people and emphasized the importance of privacy, a desire for a teen-only clinic, and the need for friendly clinical staff. Participants' comments often reflected inaccurate beliefs about the reliability and correct usage of contraceptive methods. Female participants also reported side effects of birth control as a potential barrier to use. Ensuring that teens' beliefs and perceptions are taken into account when developing, marketing, and implementing culturally competent reproductive health care services is important to improve access to care for all teens in Horry and Spartanburg Counties. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atanasova, Elka; Pavlova, Milena; Moutafova, Emanuela; Rechel, Bernd; Groot, Wim
In recent years, Bulgaria has increasingly relied on out-of-pocket payments as one of the main sources of health care financing. However, it is largely unknown whether the official patient charges, combined with informal payments, are affordable for the population. Our study aimed to explore the scale of out-of-pocket payments for health care services and their affordability. Data were collected in two nationally representative surveys, conducted in Bulgaria in 2010 and 2011, using face-to-face interviews based on a standardized questionnaire. To select respondents, a multi-stage random probability method was used. The questionnaire included questions on the out-of-pocket payments for health care services used by the respondent during the preceding 12 months. In total, 75.7% (2010) and 84.0% (2011) of outpatient service users reported to have paid out-of-pocket, with 12.6% (2010) and 9.7% (2011) of users reporting informal payments. Of those who had used inpatient services, 66.5% (2010) and 63.1% (2011) reported to have made out-of-pocket payments, with 31.8% (2010) and 18.3% (2011) reporting to have paid informally. We found large inability to pay indicated by the need to borrow money and/or forego services. Regression analysis showed that the inability to pay is especially pronounced among those with poor health status and chronic diseases and those on low household incomes. The high level of both formal and informal out-of-pocket payments for health care services in Bulgaria poses a considerable burden for households and undermines access to health services for poorer parts of the population.
Agazio, E; Salerno, P; Mirabella, F; Gnessi, F; Mastroiacovo, P; Morosini, P; Tarsitani, G; Taruscio, D
This paper concerns the first phase of a study about the perception of social and health needs of people with rare diseases. The study was performed by the National Center for Rare Diseases at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS). The project wants to be an example of collaboration between the research and the association worlds. Responsible of Associations of Patients and their relatives were asked their opinion about the accessibility and quality of important features of health and social services (accessibility and quality of diagnostic, pharmacological, psychological and rehabilitative interventions, social support, school and vocational training, information that was given to relatives). An ad hoc questionnaire was developed through focus groups. The questionnaire was completed by 108 associations (26,5% of the associations thar are recorded in the ISS database). Average scores showed satisfaction only for some variables and a negative gradient north-south was observed. The most frequent complaints were about information, quality of school and job training services and availability of psychological support. The study showed an high level of dissatisfaction with availability, quality and integration health and social services.
Chersich Matthew F
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV remains responsible for an estimated 40% of mortality in South African pregnant women and their children. To address these avoidable deaths, eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy (ART in pregnant women were revised in 2010 to enhance ART coverage. With greater availability of HIV services in public health settings and increasing government attention to poor maternal-child health outcomes, this study used the patient's journey through the continuum of maternal and child care as a framework to track and document women's experiences of accessing ART and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes in the Eastern Cape (three peri-urban facilities and Gauteng provinces (one academic hospital. Results In-depth interviews identified considerable weaknesses within operational HIV service delivery. These manifested as missed opportunities for HIV testing in antenatal care due to shortages of test kits; insufficient staff assigned to HIV services; late payment of lay counsellors, with consequent absenteeism; and delayed transcription of CD4 cell count results into patient files (required for ART initiation. By contrast, individual factors undermining access encompassed psychosocial concerns, such as fear of a positive test result or a partner's reaction; and stigma. Data and information systems for monitoring in the three peri-urban facilities were markedly inadequate. Conclusions A single system- or individual-level delay reduced the likelihood of women accessing ART or PMTCT interventions. These delays, when concurrent, often signalled wholesale denial of prevention and treatment. There is great scope for health systems' reforms to address constraints and weaknesses within PMTCT and ART services in South Africa. Recommendations from this study include: ensuring autonomy over resources at lower levels; linking performance management to facility-wide human resources interventions; developing
Meng, Qun; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang; Qian, Juncheng; Cai, Min; Xin, Ying; Gao, Jun; Xu, Ke; Boerma, J Ties; Barber, Sarah L
In the past decade, the Government of China initiated health-care reforms to achieve universal access to health care by 2020. We assessed trends in health-care access and financial protection between 2003, and 2011, nationwide. We used data from the 2003, 2008, and 2011 National Health Services Survey (NHSS), which used multistage stratified cluster sampling to select 94 of 2859 counties from China's 31 provinces and municipalities. The 2011 survey was done with a subset of the NHSS sampling frame to monitor key indicators after the national health-care reforms were announced in 2009. Three sets of indicators were chosen to measure trends in access to coverage, health-care activities, and financial protection. Data were disaggregated by urban or rural residence and by three geographical regions: east, central, and west, and by household income. We examined change in equity across and within regions. The number of households interviewed was 57,023 in 2003, 56,456 in 2008, and 18,822 in 2011. Response rates were 98·3%, 95·0%, and 95·5%, respectively. The number of individuals interviewed was 193,689 in 2003, 177,501 in 2008, and 59,835 in 2011. Between 2003 and 2011, insurance coverage increased from 29·7% (57,526 of 193,689) to 95·7% (57,262 of 59,835, pservices and insurance coverage across and within regions. However, these increases have not been accompanied by reductions in catastrophic health expenses. With the achievement of basic health-services coverage, future challenges include stronger risk protection, and greater efficiency and quality of care. None. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Gazi, Rukhsana; Hossain, S Shahed; Zaman, K
Social franchising has developed as a possible means of improving provision of health services through engaging the non-state sector in low- and middle-income countries. To examine the evidence that social franchising has on access to and quality of health services in low- and middle-income countries. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (up to October 2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 to September Week 3 2007), EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to 2007 Week 38), CINAHL, Ovid (1982 to September Week 3 2007), EconLit, WebSPIRS (1969 to Sept 2007), LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index (1975 to March 2008), Sociological Abstracts, CSA Illumnia (1952 September 2007), WHOLIS (1948 November 2007). Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series comparing social franchising models with other models of health service delivery, other social franchising models or absence of health services. Two review authors independently applied the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies to scan titles and abstracts. The same two review authors independently screened full reports of selected citations . At each stage, results were compared and discrepancies settled through discussion. No studies were found which were eligible for inclusion in this review. There is a need to develop rigorous studies to evaluate the effects of social franchising on access to and quality of health services in low- and middle-income countries. Such studies should be informed by the wider literature to identify models of social franchising that have a sound theoretical basis and empirical research addressing their reach, acceptability, feasibility, maintenance and measurability.
McDonald, Yolanda J.; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Castle, Philip E.; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M.
Purpose Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Methods Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P < .05) was used to determine if differences were significant and Cohen's r to measure effect. Findings Across all cervical cancer preventive health care services and years, women who resided in rural areas had a significantly greater geographic accessibility burden when compared to nonrural areas (4.4 km vs 2.5 km and 4.9 minutes vs 3.0 minutes for screening; 9.9 km vs 4.2 km and 10.4 minutes vs 4.9 minutes for colposcopy; and 14.8 km vs 6.6 km and 14.4 minutes vs 7.4 minutes for precancer treatment services, all P < .001). Conclusion Improvements in cervical cancer prevention should address the potential benefits of providing the full spectrum of screening, diagnostic and precancer treatment services within individual facilities. Accessibility, assessments distinguishing rural and nonrural areas are essential when monitoring and recommending changes to service infrastructures (eg, mobile versus brick and mortar). PMID:27557124
Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods.
Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem
Ålander, Ture; Scandurra, Isabella
Patients' increasing demands for medical information, the digitization of health records and the fast spread of Internet access form a basis of introducing new eHealth services. An international trend is to provide access for patients to health information of various kind. In Sweden, access by patients to their proper electronic health record (EHR) has been provided in a pilot county since November 2012. This eHealth service is controversial and criticism has arised from the clinical professions, mainly physicians. Two web surveys were conducted to discover whether the opinions of healthcare professionals differ; between staff that have had experience with patients accessing their own EHR and those who have no such expericence. Experienced nurses found the EHR more important for the patients and a better reform, compared to unexperienced nurses in the rest of the country. Similarly, physicians with their own experience had a more positive attitude compared to non-experienced physicians. The conclusion of this study is that healthcare professionals must be involved in the implementation of public eHealth services such as EHRs and that real experiences of the professionals should be better disseminated to their inexperienced peers.
Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel
To analyse the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on access to dental care services and on oral health. Design, setting and outcomes: Cross-sectional data from the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004 and 2005. Outcomes were poor oral health (self-rated oral health and symptoms of periodontal disease) and lack of access to dental care services. A socioeconomic disadvantage index (SDI) was developed, consisting of social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves. Swedish population-based sample of 17 362 men and 20 037 women. Every instance of increasing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with worsened oral health but, simultaneously, with decreased utilisation of dental care services. After adjusting for age, men with a mild SDI compared with those with no SDI had 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 3.0) times the odds for self-rated poor oral health, whereas odds related to severe SDI were 6.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 7.5). The corresponding values among women were 2.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5) and 6.8 (95% CI 6.3 to 7.5). Nevertheless, people with severe socioeconomic disparities were 7-9 times as likely to refrain from seeking the required dental treatment. These associations persisted even after controlling for living alone, education, occupational status and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors explained only 29% of the socioeconomic differences in poor oral health among men and women, whereas lack of access to dental care services explained about 60%. The results of the multilevel regression analysis indicated no additional effect of the administrative boundaries of counties or of municipalities in Sweden. Results call for urgent public health interventions to increase equitable access to dental care services.
Wing, Paul; Langelier, Margaret H; Continelli, Tracey A; Battrell, Ann
The purpose of this article is to summarize a larger study that developed a statistical index that defines the professional practice environment of dental hygienists (DHs) in the United States, and to determine the extent to which the index scores are related to the number of DHs and dentists, the utilization of dental services, and selected oral health outcomes across the 50 states. A Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index (DHPPI) defines the professional status, supervision requirements, tasks permitted, and reimbursement options for DHs in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, as of December 31, 2001. Spearman rank order correlations between the DHPPI and numbers of oral health professionals, utilization of oral health services, and oral health outcomes in the 50 states are also presented. The analyses revealed that: There are significant differences in the legal practice environments (as reflected in the DHPPI) across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Between 1990 and 2001, the number of DHs per capita increased by 46% in the United States, while the number of dentists per 100,000 population increased by only 10%. The DHPPI was not significantly correlated with the number of DHs or dentists in the 50 states in 2001. The DHPPI was significantly positively correlated with the salaries of DHs in 2001. The DHPPI was also significantly and positively correlated with a number of indicators of utilization of oral health services and oral health outcomes. Both access to oral health services and oral health outcomes are positively correlated with the DHPPI. This suggests that states with low DHPPI scores would be logical candidates for revised DH practice statutes and regulations to accomplish these objectives.
Full Text Available Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden.Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into; i population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; ii pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods; iii regulations to modify the food environment, and iv the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of ‘junk foods’ is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons.Given the major role of diet in health it is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.
McDonald, Yolanda J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Scarinci, Isabel C; Castle, Philip E; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M
Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P brick and mortar). © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu
In Finland like in many other countries, employers are legally obliged to organize occupational health services (OHS) for their employees. Because employers bear the costs of OHS it could be that in spite of the legal requirement OHS expenditure is more determined by economic performance of the company than by law. Therefore, we explored whether economic performance was associated with the companies' expenditure on occupational health services. We used a prospective design to predict expenditure on OHS in 2001 by a company's economic performance in 1999. Data were provided by Statistics Finland and expressed by key indicators for profitability, solidity and liquidity and by the Social Insurance Institution as employers' reimbursement applications for OHS costs. The data could be linked at the company level. Regression analysis was used to study associations adjusted for various confounders. Nineteen percent of the companies (N = 6 155) did not apply for reimbursement of OHS costs in 2001. The profitability of the company represented by operating margin in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to the company's probability to apply for reimbursement of the costs in 2001 (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.01). Profitability measured as operating profit in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to costs for curative medical services (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.11) nor to OHS cost of prevention in 2001 (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.00). We did not find a relation between the company's economic performance and expenditure on OHS in Finland. We suppose that this is due to legislation obliging employers to provide OHS and the reimbursement system both being strong incentives for employers.
Perry, Henry B; King-Schultz, Leslie W; Aftab, Asma S; Bryant, John H
Although health equity issues at regional, national and international levels are receiving increasing attention, health equity issues at the local level have been virtually overlooked. Here, we describe here a comprehensive equity assessment carried out by the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti (HAS) in 2003. HAS has been operating health and development programs in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti for 50 years. We reviewed all available information arising from a comprehensive evaluation of the programs of HAS carried out in 1999 and 2000. As part of this evaluation, two demographic and health surveys were carried out. We carried out exit interviews with clients receiving primary health care, observations within health facilities, interviews with households related to quality of care, and focus group discussions with community-based health workers. A special study was carried out in 2003 to assess factors determining the use of prenatal care services. Finally, selected findings were obtained from the HAS information system. We found markedly reduced access to health services in the peripheral mountainous areas compared to the central plains. The quality of services was more deficient and the coverage of key services was lower in the mountains. Finally, health status, as measured by under-five mortality rates and levels of childhood malnutrition, was also worse in the mountains. These findings indicate that local health programs need to give attention to monitoring the health status as well as the quality and coverage of basic services among marginalized groups within the program service area. Health inequities will not be overcome until such monitoring occurs and leaders of health programs ensure that inequities identified are addressed in the local programming of activities. It is quite likely that, within relatively small geographic areas in resource-poor settings around the world, similar, if not even greater, levels of health inequities exist. These inequities
Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S
Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of "junk foods" is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.
Munyewende, Pascalia; Rispel, Laetitia C; Harris, Bronwyn; Chersich, Matthew
We present qualitative data from a 2005 exploratory study, recently published studies, and an analysis of the Department of Health's strategic plan to highlight the need for a broader policy debate on health-care access for migrants in South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 Zimbabwean women living in inner-city Johannesburg to document the special characteristics of this group of migrants, enquiring about their perceptions of HIV risk, and experiences of health services in South Africa. We identified access barriers, namely perceptions of relatively low HIV risk, severely constrained financial circumstances, uncertain legal status, and experiences of unresponsive health workers. We recommend that migrant-health rights be placed on South Africa's policy agenda, migrants be included in HIV prevention programs and that health workers be sensitized to the needs of migrants.
Full Text Available Background Innovators have piloted improvements in communication, changed patterns of practice and patient empowerment from online access to electronic health records (EHR. International studies of online services, such as prescription ordering, online appointment booking and secure communications with primary care, show good uptake of email consultations, accessing test results and booking appointments; when technologies and business process are in place. Online access and transactional services are due to be rolled out across England by 2015; this review seeks to explore the impact of online access to health records and other online services on the quality and safety of primary health care.Objective To assess the factors that may affect the provision of online patient access to their EHR and transactional services, and the impact of such access on the quality and safety of health care.Method Two reviewers independently searched 11 international databases during the period 1999–2012. A range of papers including descriptive studies using qualitative or quantitative methods, hypothesis-testing studies and systematic reviews were included. A detailed eligibility criterion will be used to shape study inclusion .A team of experts will review these papers for eligibility, extract data using a customised extraction form and use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE instrument to determine the quality of the evidence and the strengths of any recommendation. Data will then be descriptively summarised and thematically synthesised. Where feasible, we will perform a quantitative meta-analysis.Prospero (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews registration number: crd42012003091.
Tadros, Anthony S; Castillo, Edward M; Chan, Theodore C; Jensen, Anne Marie; Patel, Ekta; Watts, Kerin; Dunford, James V
A small group of adults disproportionately and ineffectively use acute services including emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency departments (EDs). The resulting episodic, uncoordinated care is of lower quality and higher cost and simultaneously consumes valuable public safety and acute care resources. To address this issue, we measured the impact of a pilot, EMS-based case management and referral intervention termed the San Diego Resource Access Program (RAP) to reduce EMS, ED, and inpatient (IP) visits. This was a historical cohort study of RAP records and billing data of EMS and one urban hospital for 51 individuals sequentially enrolled in the program. The study sample consisted of adults with ≥ 10 EMS transports within 12 months and others reported by prehospital personnel with significant recent increases in transports. Data were collected over a 31-month time period from December 2006 to June 2009. Data were collected for equal pre- and postenrollment time periods based on date of initial RAP contact, and comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Overall use for subjects is reported. The majority of subjects were male (64.7%), homeless (58.8%), and 40 to 59 years of age (72.5%). Between the pre and post periods, EMS encounters declined 37.6% from 736 to 459 (p = 0.001), resulting in a 32.1% decrease in EMS charges from $689,743 to $468,394 (p = 0.004). The EMS task time and mileage decreased by 39.8% and 47.5%, respectively, accounting for 262 (p = 0.008) hours and 1,940 (p = 0.006) miles. The number of ED encounters at the one participating hospital declined 28.1% from 199 to 143, which correlated with a 12.7% decrease in charges from $413,410 to $360,779. The number of IP admissions declined by 9.1% from 33 to 30, corresponding to a 5.9% decrease in IP charges from $687,306 to $646,881. Hospital length of stay declined 27.9%, from 122 to 88 days. Across all services, total charges declined by $314,406. This pilot study
Akbari, Nahid; Ramezankhani, Ali; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh
At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the "unmet need for family planning" have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a cascade model for presenting the
Elizabeth Margaret Stovold
Full Text Available A Review of: Swab, M., & Romme, K. (2016. Scholarly sharing via Twitter: #icanhazpdf requests for health sciences literature. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association, 37(1, 6-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5596/c16-009 Abstract Objective – To analyze article sharing requests for health sciences literature on Twitter, received through the #icanhazpdf protocol. Design – Social media content analysis. Setting – Twitter. Subjects – 302 tweets requesting health sciences articles with the #icanhazpdf tag. Methods – The authors used a subscription service called RowFeeder to collect public tweets posted with the hashtag #icanhazpdf between February and April 2015. Rowfeeder recorded the Twitter user name, location, date and time, URL, and content of the tweet. The authors excluded all retweets and then each reviewed one of two sets. They recorded the geographic region and affiliation of the requestor, whether the tweet was a request or comment, type of material requested, how the item was identified, and if the subject of the request was health or non-health. Health requests were further classified using the Scopus subject category of the journal. A journal could be classified with more than one category. Any uncertainties during the coding process were resolved by both authors reviewing the tweet and reaching a consensus. Main results – After excluding all the retweets and comments, 1079 tweets were coded as heath or non-health related. A final set of 302 health related requests were further analyzed. Almost all the requests were for journal articles (99%, n=300. The highest-ranking subject was medicine (64.9%, n=196, and the lowest was dentistry (0.3%, n=1. The most common article identifier was a link to the publisher’s website (50%, n=152, followed by a link to the PubMed record (22%, n=67. Articles were also identified by citation information (11%, n=32, DOI (5%, n=14, a direct request to an individual (3%, n=9, another method
Etemadi, Manal; Gorji, Hasan Abolghasem; Kangarani, Hannaneh Mohammadi; Ashtarian, Kioomars
The extent of universal health coverage in terms of financial protection is worrisome in Iran. There are challenges in health policies to guarantee financial accessibility to health services, especially for poor people. Various institutions offer support to ensure that the poor have financial access to health services. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship network among the institutions active in this field. This study is a policy document analysis. It evaluates the country's legal documents in the field of financial support to the poor for healthcare after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. The researchers looked for the documents on the related websites and referred to the related organizations. The social network analysis approach was chosen for the analysis of the documents. Block-modelling and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to determine the network structures. The UCINET software was employed to analyse the data. Most the main actors of this network are chosen from the government budget. There is no legal communication and cooperation among some of the actors because of their improper position in the network. Seven blocks have been clustered by CONCOR in terms of the actor's degree of similarity. The social distance among the actors of the seven blocks is very short. Power distribution in the field of financial support to the poor has a fragmented structure; however, it is mainly run by a dominant block consisting of The Supreme Council of Welfare and Social Security, Health Insurance Organization, and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The financial support for the poor network involves multiple actors. This variety has created a series of confusions in terms of the type, level, and scope of responsibilities among the actors. The weak presence legislative and regulatory institutions and also non-governmental institutions are the main weak points of this network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bahannan, Salma A; Eltelety, Somaya M; Hassan, Mona H; Ibrahim, Suzan S; Amer, Hala A; El Meligy, Omar A; Al-Johani, Khalid A; Kayal, Rayyan A; Mokeem, Abeer A; Qutob, Akram F; Mira, Abdulghani I
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 14⁻19-year-old schoolchildren with limited access to dental care services. A cross sectional study design was conducted during field visits to seven governmental schools in Al-Khomrah district, South Jeddah, over the period from September 2015 to May 2016. Clinical examinations and administered questionnaires were carried out in mobile dental clinics. The dentists carried out oral examinations using the dental caries index (DMFT), the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), and the community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20. A total of 734 schoolchildren were examined. The prevalence of decayed teeth was 79.7% and was significantly higher among boys (88.9%) than girls (69.0%). About 11% of students had missing teeth, with a significantly higher figure among females than males (15.9% versus 7.3%); 19.8% of students had filled teeth. Moreover, a DMFT of seven or more was significantly more prevalent among males (43.3%) than females (26.8%), while the percentage of females with sound teeth was significantly higher than for males (20.4% and 9.6% respectively). The CPITN revealed 0, 1 and 2 scores among 14.6%, 78.2%, and 41.6% respectively. Males had a significantly higher percentage of healthy periodontal condition (23.8%) than females (3.8%). Dental caries prevalence was moderate to high, calculus and gingival bleeding were widespread among schoolchildren, and were more prevalent among students with low socioeconomic status.
Mji, Gubela; Braathen, Stine H; Vergunst, Richard; Scheffler, Elsje; Kritzinger, Janis; Mannan, Hasheem; Schneider, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie; Visagie, Surona
There are many factors that influence access to public health services, such as the context people live in, the existing health services, and personal, cultural and community factors. People with disabilities (activity limitations), through their experience of health services, may offer a particular understanding of the performance of the health services, thus exposing health system limitations more clearly than perhaps any other health service user. This article explores how activity limitations interact with factors related to context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services in South Africa. We present four case studies of people with disabilities from four low-resource diverse contexts in South Africa (rural, semi-rural, farming community and peri-urban) to highlight challenges of access to health services experienced by people with activity limitations in a variety of contexts. One case study of a person with disabilities was chosen from each study setting to build evidence using an intensive qualitative case study methodology to elucidate individual and household experiences of challenges experienced by people with activity limitations when attempting to access public health services. In-depth interviews were used to collect data, using an interview guide. The analysis was conducted in the form of a thematic analysis using the interview topics as a starting point. First, these four case studies demonstrate that equitable access to health services for people with activity limitations is influenced by a complex interplay of a variety of factors for a single individual in a particular context. Secondly, that while problems with access to public health services are experienced by everyone, people with activity limitations are affected in particular ways making them particularly vulnerable in using public health services. The revitalisation of primary health care and the introduction of national health
Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina-Luque, Fidel; Otero-García, Laura
Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ensor, Tim; Fustukian, Suzanne; Newlands, David; Martineau, Tim; Chirwa, Yotamu
The last decade has seen widespread retreat from user fees with the intention to reduce financial constraints to users in accessing health care and in particular improving access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services. This has had important benefits in reducing financial barriers to access in a number of settings. If the policies work as intended, service utilization rates increase. However this increases workloads for health staff and at the same time, the loss of user fee revenues can imply that health workers lose bonuses or allowances, or that it becomes more difficult to ensure uninterrupted supplies of health care inputs.This research aimed to assess how policies reducing demand-side barriers to access to health care have affected service delivery with a particular focus on human resources for health. We undertook case studies in five countries (Ghana, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe). In each we reviewed financing and HRH policies, considered the impact financing policy change had made on health service utilization rates, analysed the distribution of health staff and their actual and potential workloads, and compared remuneration terms in the public sectors. We question a number of common assumptions about the financing and human resource inter-relationships. The impact of fee removal on utilization levels is mostly not sustained or supported by all the evidence. Shortages of human resources for health at the national level are not universal; maldistribution within countries is the greater problem. Low salaries are not universal; most of the countries pay health workers well by national benchmarks. The interconnectedness between user fee policy and HRH situations proves difficult to assess. Many policies have been changing over the relevant period, some clearly and others possibly in response to problems identified associated with financing policy change. Other relevant variables have also changed.However, as is now well
Can the Medical-nursing Combined Care Promote the Accessibility of Health Services for the Elderly in Nursing Home? A Study Protocol of Analysis of the Effectiveness Regarding Health Service Utilization, Health Status and Satisfaction with Care.
Bao, J; Wang, X-J; Yang, Y; Dong, R-Q; Mao, Z-F
Currently, segmentation of healthcare and daily care for the elderly living in nursing homes usually results in the elderly not getting medical treatment timely and effectively. The medical-nursing combined care, which has been put into practice in several areas in China, is developed to enhance the accessibility of healthcare for the elderly. The aim of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the new care service, based on Andersen model, regarding health service utilization, health status and service satisfaction. The effectiveness of medical-nursing combined care will be measured in a cross-sectional study in nine nursing homes in Jianghan District, Wuhan, China, with 1067 old residents expected to participate. The questionnaire containing items of demographics, health service use, service satisfaction and instrument of SF-36 V2 is developed based on the conceptual framework of Andersen behaviour model of health service utilization. Descriptive analysis, variance analysis, multiple factors analysis, and correlation analysis will be performed to compare the sociological characteristics, health service use, health status and service satisfaction of the elderly living in different modes of nursing homes, to explore the influence factors of care effectiveness, as well as to study the relationship between health behaviour and health outcomes. The study design of analysing the effects of medical-nursing combined care and performing the horizontal comparison among the nursing homes under the framework of Andersen model is blazing new trails. Recruitment and design of questionnaire are important issues. Successful data collection and quality control are also necessary. Taking these into account, this study is estimated to provide evidence for the effectiveness of medical-nursing combined care service in China.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adequate access to oral and dental health services in childhood can reduce long-term complications in the following years of life. The objective of this study was to determine the barriers of access to children’s oral and dental health services from the point of view of mothers referring to health centers in Qom city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the statistical population included 325 mothers referred to health centers. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of items, including age, educational level, job, and barriers of access to oral health services. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical indicators and logistic regression test. Results: In this study, lack of insurance coverage for dentistry costs (59.7% had the highest frequency in barriers of access to dental health services, followed by child's fear of dentistry (53.2% and high costs of dental services (49.8%. There was no significant relationship between mother's job and barriers of access to dental health services, but the chance of barriers of access to dental health services increased 1.60 times with father’s employment in government jobs. Also, the results showed that the chance of barriers of access to dental health services increased 3.60 times with residence in Pardisan region, on the other hand, the chance of access to the services, was improved up to 52% with residence in Tohid region. Conclusion: Expansion of insurance coverage of oral and dental health services and increase of public centers providing dental services can be eliminate the major part of barriers of access to these services. In addition, the proportional distribution of these services in different regions of the city can be effective in easy and low-cost access.
In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795
Zach, Lisl; Dalrymple, Prudence W; Rogers, Michelle L; Williver-Farr, Heather
The relationship between health information seeking, patient engagement and health literacy is not well understood. This is especially true in medically underserved populations, which are often viewed as having limited access to health information. To improve communication between an urban health centre and the community it serves, a team of library and information science researchers undertook an assessment of patients' level and methods of access to and use of the Internet. Data were collected in 53 face-to-face anonymous interviews with patients at the centre. Interviews were tape-recorded for referential accuracy, and data were analysed to identify patterns of access and use. Seventy-two percentage of study participants reported having access to the Internet through either computers or cell phones. Barriers to Internet access were predominantly lack of equipment or training rather than lack of interest. Only 21% of those with Internet access reported using the Internet to look for health information. The findings suggest that lack of access to the Internet in itself is not the primary barrier to seeking health information in this population and that the digital divide exists not at the level of information access but rather at the level of information use. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Wagner, Michael M; Levander, John D; Brown, Shawn; Hogan, William R; Millett, Nicholas; Hanna, Josh
This paper describes the Apollo Web Services and Apollo-SV, its related ontology. The Apollo Web Services give an end-user application a single point of access to multiple epidemic simulators. An end user can specify an analytic problem-which we define as a configuration and a query of results-exactly once and submit it to multiple epidemic simulators. The end user represents the analytic problem using a standard syntax and vocabulary, not the native languages of the simulators. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this design by implementing a set of Apollo services that provide access to two epidemic simulators and two visualizer services.
Aftab Asma S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although health equity issues at regional, national and international levels are receiving increasing attention, health equity issues at the local level have been virtually overlooked. Here, we describe here a comprehensive equity assessment carried out by the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti (HAS in 2003. HAS has been operating health and development programs in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti for 50 years. Methods We reviewed all available information arising from a comprehensive evaluation of the programs of HAS carried out in 1999 and 2000. As part of this evaluation, two demographic and health surveys were carried out. We carried out exit interviews with clients receiving primary health care, observations within health facilities, interviews with households related to quality of care, and focus group discussions with community-based health workers. A special study was carried out in 2003 to assess factors determining the use of prenatal care services. Finally, selected findings were obtained from the HAS information system. Results We found markedly reduced access to health services in the peripheral mountainous areas compared to the central plains. The quality of services was more deficient and the coverage of key services was lower in the mountains. Finally, health status, as measured by under-five mortality rates and levels of childhood malnutrition, was also worse in the mountains. Conclusion These findings indicate that local health programs need to give attention to monitoring the health status as well as the quality and coverage of basic services among marginalized groups within the program service area. Health inequities will not be overcome until such monitoring occurs and leaders of health programs ensure that inequities identified are addressed in the local programming of activities. It is quite likely that, within relatively small geographic areas in resource-poor settings around the world, similar, if not
Full Text Available Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru between 2014 and 2015. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of 71,614 Peruvian children aged <12 years and their caregivers. Data were obtained from the Survey on Demography and Family Health 2014-2015 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES. Children’s access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No, and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers’ educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family. Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged <5 years, and 62.6% lived in urban areas. The most common type of health insurance was Integral Health Insurance (57.8%, and most respondents were in the first quintile of wealth (31.6%. Regarding caregivers, the most common educational level was high school (43.02% and the most frequently spoken language was Spanish (88.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that all variables, except sex and primary educational level, were statistically significant. After adjustment, sex, area of residence, and language were insignificant, whereas the remaining variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Wealth index, caregivers’ education level, natural region of residence, age, and type of health insurance are factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru. These factors should be considered when
Fennell, Kate; Hull, Melissa; Jones, Martin; Dollman, James
The prevalence of chronic disease, mortality and suicide rates is higher in rural Australia than in urban centres. Understanding rural Australians' barriers to accessing health services requires urgent attention. The purpose of this study was to compare barriers to help-seeking for physical and mental health issues among rural South Australian adults. A total of 409 people from three rural and remote regions in South Australia completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. They were presented a physical or mental health scenario and rated the extent to which barriers would prevent them from seeking help for that condition. Responses ranged from 1 ('strongly disagree') to 5 ('strongly agree') and were averaged to form domain scores (higher scores representing stronger barriers to seeking support), in addition to being examined at the item level. Men reported higher barriers for the mental compared with physical health scenario across four domains ('need for control and self-reliance', 'minimising the problem, resignation and normalisation', 'privacy' and 'emotional control'). Women reported higher barriers for the mental compared to physical health scenario in two domains ('need for control and self-reliance' and 'privacy'). Both men and women endorsed many items in the mental health context (eg 'I don't like feeling controlled by other people', 'I wouldn't want to overreact to a problem that wasn't serious', 'Problems like this are part of life; they're just something you have to deal with', 'I'd prefer just to put up with it rather than dwell on my problems', 'Privacy is important to me, and I don't want other people to know about my problems' and 'I don't like to get emotional about things') but in the physical health context, barriers were endorsed only by men (eg 'I wouldn't want to overreact to a problem that wasn't serious',' I'd prefer just to put up with it rather than dwell on my problems', 'Problems like this are part of life; they're just something
Tahim, Arpan; Stokes, Oliver; Vedi, Vikas
NHS Library Services are utilised by NHS staff and junior trainees to locate scientific papers that provide them with the evidence base required for modern medical practice. The cost of accessing articles can be considerable particularly for junior trainees. This survey looks at variations in cost of journal article loans and investigates access to particular orthopaedic journals across the country. A national survey of UK Health Libraries was performed. Access to and costs of journals and interlibrary loan services were assessed. Availability of five wide-reaching orthopaedic journals was investigated. Seven hundred and ten libraries were identified. One hundred and ten libraries completed the questionnaire (16.7%). Of these, 96.2% reported free access to scientific journals for users. 99.1% of libraries used interlibrary loan services with 38.2% passing costs on to the user at an average of £2.99 per article. 72.7% of libraries supported orthopaedic services. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British) had greatest onsite availability. The study demonstrates fluctuations in cost of access to interlibrary loan services and variation in access to important orthopaedic journals. It provides a reflection of current policy of charging for the acquisition of medical evidence by libraries in the UK. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available Sharon Brownie,1,2 Andrew P Hills,3,4 Rachel Rossiter51Workforce and Health Services, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Oxford PRAXIS Forum, Green Templeton College, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; 3Allied Health Research, Mater Research Institute – The University of Queensland and Mater Mothers' Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 4Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 5MMHN and Nurse Practitioner Programs, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Globally, nations are confronted with the challenge of providing affordable health services to populations with increasing levels of noncommunicable and chronic disease. Paradoxically, many nations can both celebrate increases in life expectancy and bemoan parallel increases in chronic disease prevalence. Simply put, despite living longer, not all of that time is spent in good health. Combined with factors such as rising levels of obesity and related noncommunicable disease, the demand for health services is requiring nations to consider new models of affordable health care. Given the level of disease burden, all staff, not just doctors, need to be part of the solution and encouraged to innovate and deliver better and more affordable health care, particularly preventative primary health care services. This paper draws attention to a range of exemplars to encourage and stimulate readers to think beyond traditional models of primary health service delivery. Examples include nurse-led, allied health-led, and student-led clinics; student-assisted services; and community empowerment models. These are reported for the interest of policy makers and health service managers involved in preventative and primary health service redesign initiatives.Keywords: primary health care planning, community health care, nurse-led clinics, allied health personnel
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as...
Dutton, Diana B.
This research investigated factors affecting children's health, based on empirical analyses of data from Washington, D.C. and national data. By most measures, poor children experience disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Yet certain ear and vision problems exhibit a U-shaped relation to family income in both national statistics and the…
Merrell, Joy; Kinsella, Faye; Murphy, Fiona; Philpin, Sue; Ali, Amina
There is a paucity of information regarding the extent and nature of caring provided by minority ethnic communities. The proportion of older people from these communities will dramatically increase in the next 20 years, which will be accompanied by increasing health and social care needs and an increased demand for carers. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted to identify the health and social care needs of informal carers, who were caring for a dependent adult from a Bangladeshi community in South Wales, UK. This paper focuses on Bangladeshi carers' access to formal support services provided by the statutory, private and voluntary sectors to assist them with their caring responsibilities. The findings are based on data collected using face-to-face, focused interviews with 20 Bangladeshi carers. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the sample. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The dimensions of accessibility and equity of quality of care were drawn upon to aid understanding of the findings. Bangladeshi carers faced a number of barriers in accessing health and social service provision, which impeded uptake of these services. Additionally, there was evidence of inequity in service provision. Recommendations for improving the accessibility of health and social care services are proposed, which may assist in promoting more equitable services for carers from the Bangladeshi community.
Riva Mylène; Abdelmajid Mohamed; Apparicio Philippe; Shearmur Richard
Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leadi...
Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame
Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148
Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M
Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.
Weise, F O; Borgendale, M
Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.
Brownie, Sharon; Hills, Andrew P; Rossiter, Rachel
Sharon Brownie,1,2 Andrew P Hills,3,4 Rachel Rossiter51Workforce and Health Services, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Oxford PRAXIS Forum, Green Templeton College, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; 3Allied Health Research, Mater Research Institute – The University of Queensland and Mater Mothers' Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 4Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 5...
Full Text Available Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs.This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure.Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8% were females and 198 (40.2% were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had 'good' or 'very good' access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA. With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001, 6.0%(p<0.01, 100.0% (p<0.001, 9.0% (p<0.05 and 6.0% (p<0.05 respectively.Perceived quality of
Callejas, Linda M.; Hernandez, Mario; Nesman, Teresa; Mowery, Debra
Despite recognition of the central role that service accessibility (and availability) should assume within a system of care, the definition proposed in the feature article of this special issue does not identify specific factors that systems of care must take into account in order to serve diverse children with serious emotional disturbance and…
Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire
This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…
Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Sallach, Rory E
This pilot study explores the patient-centered demand for mobile phone-based health (mobile health [m-health]) services in the rural United States by documenting rural patients' access to mobile phones and patients' willingness to receive m-health services. An anonymous institutional review board-approved survey was completed by patients visiting two rural pharmacies in Nebraska from August to October 2011. Patients who volunteered to complete the survey provided their demographic data, disease state information, health status, mobile phone access, and willingness to receive (in terms of using and giving time to) m-health services. The majority of the 24 survey respondents were 19-40 years old (52%), female (88%), married (63%), with excellent to very good health status (63%), with no comorbidities (83%), with ≤$100 monthly medication expenses (80%), with private insurance (78%), living within 5 miles of their pharmacy (71%), and reporting that m-health services are important to them (75%; 12/16). Approximately 95%, 81%, 73%, and 55% of respondents reported access to a mobile phone, voice mails, text messaging, and mobile phone applications, respectively. Of the respondents, 65%, 57%, 52%, and 48% were willing to receive prerecorded messages for appointment reminders from the doctor, disease information, medication use/self-care information, and symptom monitoring information, respectively. In total, 70%, 63%, 61%, 54%, and 50% were willing to receive prerecorded messages from the pharmacist containing contact requests, new/refill prescription reminders, information on medication problems, reviewing/monitoring of medication use, and medication self-management/preventive screenings/immunizations, respectively. Of 44% (7/16) respondents willing to give time for m-health services, 83% were willing to give 15 min, and 17% were willing to give 30 min every month. By demonstrating rural patients' demand for m-health (including pharmacy) services, this is one of the
Full Text Available Background: There insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design: A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results: Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions: Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy
Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen
Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the
Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen
There insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives' perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the delay in the first prenatal visit, as discerned by
Salway, Sarah; Bhatti, Afshan; Shanner, Laura; Zaman, Shakila; Laing, Lory; Ellison, George T. H.
Evidence suggests national- and community-level interventions are not reaching women living at the economic and social margins of society in Pakistan. We conducted a 10-month qualitative study (May 2010–February 2011) in a village in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected using 94 in-depth interviews, 11 focus group discussions, 134 observational sessions, and 5 maternal death case studies. Despite awareness of birth complications and treatment options, poverty and dependence on richer, higher-caste people for cash transfers or loans prevented women from accessing required care. There is a need to end the invisibility of low-caste groups in Pakistani health care policy. Technical improvements in maternal health care services should be supported to counter social and economic marginalization so progress can be made toward Millennium Development Goal 5 in Pakistan. PMID:24354817
Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah; Bhatti, Afshan; Shanner, Laura; Zaman, Shakila; Laing, Lory; Ellison, George T H
Evidence suggests national- and community-level interventions are not reaching women living at the economic and social margins of society in Pakistan. We conducted a 10-month qualitative study (May 2010-February 2011) in a village in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected using 94 in-depth interviews, 11 focus group discussions, 134 observational sessions, and 5 maternal death case studies. Despite awareness of birth complications and treatment options, poverty and dependence on richer, higher-caste people for cash transfers or loans prevented women from accessing required care. There is a need to end the invisibility of low-caste groups in Pakistani health care policy. Technical improvements in maternal health care services should be supported to counter social and economic marginalization so progress can be made toward Millennium Development Goal 5 in Pakistan.
Müller, Alex; Spencer, Sarah; Meer, Talia; Daskilewicz, Kristen
Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.
Chol, Chol; Hunter, Cynthia; Debru, Berhane; Haile, Berhana; Negin, Joel; Cumming, Robert G
Wars affect maternal health services by destroying health systems. Eritrea experienced two wars with neighbouring Ethiopia. Despite this, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Eritrea fell by 69% from 1590 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 501 in 2015. This study aimed to examine facilitators of and barriers to the utilisation of and access to maternal health services in Eritrea. Using in-depth interviews and field observations for data collection, this qualitative study was conducted in five healthcare facilities in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, in February and March 2016. The participants were: women (n = 40), husbands (n = 5), healthcare providers (n = 10), and decision makers (n = 5). There were two perceived facilitators of utilisation of and access to maternal health services: health education (related to the WHO health service delivery building blocks) and improvement in gender equality driven by the role played by Eritrean women as combatants during the War of Independence (1961-1991). The only perceived barrier was poor quality of care due to lack of ultrasound machines, short clinic opening hours, and shortage of healthcare workers (related to the WHO health workforce building block). This study assessed women and their husbands/partners' perceptions and the possible effects of contemporary Eritrean culture and the history of war on the utilisation of and access to maternal health services in the country. As well, we examined healthcare providers' and decision makers' perspectives. The two key facilitators of women's utilisation of and access to maternal health services were health education and women's empowerment driven by their role as combatants during the War of Independence. One main barrier was poor quality of care due to lack of ultrasound machines, short clinic opening hours, and a shortage of healthcare workers. As only a limited number of qualitative studies have been published about maternal health services in war
Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M
Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.' Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a "trial and error" process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical/health procedures as either research or
Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. Methods This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. Results A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.’ Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a “trial and error” process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Conclusions Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical/health
Shaefer, H Luke; Miller, Matthew
Nearly one-third of U.S. citizens lack access to basic preventive and primary oral health care services, which is primarily the result of the high costs of care and the uneven geographic distribution of dental providers. This article examines the case for and against one possible solution to address these barriers to oral health care: the introduction of a mid-level dental provider (MDP) position within the dental field.
Kristoff, Iris; Cramer, Ryan; Leichliter, Jami S
Young adults may not seek sensitive health services when confidentiality cannot be ensured. To better understand the policy environment for insured dependent confidentiality, we systematically assessed legal requirements for health insurance plan communications using WestlawNext to create a jurisdiction-level data set of health insurance plan communication regulations as of March 2013. Two jurisdictions require plan communications be sent to a policyholder, 22 require plan communications to be sent to an insured, and 36 give insurers discretion to send plan communications to the policyholder or insured. Six jurisdictions prohibit disclosure, and 3 allow a patient to request nondisclosure of certain patient information. Our findings suggest that in many states, health insurers are given considerable discretion in determining to whom plan communications containing sensitive health information are sent. Future research could use this framework to analyze the association between state laws concerning insured dependent confidentiality and public health outcomes and related sensitive services.
Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued.
Kodra, Y; Salerno, P; Agazio, E; Mirabella, F; Taruscio, D
Opinions of patients and relatives about their experiences with health and social services were assessed in a pilot study. The study was carried out in collaboration with two patients' Associations of Neurofibromatosis, "Neurofibromatosi--Onlus" and "LINFA--Onlus". An ad-hoc questionnaire was developed by the Italian National Centre of Rare Diseases and was sent to the Responsibles of the two aforementioned patients' Associations. The Responsibles distributed the questionnaire to their members by mail. The questionnaire investigated, using 5-level Likert scales, the following topics: quality and accessibility of health services (diagnostic exams, pharmacological therapies, rehabilitation, psychological support), quality and accessibility of social services (school, vocational training, health information, information on legal matters and rights). Finally, the questionnaire investigated also opinions about improvements of public health and social services in the last three years. Overall, 79 out 144 questionnaires were filled by patients or their relatives. The most frequent negative experiences concerned vocational training and both health and legal information. The most frequent positive opinions were reported for the human relationships with health professionals. This pilot study seems to point out a promising way to investigate systematically opinions of patients suffering from rare diseases and their relatives.
Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa
Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078
Full Text Available Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012. Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1 to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2 to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3 to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the
Bright, Tess; Felix, Lambert; Kuper, Hannah; Polack, Sarah
The populations of many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are young. Despite progress made towards achieving Universal Health Coverage and remarkable health gains, evidence suggests that many children in LMIC are still not accessing needed healthcare services. Delayed or lack of access to health services can lead to a worsening of health and can in turn negatively impact a child's ability to attend school, and future employment opportunities. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing access to health services for children over 5 years in LMIC settings. Four electronic databases were searched in March 2017. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions that aimed to increase: healthcare utilisation, immunisation uptake and compliance with medication/referral. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised study designs were included in the review. Data extraction included study characteristics, intervention type and measures of access to health services for children above 5 years of age. Study outcomes were classified as positive, negative, mixed or null in terms of their impact on access outcomes. Ten studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Interventions were evaluated in Nicaragua (1), Brazil (1), Turkey (1), India (1), China (1), Uganda (1), Ghana (1), Nigeria (1), South Africa (1) and Swaziland (1). Intervention types included education (2), incentives (1), outreach (1), SMS/phone call reminders (2) and multicomponent interventions (4). All evaluations reported positive findings on measured health access outcomes; however, the quality and strength of evidence were mixed. This review provides evidence of the range of interventions that were used to increase healthcare access for children above 5 years old in LMIC. Nevertheless, further research is needed to examine each of the identified intervention types and the influence of contextual factors, with robust study designs. There
Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire
This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was utilized to examine the association between child's special needs condition and three outcomes (N = 18,136): access to services (difficulty using services, difficulty getting referrals, lack of source of care, and inadequate insurance coverage), quality of care (lack of care coordination, lack of shared decision making, and no routine screening), and family impact (financial, employment, and time-related burden). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, developmental delay, or intellectual disability), mental health conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral/conduct problems, or depression), or both developmental disabilities and mental health conditions. Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to report difficulty using services, lack of source of care, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of shared decision making and care coordination, and adverse family impact as compared to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, mental health conditions, or both. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the error associated with different accessibility methods commonly used by public health researchers. Network distances were calculated from each household to the nearest GP our study area in the UK. Household level network distances were assigned as the gold standard and compared to alternate widely used accessibility methods. Four spatial aggregation units, two centroid types and two distance calculation methods represent commonly used accessibility calculation methods. Spearman's rank coefficients were calculated to show the extent which distance measurements were correlated with the gold standard. We assessed the proportion of households that were incorrectly assigned to GP for each method. The distance method, level of spatial aggregation and centroid type were compared between urban and rural regions. Urban distances were less varied from the gold standard, with smaller errors, compared to rural regions. For urban regions, Euclidean distances are significantly related to network distances. Network distances assigned a larger proportion of households to the correct GP compared to Euclidean distances, for both urban and rural morphologies. Our results, stratified by urban and rural populations, explain why contradicting results have been reported in the literature. The results we present are intended to be used aide-memoire by public health researchers using geographical aggregated data in accessibility research.
Bartels, Stephen J; Coakley, Eugenie H; Zubritsky, Cynthia; Ware, James H; Miles, Keith M; Areán, Patricia A; Chen, Hongtu; Oslin, David W; Llorente, Maria D; Costantino, Giuseppe; Quijano, Louise; McIntyre, Jack S; Linkins, Karen W; Oxman, Thomas E; Maxwell, James; Levkoff, Sue E
The authors sought to determine whether integrated mental health services or enhanced referral to specialty mental health clinics results in greater engagement in mental health/substance abuse services by older primary care patients. This multisite randomized trial included 10 sites consisting of primary care and specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics. Primary care patients 65 years old or older (N=24,930) were screened. The final study group consisted of 2,022 patients (mean age=73.5 years; 26% female; 48% ethnic minority) with depression (N=1,390), anxiety (N=70), at-risk alcohol use (N=414), or dual diagnosis (N=148) who were randomly assigned to integrated care (mental health and substance abuse providers co-located in primary care; N=999) or enhanced referral to specialty mental health/substance abuse clinics (i.e., facilitated scheduling, transportation, payment; N=1,023). Seventy-one percent of patients engaged in treatment in the integrated model compared with 49% in the enhanced referral model. Integrated care was associated with more mental health and substance abuse visits per patient (mean=3.04) relative to enhanced referral (mean=1.91). Overall, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and higher mental distress. For depression, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe depression. For at-risk alcohol users, greater engagement was predicted by integrated care and more severe problem drinking. For all conditions, greater engagement was associated with closer proximity of mental health/substance abuse services to primary care. Older primary care patients are more likely to accept collaborative mental health treatment within primary care than in mental health/substance abuse clinics. These results suggest that integrated service arrangements improve access to mental health and substance abuse services for older adults who underuse these services.
McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.
Kennedy, Jae; Wood, Elizabeth Geneva; Frieden, Lex
The objective of this study was to assess trends in health insurance coverage, health service utilization, and health care access among working-age adults with and without disabilities before and after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to identify current disability-based disparities following full implementation of the ACA. The ACA was expected to have a disproportionate impact on working-age adults with disabilities, because of their high health care usage as well as their previously limited insurance options. However, most published research on this population does not systematically look at effects before and after full implementation of the ACA. As the US Congress considers new health policy reforms, current and accurate data on this vulnerable population are essential. Weighted estimates, trend analyses and analytic models were conducted using the 1998-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) and the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Compared with working-age adults without disabilities, those with disabilities are less likely to work, more likely to earn below the federal poverty level, and more likely to use public insurance. Average health costs for this population are 3 to 7 times higher, and access problems are far more common. Repeal of key features of the ACA, like Medicaid expansion and marketplace subsidies, would likely diminish health care access for working-age adults with disabilities.
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644
McMahon, Alex D; Elliott, Lawrie; Macpherson, Lorna Md; Sharpe, Katharine H; Connelly, Graham; Milligan, Ian; Wilson, Philip; Clark, David; King, Albert; Wood, Rachael; Conway, David I
There is limited evidence on the health needs and service access among children and young people who are looked after by the state. The aim of this study was to compare dental treatment needs and access to dental services (as an exemplar of wider health and well-being concerns) among children and young people who are looked after with the general child population. Population data linkage study utilising national datasets of social work referrals for 'looked after' placements, the Scottish census of children in local authority schools, and national health service's dental health and service datasets. 633 204 children in publicly funded schools in Scotland during the academic year 2011/2012, of whom 10 927 (1.7%) were known to be looked after during that or a previous year (from 2007-2008). The children in the looked after children (LAC) group were more likely to have urgent dental treatment need at 5 years of age: 23%vs10% (n=209/16533), adjusted (for age, sex and area socioeconomic deprivation) OR 2.65 (95% CI 2.30 to 3.05); were less likely to attend a dentist regularly: 51%vs63% (n=5519/388934), 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58) and more likely to have teeth extracted under general anaesthesia: 9%vs5% (n=967/30253), 1.91 (1.78 to 2.04). LAC are more likely to have dental treatment needs and less likely to access dental services even when accounting for sociodemographic factors. Greater efforts are required to integrate child social and healthcare for LAC and to develop preventive care pathways on entering and throughout their time in the care system. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Panopoulos, Dimitrios; Sachpazidis, Ilias; Rizou, Despoina; Menary, Wayne; Cardenas, Jose; Psarras, John
Peru, officially classified as a middle-income country, has benefited from sustained economic growth in recent years. However, the benefits have not been seen by the vast majority of the population, particularly Peru's rural population. Virtually all of the nation's rural health-care centres are cut off from the rest of the country, so access to care for most people is not only difficult but also costly. MEDNET attempts to redress this issue by developing a medical health network with the help of the collaboration medical application based on TeleConsult & @HOME medical database for vital signs. The expected benefits include improved support for medics in the field, reduction of patient referrals, reduction in number of emergency interventions and improved times for medical diagnosis. An important caveat is the emphasis on exploiting the proposed infrastructure for education and social enterprise initiatives. The project has the full support of regional political and health authorities and, importantly, full local community support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim There are a significant number of Turkish speaking immigrants living in London. Their special health issues including women's health, mental health, and alcohol and smoking habits has been assessed. The aim of this study was to explore the ongoing challenges in access to health care services and its impact on Quality of Life of immigrants. Material and methods This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted between March and August 2010 with Turkish immigrants (n = 416 living in London. Of these, 308 (74% were Turkish and 108 (26% were Turkish Cypriots. All healthy or unhealthy adults of 17-65 years of age were enrolled. A structured questionnaire with 44 items in five subcategories and 26-items WHOQOL BREF were used. Results Mean duration of stay for Turkish Cypriots (26.9 ± 13.9 years was significantly longer than Turkish immigrants (13.3 ± 7.5 (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate how the health and well-being of members of the Turkish speaking community living in London are affected by social aspects of their lives. Providing culturally competent care and interpretation services and advocacy may improve the accessibility of the health care.
Boyce, Sabrina; Barrington, Clare; Bolaños, Herbert; Arandi, Cesar Galindo; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to accessing sexual health services among gay, bisexual and heterosexual-identifying men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City, to inform the development of high quality and population-friendly services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 purposively sampled individuals, including 8 transgender, 16 gay/bisexual and 5 heterosexual-identifying participants. Topical codes were applied to the data using software Atlas.ti™ to compare data between sub-groups. Analysis revealed that public clinics were most commonly used due to their lower cost and greater accessibility, but many participants experienced discrimination, violation of confidentiality and distrust of these services. Transgender and gay/bisexual-identifying participants preferred clinics where they felt a sense of belonging, while heterosexual-identifying participants preferred clinics unassociated with the men who have sex with men community. The most prominent barriers to sexual health services included fear of discrimination, fear of having HIV, cost and lack of social support. Findings highlight the need to strengthen existing public sexually transmitted infection clinics so that they address the multiple layers of stigma and discrimination that men who have sex with men and transgender persons experience.
Montesano, Vicki L; Sivec, Harry J; Munetz, Mark R; Pelton, Jeremy R; Turkington, Douglas
The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the adaptation of an evidence-based practice and, (b) using a dissemination framework, to describe the process of implementing the practice at a community mental health agency. The authors describe the training concept and dissemination framework of implementing an emerging practice: high-yield cognitive behavioral techniques for psychosis, which is rooted in cognitive behavioral therapy. Thirteen case managers who represented teams from across the agency delivered the adapted practice at a community mental health agency. Implementation required buy in from all stakeholders, communication across disciplines, persistence, and flexibility. It appears that the use of a dissemination framework that is grounded in the literature, yet flexible, eases the process of implementing an adapted practice. Further research focusing on the effectiveness of this approach, along with the impact of implementing a full spectrum of cognitive behavioral therapy services for individuals with persistent psychotic symptoms, based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is indicated.
Pollard, Tamara L; Simpson, John A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E
To investigate barriers to accessing low vision services in Australia. Adults with a vision impairment (vision difficulties, duration of vision loss and satisfaction with vision and also examined issues of awareness of low vision services and referral to services. Focus groups were also conducted with vision impaired (Vision Australia Foundation. The discussions were recorded and transcribed. The questionnaire revealed that referral to low vision services was associated with a greater degree of vision loss (p = 0.002) and a greater self-perception of low vision (p = 0.005) but that referral was not associated with satisfaction (p = 0.144) or difficulties related to vision (p = 0.169). Participants with mild and moderate vision impairment each reported similar levels of difficulties with daily activities and satisfaction with their vision (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the level of difficulties experienced with daily activities between those with mild-moderate and severe vision impairment (p low vision services related to awareness of services among the general public and eye care professionals, understanding of low vision and the services available, acceptance of low vision, the referral process, and transport. In addition to the expected difficulties with lack of awareness of services by people with low vision, many people do not understand what the services provide and do not identify themselves as having low vision. Knowledge of these barriers, from the perspective of people with low vision, can now be used to guide the development and content of future health-promotion campaigns.
Access Control and Service-Oriented Architectures" investigates in which way logical access control can be achieved effectively, in particular in highly dynamic environments such as service-oriented architectures (SOA's). The author combines state-of-the-art best-practice and projects these onto the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bodies of evidence on copayment effects on access to care and quality of care in general have not been conclusive, allowing copayment in the case of emergency medical conditions might pose a high risk of delayed treatment leading to avoidable disability or death. Methods Using mixed-methods approach to draw evidence from multiple sources (over 40,000 records of administrative dataset of Thai emergency medical services, in-depth interviews, telephone survey of users and documentary review, we are were able to shed light on the existence of copayment and its related factors in the Thai healthcare system despite the presence of universal health coverage since 2001. Results The copayment poses a barrier of access to emergency care delivered by private hospitals despite the policy proclaiming free access and payment. The copayment differentially affects beneficiaries of the major 3 public-health insurance schemes hence inducing inequity of access. Conclusions We have identified 6 drivers of the copayment i.e., 1 perceived under payment, 2 unclear operational definitions of emergency conditions or 3 lack of criteria to justify inter-hospital transfer after the first 72 h of admission, 4 limited understanding by the service users of the policy-directed benefits, 5 weak regulatory mechanism as indicated by lack of information systems to trace private provider’s practices, and 6 ineffective arrangements for inter-hospital transfer. With demand-side perspectives, we addressed the reasons for bypassing gatekeepers or assigned local hospitals. These are the perception of inferior quality of care and age-related tendency to use emergency department, which indicate a deficit in the current healthcare systems under universal health coverage. Finally, we have discussed strategies to address these potential drivers of copayment and needs for further studies.
Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Srithamrongsawat, Samrit; Srithongchai, Chaisit; Prasitsiriphon, Orawan; Tansirisithikul, Rassamee
Although bodies of evidence on copayment effects on access to care and quality of care in general have not been conclusive, allowing copayment in the case of emergency medical conditions might pose a high risk of delayed treatment leading to avoidable disability or death. Using mixed-methods approach to draw evidence from multiple sources (over 40,000 records of administrative dataset of Thai emergency medical services, in-depth interviews, telephone survey of users and documentary review), we are were able to shed light on the existence of copayment and its related factors in the Thai healthcare system despite the presence of universal health coverage since 2001. The copayment poses a barrier of access to emergency care delivered by private hospitals despite the policy proclaiming free access and payment. The copayment differentially affects beneficiaries of the major 3 public-health insurance schemes hence inducing inequity of access. We have identified 6 drivers of the copayment i.e., 1) perceived under payment, 2) unclear operational definitions of emergency conditions or 3) lack of criteria to justify inter-hospital transfer after the first 72 h of admission, 4) limited understanding by the service users of the policy-directed benefits, 5) weak regulatory mechanism as indicated by lack of information systems to trace private provider's practices, and 6) ineffective arrangements for inter-hospital transfer. With demand-side perspectives, we addressed the reasons for bypassing gatekeepers or assigned local hospitals. These are the perception of inferior quality of care and age-related tendency to use emergency department, which indicate a deficit in the current healthcare systems under universal health coverage. Finally, we have discussed strategies to address these potential drivers of copayment and needs for further studies.
Collazo-Vargas, Erika M; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Mowatt, Rasul; Otero-Cruz, Ilia M; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos
People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence. Utilizing a transformative theoretical perspective, a mixed-methods study was conducted with a sample of 90 Puerto Rican women who reported recent (past 12 months) injection drug use (IDU) This manuscript focused on Phase 1, in which participants completed an interviewer-administered survey eliciting information about sexual behaviors, drug use, experiences of sexual violence, and access to healthcare services. Phase 2 involved an in-depth interview focused on sexual health and access to healthcare services. Female PWID were found to engage in a variety of sexual behaviors throughout their lifespans and at their most recent sexual events. There were significant differences across age groups for participants, those being time of most recent sexual event (p = 0.007), partner's sex (p = 0.039), relationship with partner (p = 0.023), contraception method used (p = 0.057), and reports of partner orgasm (p = 0.055). Over half of all participants reported having experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. This study extends the literature on PWID in Puerto Rico by underscoring the diversity of female PWID sexual experiences and needs while illustrating how those experiences are often mediated by drug use. The findings highlight the need for further research on female PWID in Puerto Rico to better develop programs that include sexual violence prevention as part of future interventions for this population.
Hadgkiss, Emily J; Renzaho, Andre M N
To document physical health problems that asylum seekers experience on settlement in the community and to assess their utilisation of healthcare services and barriers to care, in an international context. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL databases were searched from 2002 to October 2012, focusing on adult asylum seekers residing in the community in high-income countries. The search yielded 1499 articles, of which 32 studies met the inclusion criteria - 23 quantitative and nine qualitative. Asylum seekers had complex health profiles spanning a range of infectious diseases, chronic non-communicable conditions, and reproductive-health issues. They appeared to utilise health services at a higher rate than the host population, yet faced significant barriers to care. The findings of this study highlight the health inequities faced by asylum seekers residing in the communities of host countries, internationally. National data on asylum seekers' health profiles, service utilisation and barriers to care, as well as cross-country policy comparisons, are urgently required for the development of effective Australian health programs and evidence-based policy. What is known about the topic? The clinical and political focus of asylum seekers' health has largely been on the higher incidence of mental disorders and the impact of immigration detention. Since policy changes made in late 2011, an increasing number of asylum seekers have been permitted to live in the community while their claims are processed. There is a paucity of research exploring the physical health needs of asylum seekers residing in the community. What does this paper add? The international literature highlights the complexity of asylum seekers' health profiles. Although they appear to utilise health services at a higher rate than the host population
Saidi, Anis; Hamdaoui, Mekki
The early years in children's life are the key to physical, cognitive-language, and, socio-emotional skills development. So, it is of paramount importance in this period to be interested in different indicators that would influence the child's health. This paper measures inequality of opportunities among Tunisian children concerning access to nutritional and healthy services using Human Opportunity-Index and Shapely decomposition methods. Many disparities between regions have been detected since 1982 until 2012. Tunisian children face unequal opportunities to develop in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Likewise, we found that, parents' education, wealth, age of household head and geographic factors as key factors determining child development outcomes. Our findings suggested that childhood unequal opportunities in Tunisia are explained by pension funds deficiency and structural problem in the labor market. The results of a health care intervention on human participants "retrospectively registered".
Decker, Michele R; Lyons, Carrie; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Njindam, Iliassou Mfochive; Grosso, Ashley; Nunez, Gnilane Turpin; Tumasang, Florence; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Baral, Stefan
Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for HIV and physical and sexual gender-based violence (GBV). We describe the prevalence of lifetime GBV and its associations with HIV risk behaviour, access to health services and barriers in accessing justice among FSWs in Cameroon. FSWs (n=1817) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through snowball sampling in seven cities in Cameroon. We examined associations of lifetime GBV with key outcomes via adjusted logistic regression models. Overall, 60% (1098/1817) had experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. GBV was associated with inconsistent condom use with clients (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87), being offered more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.79), having had a condom slip or break (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) and difficulty suggesting condoms with non-paying partners (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.87). Violence was also associated with fear of health services (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.16) and mistreatment in a health centre (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.73). Access to justice was constrained for FSWs with a GBV history, specifically feeling that police did not protect them (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.78). Among FSWs in Cameroon, violence is prevalent and undermines HIV prevention and access to healthcare and justice. Violence is highly relevant to FSWs' ability to successfully negotiate condom use and engage in healthcare. In this setting of criminalised sex work, an integrated, multisectoral GBV-HIV strategy that attends to structural risk is needed to enhance safety, HIV prevention and access to care and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Puthuchira Ravi, Rejoice; Athimulam Kulasekaran, Ravishankar
Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. Objective. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Results. The prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and STIs was observed to be 14.5% and 8.8%, respectively, among the study population. Itching/irritation over vulva, thick white discharge, discharge with unpleasant odor, and frequent and uncomfortable urination were most commonly experienced symptoms of sexual health problems. Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems. Perception of symptoms as normal, feeling shy, lack of female health workers, distance to health facility, and lack of availability of treatment were identified as major barriers for not seeking treatment for RTIs/STIs. Conclusion. Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.
Munro, Sarah; Kornelsen, Jude; Corbett, Kitty; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Bansback, Nick; Janssen, Patricia
Repeat cesarean delivery is the single largest contributor to the escalating cesarean rate worldwide. Approximately 80 percent of women with a past cesarean are candidates for vaginal birth after a cesarean (VBAC), but in Canada less than one-third plan VBAC. Emerging evidence suggests that these trends may be due in part to nonclinical factors, including care provider practice patterns and delays in access to surgical and anesthesia services. This study sought to explore maternity care providers' and decision makers' attitudes toward and experiences with providing and planning services for women with a previous cesarean. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with family physicians, midwives, obstetricians, nurses, anesthetists, and health service decision makers recruited from three rural and two urban Canadian communities. Constructivist grounded theory informed iterative data collection and analysis. Analysis of interviews (n = 35) revealed that the factors influencing decisions resulted from interactions between the clinical, organizational, and policy levels of the health care system. Physicians acted as information providers of clinical risks and benefits, with limited discussion of patient preferences. Decision makers serving large hospitals revealed concerns related to liability and patient safety. These stemmed from competing access to surgical resources. To facilitate women's increased access to planned VBAC, it is necessary to address the barriers perceived by care providers and decision makers. Strategies to mitigate concerns include initiating decision support immediately after the primary cesarean, addressing the social risks that influence women's preferences, and managing perceptions of patient and litigation risks through shared decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available To empty the right to health in the name of Reserve of the Possible Principle, lawmakers are editing the right to health in its regulations based on managerial thinking. The objective was to demonstrate this thesis through the critical analysis of the notion of performance in Decree 7508/2011, which regulates the regional health systems in the Unified Health System. The purpose was built a theoretical path to the post-positivist interpretation of this infraconstitucional dispositive. For this, we used the narrative review technique described by Rother to have sufficient theoretical framework that expose the values underlying the law text. It was possible to see that the logic had been concretized in performance incentives that contradict the systemic organization advocated for the achievement of comprehensive care in a health region. It can be concluded that the Decree has strong managerial connotation and may restrict the right to users' access to health services within their interpretation going against the canons of the theoretical foundation of Public Health.
Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly
The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.
The Impact of Community Based Health Insurance in Enhancing Better Accessibility and Lowering the Chance of Having Financial Catastrophe Due to Health Service Utilization: A Case Study of Savannakhet Province, Laos.
Bodhisane, Somdeth; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn
The Lao population mostly relies on out-of-pocket expenditures for health care services. This study aims to determine the role of community-based health insurance in making health care services accessible and in preventing financial catastrophe resulting from personal payment for inpatient services. A cross-sectional study design was applied. Data collection involved 126 insured and 126 uninsured households in identical study sites. Two logistic regression models were used to predict and compare the probability of hospitalization and financial catastrophe that occurred in both insured and uninsured households within the previous year. The findings show that insurance status does not significantly improve accessibility and financial protection against catastrophic expenditure. The reason is relatively simple, as catastrophic health expenditure refers to a total out-of-pocket payment equal to or more than 40% of household income minus subsistence. When household income declines as a result of inability to work due to illness, the 40% threshold is quickly reached. Despite this, results suggest that insured households are not significantly better off under community-based health insurance. However, compared to uninsured households, insured households do have better accessibility and a lower probability of reaching the financial catastrophe threshold.
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance.
Lack of access to quality reproductive health services is the main contributor to the high maternal mortality and morbidity in ... such services to clients/patients on moral and/or religious grounds. While the ..... The internal morality of medicine:.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance. Created: 11/9/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 11/9/2010.
Full Text Available . This capability is used in basic service such as Short Message Service (SMS) as well as Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD). There is a need for a service access and delivery pattern that can facilitate the delivery of services using common...
Background: The evaluation of patient satisfaction provides an indicator of quality of care and contributes to strategies towards improvement of healthcare delivery. Objective: To assess patient satisfaction with services accessed under the National Health Insurance Scheme at a tertiary health facility in North central, Nigeria.
Full Text Available This paper addresses methodology and tools applied to the monitoring of accessibility services in digital television at a time when the principles of accessibility and design are being considered in all new audiovisual media communication services. The main objective of this research is to measure the quality and quantity of existing accessibility services offered by digital terrestrial television (DTT. The preliminary results, presented here, offer the development of a prototype for automatic monitoring and a methodology for obtaining quality measurements, along with the conclusions drawn by initial studies carried out in Spain. The recent approval of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities gives special relevance to this research because it provides valuable guidelines to help set the priorities to improve services currently available to users.
Evans, Andrew B.; Evans, David T.
Condoms have been distributed freely, and regionally across England, since the ‘Teenage Pregnancy Strategy’ (Social Inclusion Unit, 1999) which highlighted England as having one of the highest rates of unplanned teenage conceptions in Western Europe. With the aim of making more accessible contraception and sex safer resources and protecting against infections, young people can obtain free condoms through selected registration and distribution points (Evans, 2005; Hadley and Evans, 2013). In 2...
Graham, Carrie L.; Scharlach, Andrew E.; Price Wolf, Jennifer
Background: Villages represent an emerging consumer-driven social support model that aims to enhance the social engagement, independence, and well-being of community-dwelling seniors through a combination of social activities, volunteer opportunities, service referral, and direct assistance. This study aimed to assess the perceived impact of…
Muriel Anna C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1 estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among Haitian immigrant students; and 2 examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood. Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services
Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.
Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee
The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.
13, No. 3, 2007, pp. 142–147. Fuller, Jeff, Jane Edwards , Nicholas Procter, and John Moss, “How Definition of Mental Health Problems Can Influence...http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/08Volume2mentalhealth.pdf Germain, Vanessa , Andre Marchand, Stephane Bouchard, Marc-Simon Drouin, and...Press Workshop Summary,” 2012. Iversen, Amy C., Lauren van Staden, Jamie H. Hughes, Neil Greenberg, Matthew Hotopf, Roberto J. Rona, Graham
DUAN Lei; SHEN Liren
Web services is used in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Combined with EPICS Channel Access protocol, Web services' high usability, platform independence and language independence can be used to design a fully transparent and uniform software interface layer, which helps us complete channel data acquisition, modification and monitoring functions. This software interface layer, a cross-platform of cross-language,has good interopcrability and reusability.
Duan Lei; Shen Liren
Web services is used in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Combined with EPICS Channel Access protocol, Web services high usability, platform independence and language independence can be used to design a fully transparent and uniform software interface layer, which helps us complete channel data acquisition, modification and monitoring functions. This software interface layer, a cross-platform of cross-language, has good interoperability and reusability. (authors)
Holman C D'Arcy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.
Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors, Chronic Diseases, and Conditions, Access to Health Care, and Use of Preventive Health Services Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2012.
Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Gamble, Sonya; Flegel, David; Pierannunzi, Carol; Garvin, William; Town, Machell
Chronic diseases (e.g., heart diseases, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis) and unintentional injuries are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, failure to use seat belts, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of death. Modifying these behavioral risk factors and using preventive health services (e.g., cancer screenings and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years) can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Continuous monitoring of these health-risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services are essential to the development of health promotion strategies, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county level. January-December 2012. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services related to the leading causes of death and disability. This report presents results for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, participating U.S. territories that include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico) and Guam, 187 Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MMSAs), and 210 counties (n = 475,687 survey respondents) for the year 2012. In 2012, the estimated prevalence of health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases or conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services substantially varied by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following portion of the abstract lists a summary of results by selected BRFSS measures. Each set of proportions refers to the range of
“Restricted Access: Aboriginal Women and Health Care in Canada” addresses the barriers faced by indigenous women when accessing health care services in Canada. Using the distinction of practical (or needs-based) and strategic (or equity-based) barriers, it highlights the impact of physical isolation, cultural differences, and socio-economic disparities when using health services. However, the emphasis is placed on strategic challenges and more specifically on the impact of marginalization fro...
Accessibility of services for early infant diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. ... infants who received a virological test within the first 2 months of life in sub-Saharan Africa varied from 3 to 58%, far below the 80% recommended level by the World Health Organization.
Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A
In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a
Opportunities and limitations for using new media and mobile phones to expand access to sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls and young women in six Nigerian states.
Akinfaderin-Agarau, Fadekem; Chirtau, Manre; Ekponimo, Sylvia; Power, Samantha
Reproductive health problems are a challenge affecting young people in Nigeria. Education as a Vaccine (EVA) implements the My Question and Answer Service, using mobile phones to provide sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Use of the service by adolescent girls and young women is low. Focus group discussions were held with 726 females to assess their access to mobile phones, as well as the barriers and limitations to the use of their phones to seek SRH information and services. Results demonstrate high mobile phone access but limited use of phones to access SRH information and services. Barriers to use of these services include cost of service for young female clients, request for socio-demographic information that could break anonymity, poor marketing and publicity, socio-cultural beliefs and expectations of young girls, individual personality and beliefs, as well as infrastructural/network quality. It is therefore recommended that these barriers be adequately addressed to increase the potential use of mobile phone for providing adolescent and young girls with SRH information and services. In addition, further initiatives and research are needed to explore the potentials of social media in meeting this need.
Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio
The gradual emergence of marketing activities in public health demonstrates an increased interest in this discipline, despite the lack of an adequate and universally recognized theoretical model. For a correct approach to marketing techniques, it is opportune to start from the health service, meant as a service rendered. This leads to the need to analyse the salient features of the services. The former is the intangibility, or rather the ex ante difficulty of making the patient understand the true nature of the performance carried out by the health care worker. Another characteristic of all the services is the extreme importance of the regulator, which means who performs the service (in our case, the health care professional). Indeed the operator is of crucial importance in health care: being one of the key issues, he becomes a part of the service itself. Each service is different because the people who deliver it are different, furthermore there are many variables that can affect the performance. Hence it arises the difficulty in measuring the services quality as well as in establishing reference standards.
Sujit Chakravorti; Jeffery W. Gunther; Robert R. Moore
We suggest a subtle, yet far- reaching, tension in the objectives specified by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (MCA) for the Federal Reserve’s role in providing retail payment services, such as check processing. Specifically, we argue that the requirement of an overall cost-revenue match, coupled with the goal of ensuring equitable access on a universal basis, partially shifted the burden of cost recovery from high-cost to low-cost service points during the MCA’s early years, thereby allowin...
Liu Aigui; Wang Lu; Wu Wenjing; Chen Gang
Traditional storage system has been unable to meet the demand of computing. WAN storage systems face many problems since the complexity of WAN. This paper in-depth discusses on data interoperability, data prediction, active data service and semantic-based data access according to the characteristics of high energy physics applications. To eliminate isolated island, improve performance and simplify usage, it will be better to meet the demands of high energy physics applications. (authors)
Dunlop, Anne L; Adams, Esther Kathleen; Hawley, Jonathan; Blake, Sarah C; Joski, Peter
We sought to assess the impact of Georgia's family planning demonstration waiver upon access to and use of contraceptive and preventive health services within Title X and Medicaid. Georgia Title X and Medicaid data for January 2009 through December 2013 (before and after the waiver), restricting Title X data to women targeted by the waiver (18-44 years, incomes from 25% and 50% through 200% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) was assembled by quarter and marginal effects of the changes before and after waiver implementation were derived using multivariate regression models. After implementation, there was a significant increase in the probability of Title X clients in the waiver-targeted age and income ranges who had Medicaid versus no insurance and who exited the encounter with higher effectiveness contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), and with cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection testing. In the Medicaid data from 2009 to 2013, there was an increase in the mean number of encounters per enrollee (2.19 vs. 2.42) and in LARC users; however, the percentage of all Georgia women living under 200% of the FPL with a family planning encounter in Title X and Medicaid decreased from 19% to 15%. Our findings suggest that implementation of the Georgia family planning demonstration waiver contributed to the increased use of higher effectiveness contraceptive methods, including LARCs, within the Medicaid and Title X programs as well as the increased use of preventive screenings among Title X clients. However, when the full population of low-income Georgia women targeted by the waiver was considered, a greater percentage was not served over the demonstration period. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rafael Damasceno de Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To analyze the relationship between access to medicines by the population and the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care. METHODS This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services 2015, a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed of an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. Access was defined based on the acquisition of medicines reported by the patient, ranging between: total, partial, or null. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical services was analyzed based on information provided by pharmaceutical services providers and by those responsible for medicines delivery. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Full access to medicines was greater when professionals affirmed there were the following aspects of the dimensions: “management tools,” “participation and social control,” “financing,” and “personnel structure,” with significant associations in the bivariate analysis. The “pharmaceutical care” dimension did not achieve such an association. After multinomial logistic regression, full access was more prevalent when those in charge of pharmaceutical services stated that: they always or repeatedly attend meetings of the Municipal Health Council, OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.5-7.3; there are protocols for medicines delivery, OR = 2.7 (95%CI 1.2-6.1; there is computerized system for managing pharmaceutical services, OR = 3.9 (95%CI 1.9-8.0; those responsible for medicines delivery reported having participated in a course or training for professionals in the past two years, OR = 2.0 (95%CI 1.1-3.5; there is computerized system for pharmaceutical services management, OR
Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , 2017 Warning - A phone number that was once used for the Denali KidCare program is now being used to ask people for their credit card number in order to win a prize. The phone number related to this
Yu, Hua-Yin; Ulmer, William; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Hu, Jim C
Health services research (HSR) is increasingly important given the focus on patient-centered, cost-effective, high-quality health care. We examine how HSR affects contemporary evidence-based urologic practice and its role in shaping future urologic research and care. PubMed, urologic texts, and lay literature were reviewed for terms pertaining to HSR/outcomes research and urologic disease processes. HSR is a broad discipline that focuses on access, cost, and outcomes of Health care. Its use has been applied to a myriad of urologic conditions to identify deficiencies in access, to evaluate cost-effectiveness of therapies, and to evaluate structural, process, and outcome quality measures. HSR utilizes an evidence-based approach to identify the most effective ways to organize/manage, finance, and deliver high-quality urologic care and to tailor care optimized to individuals.
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, you'll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement.
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, youâll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement. Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/13/2017.
Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management.
Cristiane B. Batista
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with neonatal mortality related to health services accessibility and use. Methods: Case–control study of live births in 2008 in small- and medium-sized municipalities in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil. A probabilistic sample stratified by region, population size, and information adequacy was generated for the choice of municipalities. Of these, all municipalities with 20,000 inhabitants or less were included in the study (36 municipalities, whereas the remainder were selected according to the probability method proportional to population size, totaling 20 cities with 20,001–50,000 inhabitants and 19 municipalities with 50,001–200,000 inhabitants. All deaths of live births in these cities were included. Controls were randomly sampled, considered as four times the number of cases. The sample size comprised 412 cases and 1772 controls. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: The risk factors for neonatal death were socioeconomic class D and E (OR = 1.28, history of child death (OR = 1.74, high-risk pregnancy (OR = 4.03, peregrination in antepartum (OR = 1.46, lack of prenatal care (OR = 2.81, absence of professional for the monitoring of labor (OR = 3.34, excessive time waiting for delivery (OR = 1.97, borderline preterm birth (OR = 4.09 and malformation (OR = 13.66. Conclusion: These results suggest multiple causes of neonatal mortality, as well as the need to improve access to good quality maternal-child health care services in the assessed places of study. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal referentes ao acesso e à utilização dos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle de nascidos vivos em 2008 nos municípios de pequeno e médio porte nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Vale do Jequitinhonha do Brasil. Uma amostra probabilística e estratificada por regi
Meng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Pan, Juchen; Song, Song; Bian, Jiali
The development of mobile computing, cloud computing and distributed computing meets the growing individual service needs. Facing with complex application system, it's an urgent problem to ensure real-time, dynamic, and fine-grained data access control. By analyzing common data access control models, on the basis of mandatory access control model, the paper proposes a service-oriented access control model. By regarding system services as subject and data of databases as object, the model defines access levels and access identification of subject and object, and ensures system services securely to access databases.
Oct 28, 2015 ... Poor access to basic services can foster competition and fuel conflict between groups. ... Make clean water, sanitation, electricity, and other services accessible ... Poverty, inequality, and violence in urban India: Towards more ...
Background After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI), to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007). The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. Methods The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Results Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007), yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64). People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54), reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with some formal education
Mitchell, Steven; Andersson, Neil
After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI), to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007). The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007), yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64). People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54), reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with some formal education were nearly eight times more
Full Text Available Abstract Background After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI, to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007. The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. Methods The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Results Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007, yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64. People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54, reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with
Carmen Vieira de Sousa Unglert
Full Text Available O acesso da população aos serviços de saúde é um pré-requisito de fundamental importância para uma eficiente assistência à saúde. A localização geográfica dos serviços é um dos fatores que interferem nessa acessibilidade. Pretendeu-se estudar a localização dos serviços de saúde. A proposta básica foi a de apresentação de uma metodologia considerando-se as relações de variáveis geográficas, demográficas e sociais. Enfatizou-se, no processo, a participação da comunidade. Efetuou-se o estudo da adequação dessa metodologia às características da região de Santo Amaro, Município de São Paulo, Brasil. A contribuição dada pela abordagem geográfica abre ampla perspectiva quanto ao estabelecimento de novas linhas de estudo, planejamento e gestão, advindas do intercâmbio entre a Geografia Humana e a Saúde Pública, numa área que se sugere denominar Geografia em Saúde Pública.The access of the population to the health services is a requirement of basic importance for the efficiency of health assistance. The geographical localization of the services is one of the factors that interfere with this accessibility. It is intended to make a contribution to the study of the localization of health services. The basic proposal introduces a method which takes into account the relationships between geographical, demographical and social variables. Emphasis is placed on community participation in the process. The study of the adequacy of this method was undertaken under the regional characteristics of Santo Amaro, a suburb of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. The contribution furnished by the geographical approach in this work opens up a broad perspective for the setting up of new lines of research, planning and administration resulting from the interation between human geography and public health within the common field for which it is suggested Geography of Public Health.
Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M
Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emer...
Bailey, Michelle D.; Crumbly, Chris
The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research - and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply
Bailey, M. D.; Crumbly, C.
The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA's current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for commercial and government services. The "service" concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the "service" is not only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research and enable industry to develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is implementing NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…
Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus
was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
Technology developments create rich opportunities for health service providers to introduce service robots in health care. While the potential benefits of applying robots in health care are extensive, the research into the conceptions of health service robot and its importance for the uptake...... of robotics technology in health care is limited. This article develops a model of the basic conceptions of health service robots that can be used to understand different assumptions and values attached to health care technology in general and health service robots in particular. The article takes...... a discursive approach in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the social values of health service robots. First a discursive approach is proposed to develop a typology of conceptions of health service robots. Second, a model identifying four basic conceptions of health service robots...
Loos, E F
Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media.
This translates into an absence of protection and recognition of human rights, including access to health services. Migrant workers are exposed to conditions of vulnerability throughout the migration cycle and often endure abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, work-related accidents and injuries, mental health ...
On April 18th, independent Zimbabwe celebrated its 3rd birthday. In 1980, within days after taking power, Robert Mugabe's government announced that health care was to be free to everyone earning less then Z150 (60 British pounds) a month--the vast majority of the population. Although the free services are a good public relations policy, more important was the decision to expand the health services at grassroots level and to shift emphasis from an urban based curative system to rural based preventive care. Zimbabwe desperately needs doctors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the country has some 1400 registered doctors, roughly 1 for every 6000 people. Yet, of the 1400, under 300 work in the government health services and many of those are based in Harare, the capital. Of Zimbabwe's 28 district hospitals, only 14 have a full-time doctor. In some rural areas, there is 1 doctor/100,000 or more people. The nature of the country's health problems, coupled with the government's severe shortage of cash, shows why nursing is so crucial to Zimbabwe's development. If the rural communities, which make up 85% of the population, were to have easy access to a qualified nurse, or even a nursing assistant, the quality of life would double. The only thing that is more important is a clean water supply. Possibly the most important role for nurses in Zimbabwe is that of education. Nurses can spread awareness of basic hygiene, raise the skill of local people in dealing with minor health problems independently, carry out immunization programs, offer contraceptive advice, give guidance on breastfeeding and infant nutrition, and work with practitioners of traditional African medicines to make sure they possess basic scientific knowledge. Rebuilding after the war was not a major problem for the Mugabe health ministry, for in many areas there was simply nothing to rebuild. There were never any health services. A far greater problem has been the top heavy structure of the
Kash, Bita A; Deshmukh, A A
The purpose of this study was to develop a marketing plan for the Physical and Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) department at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH). We took the approach of understanding and analyzing the rural community and health care environment, problems faced by the PT/OT department, and developing a strategic marketing plan to resolve those problems. We used hospital admissions data, public and physician surveys, a SWOT analysis, and tools to evaluate alternative strategies. Lack of awareness and negative perception were key issues. Recommended strategies included building relationships with physicians, partnering with the school district, and enhancing the wellness program.
Objective The present study looked at the views of people directly involved in the entry process for community health counselling using the frame of the health access literature. The concurrence of system participants' views with the access literature highlights access issues, particularly for people who are vulnerable or disadvantaged. The paper privileges the voices of the system participants, inviting local health services to consider using participatory design to improve access at the entry point. Methods People involved in the entry process for community health counselling explored the question, 'What, for you, are the features of a good intake system?' They also commented on themes identified during pilot interviews. These were thematically analysed for each participant group by the researcher to develop a voice for each stakeholder group. Results People accessing the service could be vulnerable and the entry process failed to take that into account. People directly involved in the counselling service entry system, system participants, consisted of: professionals referring in, people seeking services and reception staff taking first enquiries. They shared substantially the same concerns as each other. The responses from these system participants are consistent with the international literature on access and entry into health services. Conclusion Participatory service design could improve primary healthcare service entry at the local level. Canvassing the experiences of system participants is important for delivering services to those who have the least access and, in that way, could contribute to health equity. What is known about the topic? People with the highest health needs receive the fewest services. Health inequality is increasing. What does this paper add? System participants can provide advice consistent with the academic research literature that is useful for improving service entry at the local level. What are the implications for practitioners
Masland, Mary C; Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal T
Examined were effects on access of managed care assessment and authorization processes in California's 57 county mental health plans. Primary data on managed care implementation were collected from surveys of county plan administrators; secondary data were from Medicaid claims and enrollment files. Using multivariate fixed effects regression, we found that following implementation of managed care, greater access occurred in county plans where assessments and treatment were performed by the same clinician, and where service authorizations were made more rapidly. Lower access occurred in county plans where treating clinicians authorized services themselves. Results confirm the significant effects of managed care processes on outcomes and highlight the importance of system capacity.
Kosen, S; Gunawan, S
In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases.
Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio
A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health
Abstract: In Tanzania, reproductive health and HIV services are coordinated by the .... and skills that are effectively managed and are equitably distributed to ensure that ..... to access and use PMTCT services and in reducing stigma, denial and.
Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions in ...
Full Text Available Background: The German statutory health insurance (GKV reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK, individual health services (IGeL are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions: The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS, the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods: The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results: 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by
Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe
The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL?What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? FOR TWO OF THE MOST COMMON IGEL, THE SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA AND THE SCREENING FOR OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER BY VAGINAL ULTRASOUND (VUS), THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE ADDRESSED: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness?Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments with up to 25% of the offers. Cancer screening
Accessibility of youths to health care in Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... This study examines the accessibility of youths to the various health facilities available, the cost of services provided and also the relationship between the health facilities available and the cost of services provided.
Natasha Marques Frota
Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the accessibility of hypertensive users to the health system with focus on treatment adherence. A cross-sectional study with quantitative approach was conducted in four Family Health Basic Units of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The sample consisted of 400 users. Data collection happened through a form applied from May to August 2011. About 97.5% of users were older than 40 years, and 67.2% were female. The accessibility to the referral service occurred in 47.2% of users to secondary care, of which 101 (25.2% were referred to Emergency Units, and 88 (22.0% were admitted to Inpatient Units. Most hypertensive patients adhered to healthy habits, except the use of dietetic sweeteners (36.0% and physical exercise (35.0%. The hypertensive patients had good treatment adherence and difficulty in accessibility regarding counter-referral services to secondary and tertiary care services.
Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Sreekumar, Arun; Gill, Bigsna; Worrell, Ernst
As nearly a fifth of the world's population still lives without access to electricity and double that number with no access to modern cooking technologies, both public and private sector players have invested resources in developing infrastructure to address this energy gap. While there have been
Henning, Marcus A.
The interrelationships between motivation for choosing a program of study, intention to access academic advisors, academic difficulty, and actual appointments with academic advisors were based on student self-reports of motivation and intentions. In addition, academic achievement measures and data on student access to academic advisors were…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...
Derechos, ciudadanía y participación en salud: su relación con la accesibilidad simbólica a los servicios Rights, Citizenship And Participation In Health: Its Relationship With Simbolic Accessibility To Service
Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la accesibilidad a la atención en salud de usuarios de un centro de salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se define a la accesibilidad como un vínculo que se construye entre los sujetos y los servicios, que surge de una combinatoria entre las condiciones y discursos de los servicios y las condiciones y representaciones de los sujetos. Se considera que existe una íntima relación entre la accesibilidad simbólica y la participación social de los usuarios. Se entrevistaron usuarios con y sin participación con el fin de analizar los vínculos que cada grupo construye con el servicio. Los usuarios sin participación muestran sentimientos de agradecimiento hacia los trabajadores, y los responsabilizan de modo personal cuando hay una falla en la atención, mientras que es posible encontrar concepciones de Derecho a la Atención en Salud en los usuarios con participación, aunque ligadas a un derecho "selectivo", no universal.This work analyzes the accessibility to the attention in health of the users of a health unit located in Buenos Aires City. The accessibility is defined as a relationship that is built between the subjects and the services, that arises of a combination between the conditions and speeches of the services and the conditions and representations of the subjects. It is considered that there is an intimate relation between the symbolic accessibility and the social participation of the services users. We interviewed users with participation in health, and users without active participation in this area, in order to investigate the relationship that each group builds with the service. Users without participation in health, show feelings of gratitude toward the workers of the center, as well as they blame them in a personal way when there was a failure in the attention. On the contrary, it is possible to find conceptions of Right to the Attention in Health in users with participation in health, although these
awareness, access to services and building the capacity of health facilities. Such measures however ... skilled providers, which is staggering below. 15% (6). This figure may ... health workers and local structures irrespective of their interest?
Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...
Vega, Jeanette; Bedregal, Paula; Jadue, Liliana; Delgado, Iris
In the last two decades, Chile has experienced advances in economical development and global health indicators. However, gender inequities persist in particular related to access to health services and financing of health insurance. To examine gender inequities in the access to health care in Chile. An analysis of data obtained from a serial national survey applied to assess social policies (CASEN) carried out by the Ministry of Planning. During the survey 45,379 and 48,107 dwellings were interviewed in 1994 and in 1998, respectively. Women use health services 1.5 times more often, their salaries are 30% lower in all socioeconomic strata. Besides, in the private health sector, women pay higher insurance premiums than men. Men of less than two years of age have 2.5 times more preventive consultations than girls. This difference, although of lesser magnitude, is also observed in people over 60 years. Women of high income quintiles and users of private health insurance have a better access to preventive consultations but not to specialized care. An improvement in equitable access of women to health care and financing is recommended. Also, monitoring systems to survey these indicators for women should improve their efficiency.
Making use of information and communication technology (ICT) to ensure equitable access to health services in developing countries is becoming more and more feasible. Since the conference, Bridges to African Development via the Internet (Bamako, 2000), several ICT initiatives have appeared in Mali, such as the ...
Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally
This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.
Marluce Maria Araújo Assis
Full Text Available Estudo qualitativo sobre o acesso dos usuários às unidades básicas de Feira de Santana (BA, com o objetivo de analisar a percepção dos usuários quanto às características dos serviços utilizados no sistema local de saúde, articulando teoria à prática com vistas a uma possibilidade a ser construída como direito de cidadania. O referencial teórico foi baseado em autores que analisam as dimensões explicativas do acesso (política, econômica, técnica e simbólica, articuladas com o modelo teórico da representação social. Os dados empíricos foram a observação do acesso em dois centros de saúde e a entrevista com 25 usuários atendidos nos referidos centros. A análise buscou um encontro com a realidade empírica. Os resultados mostram que o acesso aos serviços é focalizado e seletivo para responder a uma determinada queixa, tecnologicamente atrasado e discriminatório, dirigido ao usuário de baixa renda que tem menor qualificação no setor formal da economia e à população excluída socialmente.This qualitative study on users access to the Basic Health Services in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, had the purpose to analyse the perception of the users when it comes to the caracteristics of the services used in local health system, articulating theory and practice in order to find possibilities based on users citizens' rights. The theoretical framework was based on authors that analyzed the explicative dimensions of access (political, economic, technical and symbolic articulated with the social representation theoretical model. The empirical data comprehended the observation of access in two health centers and interviews with 25 users. The analysis aimed at meeting the "empirical reality". Results showed that the access to services is focussed and selective to respond to a specific complaint, that they are technologically delayed and discriminatory services, directed to the low income user and to the socially excluded
Full Text Available Abstract Open Access publishing is a valuable resource for the synthesis and distribution of essential health care information. This article discusses the potential benefits of Open Access, specifically in terms of Low and Middle Income (LAMI countries in which there is currently a lack of informed health care providers – mainly a consequence of poor availability to information. We propose that without copyright restrictions, Open Access facilitates distribution of the most relevant research and health care information. Furthermore, we suggest that the technology and infrastructure that has been put in place for Open Access could be used to publish download-able manuals, guides or basic handbooks created by healthcare providers in LAMI countries.
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in global health knowledge for deaf people including those with even higher risk of marginalization. Examples of approaches to improve access to health care, such as providing powerful and visually accessible communication through the use of sign language, the implementation of important communication technologies, and cultural awareness trainings for health professionals are discussed. Programs that raise health knowledge in Deaf communities and models of primary health care centers for deaf people are also presented. Published documents can empower deaf people to realize their right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A.
PURPOSE Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. METHODS A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, “Is there anything else you would like to tell us?” Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. RESULTS Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere. PMID:18025488
Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A
Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...
Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles
The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.
This study was carried out to determine the barriers to accessing eye care services in the Federal ... 153(61.7%), others were high cost of services, lack of money, non-availability of eye care services, long ... Barrier studies are being conducted.
Nanette Paz Liberona Concha; Miguel Angel Mansilla
In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed ...
Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M; Hiatt, Deirdre; McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Zolotusky, Galina; Ritter, Grant; Reif, Sharon; McGuire, Thomas G
This study examined service user characteristics and determinants of access for enrollees in integrated EAP/behavioral health versus standard managed behavioral health care plans. A national managed behavioral health care organization's claims data from 2004 were used. Integrated plan service users were more likely to be employees rather than dependents, and to be diagnosed with adjustment disorder. Logistic regression analyses found greater likelihood in integrated plans of accessing behavioral health services (OR 1.20, CI 1.17-1.24), and substance abuse services specifically (OR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43). Results are consistent with the concept that EAP benefits may increase access and address problems earlier.
Hughes, D C; Halfon, N; Brindis, C D; Newacheck, P W
Far too many children in this country are unable to obtain the health care they need because of barriers that prohibit easy access. Among the most significant obstacles are financial barriers, including lack of adequate health insurance and inadequate funding of programs for low-income children and those with special health-care needs. Another set of "non-financial" barriers are related to the categorical nature of addressing children's health-care needs, which impedes access by increasing the complexity and burden of seeking care and discourages providers from providing care. Decategorization represents an appealing partial remedy to these problems because it can lead to fundamental and lasting changes in financing and delivering health services. The greatest appeal of decategorization is its potential to improve access to care with the expenditure of little or no new funds. Decategorization also holds considerable risk. Depending on how it is designed and implemented, decategorization may lead to diminished access to care by serving as a foil for budget cuts or by undermining essential standards of care. However, these risks do not negate the value of exploring decategorization as an approach that can be taken today to better organize services and ensure that existing resources adequately meet children's needs. In this report we examine the role of decategorization as a mechanism for removing the barriers to care that are created by categorical funding of health programs.
Hannah, Chona T; Lê, Quynh
Access to health care services is vital for every migrant's health and wellbeing. However, migrants' cultural health beliefs and views can hinder their ability to access available services. This study examined factors affecting access to healthcare services for intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania, Australia. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was employed to investigate the factors affecting access to healthcare services for 30 intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania. The study used grounded theory and thematic analysis for its data analysis. Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com) was also used to assist the data coding process and analysis. Five influencing factors were identified: (1) language or communication barriers; (2) area of origin in the Philippines; (3) cultural barriers; (4) length of stay in Tasmania; and (5) expectations of healthcare services before and after migration. Factors affecting intermarried Filipino women in accessing healthcare services are shaped by their socio-demographic and cultural background. The insights gained from this study are useful to health policy-makers, healthcare professionals and to intermarried female migrants. The factors identified can serve as a guide to improve healthcare access for Filipino women and other migrants.
Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth
The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.
Full Text Available Financially stricken Cambodian patients with diabetes and HIV/AIDS typically encounter multiple, serious barriers to effective care. This process may extend over many years and involve numerous rounds of diagnosis and treatment as the disease progresses from initial symptoms to longer term complications. Living with both the impact of the disease and this ongoing struggle for care can severely disrupt the everyday life of both sufferers and their families. Our retrospective study adopted qualitative research methods to collect data from HIV/AIDS and diabetic patients enrolled and not enrolled in treatment programs at varying institutions in urban and rural settings. Using purposive sampling techniques, a total of 25 HIV/AIDS and 45 diabetic patients were recruited. Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were used to collect information on patient experiences of different phases in the on-going process of seeking care and treatment. The findings indicate that both HIV/AIDS and diabetic patients encounter multiple supply- and demand-side barriers to care at different stages of their illness. More strikingly, our research findings suggest that supply-side barriers, for example rationing systems or targeting strategies that limit access to free treatment or social assistance, are substantially higher for diabetic patients. This perceived inequity had a profound impact on diabetic patients to the extent that some “wished they had HIV/AIDS”. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to widen the focus of health care to address the substantial and increasing burden of disease resulting from diabetes and other serious chronic disorders in Cambodia and many other low/middle income countries.
Nader, Forouz; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Sharma, Sangita
Alberta's Indigenous population is growing, yet health care access may be limited. This paper presents a comprehensive review on health care access among Indigenous populations in Alberta with a focus on the health care services use and barriers to health care access. Scientific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and online search engines were systematically searched for studies and grey literature published in English between 2000 and 2013 examining health care services access, use and barriers to access among Indigenous populations in Alberta. Information on health care services use and barriers to use or access was synthesized based on the MOOSE guidelines. Overall, compared to non-Indigenous populations, health care use rates for hospital/emergency room services were higher and health care services use of outpatient specialists was lower among Indigenous peoples. Inadequate numbers of Indigenous health care professionals; a lack of cross-cultural training; fear of foreign environments; and distance from family and friends were barriers to health care use and access. Inequity in social determinants of health among Indigenous peoples and inadequate "health services with prevention approaches," may contribute to present health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in the province.
Full Text Available Home health services is to give examination, diagnosis,treatment, and rehabilitation services to the patients whobedridden, have difficulties to access health facility due toa variety of chronic or malignant disease by professionalhealth care team. Family physicians that providing healthcare in primary care is responsible for to determine whowill need home health care services, and to make homevisit on a regular basis among registered patients in theirpopulations. It is seems that the biggest shortcoming thecontent and scope of this service is not yet a standard. Inthis article, how home health services should be given willbe discussed.Key words: Primary health care, home health care, bedriddenpatient
Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la prescripción, el acceso y el gasto en medicamentos entre usuarios de servicios de salud a partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud en México, 1994. Material y métodos. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo del acceso y gasto en medicamentos, y se identificaron factores relacionados con la prescripción mediante una regresión logística en 3 324 usuarios. Resultados. El 78% de usuarios recibieron prescripción de medicamentos. El 92% de los usuarios de la seguridad social y 35% de la Secretaría de Salud obtuvieron los medicamentos sin pago directo (p =0.000. La región con mayor índice de pobreza presentó menor acceso gratuito a los medicamentos. Entre los usuarios que gastaron en medicamentos, la mediana del gasto fue de 40.00 pesos (12.50 dólares, lo que resultó mayor en instituciones privadas que en públicas. Conclusiones. El acceso y el gasto en medicamentos se encuentran relacionados con las características socioeconómicas de los grupos de población y con las instituciones donde estos últimos se atendieron. Lograr mayor equidad en el acceso a medicamentos representa uno de los retos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To analyze the medical prescription, drug access and drug expenditure by patients based on the National Health Survey in Mexico, 1994. Materials and methods. A descriptive analysis of drug access and expenditure was undertaken and predictive factors for medical prescription were identified by logistic regression for 3 324 patients. Results. 78% of the patients received drug prescriptions. 92% of the Social Security patients and 35% of the Ministry of Health patients received drugs free of charge (p =0.000. The region with the highest poverty index received the least amount of drugs free of charge. Regarding drug expenditure of patients who purchased drugs, median expenditure was 40.00 pesos (12.50 USD. Private health service patients spent significantly more than public health service
Feb 21, 2002 ... impact on domestic financial regulation and macroeconomic policy. .... services, telecommunications, and information technology).10 Two, special ...... 83 Under standard balance-of-payments accounting, however, even if ...... internal control systems, risk management policies and procedures, and human.
Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.
Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama; Sai Varun Matavalum; Paraiveedu Arumugam Chandresekharan; Veronica Thunga
Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, ...
Conclusion: This study brings to the fore the fact that most government employees and their dependants in Abakaliki have difficulties in accessing quality health care services via paying for them out-of-pocket. Keywords: Health services, payment, constraints, government employees. African Health Sciences 2011; 11(3): 481 ...
Ibrahim Hafeezur Rehman
Full Text Available As nearly a fifth of the world's population still lives without access to electricity and double that number with no access to modern cooking technologies, both public and private sector players have invested resources in developing infrastructure to address this energy gap. While there have been exceptional cases like China, Vietnam and Brazil, where the public sector led grid expansion achieved incredible gains in expanding access as to electricity, the general trend over the years in most developing countries has demonstrated that both public and private led approaches have been unsuccessful in independently yielding the desired acceleration and continuity to deliver universal energy access. Despite the inherent benefits of both public and private sector led initiatives, typical systemic inefficiencies and inadequate capacities in both approaches prevent them from fully addressing the principal objective of facilitating energy access for the poor in the long term. Also, even if required investments were adequately capitalized, with the current population growth rate continually outpacing the rate of interventions, the number of people who remained energy poor 15 years hence, would still be the same. Thus, not only is there is a need for providing energy access to the existing population mass, but an equal need to do it fast enough to truly reduce the number of energy poor across the globe. An alternative approach therefore needs to be explored that juxtaposes the social welfare objectives of public sector led initiatives with the enterprise development and growth objectives of the private sector, to support the creation of an enabling ecosystem and a viable value chain that successfully and effectively delivers energy solutions to the last mile. Such a pro-poor hybrid model will essentially address the inefficiencies and inadequacies of both public and private approaches and capitalize on their strengths through a complementary mix of social
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.
Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed
Access time refers to the interval between requesting and actual outpatient appointment. It reflects healthcare accessibility and has a great influence on patient treatment and satisfaction. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia studied the accessibility to outpatient services in order to develop useful strategies and recommendations for improvement. Utilized, unutilized and no-show appointments were analyzed. It is crucial to manage no-shows and short notice appointment cancellations by preparing a waiting list for those patients who can be called in to an appointment on the same day using an open access policy. An overlapping appointment scheduling model can be useful to minimize patient waiting time and doctor idle time in addition to the sensible use of appointment overbooking that can significantly improve productivity.
Hollederer, A; Wildner, M
There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mu, X.; Wu, J.; Li, T; Zhong, Y.; Gao, X.
Web service can bring together applications running on diverse platforms, users can access and share various data, information and models more effectively and conveniently from certain web service platform. Cloud computing emerges as a paradigm of Internet computing in which dynamical, scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as services. With the rampant growth of massive data and restriction of net, traditional web services platforms have some prominent problems existi...
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira Cunha
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade à atenção básica em um município da Bahia, Brasil, foi realizado estudo de caso único a partir de dois níveis de análise: organização do sistema e dos serviços. Os dados foram obtidos por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, da observação das rotinas de atendimento e da análise documental. Das quatro unidades analisadas, três apresentaram nível intermediário de implantação de ações voltadas para a acessibilidade. As unidades de saúde da família tiveram melhor desempenho devido à presença de ações voltadas para o acolhimento e a referência a serviços especializados, porém apresentaram problemas para a marcação de consultas. Apesar do estabelecimento da atenção básica como porta de entrada ao sistema e da implantação da central de marcação de consultas especializadas, persistem barreiras organizacionais no município estudado. Recomenda-se a formulação de política específica para melhoria da acessibilidade voltada para a organização da oferta na perspectiva de mudança do modelo assistencial.In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are
Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394
Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge
Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.
Provides an overview of the INTERNET and INTERNET services of interest to libraries, including electronic mail, bulletin boards, electronic publishing, online public access catalogs and databases, and downloaded texts and software. (16 references) (MES)
Full Text Available of field experiments are done to gain an improved understanding of the extent to which citizens’ exposure to technology and home language affect their ability to access electronic services. These experiments will influence technology development...
Doderer, Mark S; Burkhardt, Cory; Robbins, Kay A
Many bioinformatics algorithms and data sets are deployed using web services so that the results can be explored via the Internet and easily integrated into other tools and services. These services often include data from other sites that is accessed either dynamically or through file downloads. Developers of these services face several problems because of the dynamic nature of the information from the upstream services. Many publicly available repositories of bioinformatics data frequently update their information. When such an update occurs, the developers of the downstream service may also need to update. For file downloads, this process is typically performed manually followed by web service restart. Requests for information obtained by dynamic access of upstream sources is sometimes subject to rate restrictions. SideCache provides a framework for deploying web services that integrate information extracted from other databases and from web sources that are periodically updated. This situation occurs frequently in biotechnology where new information is being continuously generated and the latest information is important. SideCache provides several types of services including proxy access and rate control, local caching, and automatic web service updating. We have used the SideCache framework to automate the deployment and updating of a number of bioinformatics web services and tools that extract information from remote primary sources such as NCBI, NCIBI, and Ensembl. The SideCache framework also has been used to share research results through the use of a SideCache derived web service.
Geurs, Karst Teunis; Patuelli, Roberto; Dentinho, T.
In this book, leading researchers from around the world show the importance of accessibility in contemporary issues such as rural depopulation, investments in public services and public transport, and transport infrastructure investments in Europe. The trade-offs between accessibility, economic
Kalin, Sally W.
Discusses the needs of remote users of online public access catalogs (OPACs). User expectations are discussed; problems encountered by remote-access users are examined, including technical problems and searching problems; support services are described, including instruction, print guides, and online help; and differences from the needs of…
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…
Smith, Fred W.
This article presents a digest of LISTSERVS of interest to access services for the period of April to June 2011. It presents questions and answers from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) people, CIRCPLUS, and OFFCAMP.
Wolfe, Ingrid; Thompson, Matthew; Gill, Peter; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Blair, Mitch; van den Bruel, Ann; Ehrich, Jochen; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Janson, Staffan; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin
Western European health systems are not keeping pace with changes in child health needs. Non-communicable diseases are increasingly common causes of childhood illness and death. Countries are responding to changing needs by adapting child health services in different ways and useful insights can be gained through comparison, especially because some have better outcomes, or have made more progress, than others. Although overall child health has improved throughout Europe, wide inequities remain. Health services and social and cultural determinants contribute to differences in health outcomes. Improvement of child health and reduction of suffering are achievable goals. Development of systems more responsive to evolving child health needs is likely to necessitate reconfiguring of health services as part of a whole-systems approach to improvement of health. Chronic care services and first-contact care systems are important aspects. The Swedish and Dutch experiences of development of integrated systems emphasise the importance of supportive policies backed by adequate funding. France, the UK, Italy, and Germany offer further insights into chronic care services in different health systems. First-contact care models and the outcomes they deliver are highly variable. Comparisons between systems are challenging. Important issues emerging include the organisation of first-contact models, professional training, arrangements for provision of out-of-hours services, and task-sharing between doctors and nurses. Flexible first-contact models in which child health professionals work closely together could offer a way to balance the need to provide expertise with ready access. Strategies to improve child health and health services in Europe necessitate a whole-systems approach in three interdependent systems-practice (chronic care models, first-contact care, competency standards for child health professionals), plans (child health indicator sets, reliable systems for capture and
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.
Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
van Bemmel, J.; Wegdam, M.; Lagerberg, K.
Web Services fail to deliver on the promise of ubiquitous deployment and seamless interoperability due to the lack of a uniform, standards-based approach to all aspects of security. In particular, the enforcement of access policies in a Service Oriented Architecture is not addressed adequately. We
Arunanondchai, Jutamas; Fink, Carsten
Promoting quality health services to large population segments is a key ingredient to human and economic development. At its core, healthcare policymaking involves complex trade-offs between promoting equitable and affordable access to a basic set of health services, creating incentives for efficiencies in the healthcare system and managing constraints in government budgets. International trade in health services influences these trade-offs. It presents opportunities for cost savings and access to better quality care, but it also raises challenges in promoting equitable and affordable access. This paper offers a discussion of trade policy in health services for the ASEAN region. It reviews the existing patterns of trade and identifies policy measures that could further harness the benefits from trade in health services and address potential pitfalls that deeper integration may bring about.
Full Text Available This paper examines the development of the Open Access movement in scholarly communication, with particular attention to some of the rhetorical strategies and policy mechanisms used to promote it to scholars and scientists. Despite the majority of journal publishers’ acceptance of author self-archiving practices, and the minimal time commitment required by authors to successfully self-archive their work in disciplinary or institutional repositories, the majority of authors still by and large avoid participation. The paper reviews the strategies and arguments used for increasing author participation in open access, including the role of open access mandates. We recommend a service-oriented approach towards increasing participation in open access, rather than rhetoric that speculates on the benefits that open access will have on text/data mining innovation. In advocating for open access participation, we recommend focusing on its most universal and tangible purpose: increasing public open (gratis access to the published results of publicly funded research. Researchers require strong institutional support to understand the copyright climate of open access self-archiving, user-friendly interfaces and useful metrics, such as repository usage statistics. We recommend that mandates and well-crafted and responsive author support services at universities will ultimately be required to ensure the growth of open access. We describe the mediated deposit service that was developed to support author self-archiving in Spectrum: Concordia University Research Repository. By comparing the number of deposits of non-thesis materials (e.g. articles and conference presentations that were accomplished through the staff-mediated deposit service to the number of deposits that were author-initiated, we demonstrate the relative significance of this service to the growth of the repository.
The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.
ual, the child running off into the bush, the adoles- cent who almost unnoticed begins to lose concentration and fail at his studies. ... Malawi Medical Journal. .... topic. In this way the specialist service comes out to the district, rather than all those ...
Noh, Normah Awang; Wahab, Haris Abd; Bakar Ah, Siti Hajar Abu; Islam, M Rezaul
The objective of this study was to know the status of the foreign workers' access to public health services in Malaysia based on their utilization pattern. The utilization pattern covered a number of areas, such as frequency of using health services, status of using health services, choice and types of health institutions, and cost of health treatment. The study was conducted on six government hospitals in the Klang Valley area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected from 600 foreign patients working in the country, using an interview method with a structured questionnaire. The results showed that the foreign workers' access to public health services was very low. The findings would be an important guideline to formulate an effective health service policy for the foreign workers in Malaysia.
Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru
Last few decades have witnessed boom in the development of information and communication technologies. Health-sector has also been benefitted with this advancement. To ensure secure access to healthcare services some user authentication mechanisms have been proposed. In 2012, Wei et al. proposed a user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system (TMIS). Recently, Zhu pointed out offline password guessing attack on Wei et al.'s scheme and proposed an improved scheme. In this article, we analyze both of these schemes for their effectiveness in TMIS. We show that Wei et al.'s scheme and its improvement proposed by Zhu fail to achieve some important characteristics necessary for secure user authentication. We find that security problems of Wei et al.'s scheme stick with Zhu's scheme; like undetectable online password guessing attack, inefficacy of password change phase, traceability of user's stolen/lost smart card and denial-of-service threat. We also identify that Wei et al.'s scheme lacks forward secrecy and Zhu's scheme lacks session key between user and healthcare server. We therefore propose an authentication scheme for TMIS with forward secrecy which preserves the confidentiality of air messages even if master secret key of healthcare server is compromised. Our scheme retains advantages of Wei et al.'s scheme and Zhu's scheme, and offers additional security. The security analysis and comparison results show the enhanced suitability of our scheme for TMIS.
Francisco de Assis Acurcio
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma revisão de estudos que enfocam o tema da acessibilidade a ações e serviços de saúde. Tem-se demonstrado que indivíduos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV podem apresentar uma melhor sobrevida dependendo do tipo de acesso que tenham às ações e serviços de saúde, como, por exemplo, acesso a medicamentos profiláticos (por exemplo, zidovudina, pentamidina. Desta forma, o presente trabalho enfatiza e utiliza dados da epidemia do HIV como forma de abordar o tema proposto. O artigo inicia-se com uma exposição do marco teórico sobre acessibilidade, seguida de uma revisão bibliográfica estruturada em quatro tópicos, a saber: 1 aspectos epidemiológicos da AIDS; 2 avaliação de qualidade dos serviços de saúde; 3 acessibilidade às ações e serviços de saúde e 4 estudos de acessibilidade em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Considerações finais sobre o tema enfocado apontam para a necessidade de se compreender as implicações das diversas barreiras de acesso aos serviços, levando-se em conta os custos sociais e humanos da infecção pelo HIV, as necessidades e demandas dos indivíduos infectados e as conseqüências que o não-atendimento em tempo hábil pode ter para estes indivíduos.The aim of this paper is to provide a review of studies on accessibility to health care. It has been shown that patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may present better survival estimates depending upon their access to adequate health care, such as the availability of prophylactic therapy (e.g. zidovudine, pentamidine. The present review has emphasized access to health care in light of data from the current HIV epidemic. Theorical aspects pertaining to accessibility are presented, followed by a brief literature review on four main topics: 1. epidemiological aspects of HIV; 2. evaluation of health service quality; 3. accessibility to health care; and 4
utilization of health services and associated factors in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross .... The sample size was calculated using Epi-Info 3.3.2 ... Before the start of data collection, the proposal was submitted to the ... Table 1. Health services access in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia, February 2007.
Despite well-documented links between low health literacy, low rates of health insurance coverage, and poor health outcomes, there has been almost no research on the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported access to care. This study analyzed a large, nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults ages 50 and older to estimate the relationship between low health literacy and self-reported difficulty obtaining care. We found that individuals with low health literacy were significantly more likely than individuals with adequate health literacy to delay or forego needed care or to report difficulty finding a provider, even after controlling for other factors including health insurance coverage, employment, race/ethnicity, poverty, and general cognitive function. They were also more likely to lack a usual source of care, although this result was only marginally significant after controlling for other factors. The results show that in addition to any obstacles that low health literacy creates within the context of the clinical encounter, low health literacy also reduces the probability that people get in the door of the health care system in a timely way. PMID:27043757
Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Kirsch, Thomas; Durrani, Aqsa; Sauer, Lauren; Doocy, Shannon
Introduction The 2010 floods submerged more than one-fifth of Pakistan's land area and affected more than 20 million people. Over 1.6 million homes were damaged or destroyed and 2,946 direct injuries and 1,985 deaths were reported. Infrastructure damage was widespread, including critical disruptions to the power and transportation networks. Hypothesis Damage and loss of critical infrastructure will affect the population's ability to seek and access adequate health care for years to come. This study sought to evaluate factors associated with access to health care in the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods. A population-proportional, randomized cluster-sampling survey method with 80 clusters of 20 (1,600) households of the flood-affected population was used. Heads of households were surveyed approximately six months after flood onset. Multivariate analysis was used to determine significance. A total of 77.8% of households reported needing health services within the first month after the floods. Household characteristics, including rural residence location, large household size, and lower pre- and post-flood income, were significantly associated (Pfloods was associated with urban residence location, suggesting that locating health care providers in rural areas may be difficult. Access to health services also was associated with post-flood income level, suggesting health resources are not readily available to households suffering great income losses. Jacquet GA , Kirsch T , Durrani A , Sauer L , Doocy S . Health care access and utilization after the 2010 Pakistan floods. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):485-491.
Wynaden, Dianne; Chapman, Rose; Orb, Angelica; McGowan, Sunita; Zeeman, Zenith; Yeak, SiewHo
This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study to identify factors that influence Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. Semistructured interviews were completed with Asian community members/leaders and health-care professionals. Content analysis identified major themes. Participants also completed a demographic data sheet. The research aimed to provide health professionals with an increased understanding of the values and beliefs held by people from Asian communities regarding the cause and treatment of mental illness. Data analysis identified six main themes that influenced Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. They were: shame and stigma; causes of mental illness; family reputation; hiding up; seeking help; and lack of collaboration. The findings highlighted that people from Asian communities are unwilling to access help from mainstream services because of their beliefs, and that stigma and shame are key factors that influence this reluctance. The findings also highlight that the mental health needs of refugee women are significant, and that they comprise a vulnerable group within Australian society.
Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese
The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has
Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli
Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services
Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape. Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher ...
Shamyr Sulyvan Castro
ciudad de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, de junio a agosto de 2007, que respondieron preguntas relacionadas con el desplazamiento e el acceso a los servicios de salud. La metodología utilizada para análisis fue el discurso del sujeto colectivo y los análisis fueron conducidos con recurso al programa Qualiquantisoft. ANÁLISIS DE RESULTADOS: El análisis de los discursos sobre el desplazamiento al servicio de salud mostró diversidad con relación al usuario ir al servicio sólo o acompañado, utilizar carro particular, transporte colectivo, ir a pie o de ambulancia y demandar tiempo variado para llegar al servicio. Con relación a las dificultades ofrecidas de acceso por los servicios de salud, hubo relatos de demora en la atención, problemas con estacionamiento, falta de rampas, elevadores, sillas de rueda, sanitarios adaptados y de médicos. CONCLUSIONES: Las personas con algún tipo de discapacidad hicieron uso de medios de transporte diversificados, necesitando de compañía en algunos casos. Problemas con el acceso a los servicios de salud fueron relatados por los sujetos con discapacidades, contrariando el principio de la equidad, precepto del Sistema Único de Salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difficulties in accessibility to health services experienced by persons with disabilities. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: A qualitative study was performed with individuals who reported having a certain type of disability (paralysis or amputation of limbs; low vision, unilateral or total blindness; low hearing, unilateral or total deafness. A total of 25 individuals (14 women were interviewed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between June and August 2007, responding to questions about transportation and accessibility to health services. Collective Subject Discourse was the methodology used to analyze results and analyses were performed with the Qualiquantisoft software. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: The analysis of discourses on transportation to health services revealed a
23 août 2013 ... Health systems across Africa are hindered by inadequate resources and growing disease burdens. Access to timely and affordable health services is needed to manage diseases and improve health and well-being. The growing field of electronic health (eHealth) is helping fill gaps in decision-making and ...
Garmon, Sandra C
The theory presented in this article proposes an alternative view of access to care on the basis of an African American woman's perception of the necessity, availability, and appropriateness of breast health care. The theory of perceived access to breast health care in African American women may also be useful in framing future research studies exploring the relationship between access to care and utilization of primary, secondary, and tertiary clinical preventive services related to breast health care.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service includes maps that illustrate factors affecting transit accessibility, and indicators of accessibility. Accessibility measures how...
SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.
SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised
Haro, A. S.
Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…
Romano, Paolo; Marra, Domenico
Web Services and Workflow Management Systems can support creation and deployment of network systems, able to automate data analysis and retrieval processes in biomedical research. Web Services have been implemented at bioinformatics centres and workflow systems have been proposed for biological data analysis. New databanks are often developed by taking into account these technologies, but many existing databases do not allow a programmatic access. Only a fraction of available databanks can thus be queried through programmatic interfaces. SRS is a well know indexing and search engine for biomedical databanks offering public access to many databanks and analysis tools. Unfortunately, these data are not easily and efficiently accessible through Web Services. We have developed 'SRS by WS' (SWS), a tool that makes information available in SRS sites accessible through Web Services. Information on known sites is maintained in a database, srsdb. SWS consists in a suite of WS that can query both srsdb, for information on sites and databases, and SRS sites. SWS returns results in a text-only format and can be accessed through a WSDL compliant client. SWS enables interoperability between workflow systems and SRS implementations, by also managing access to alternative sites, in order to cope with network and maintenance problems, and selecting the most up-to-date among available systems. Development and implementation of Web Services, allowing to make a programmatic access to an exhaustive set of biomedical databases can significantly improve automation of in-silico analysis. SWS supports this activity by making biological databanks that are managed in public SRS sites available through a programmatic interface.
Cokelaer, Thomas; Pultz, Dennis; Harder, Lea M; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio
Web interfaces provide access to numerous biological databases. Many can be accessed to in a programmatic way thanks to Web Services. Building applications that combine several of them would benefit from a single framework. BioServices is a comprehensive Python framework that provides programmatic access to major bioinformatics Web Services (e.g. KEGG, UniProt, BioModels, ChEMBLdb). Wrapping additional Web Services based either on Representational State Transfer or Simple Object Access Protocol/Web Services Description Language technologies is eased by the usage of object-oriented programming. BioServices releases and documentation are available at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/bioservices under a GPL-v3 license.
The need for health information resources to support climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions is growing, both in the United States and around the world, as the manifestations of climate change become more evident and widespread. In many instances, these information resources are not specific to a changing climate, but have either been developed or are highly relevant for addressing health issues related to existing climate variability and weather extremes. To help address the need for more integrated data, the Interagency Cross-Cutting Group on Climate Change and Human Health, a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, has developed the Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH). MATCH is a gateway to relevant information that can be used to solve problems at the nexus of climate science and public health by facilitating research, enabling scientific collaborations in a One Health approach, and promoting data stewardship that will enhance the quality and application of climate and health research. MATCH is a searchable clearinghouse of publicly available Federal metadata including monitoring and surveillance data sets, early warning systems, and tools for characterizing the health impacts of global climate change. Examples of relevant databases include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Public Health Tracking System and NOAA's National Climate Data Center's national and state temperature and precipitation data. This presentation will introduce the audience to this new web-based geoportal and demonstrate its features and potential applications.
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across
common household products, there are many ideas and principles that are used in marketing consumer products that can be applied to primary health care...Design & Analysis, Chicago: Free Press, 1955. Kotler , Phillip., Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975...to recapture ’the retiree population around IACH, Ft. Knox, KY. and to implement a marketing strategy which would attempt to recapture a portion of
Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thumé, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. The present work can be classified as a cross-sectional ecological study. To carry out the present study, data of all 5843 Brazilian hospitals were categorized among high complexity centers and small hospitals. The geographical access barriers were identified through the use of two-step floating catchment area method. Once concluded the previous step an evaluation using the Getis-Ord-Gi method was performed to identify spatial clusters of municipalities with limited access to high complexity centers but well covered by well-equipped small hospitals. The analysis of accessibility index of high complexity centers highlighted large portions of the country with nearly zero hospital beds by inhabitant. In contrast, it was possible observe a group of 1595 municipalities with high accessibility to small hospitals, simultaneously with a low coverage of high complexity centers. Among the 1595 municipalities with good accessibility to small hospitals, 74% (1183) were covered by small hospitals with at least 60% of minimum emergency service requirements. The spatial clusters analysis aggregated 589 municipalities with high values related to minimum emergency service requirements. Small hospitals in these 589 cities could promote the equity in access to emergency services benefiting more than eight million people. There is a spatial disequilibrium within the country with prominent gaps in the health care network for emergency services. Taking this challenge into consideration, small hospitals could be a possible solution and foster equity in access
Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George
Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...
The British Columbia Nephrologists' Access Study (BCNAS) - a prospective, health services interventional study to develop waiting time benchmarks and reduce wait times for out-patient nephrology consultations.
Schachter, Michael E; Romann, Alexandra; Djurdev, Ognjenka; Levin, Adeera; Beaulieu, Monica
Early referral and management of high-risk chronic kidney disease may prevent or delay the need for dialysis. Automatic eGFR reporting has increased demand for out-patient nephrology consultations and in some cases, prolonged queues. In Canada, a national task force suggested the development of waiting time targets, which has not been done for nephrology. We sought to describe waiting time for outpatient nephrology consultations in British Columbia (BC). Data collection occurred in 2 phases: 1) Baseline Description (Jan 18-28, 2010) and 2) Post Waiting Time Benchmark-Introduction (Jan 16-27, 2012). Waiting time was defined as the interval from receipt of referral letters to assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, Nephrologists and Family Physicians (FP) developed waiting time targets for commonly referred conditions through meetings and surveys. Rules were developed to weigh-in nephrologists', FPs', and patients' perspectives in order to generate waiting time benchmarks. Targets consider comorbidities, eGFR, BP and albuminuria. Referred conditions were assigned a priority score between 1-4. BC nephrologists were encouraged to centrally triage referrals to see the first available nephrologist. Waiting time benchmarks were simultaneously introduced to guide patient scheduling. A post-intervention waiting time evaluation was then repeated. In 2010 and 2012, 43/52 (83%) and 46/57 (81%) of BC nephrologists participated. Waiting time decreased from 98(IQR44,157) to 64(IQR21,120) days from 2010 to 2012 (p = management associated with improved access to nephrologists in BC. Improvements in waiting time was most marked for the highest priority patients, which suggests that benchmarks had an influence on triaging behavior. Further research is needed to determine whether this effect is sustainable.
Romano, Paolo; Marra, Domenico
Background Web Services and Workflow Management Systems can support creation and deployment of network systems, able to automate data analysis and retrieval processes in biomedical research. Web Services have been implemented at bioinformatics centres and workflow systems have been proposed for biological data analysis. New databanks are often developed by taking into account these technologies, but many existing databases do not allow a programmatic access. Only a fraction of available datab...
Matthieu, Monica M; Gardiner, Giovanina; Ziegemeier, Ellen; Buxton, Miranda
Veterans in need of social services may access many different community agencies within the public and private sectors. Each of these settings has the potential to be a pipeline for attaining needed health, mental health, and benefits services; however, many service providers lack information on how to conceptualize where Veterans go for services within their local community. This article describes a conceptual framework for outreach that uses a service sector segmented approach. This framework was developed to aid recruitment of a provider-based sample of stakeholders (N = 70) for a study on improving access to the Department of Veterans Affairs and community-based suicide prevention services. Results indicate that although there are statistically significant differences in the percent of Veterans served by the different service sectors (F(9, 55) = 2.71, p = 0.04), exposure to suicidal Veterans and providers' referral behavior is consistent across the sectors. Challenges to using this framework include isolating the appropriate sectors for targeted outreach efforts. The service sector segmented approach holds promise for identifying and referring at-risk Veterans in need of services. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Rejane Sobrino Pinheiro
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o perfil de morbidade referida, acesso e uso de serviços de saúde em homens e mulheres no Brasil, segundo idade e região urbana e rural. Os dados da PNAD/98 mostram que as diferenças de gênero na morbidade variam com a idade: desfavoráveis aos meninos até os 10 anos e desfavoráveis às mulheres a partir dos 15 anos, aumentando até os 64 anos e reduzindo após esta idade. A alta prevalência de atendimento indica que as barreiras de acesso dos que procuram serviços de saúde são pequenas. No entanto, o elevado percentual de não procura face às necessidades percebidas sugere que as barreiras de acesso são anteriores e dependem da oferta. A cobertura por planos de saúde é bem maior na região urbana, mas não há diferenças de gênero significantes nas regiões. As diferenças entre homens e mulheres nas taxas de uso curativo são pequenas, se comparadas com as de uso preventivo, maiores para as mulheres, assim como as taxas de internação, mesmo excluindo os partos. O financiamento das internações não foi diferente entre homens e mulheres, ao contrário do financiamento de outros tipos de atendimento: maior cobertura por planos para mulheres na região urbana; na região rural, maior uso do SUS para as mulheres e maior desembolso de recursos próprios para os homens.This paper analyses the profile of perceived morbidity, access and use of health services among men and women in Brazil according to age and urban/rural situation. Data from PNAD/98 showed that gender differences in morbidity vary with age: unfavorable to boys up to 10 years old and to women after 15 years of age. Differences rise with age up to age 64 and slow down after on. The high prevalence of attendance suggests that barriers for access for those who seek health care are small. Nevertheless, the high percentage of people who did not seek health services among those who believe needed, indicates that access are important
Lucas, B; Audini, B; Chisholm, D; Knapp, M; Lelliott, P
This study examines the effect of managing agency (local authority, private or voluntary) on the use of other health and social care services by residents in mental health hostels and group homes with different levels of staffing in England and Wales. The sample comprised 1323 residents in 275 facilities in eight districts. The measures of service use were number of days in hospital and number of other service contacts. There were highly significant differences between facilities with similar levels of staffing managed by different agencies. Residents in the voluntary sector used fewer community services overall; residents in low-staffed local authority facilities used more services than those in similar facilities managed by other agencies. These differences were not easily explained by differences in the social or clinical characteristics of residents. This suggests that there may be organisational factors, e.g. hostel staff, knowledge of services, which influence access to and use of community services.
Full Text Available Uganda is among the first to use the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify persons with disabilities in its Demographic and Health Survey. In this paper, we review the HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour component of the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey, analysing a series of questions comparing those with and without disabilities in relation to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. We found comparable levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS for those with and those without disabilities in relation to HIV transmission during delivery (93.89%, 93.26% and through breastfeeding (89.91%, 90.63%, which may reflect increased attention to reaching the community of persons with disabilities. However, several gaps in the knowledge base of persons with disabilities stood out, including misconceptions of risk of HIV infection through mosquito bites and caring for a relative with HIV in own household (34.39%, 29.86%; p<0.001; 91.53%, 89.00%; p = 0.001, respectively. The issue is not just access to appropriate information but also equitable access to HIV/AIDS services and support. Here we found that persons with multiple disabilities were less likely than individuals without disabilities to return to receive results from their most recent HIV test (0.60[0.41-0.87], p<0.05. HIV testing means little if people do not return for follow-up to know their HIV status and, if necessary, to be connected to available services and supports. Additional findings of note were that persons with disabilities reported having a first sexual encounter at a slightly younger age than peers without disabilities; and persons with disabilities also reported having a sexually transmitted disease (STD within the last 12 months at significantly higher rates than peers without disabilities (1.38[1.18-1.63], p<0.01, despite reporting comparable knowledge of the need for safer sex practices. This analysis is among the first to use HIV
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L
Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
... health specialist within the network for women's routine and preventive health care services provided as... organization makes a “best-effort” attempt to conduct an initial assessment of each enrollee's health care... “good faith” effort to contract with the hospital to be designated as an essential hospital and that the...
... from the doctor’s office. Visit the Guide to Getting & Using Your Health Records for practical tips to help you access, review, and make the most of your health records. Open Survey Content last reviewed on April 4, 2018 Was this page helpful? Yes No Form Approved OMB# 0990-0379 Exp. Date ...
Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey
Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. © 2014 APJPH.
Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...
Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…
Paek, Min-So; Lim, Jung-Won
This study aims to (1) assess ethnic differences in health care access and health outcome between Asian Americans and whites and between Asian American subgroups, (2) examine effects of cultural factors, and (3) investigate moderating effects of health risk behaviors between cultural characteristics and health care access and outcome. Data were derived from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Asian Americans (n = 4,462) and whites (n = 4,470) were included. There were significant ethnic differences in health care access and health perception between Asian Americans and Whites and across Asian American subgroups. Health risk behaviors moderated relationships between cultural factors and health care access and outcome. Findings reveal that ethnicity affects an individual's health care access and health perception, and their health behaviors are an important factor that may improve or worsen outcomes. This study may increase our knowledge base of research and interventions to enhance ethnic minority populations' health care accessibility and perceptions.
Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person
Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S
There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pemployee wellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Concha, Nanette Liberona; Mansilla, Miguel Ángel
In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.
Nanette Paz Liberona Concha
Full Text Available In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.
Hossen, Md Abul; Westhues, Anne
Large segments of the population in developing countries are deprived of a fundamental right: access to basic health care. The problem of access to health care is particularly acute in Bangladesh. One crucial determinant of health seeking among rural women is the accessibility of medical care and barriers to care that may develop because of location, financial requirements, bureaucratic responses to the patient, social distance between client and provider, and the sex of providers. This article argues that to increase accessibility fundamental changes are required not only in resource allocation but also in the very structure of health services delivery.
Heneghan, A M; Malakoff, M E
A survey to assess availability of school health services was distributed to 221 directors of Schools of the 21st Century, an educational model that provides integrated services to children and families. Of this distribution, 126 (57%) surveys were returned; 88% of respondents reported they provided some type of school health services for their students; 75% of schools had access to school nursing services, yet only 33% had a school nurse on-site; 50% had less than daily access to a school nurse. Despite a high reported prevalence of physical and mental health problems, other services such as acute care, nutrition counseling, dental screenings, or mental health services were provided less frequently. Barriers perceived as problematic for schools providing health services included inadequate funding, limited parental awareness, and opposition by school or community members. Respondents believed transportation, limited financial resources, and inadequate health insurance were barriers to care for children and families. Among this sample of schools, school health services varied in availability and comprehensiveness. Educators, health providers, and parents must work together to provide improved school health services for children.
Das, Biswa R.; Leatherman, John C.; Bressers, Bonnie M.
The Internet has potential for improving health information delivery and strengthening connections between rural populations and local health service providers. An exploratory case study six rural health care markets in Kansas showed that about 70% of adults use the Internet, with substantial use for accessing health information. While there are…
Full Text Available The service sector plays an increasingly large modern market economies. By being unable to provide customers a tangible product in the hands of service providers makes the situation more difficult. Their success depends on customer satisfaction, which expect a certain benefit for the money paid, on quality, on mutual trust and many other attributes. What is very interesting is that they may differ from client to client, and there is no guarantee satisfaction to all customers, even if the service provided is the same. This shows the complex nature of services and efforts on service providers would have to be made permanent in order to attract more customers. This paper addresses the issues of continuous quality improvement of health services as an important part of the services sector. Until recently, these services in Romania although under strict control of the state, had a large number of patients who are given very little attention, which is why quality improvement acestoraa was compulsory. Opening and changing economic environment, increasing customer demands, forced hospitals that serve as a nodal point between these services and their applicants to adopt modern management methods and techniques to become competitive and to give patients the quality service expected. Modern society has always sought to provide the means to ensure good health closer to the needs of modern man. These have become more complex and more expensive and naturally requires financial resources increasingly mari.Este why, every time, all the failures alleging lack of money and resources in general. Is it true? Sometimes yes, often, no! The truth is that human and material resources are not used in an optimal way. The answer lies mainly in quality management. We will see what should be done in this regard.
Zwick, D I
Federal health services grants amounted to about $1.8 billion in fiscal year 1985. The total amount was about $100 million less, about 6 percent, than in 1980. Reductions in the health planning program accounted for most of the decline in absolute dollars. The four formula grants to State agencies amounted to about $1.0 billion in 1985, about 60 percent of the total. The largest formula grants were for maternal and child health services and for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services. Project grants to selected State and local agencies amounted to about $.8 billion. There was 12 such grants in 1985 (compared with 34 in 1980). The largest, for community health services, equaled almost half the total. In real, inflation-adjusted dollars, the decline in Federal funds for these programs exceeded a third during the 5-year period. The overall dollar total in real terms in 1985 approximated the 1970 level. The ratio of formula grants to project grants in 1985 was similar to that in 1965. Studies of the impact of changes in Federal grants have found that while the development of health programs has been seriously constrained in most cases, their nature has not been substantially altered. In some cases broader program approaches and allocations have been favored. Established modes of operations and administration have generally been strengthened. Some efficiencies but few savings in administration have been identified. Replacement of reduced Federal funding by the States has been modest but has increased over time, especially for direct service activities. These changes reflect the important influence of professionalism in the health fields and the varying strengths of political interest and influence among program supporters. The long-term impact on program innovation is not yet clear.
Hardeman, F.; Hurtgen, C.; Vanhavere, F.; Vanmarcke, H.
SCK-CEN's programme on health-physics (1) offers complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards; (2) contributes to improve continuously these measurement techniques and follows up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) provides support and advise to nuclear and non-nuclear industry on issues of radioactive contamination. Progress and achievements in 1997 are summarised
Torun, Perihan; Mücaz Karaaslan, Meltem; Sandıklı, Büşra; Acar, Ceyda; Shurtleff, Ellyn; Dhrolia, Sophia; Herek, Bülent
The study was conducted to assess the health needs of urban refugees living in İstanbul. A mixed methods approach was adopted to interview Syrian women from households, doctors, decision makers and NGO representatives. The data were collected between June and October 2015. The main challenges were the cost of living in İstanbul, increased rent and language barrier. Almost half (49.6%) of the interviewed women did not know about free health care rights for Syrians. In the last 30 days preceding the interview, 58.6% of the participants sought health care primarily through state hospitals, primary health care centres and pharmacies. The participants had difficulty in accessing health care due to the language barrier and a lack of knowledge of the Turkish health care system. Waiting time at hospitals and negative attitudes of health care staff reduced satisfaction in these services. In relation to life in Turkey, the main issues for Syrian refugees were not directly related to health. They have been given the right to access health care, although had many difficulties in understanding and accessing services in a crowded city.
Southard, Erik P; Neufeld, Jonathan D; Laws, Stephanie
Mentally ill patients in crisis presenting to critical access hospital emergency rooms often face exorbitant wait times to be evaluated by a trained mental health provider. Patients may be discharged from the hospital before receiving an evaluation or boarded in a hospital bed for observation, reducing quality and increasing costs. This study examined the effectiveness of an emergency telemental health evaluation service implemented in a rural hospital emergency room. Retrospective data collection was implemented to consider patients presenting to the emergency room for 212 days prior to telemedicine interventions and for 184 days after. The study compared measures of time to treatment, length of stay (regardless of inpatient or outpatient status), and door-to-consult time. There were 24 patients seen before telemedicine was implemented and 38 seen using telemedicine. All patients had a mental health evaluation ordered by a physician and completed by a mental health specialist. Significant reductions in all three time measures were observed. Mean and median times to consult were reduced from 16.2 h (standard deviation=13.2 h) and 14.2 h, respectively, to 5.4 h (standard deviation =6.4 h) and 2.6 h. Similar reductions in length of stay and door-to-consult times were observed. By t tests, use of telemedicine was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all three outcome measures. Telemedicine appears to be an effective intervention for mentally ill patients by providing more timely access to mental health evaluations in rural hospital emergency departments.
Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John; Young, Alys
This study concerns culturally Deaf people in the United Kingdom who use British Sign Language (BSL). Its objective was to explore how Deaf people's knowledge about dementia and access to services is mediated by their minoritised cultural-linguistic status. Twenty-six members of the Deaf community participated in one of three Deaf-led focus groups in BSL corresponding with the sample of: Deaf people over the age of 60 without dementia; Deaf people aged 18-60 working professional roles unconnected with dementia services; ordinary members of the Deaf community aged 18-60. Data were subjected to a thematic content analysis. Participants' concerns about their poor levels of knowledge and understanding of dementia were augmented by their awareness that without sustained social contact in BSL opportunities for earlier recognition of dementia would be lost. Although primary care services were identified as the first port of call for dementia-related concerns, there was widespread mistrust of their effectiveness because of failures in communication and cultural competence. Confirmed diagnosis of dementia was not viewed as a gateway to services and support because Deaf organisations, dementia-related organisations and mainstream adult services were perceived to be ill-equipped to respond to the needs of Deaf people with dementia. Locating problems of late diagnosis within the Deaf community's poor awareness and knowledge of dementia fails to recognise the structural barriers Deaf people face in timely access to services and accurate recognition of dementia-related changes.
Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious
Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.
Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan
Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.
... switched exchange access services that prices those services above the higher of: (1) The rate charged for... equivalent of the ILEC interstate exchange access services typically associated with following rate elements... switched exchange access services shall mean the composite, per-minute rate for these services, including...
Douthit, N; Kiv, S; Dwolatzky, T; Biswas, S
To review research published before and after the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) examining barriers in seeking or accessing health care in rural populations in the USA. This literature review was based on a comprehensive search for all literature researching rural health care provision and access in the USA. Pubmed, Proquest Allied Nursing and Health Literature, National Rural Health Association (NRHA) Resource Center and Google Scholar databases were searched using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 'Rural Health Services' and 'Rural Health.' MeSH subtitle headings used were 'USA,' 'utilization,' 'trends' and 'supply and distribution.' Keywords added to the search parameters were 'access,' 'rural' and 'health care.' Searches in Google Scholar employed the phrases 'health care disparities in the USA,' inequalities in 'health care in the USA,' 'health care in rural USA' and 'access to health care in rural USA.' After eliminating non-relevant articles, 34 articles were included. Significant differences in health care access between rural and urban areas exist. Reluctance to seek health care in rural areas was based on cultural and financial constraints, often compounded by a scarcity of services, a lack of trained physicians, insufficient public transport, and poor availability of broadband internet services. Rural residents were found to have poorer health, with rural areas having difficulty in attracting and retaining physicians, and maintaining health services on a par with their urban counterparts. Rural and urban health care disparities require an ongoing program of reform with the aim to improve the provision of services, promote recruitment, training and career development of rural health care professionals, increase comprehensive health insurance coverage and engage rural residents and healthcare providers in health promotion. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna
Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y documentar las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud en la población indígena de Rabinal en Guatemala. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se privilegió el análisis cualitativo y la recopilación de datos se realizó en Rabinal durante dos meses (Guatemala. Se realizaron quince entrevistas semi dirigidas a indígenas achís y cinco entrevistas a profesionales de la salud. Un grupo de discusión fue formado para validar la información recogida durante las entrevistas individuales; la retranscripción de éstas y la compilación de los datos permitieron hacer el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las barreras de acceso están interrelacionadas y las barreras geográficas están relacionadas con la distancia y con la escasez de transporte; las barreras económicas son los precios de las consultas y de los medicamentos, además, entre las barreras culturales, la lengua española es un obstáculo. Los indígenas tienen otra concepción de la medicina y de los tratamientos y se quejan en ocasiones de trato abusivo por parte de los profesionales sanitarios. A su vez, los profesionales de la salud reconocen que el trauma de la guerra está presente y critican las malas condiciones de vida y la falta de recursos. CONCLUSIONES: Los servicios de salud no son adecuados ni suficientes para responder a las necesidades de la población local.OBJECTIVE: To identify and document access barriers to health care services for the indigenous population in Rabinal, Guatemala. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative analysis was used. Over a period of two months, 20 semi-directional interviews were conducted in Rabinal, Guatemala: 15 with Achis indigenous people and five with health professionals. A focus group was done to verify the information collected during the individual interviews. The qualitative analysis was based on the transcription of interviews and the compilation of the data. RESULTS: Barriers to access are inter-relational. Geographic
Kattari, Shanna K; Walls, N Eugene; Speer, Stephanie Rachel
Transgender and gender nonconforming (GNC) individuals frequently experience discrimination and potentially a lack of respect from service providers, suggesting they have decreased access to professionals with cultural competency. Similarly, people with disabilities experience higher levels of discrimination in social services than their nondisabled counterparts. From an intersectional perspective, this study examines rates of discrimination in accessing social services faced by transgender and GNC people, comparing across ability. Data indicate that although transgender and GNC individuals of all abilities experience gender-based discrimination when accessing social services, those with disabilities experience higher levels of antitransgender discrimination in mental health centers, rape crisis centers, and domestic violence shelters.
Mheta, Doreen; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasises the increasing equitable coverage of quality health care and provision of integrated services as means of reducing maternal mortality. Despite so much effort being placed on improved access to maternity health care, studies show that women with disabilities are being systemically excluded from the mainstream maternal health services. The proposed scoping review aims to map literature on the barriers and facilitators of access to maternal services for women with disabilities. The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including Pubmed, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, CINAHL Plus with full text via EBSCOhost, Africa-Wide Info via EBSCOhost, JSTOR and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Articles will also be searched through the "Cited by" search as well as citations included in the reference lists of included articles. A two-stage mapping strategy would be conducted. Stage 1 would be to screen studies through examining their titles. Furthermore, we will screen abstracts of the identified studies descriptively and by focus and method as stipulated by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In stage 2, we will extract data from the included studies. A parallel screening and data extraction will be undertaken by two reviewers. We will access the quality of the included studies using the mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT). We will use NVIVO version 10 to extract the relevant outcomes and thematic analysis of the studies. We anticipate to find relevant studies reporting evidence on the barriers and facilitators of access to maternal health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence obtained from the included studies when summarised will help guide future research. The study findings will be disseminated electronically and in print. In addition, it will be presented at conferences related to sexual reproductive health, maternal health care and reproductive health.
Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W
Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.
Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Greene, Liberty; Karpenko, Julie; Rodriguez, Allison; Saweikis, Meghan; Washington, Donna L
Patient-centered access to mental health describes the fit between patient needs and resources of the system. To date, little data are available to guide implementation of services to women veterans, an underrepresented minority within Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) health care. The current study examines access to mental health care among women veterans, and identifies gender-related indicators of perceived access to mental health care. A population-based sample of 6287 women veterans using VA primary care services participated in a survey of past year perceived need for mental health care, mental health utilization, and gender-related mental health care experiences. Subjective rating of how well mental health care met their needs was used as an indicator of perceived access. Half of all women reported perceived mental health need; 84.3% of those women received care. Nearly all mental health users (90.9%) used VA services, although only about half (48.8%) reported that their mental health care met their needs completely or very well. Gender related experiences (availability of female providers, women-only treatment settings, women-only treatment groups, and gender-related comfort) were each associated with 2-fold increased odds of perceived access, and associations remained after adjusting for ease of getting care. Women VA users demonstrate very good objective access to mental health services. Desire for, and access to specialized mental health services for women varies across the population and are important aspects of shared decision making in referral and treatment planning for women using VA primary care.
This bestselling book provides an accessible introduction to the concepts and practicalities of research methods in health and health services. This new edition has been extensively re-worked and expanded and now includes expanded coverage of: Qualitative methods Social research Evaluation methodology Mixed methods Secondary data analysis Literature reviewing and critical appraisal Evidence based practiceCovering all core methodologies in detail the book looks at the following kinds of health...
Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O
In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.
Sandahl, Hinuga; Norredam, Marie; Hjern, Anders; Asher, Henry; Nielsen, Signe Smith
Asylum-seeking children constitute a vulnerable group with high prevalence and risk for mental health problems. The aim of this study was to compare policies of access to healthcare services, including physical examination and screening for mental health problems on arrival, for accompanied asylum-seeking children in the Nordic countries. This study was based on the national reports "Reception of refugee children in the Nordic countries" written by independent national experts for the Nordic Network for Research on Refugee Children, supplemented by information from relevant authorities. In Sweden, Norway and Iceland, asylum-seeking children had access to healthcare services equal to children in the general population. On a policy level, Denmark imposed restrictions on non-acute hospitalisations and prolonged specialist treatments. Regarding health examinations, Sweden deviated from the Nordic pattern by not performing these systematically. In Denmark, Iceland, and some counties in Sweden, but not in Norway, screening for mental health problems was offered to asylum-seeking children. Access to healthcare services for asylum-seeking children differs in the Nordic countries; the consequences of these systematic differences for the individual asylum-seeking child are unknown. For asylum-seeking children, access to healthcare has to be considered in a wider context that includes the core conditions of being an asylum-seeker. A comparative study at policy level needs to be supplemented with empirical follow-up studies of the well-being of the study population to document potential consequences of policies in practice.
Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David
Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Mesay Hailu Dangisso
Full Text Available Background: Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design: We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results: Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km between kebeles (the smallest administrative units and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km. In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001 increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001 were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases
Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period. Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care. Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites. Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems. What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them
This commentary summarizes the experience and learnings from a site visit in May 2008 to a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in downtown Cairo run by El-Shehab Institution for Comprehensive Development, which provides street outreach for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). The Centre successfully provides services and support for women, many of who are displaced or refugees and are from the most marginalized areas in Cairo. Through a rights-based approach to the work, the Centre helps people living in the slums fight and win the right to access clean water, sewerage and electrical power in their communities. An individual-based approach to human rights is also used. In the last year El-Shehab have helped 67 women go to court and win their marriage rights from husbands who have abandoned them. Their approach is an example of a successful way to achieve access to basic health determinants.
Elsa Gómez Gómez
, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1 the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2 the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.
Full Text Available for the provision health care services to the greatest number of people, taking into account future demand while efficiently using current deficient resources. Service provision for publicly provided facilities with quality services and infrastructure...
Lowe, Janet; Cagginello, Joan; Compton, Linda
Children come to school with a variety of health conditions, varying from moderate health issues to multiple, severe chronic health illnesses that have a profound and direct impact on their ability to learn. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides medically necessary services in the school setting to improve health outcomes and promote academic achievement. The nursing services provided are reimbursable services in other health care settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and home care settings. The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) believes that school nursing services that are reimbursable nursing services in other health care systems should also be reimbursable services in the school setting, while maintaining the same high quality care delivery standards. Traditionally, local and state tax revenues targeted to fund education programs have paid for school nursing health services. School nurses are in a strategic position to advocate for improving clinical processes to better fit with community health care providers and to align reimbursements with proposed changes. Restructuring reimbursement programs will enable health care funding streams to assist in paying for school nursing services delivered to students in the school setting. Developing new innovative health financing opportunities will help to increase access, improve quality, and reduce costs. The goal is to promote a comprehensive and cost-effective health care delivery model that integrates schools, families, providers, and communities.
... Many colleges also have a counseling center which students should go to for mental health concerns. How can I get seen at the ... services that I need? The staff at your student health center will know ... gynecologists, and mental health clinicians in the community in case you ...
Goyder, E C; Blank, L; Ellis, E; Furber, A; Peters, J; Sartain, K; Massey, C
Healthcare organisations are expected both to monitor inequalities in access to health services and also to act to improve access and increase equity in service provision. Locally developed action research projects with an explicit objective of reducing inequalities in access. Eight different health care services in the Yorkshire and Humber region, including community based palliative care, general practice asthma care, hospital based cardiology clinics, and termination of pregnancy services. Changes in service provision, increasing attendance rates in targeted groups. Local teams identified the population concerned and appropriate interventions using both published and grey literature. Where change to service provision was achieved, local data were collected to monitor the impact of service change. A number of evidence based changes to service provision were proposed and implemented with variable success. Service uptake increased in some of the targeted populations. Interventions to improve access must be sensitive to local settings and need both practical and managerial support to succeed. It is particularly difficult to improve access effectively if services are already struggling to meet current demand. Key elements for successful interventions included effective local leadership, identification of an intervention which is both evidence based and locally practicable, and identification of additional resources to support increased activity. A "toolkit" has been developed to support the identification and implementation of appropriate changes.
Witherspoon, Luke; Liddy, Clare; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin; Mahoney, John
Introduction Access to specialist services is limited by wait times and geographic availability. Champlain Building Access to Specialist Advice (BASE) has been implemented in our service region to facilitate access to specialists by primary care providers (PCPs). Through a secure web-based system, PCPs are able to send eConsults instead of requesting a formal in-office consultation. Methods Urology eConsults completed through the Champlain BASE service from March 2013 to January 2015 were analyzed. Each consult was characterized in regard to the type of question asked by the referring physician and the clinical content of the referral. Using the mandatory close-out surveys, we analyzed rates of referral avoidance, physician satisfaction, and overall impact on patient care. Results Of 190 eConsultations, 70% were completed in less than 10 minutes. The most common clinical questions related to the interpretation of imaging reports (16%) and tests to choose for investigating a condition (15%). The most common diagnoses were hematuria (13%) and renal mass (8%). In 35% of cases, referral to a urologist had originally been contemplated and was avoided. In 8% of cases, a PCP did not believe a consultation was initially needed, but a referral was ultimately initiated after the eConsultation. Conclusions Our study shows that although certain clinical presentations still require a formal in-person urological consultation, eConsultations can potentially reduce unnecessary clinic visits while identifying patients who may benefit from early urological consultation. Through both these mechanisms, we may improve timely access to urologists. PMID:28798830
The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.
Bessett, Danielle; Prager, Joanna; Havard, Julia; Murphy, Danielle J; Agénor, Madina; Foster, Angel M
To explore how Massachusetts' 2006 health insurance reforms affected access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for young adults. We conducted 11 focus group discussions across Massachusetts with 89 women and men aged 18 to 26 in 2009. Most young adults' primary interaction with the health system was for contraceptive and other SRH services, although they knew little about these services. Overall, health insurance literacy was low. Parents were primary decision makers in health insurance choices or assisted their adult children in choosing a plan. Ten percent of our sample was uninsured at the time of the discussion; a lack of knowledge about provisions in Chapter 58 rather than calculated risk analysis characterized periods of uninsurance. The dynamics of being transitionally uninsured, moving between health plans, and moving from a location defined by insurance companies as the coverage area limited consistent access to contraception. Notably, staying on parents' insurance through extended dependency, a provision unique to the post-reform context, had implications for confidentiality and access. Young adults' access to and utilization of contraceptive services in the post-reform period were challenged by unanticipated barriers related to information and privacy. The experience in Massachusetts offers instructive lessons for the implementation of national health care reform. Young adult-targeted efforts should address the challenges of health service utilization unique to this population. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Gaye; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances
Homeless people face many challenges in accessing and utilising health services to obtain psychosocial supports offered in hospital and community settings. The complex nature of health issues is compounded by lack of accessibility to services and lack of appropriate and safe housing. To examine the perceptions and experiences of homeless people in relation to their health service needs as well as those of service providers involved with their care. A purposive sampling approach was undertaken with a thematic framework analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants. Interviews were undertaken with 20 homeless people who accessed the emergency department in an acute hospital in Melbourne, Australia and 27 service providers involved in hospital and community care. Six key themes were identified from interviews: complexity of care needs, respect for homeless people and co-workers, engagement as a key strategy in continued care, lack of after-hour services, lack of appropriate accommodation and complexity of services. Findings revealed the complex and diverse nature of health concerns in homeless people. The demand on hospital services continues to increase and unless government policies take into consideration the psychosocial demands of the communities most vulnerable people efforts to divert hospital demand will continue to fail.
Meldrum, Rebecca; Ho, Hillary; Satur, Julie
People with a lived experience of mental illness are at a higher risk for developing oral diseases and having poorer oral health than the broader population. This paper explores the role of Australian community mental health services in supporting the prevention and management of poor oral health among people living with mental illness. Through focus groups and semi-structured interviews, participants identified the value of receiving oral health support within a community mental health setting, in particular the delivery of basic education, preventive strategies, assistance with making or attending appointments and obtaining priority access to oral health services. Engagement with Community Health Services and referrals generated through the priority access system were identified as key enablers to addressing oral health issues. This study provides new insight into the importance of undertaking an integrated approach to reducing the oral health disparities experienced by those living with mental illness.
Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Pearce, Neil
The health status of indigenous peoples worldwide varies according to their unique historical, political, and social circumstances. Disparities in health between Maoris and non-Maoris have been evident for all of the colonial history of New Zealand. Explanations for these differences involve a complex mix of components associated with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, availability of health care, and discrimination. Improving access to care is critical to addressing health disparities, and increasing evidence suggests that Maoris and non-Maoris differ in terms of access to primary and secondary health care services. We use 2 approaches to health service development to demonstrate how Maori-led initiatives are seeking to improve access to and quality of health care for Maoris. PMID:16507721
Garcia, Carolyn M; Lechner, Kate E; Frerich, Ellen A; Lust, Katherine A; Eisenberg, Marla E
Many emerging adults (18-25 year olds) report unmet health needs and disproportionately experience problems such as sexually transmitted infections. This study was conducted to examine college students' perceptions of health care providers, specifically in the context of accessing sexual health resources. Students (N = 52) were recruited from five diverse colleges in one state to participate in a one-to-one interview that involved walking and virtually exploring resources on and near campus. Interviews were conducted from May to November 2010. Open-ended one-to-one interview questions. Inductive qualitative analysis yielded six themes summarizing students' perceptions of provider characteristics, health care resources, the role of their peers, and students' suggestions for strengthening health care services. Importantly, students consider a variety of staff-and their student peers-to be resources for sexual health information and services. Findings emphasize the importance of collaboration between health service staff and broader campus staff because students often turn to campus staff initially. Postsecondary students welcome opportunities to know a provider through interactive websites that include details about providers on campus; their decisions to seek sexual health care services are influenced by their perceptions of providers' characteristics and interpersonal skills. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Garcia, Carolyn M.; Lechner, Kate E.; Frerich, Ellen A.; Lust, Katherine A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.
Objective Many emerging adults (18–25 year olds) report unmet health needs and disproportionately experience problems such as sexually transmitted infections. This study was conducted to examine college students’ perceptions of health care providers, specifically in the context of accessing sexual health resources. Design and Sample Students (N=52) were recruited from five diverse colleges in one state to participate in a one-to-one interview that involved walking and virtually exploring resources on and near campus. Interviews were conducted from May to November 2010. Results Inductive qualitative analysis yielded six themes summarizing students’ perceptions of provider characteristics, health care resources, the role of their peers, and students’ suggestions for strengthening health care services. Importantly, students consider a variety of staff—and their student peers—to be resources for sexual health information and services. Conclusions Findings emphasize the importance of collaboration between health service staff and broader campus staff because students often turn to campus staff initially. Post-secondary students welcome opportunities to know a provider through interactive websites that include details about providers on campus; their decisions to seek sexual health care services are influenced by their perceptions of providers’ characteristics and interpersonal skills. PMID:25159532
Exploring access to care among older people in the last phase of life using the behavioural model of health services use: a qualitative study from the perspective of the next of kin of older persons who had died in a nursing home.
Condelius, Anna; Andersson, Magdalena
There is little investigation into what care older people access during the last phase of their life and what factors enable access to care in this group. Illuminating this from the perspective of the next of kin may provide valuable insights into how the health and social care system operates with reference to providing care for this vulnerable group. The behavioural model of health services use has a wide field of application but has not been tested conceptually regarding access to care from the perspective of the next of kin. The aim of this study was to explore the care accessed by older people during the last phase of their life from the perspective of the next of kin and to conceptually test the behavioural model of health services use. The data collection took place in 2011 by means of qualitative interviews with 14 next of kin of older people who had died in a nursing home. The interviews were analysed using directed content analysis. The behavioural model of health services use was used in deriving the initial coding scheme, including the categories: utilization of health services, consumer satisfaction and characteristics of the population at risk. Utilization of health services in the last phase of life was described in five subcategories named after the type of care accessed i.e. admission to a nursing home, primary healthcare, hospital care, dental care and informal care. The needs were illuminated in the subcategories: general deterioration, medical conditions and acute illness and deterioration when death approaches. Factors that enabled access to care were described in three subcategories: the organisation of care, next of kin and the older person. These factors could also constitute barriers to accessing care. Next of kin's satisfaction with care was illuminated in the subcategories: satisfaction, dissatisfaction and factors influencing satisfaction. One new category was constructed inductively: the situation of the next of kin. A bed in a nursing
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00081940; Gallas, Elizabeth
Usage of Conditions Data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (e.g.: alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemata (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemata at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of a Java application providing DB access via RESTful services, deployed inside an application server (JBoss WildFly). The services allow navigation over multiple schemata via simple URLs. The data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, via simple clients (like curl or Web browser...
Formica, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration
Usage of Conditions Data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemas (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemas at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of an intermediate java application server (JBoss), where an application delivering access to the DB via RESTful services has been deployed. The services allow navigation over multiple schema content, via simple URLs. The queried data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, vi...
Formica, Andrea; Gallas, E. J.
Usage of condition data in ATLAS is extensive for offline reconstruction and analysis (e.g. alignment, calibration, data quality). The system is based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, with read and write access via an ad hoc C++ API (COOL), a system which was developed before Run 1 data taking began. The infrastructure dictates that the data is organized into separate schemas (assigned to subsystems/groups storing distinct and independent sets of conditions), making it difficult to access information from several schemas at the same time. We have thus created PL/SQL functions containing queries to provide content extraction at multi-schema level. The PL/SQL API has been exposed to external clients by means of a Java application providing DB access via REST services, deployed inside an application server (JBoss WildFly). The services allow navigation over multiple schemas via simple URLs. The data can be retrieved either in XML or JSON formats, via simple clients (like curl or Web browsers).
Suurmond, Jeanine; Rosenmöller, Doenja L; El Mesbahi, Hakima; Lamkaddem, Majda; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
Ethnic minority elderly have a high prevalence of functional limitations and chronic conditions compared to Dutch elderly. However, their use of home care services is low compared to Dutch elderly. Explore the barriers to access to home care services for Turkish, Moroccan Surinamese and ethnic Dutch elderly. Qualitative semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The Netherlands. Seven group interviews (n=50) followed by individual interviews (n=5) were conducted, in the preferred language of the participants. Results were ordered and reported according to a framework of access to health care services. This framework describes five dimensions of accessibility to generate access to health care services, from the perspective of the users: ability to perceive health needs, ability to seek health care, ability to reach, ability to pay and ability to engage. This study shows that while barriers are common among all groups, several specific barriers in access to home care services exist for ethnic minority elderly. Language and communication barriers as well as limited networks and a preference for informal care seem to mutually enforce each other, resulting in many barriers during the navigation process to home care. In order to provide equal access to home care for all who need it, the language and communication barriers should be tackled by home care services and home care nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dirk von Suchodoletz
Full Text Available The changing world of IT services opens the chance to more tightly integrate digital long-term preservation into systems, both for commercial and end users. The emergence of cloud offerings re-centralizes services, and end users interact with them remotely through standardized (web-client applications on their various devices. This offers the chance to use partially the same concepts and methods to access obsolete computer environments and allows for more sustainable business processes. In order to provide a large variety of user-friendly remote emulation services, especially in combination with authentic performance and user experience, a distributed system model and architecture is required, suitable to run as a cloud service, allowing for the specialization both of memory institutions and third party service providers.The shift of the usually non-trivial task of the emulation of obsolete software environments from the end user to specialized providers can help to simplify digital preservation and access strategies. Besides offering their users better access to their holdings, libraries and archives may gain new business opportunities to offer services to a third party, such as businesses requiring authentic reproduction of digital objects and processes for legal reasons. This paper discusses cloud concepts as the next logical step for accessing original digital material. Emulation-as-a-Service (EaaS fills the gap between the successful demonstration of emulation strategies as a long term access strategy and it’s perceived availability and usability. EaaS can build upon the ground of research and prototypical implementations of previous projects, and reuse well established remote access technology.In this article we develop requirements and a system model, suitable for a distributed environment. We will discuss the building blocks of the core services as well as requirements regarding access management. Finally, we will try to present a
Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J
Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.
Full Text Available The flexibility of the MOOC service allows students to learn at their own time, place and pace, enhancing continuous communication and interaction between all participants in knowledge and community building. This model especially benefits people with disabilities, which can improve therefore their level of employability and social inclusion, reaching a better quality of life. Unfortunately the access to MOOC platforms present severe barriers: there is a lack of accessibility on the learning resources, the communicating tools and personalized user interfaces. All these issues add extra difficulties such as the need to develop specific digital or even social skills for students with functional diversity. In this context, MOOCs are leading a revolutionary computer and mobile-based scenario along with social technologies that will emerge new kinds of learning applications that enhance communication and collaboration processes. For that reason, this paper describes the need for designing an information model and related specifications to support a new strategy for delivering accessible MOOC courses to learners with special needs, in terms of their preferences and context of use based on a particular application profile. This user profile’s design is based on standard metadata schemas, data that provides information about other data, regarding the achievement of accessibility from content to user preferences.
Tran, Bach Xuan; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Le Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Latkin, Carl A
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients face unique costs associated with their healthcare expenditures. As such, it is important that these patients have access to health insurance (HI) to help them pay for both routine and unforeseen health services. In this study, we explored factors related to health insurance enrollment and utilization among MMT patients, to move Vietnam closer to universal coverage among this patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1003 patients enrolled in MMT in five clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh provinces. Patients were asked a range of questions about their health, health expenditures, and health insurance access and utilization. We used multivariate logistic regressions to determine factors associated with health insurance access among participants. The majority of participants (nearly 80%) were not currently enrolled in health insurance at the time of the study. Participants from rural regions were significantly more likely than urban participants to report difficulty using HI. Family members of participants from rural regions were more likely to have overall poor service quality through health insurance compared with family members of participants from urban regions. Overall, 37% of participants endorsed a lack of information about HI, nearly 22% of participants reported difficulty accessing HI, 22% reported difficulty using HI, and more than 20% stated they had trouble paying for HI. Older, more highly educated, and employed participants were more likely to have an easier time accessing HI than their younger, less well educated, and unemployed counterparts. HIV-positive participants were more likely to have sufficient information about health insurance options. Our study highlights the dearth of health insurance utilization among MMT patients in northern Vietnam. It also sheds light on factors associated with increased access to and utilization of health insurance among this underserved population. These
Brierley, Charlotte K; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon
Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease.
Leone, James E; Rovito, Michael J; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Mohammed, Shan D; Lee, Christina S
Epidemiologic data suggest men often experience excessive morbidity and early mortality, possibly compromising family and community health over the lifespan. Moreover, the negative financial/economic consequences affected by poor male health outcomes also has been of great concern in the United States and abroad. Early and consistent access to preventative health care may improve health outcomes; however, men are far less likely to access these services. The purpose of this study was to understand what factors preclude men from accessing health care. We surveyed 485 participants using a 58-item online survey built from a conceptual model previously developed by the researchers using hegemonic masculinity theory, the theory of normative contentment, and the health belief model. For men, three items significantly ( ps masculine ideals may play a primary role in how men access preventative health care. Future programming targeting males should consider barriers and plan programs that are gender-sensitive in addition to being gender-specific. Clinical implications are discussed.