WorldWideScience

Sample records for health sector development

  1. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, A A; Pond, K

    2008-08-19

    Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors.

  3. Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cronin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors.

  4. Mobility and health sector development in China and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Jennifer; Levitt, Peggy; Fang, Jing; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2015-04-01

    China and India are both attempting to create comprehensive healthcare systems in the context of rapid but uneven economic growth and rapidly changing burdens of disease. While in each country the referencing of international policies and work experience abroad have been part of this process, research has yet to examine the kind of knowledge that is exchanged or the various actors involved in knowledge circulation. Based on a study of two sub-national contexts, this article focuses on the role Chinese and Indian health professionals who have studied and worked overseas play in introducing ideas and practices about healthcare provision and health education. We found that experience abroad influenced individuals, institutions, and each society differently and with some contradictory effects. International experience clearly contributed to personal growth and led individuals to support the adoption of new institutional practices, such as more egalitarian relations between doctors and patients and between students and teachers. However, the content of what individuals learned overseas and the mechanisms through which this knowledge was introduced back into homeland settings often reinforced rather than ameliorated institutional hierarchies and social inequalities. While the scope of this research was limited, we suggest that more explicit analysis of the role professional migrants play in transferring ideas and practices within the health sector would be valuable for policymakers and funders seeking to support a more productive interaction between local and global knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE HEALTH SECTOR OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliia Savchuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at deepening the theoretical foundations of the development of the health sector in the conditions of realization of the strategy of sustainable development of the state. Summarizes the notional and terminological apparatus of the modern economic science of health. Clarified categories “human health”, “public health”, “health”, “healthcare”, “health”, “development”, “sustainable development”. Introduced the concept of “sustainable development of the health sector”. The article generalises theoretical approaches to understanding issues in health care. Key words: health, human health, sustainable development, services.

  6. Foreign direct investment in the health care sector and most-favoured locations in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outreville, J François

    2007-12-01

    Given the growing importance of the health care sector and the significant development of trade in health services, foreign direct investment (FDI) in this sector has gathered momentum with the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Despite extensive case based research and publications in recent years on health care markets and the rise of private sectors, it is surprisingly difficult to find evidence on the relative importance of the largest multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the health care sector. The objective of the paper is to identify some of the determinants of foreign investment of the largest MNCs operating in this industry. The list of the largest MNCs has been compiled using company websites and data is available for 41 developing economies for which at least two MNCs have an office (branch and/or affiliate). The results of this study have some important implications. They indicate that location-specific advantages of host countries, including good governance, do provide an explication of the internationalization of firms in some developing countries rather than others.

  7. [Plansalud: Decentralized and agreed sector plan for the capacity development in health, Peru 2010-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán-Angulo, Lizardo; Liendo-Lucano, Lindaura; Nuñez-Vergara, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Human resources are the backbone of health sector actions; however, they are not necessarily the area with the greatest attention, therefore, the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA) together with regional governments, led the Decentralized and Agreed Sector Plan for the Capacity Development in Health 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD) with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Human Resources for Health (HRH) and contribute to health care efficient development, quality, relevance, equity and multiculturalism, in the context of descentralization, the Universal Health Insurance (AUS) and health policies. To achieve this goal, they have proposed three components (technical assistance, joint training and education - health articulation) that bring together an important set of interventions, which are planned and defined according to the national, regional and local levels, thus contributing to improve the government capacity, capability management and delivery of health services. This paper presents a first approach of PLANSALUD, including aspects related to planning, management, financing, structure and functioning, as well as monitoring and evaluation measures.

  8. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  9. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  10. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  11. How the health and community development sectors are combining forces to improve health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Sandra; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2011-11-01

    The root causes of poor health experienced by many who live in low-income neighborhoods-such as the lack of access to health care, limited food choices, and exposure to environmental hazards-are well documented, but often go beyond the scope of the health care delivery system. But that is beginning to change. The health sector has begun to collaborate with the community development sector, which for decades has been working in low-income neighborhoods. Encouraging local and national examples of these new partnerships abound. They include an effort in Seattle, Washington, to reduce exposure to allergens and irritants among low-income asthmatic children, and a $500 million federal program to finance the operation of grocery stores in what have previously been urban "food deserts." To nurture such efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Federal Reserve System, and others have sponsored a series of "healthy community" forums in US cities. In this article we explore the growing partnerships between the health and community development sectors as well as the challenges they face, and we offer policy recommendations that might help them succeed.

  12. Sectoral system capacity development in health promotion: evaluation of an Aboriginal nutrition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genat, Bill; Browne, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sharon; MacDonald, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed The study examined effective ways to build the capacity of health organisations and professionals in the public health sector to reduce Aboriginal chronic disease risk factors. It investigated the capacity-building strategies of the Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) nutrition team in the facilitation of the statewide implementation of the Victorian Aboriginal Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategy 2009-2014 (VANPAS). Methods Using a qualitative design, the study analysed the VACCHO program from 2009-2014 across five domains of capacity development: workforce, resources, organisations, partnerships and leadership. Data were sourced from archival program documents and 62 semi-structured participant interviews. Results Diverse Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal professional, organisation representatives and community participants engaged in the implementation of the VANPAS. The VACCHO team used the VANPAS to solidify participant buy-in, strengthen workforce effectiveness, increase health promotion and resource appropriateness, improve organisational policy and build an evidence-base through collaborative dialogue using action-reflection principles. Conclusion A credible, high-profile Aboriginal community led and evidence-based statewide program and a commitment to dialogue through action-reflection provided a meaningful basis for both Aboriginal community and mainstream organisational engagement. Upon this foundation, the VACCHO team built a coherent sectoral system with increased capacity to enhance the nutrition of Aboriginal Victorians. So what? In an historical context of mistrust and unmet expectations, program implementation methods that build confidence amongst collaborating Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health agencies is fundamental to building capacity to enhance Aboriginal nutrition and health.

  13. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Hass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation - although more expensive than the current standard of care - improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector.

  14. The development of methodological tools to assess the health sector with the resulting standardized index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansuvarova Evgenia Adolfovna

    2016-10-01

    The proposed assessment methodology resulting standardized health index in the various countries of the world allows you to define the country implementing an effective management strategy in the health sector. The leading positions belong to the countries where the state health policy has shown its greatest efficiency. This technique can be used not only for point scoring result of a standardized health index in the world, but also to assess in a particular country.

  15. Developing and testing an instrument for identifying performance incentives in the Greek health care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologou Victoria

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the era of cost containment, managers are constantly pursuing increased organizational performance and productivity by aiming at the obvious target, i.e. the workforce. The health care sector, in which production processes are more complicated compared to other industries, is not an exception. In light of recent legislation in Greece in which efficiency improvement and achievement of specific performance targets are identified as undisputable health system goals, the purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for investigating the attitudes of Greek physicians, nurses and administrative personnel towards job-related aspects, and the extent to which these motivate them to improve performance and increase productivity. Methods A methodological exploratory design was employed in three phases: a content development and assessment, which resulted in a 28-item instrument, b pilot testing (N = 74 and c field testing (N = 353. Internal consistency reliability was tested via Cronbach's alpha coefficient and factor analysis was used to identify the underlying constructs. Tests of scaling assumptions, according to the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, were used to confirm the hypothesized component structure. Results Four components, referring to intrinsic individual needs and external job-related aspects, were revealed and explain 59.61% of the variability. They were subsequently labeled: job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievement. Nine items not meeting item-scale criteria were removed, resulting in a 19-item instrument. Scale reliability ranged from 0.782 to 0.901 and internal item consistency and discriminant validity criteria were satisfied. Conclusion Overall, the instrument appears to be a promising tool for hospital administrations in their attempt to identify job-related factors, which motivate their employees. The psychometric properties were good and warrant administration to a larger

  16. Sector-wide or disease-specific? Implications of trends in development assistance for health for the SDG era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffardi, Anne L

    2018-01-16

    The record of the Millennium Development Goals broadly reflects the trade-offs of disease-specific financing: substantial progress in particular areas, facilitated by time-bound targets that are easy to measure and communicate, which shifted attention and resources away from other areas, masked inequalities and exacerbated fragmentation. In many ways, the Sustainable Development Goals reflect a profound shift towards a more holistic, system-wide approach. To inform responses to this shift, this article builds upon existing work on aggregate trends in donor financing, bringing together what have largely been disparate analyses of sector-wide and disease-specific financing approaches. Looking across the last 26 years, the article examines how international donors have allocated development assistance for health (DAH) between these two approaches and how attempts to bridge them have fared in practice. Since 1990, DAH has overwhelmingly favoured disease-specific earmarks over health sector support, with the latter peaking in 1998. Attempts to integrate system strengthening elements into disease-specific funding mechanisms have varied by disease, and more integrated funding platforms have failed to gain traction. Health sector support largely remains an unfulfilled promise: proportionately low amounts (albeit absolute increases) which have been inconsistently allocated, and the overall approach inconsistently applied in practice. Thus, the expansive orientation of the Sustainable Development Goals runs counter to trends over the last several decades. Financing proposals and efforts to adapt global health institutions must acknowledge and account for the persistent challenges in the financing and implementation of integrated, cross-sector policies. National and subnational experimentation may offer alternatives within and beyond the health sector. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  17. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation.

  18. health sector in Malawi?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the 'brain drain' of medical doctors and nurses from ... tic demand. The reasons for such lack of human resources include; inadequate numbers of young people taking up the health professions as a career, the growing demand of health care from the .... veyed districts in order to set baseline for future monitoring of.

  19. Do multi-sectoral development programmes affect health? A Bolivian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, F; Dearden, K; Jimenez, W

    1999-12-01

    This cross-sectional study, carried out in Inquisivi, Bolivia, a rural area where Save the Children/US works, tests the hypothesis that participation in multisectoral development programmes results in improved health behaviours and better health outcomes. To test this hypothesis, four groups of households were compared: those participating in Save the Children's health-only programmes; those with access to health and micro-enterprise credit or health and literacy programmes; those participating in all three programmes (health, credit and literacy); and households from comparison communities (no access to any of Save the Children's programmes). Data come from a stratified sample of 499 households in the altiplano, foothills and valleys of the Andes. Findings reported here suggest that there is no clear association between participation in one or more of Save the Children's programmes and parents' actions to prevent and treat diarrhoea. Additionally, the point prevalence of diarrhoea was similar for all four groups. However, children of individuals participating in health, credit and literacy were significantly less likely than children from comparison communities to be malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished, even after controlling for such potentially confounding factors as social class, source of drinking water, and the availability of health facilities.

  20. [Health care systems and aspects of health care economics. Sector ophthalmology - part 1: development of the German health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, T; Kohnen, T

    2010-11-01

    Although many health care reforms have been enacted in the last few years in Germany, many of the key points in the current social health care system have been retained from former times. All those introductions for an effective health care system from the last 150 years beginning with mandatory guild membership via Bismarck's social laws to the modern health care systems in Germany with the current problems of financing the heavy burden in the German budget are reported. Data and facts on the current health care system are provided. In the following two articles of this series ambulatory and inpatient treatment in the light of economic aspects of health care are reported.

  1. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  2. Development of evidence based practice in academic service partnerships: Experiences of working life representatives from social and health care sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2017-03-01

    Learning about how to develop and lead the implementation of evidence based practice (EBP) in services is an important part of the education of developers and managers for the social and health care sectors. In order to develop this teaching and to support the development of EBP in services, a Teaching Development Effort (TDE) was conducted by establishing academic service partnerships (ASPs) and connecting Master's students' assignments with them. The TDE was conducted as a part of a larger project whose main aims were to strengthen, develop and renew transfers of knowledge and competence between higher education institutions and workplaces, and to strive for a more multidisciplinary quality in workplace innovations. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of working life representatives regarding the development of EBP in ASPs within the social and health care sectors. The data were collected by email interviews. Eight working life representatives' participated in the study. The informants were asked to describe the usefulness of the plan that had been prepared by the students regarding the implementation of EBP, and to describe the significance of this ASP for the development of working life. A qualitative content analysis method was used when analyzing the data. Virtually all the informants stated that the plan prepared by the students, for the implementation of EBP, was entirely ready to be taken into use in the form they had finished it. The significance of the ASP was described in terms of the ASP assisting in improving the quality of the service. Furthermore, the workplace-based student assignment topics, external views to support the development of EBP, and the theoretical approach used by the students were valuable. The ASP provided opportunities for the practitioners to learn new things, inspiration to look to the future, and assistance in the implementation of time management practices. ASPs have potential to support EBP in

  3. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  4. Resource allocation in Pakistan's health sector: a critical appraisal and a path toward the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ejaz, Irum; Mazhar, Arslan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is trying hard to sustain its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. However, because of a lack of political commitment to innovative solutions to improve its financing mechanism, the health system is unable to provide even essential and basic services to the people. The country, with more than 70% of the population living on less than two US dollars a day, largely depends on direct taxes for its revenue. Because of inadequate financing, the quality of government services is inexcusably poor; therefore, a majority of people seek healthcare in the private sector. This has led to a horde of issues pertaining to equity, accessibility and fairness. High out-of-pocket expenses on health jeopardize a family's livelihood, pushing it into a vicious circle of poverty. In the wake of recent devolution, this paper presents options for future health financing that enables the provinces to exert their autonomy to safeguard the health of the most vulnerable in the country. Our recommendations follow the vision of the World Health Organization and the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, to achieve universal health coverage and social protection for the poor. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion

  6. Providers' perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O; Flores, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion agencies and the private health sector seeking

  7. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Johnston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public

  8. Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Literature on the impact of health sector reform (HSR) on motivation of healthcare workers (HWs) and performance in health service provision in developing countries is still limited. Objective: To describe the impact of HSR on HW motivation and performance in providing quality health care in Tanzania.

  9. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (GEM), rates of entrepreneurship are generally much higher in developing countries than in advanced economies. — reaching as high as 41% in Zambia. Small businesses can be an important vehicle for advancement, but many spring from need rather than opportu- nity.

  10. Developing Military Health Care Leaders: Insights from the Military, Civilian, and Government Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional Competency Model for Healthcare Leadership,” Journal of Healthcare Management, Vol. 53, No. 6, November–December 2008, pp. 375–391. 248...CurrentFactSheet1.pdf Ibrahim, Said, “The Veterans Health Administration: A Domestic Model for a National Health Care System?” American Journal of Public Health, Vol...of the Veterans Affairs Health Care System on Quality of Care ,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 348, No. 22, May 29, 2003, pp. 2218–2227. JMESI

  11. Developing antiviral surgical gown using nonwoven fabrics for health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, V; Thilagavathi, G

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare workers' uniforms including surgical gowns are used as barriers to eliminate the risk of infection for both doctor and patient. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses in the patient population is very common. To develop antiviral surgical gown comprising of Polypropylene nonwoven as outer layer, Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) film as middle layer and polyester nonwoven as inner layer and the surgical gown with a basic weight of 70 g/m(2). The titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano dispersion was prepared with methylene blue and urea as a reacting medium. These nano particles have an average size of 9 nm which was revealed by High resolution transmission electron microscope. The nonwoven fabric pore size was characterised by using digital image analyzer. The polypropylene nonwoven fabrics were treated with nano dispersion by pad-dry-cure method and trilaminate fabric was formed using fusing machine. The presence of nano particle on the surface of the non woven fabric was confirmed by Scanning Electron microscope. The trilaminate surgical gown has passed ASTM 1671 viral penetration test which is mandatory for healthcare facilities. The average pore size of inner, middle and outer layer were found as 0.187, 0.4 and 0.147 micron respectively. The tensile strength of the trilaminate fabric in both machine and cross direction was 145 N and 94 N respectively. The tearing strength of the trilaminate fabric in direction I and II was 10 N and 4 N respectively. The hydrostatic and index puncture resistance of the trilaminate fabric was 2930 mmwc and 58.8 N respectively. The moisture vapour permeability of the fabric was exhibited as 585.7 g/m(2)/day. The surgical gown exhibits antiviral property which can protect the health care people from human immunodeficiency virus.

  12. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlein Karen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1 Self-reported program data; 2 Scoping telephone interviews; and 3 In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance

  13. IDRC on Private Sector Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    trade, and commerce as engines of economic growth. From its own practical support for private sector development, IDRC has learned that two kinds of assistance can pay dividends: improving the business environment, and stimulating innovation. If donor agencies work to enhance the general environment for business —.

  14. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  15. Monopolistic competition and the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, P

    1991-07-01

    The model of monopolistic competition is appropriate for describing the behavior of the health care sector in the United States. Uncertainty about quality of medical and related services promotes product differentiation especially when consumers do not bear the full costs of care. New technologies can be used to signal quality even when their clinical usefulness is unproven. Recent cost containment measures may reduce employment of ineffective technologies but may also inhibit the adaptation of genuinely useful developments.

  16. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution.

  17. Role of GIS in social sector planning: can developing countries benefit from the examples of primary health care (PHC) planning in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, Mohammad; Lodhi, Bilal Khan

    2012-04-01

    Social sector planning requires rational approaches where community needs are identified by referring to relative deprivation among localities and resources are allocated to address inequalities. Geographical information system (GIS) has been widely argued and used as a base for rational planning for equal resource allocation in social sectors around the globe. Devolution of primary health care is global strategy that needs pains taking efforts to implement it. GIS is one of the most important tools used around the world in decentralization process of primary health care. This paper examines the scope of GIS in social sector planning by concentration on primary health care delivery system in Pakistan. The work is based on example of the UK's decentralization process and further evidence from US. This paper argues that to achieve benefits of well informed decision making to meet the communities' needs GIS is an essential tool to support social sector planning and can be used without any difficulty in any environment. There is increasing trend in the use of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Pakistan with ample internet connectivity which provides well established infrastructure in Pakistan to implement GIS for health care, however there is need for change in attitude towards empowering localities especially with reference to decentralization of decision making. This paper provides GIS as a tool for primary health care planning in Pakistan as a starting point in defining localities and preparing locality profiles for need identification that could help developing countries in implementing the change.

  18. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agriculture and Health Sectors Collaborate in Addressing Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Boren, Jon; Koukel, Sonja; Ronquillo, Francisco; Davies, Cindy; Nkouaga, Carolina

    2017-09-01

    Population health is of growing importance in the changing health care environment. The Cooperative Extension Service, housed in each state's land grant university, has a major impact on population health through its many community-based efforts, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - Education (SNAP-Ed) nutrition programs, 4-H youth engagement, health and wellness education, and community development. Can the agricultural and health sectors, which usually operate in parallel, mostly unknown to each other, collaborate to address population health? We set out to provide an overview of the collaboration between the Cooperative Extension Service and the health sector in various states and describe a case study of 1 model as it developed in New Mexico. We conducted a literature review and personally contacted states in which the Cooperative Extension Service is collaborating on a "Health Extension" model with academic health centers or their health systems. We surveyed 6 states in which Health Extension models are being piloted as to their different approaches. For a case study of collaboration in New Mexico, we drew on interviews with the leadership of New Mexico State University's Cooperative Extension Service in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences; the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Science Center's Office for Community Health; and the personal experiences of frontline Cooperative Extension agents and UNM Health Extension officers who collaborated on community projects. A growing number of states are linking the agricultural Cooperative Extension Service with academic health centers and with the health care system. In New Mexico, the UNM academic health center has created "Health Extension Rural Offices" based on principles of the Cooperative Extension model. Today, these 2 systems are working collaboratively to address unmet population health needs in their communities. Nationally, the Cooperative Extension

  20. Prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: Pathways to integrated, inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, John C; Ehrenberg, John P; Ault, Steven K; Rojas, Rocio; Vasquez, Javier; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Genovese, Miguel A; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2007-01-01

    Background In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves. Discussion As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development. Summary The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a renewed effort toward the

  1. Private sector development | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... From its own practical support for private sector development, IDRC has learned that two kinds of assistance can pay dividends: improving the business environment, and stimulating innovation. If donor agencies work to enhance the general environment for business — for example, by pressing for reforms ...

  2. Leading sector development in Muaro Jambi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve economic development and economic growth of Muaro Jambi Regency is a must. Efforts to increase economic development and economic growth can occur, if local governments are able to determine or identify priority sectors or become a base sector. Given the importance of determining and defining the right and correct strategy in the development of leading economic sectors/bases, it is necessary to conduct further study related to the development of leading sector policy in Muaro Jambi Regency. Analysis tools that are used are LQ (Location Quotient and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis found that of there are three sectors that are the main sector or base in Muaro Jambi Regency, namely agriculture, livestock, plantation, fishery and forestry sector, mining and quarrying sector and manufacturing industry sector. Strategies that can be done in order to maintain and develop the sector and sub-sectors/recommended base there are several alternative strategies that combine internal environmental conditions and external environment Muaro Jambi Regency is S - O (power against opportunities, S - T (power against threats W - O (weakness to opportunity and W - T (weakness to threat. Keywords: Location Quotient, SWOT Analysis, Base Sector

  3. Developing cross-sectoral quality assurance for cataract surgery in the statutory quality assurance program of the German health care system: Experiences and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Anke; Pauletzki, Jürgen; Behrenz, Lars; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Willms, Gerald; Broge, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Since 2001, statutory external quality assurance (QA) for hospital care has been in place in the German health system. In 2009, the decision was taken to expand it to cross-sectoral procedures. This novel and unprecedented form of national QA aims at (1) making the quality procedures comparable that are provided both in inpatient and outpatient care, (2) following-up outcomes of hospital care after patients' discharge and (3) measuring the quality of complex treatment chains across interfaces. As a pioneer procedure a QA procedure in cataract surgery QA was developed. Using this as an example, challenges of cross-sectoral QA are highlighted. These challenges relate, in particular, to three technical problems: triggering cases for documentation, following-up patients' after hospital discharge, and the burden of documentation in outpatient care. These problems resulted finally in the haltering of the development of the QA procedure. However, the experiences gained with this first development of cross-sectoral QA inspired the reorientation and further development of the field in Germany. Future cross-sectoral QA will rigorously aim at keeping burden of documentation small. It will draw data for QA mainly at three sources: routine data, patient surveys and peer reviews using indicators. Policy implications of this reorientation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational Health Stress in the Service Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fozia Malik; Shaan Shahabuddin

    2015-01-01

      The basic purpose of the current study was to explore the occupational health stress reasons, consequences, and job outcomes in the service sector as well as to suggest stress management techniques to overcome stress...

  5. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  6. Working in the health sector: implementation of workplace health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Castro S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to discuss issues that are relevant to the implementation of workplace health promotion (whp in organization processes of the health sector as a strategic tool to manage health and safety at the workplace. Methods: after a conceptual review of whp in 2009, a qualitative case study on the development of this strategy in third level hospitals of Bogotá was carried out. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Nursing at the National University of Colombia. Results: although there are occupational health programs that convey the spirit of whp in their content, its level of development is not consistently linked to it. The following criteria were analyzed: strategy and commitment, human resources and organization, social responsibility, planning, and development and results, all of which were not well valued by workers. Final considerations: the traditional approach to occupational health and the poor integration of the WHP principles into organizational processes are reflected in the actions taken and the expectations regarding the subject. Therefore, actions should be taken in terms of public policies to strengthen the institutional capacity to ensure the feasibility of whp in the health sector.

  7. Creating Fiscal Space for Social Sectors Development in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...

  8. editorial harmony in nigerian health sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HENRY

    Everyone in a team is important and how well one does his work is crucial to the overall success of the team. There should be mutual respect for each member of the health team. No one should want any right that he is not ready to also fulfil its inalienable responsibility. Finally, the health sector is supposed to be where ...

  9. Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2017-03-20

    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagement with other sectors to secure integration. This continuum ranges from institutional (re)design to value-based narratives. Depending on the lens applied, different elements can be identified within the continuum. This review is built on insights from political science, leadership studies, public health, empirical Health in All Policy research, knowledge and evidence nexus approaches, and community perspectives. Successful integration of health governance, policy, and action depends on integration of the elements on the continuum.

  10. Safeguarding the Health Sector in Times of Macroeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will be of interest to academics, researchers, and students studying or active in health sciences and international development studies; professionals and practitioners in donor organizations, development organizations, and NGOs worldwide; and policy advisors and decision-makers in the health-care sector.

  11. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lois organized a number of regional consultations on the private sector policy needs of MENA countries, led a project to carry out Global Entrepreneurship .... Conflict and political instability would have made it difficult for country visits to Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and the West Bank & Gaza for safety and security reasons.

  12. [Competitiveness among health and the health sector. A new look at the health economics paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Héctor, Arreola-Ornelas; Escandón, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Health and the health sector have a direct impact on economic growth and competitiveness. Moreover, the health sector is experiencing increasingly strong links with the economy, which reinforces the key role that health plays in the development of individuals and economies. On the one hand, in addition to its intrinsic value health constitutes an important economic good because it contributes to increasing the capacity of individuals and nations to achieve greater levels of human, economic and social development. In addition, there is a direct relationship between health as a productive sector and the economy that will become more important as world health expenditure increases and because of recent advances in the productivity of the medical sector and the technology used in providing health services. For these reasons, a better understanding of the complex relationship between health, the health sector and economic development will help to increase competitiveness and attain higher levels of growth by enabling a more efficient health system that is in turn based on a solid, fair, equitable and sufficient financial base.

  13. Implementing TQM in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, J; Sower, V E; Brashier, L W

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the issue of implementing TQM/CQI programs in the health care industry by grouping the prescriptive literature into four research streams. Based on the literature, a strategic programming model for implementing TQM/CQI in the health care industry is suggested. Finally, issues relating to TQM in the health care sector, which need to be addressed within each research stream in the future, are provided.

  14. Transferring health and family planning service innovations to the public sector: an experiment in organization development in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J F; Simmons, R; Simmons, G B; Yunus, M

    1984-01-01

    The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, has launched a field experiment in two rural thanas of Bangladesh to test the transferability of its successful health and family planning experiment in Matlab to the Ministry of Health and Population Control service system. This paper reviews the Matlab experiment with particular attention to its organization and identifies elements for transfer. The intervention strategy and operations research design of the new experiment are discussed. The proposed design follows an organization development strategy in which collaborative diagnostic research is used to foster institutional change.

  15. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynaud Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs. It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  16. Real Estate Market Developments and Financal Sector Soundness

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Louis Ceriel Hilbers; Lisbeth S Zacho; Qin Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the characteristics and functioning of real estate markets. It focuses on the relationship between developments in these markets and the financial sector to determine under what circumstances real estate booms and busts can develop and how they can affect the health and stability of the financial system. It concludes that unbalanced real estate price developments often contribute to financial sector distress and that trends in real estate markets should be monitored closel...

  17. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy Research on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. The Palestinian Authority aims to turn the economy away from its dependence on the public sector toward a diversified free market economy. Small businesses, which make up more that 90% of the total ...

  18. HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing malnutrition-related maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa requires a systematic and coordinated strategy. This paper discusses a health sector strategy which includes: i) advocating for action in nutrition at all levels; ii) integration of the essential nutrition actions into six key contact points ...

  19. Implications of the global financial crisis for the response to diseases of poverty within overall health sector development: the case of tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maher, Dermot

    .... HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Exploring the implications of the global financial crisis for the health sector response to tuberculosis is useful to illustrate the practical problems and propose possible solutions...

  20. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    The governance of construction sector development constitutes an important policy issue in many European countries due to the increasing impact that construction as well as the built environment have on gross domestic product and the environment. Previous studies have discussed how national...... activities may be governed. Based on a case study of the sector development activities in the Danish construction industry, this paper argues that governance strategies should not necessarily be designed to ensure the development of a single industrial conceptualization. First, drawing on concepts from...... composed of multiple incommensurable sector representations, then the most productive governance response may be to recognize and accept their conflicting strategic implications....

  1. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  2. Rethinking health sector procurement as developmental linkages in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Tibandebage, Paula; Karimi Njeru, Mercy; Kariuki Kungu, Joan; Israel, Caroline; Mujinja, Phares G M

    2018-01-31

    Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy. This article uses fieldwork in Tanzania and Kenya in 2012-15 to analyse procurement of essential medicines and supplies as a governance process for the health system and its industrial links, drawing on aspects of global value chain theory. We describe procurement work processes as experienced by front line staff in public, faith-based and private sectors, linking these experiences to wholesale funding sources and purchasing practices, and examining their implications for medicines access and for local industrial development within these East African countries. We show that in a context of poor access to reliable medicines, extensive reliance on private medicines purchase, and increasing globalisation of procurement systems, domestic linkages between health and industrial sectors have been weakened, especially in Tanzania. We argue in consequence for a more developmental perspective on health sector procurement design, including closer policy attention to strengthening vertical and horizontal relational working within local health-industry value chains, in the interests of both wider access to treatment and improved industrial development in Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Financial sector support for small business development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relationships between the financial sector and small businesses, and the small business policy framework in South Africa. The study also measures the perception of the Business Chambers and Commercial Banks on the effectiveness of financial sector support to small businesses in the Gauteng area through a questionnaire. The Small Business Development Policy of 1996 outlines the functions of various small business support institutions such as Ntsika Enterprise Promotion A...

  4. Health sector reforms: implications for reproductive health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health sector reforms emerged as a major focus in the 1990s covering a wide range of structural and institutional changes. The components of ... The approach of “basket funding” should be continued to ensure quality monitoring and evaluation of the health system in general and assuring the quality of health related data.

  5. Nepal health sector decentralization in limbo: what are the bottlenecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, G

    2011-06-01

    Nepal's efforts to decentralize its governance date back to over half a century. These efforts remained incomplete due to different reasons including administrative responses and political development affecting its implementation. The Local Self Governance Act (LSGA), 1999 envisaged, for the first time, to decentralize governance in the health sector through devolution of responsibilities, authority and resources to the local bodies. However, the pace of health sector decentralization in Nepal even after the LSGA was enacted has not progressed satisfactorily due to different reasons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss why health sector decentralization in Nepal has not advanced as expected. This paper identifies many issues--policy related, political, functional, and institutional--as stumbling blocks for health sector decentralization of Nepal. More specifically, the major bottlenecks for progress are lack of a clear cut policy, poor coordination among different sectors, improper handover process, lack of elected bodies, poor selection process of management committees, lack of coherence in the capacity building process of local bodies, ongoing debate about state restructuring including federalism and different political ideologies on decentralization.

  6. health sector reform in sub-saharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multi-sectoral team of participants from each country was ..... (ii) In order to facilitate a better organisation and (iii) In order to enhance the provision of quality ..... projects. The Development and Implementation of Health SWAps in the Region '. From the country reports presented at the three inter- country meetings on the ...

  7. Development of a framework towards successful implementation of e-governance initiatives in health sector in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subhasis; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the route map for employing efficient e-governance so that at least existing resource and infrastructure are better utilized and deficiencies are tracked for future planning. National health is one of the most important factors in a country's economic growth. India seems to be a victim of the vicious cycle around poor economy and poor health conditions. A detailed study was carried out to find out India's healthcare infrastructure and its standing in e-governance initiatives. After consolidating the fact that effective e-governance can enhance the quality of healthcare service even within limited resources, authors explored success and failure factors of many e-governance initiatives in India and abroad. Finally, an e-governance framework is suggested based on the above factors together with the authors' own experience of implementing e-governance projects in India and abroad. The suggested framework is based on a phased implementation approach. The first phase "Information Dissemination" is more geared towards breaking the "digital divide" across three dimensions: G2Business; G2Citizen; and G2Agent. The most advanced stage is aimed towards joining up healthcare information across the above three dimensions and drawing meaningful analytics out of it. The recommendations also include management of Policies, Scope, Process Reform, Infrastructure, Technology, Finance, Partnership and People for efficient implementation of such e-governance initiatives. The paper provides measures for continuous evaluation of systems as one passes through various stages of implementation. However, the framework can be tested on real or simulated environment to prove its worthiness. This paper can be a potential frame of reference for nation-wide e-healthcare projects not only in India but also in other developing countries. The paper also describes challenges that are most likely to be faced during implementation. Since the paper is practical in

  8. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using climate information in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ghebreyesus

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infectious and chronic diseases are either directly or indirectly sensitive to the climate. Managing this climate sensitivity more effectively requires new working relationships between the health sector and the providers of climate data and information. In Africa, where communities are particularly vulnerable, Ministries of Health and National Meteorological Services need to collaborate to reduce the burden of climate related ill health. The Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia have made significant progress towards the development of a climate-informed early warning and response system for diseases such as malaria and other climate-sensitive diseases. An important enabling mechanism is a Climate and Health Working Group, which is a multi-sectoral partnership created to spearhead the use of climate information for health interventions. While this is a work in progress, the key ingredients necessary to sustain such a joint venture are described to encourage similar activities in other countries faced with a growing climate-sensitive disease burden, to facilitate networking and to increase the return from the investment.De nombreuses infections et maladies chroniques sont sensibles, directement ou indirectement, au climat. Une gestion plus efficace de cette sensibilité au climat passe par l’instauration d’une coopération entre le secteur de la santé et les fournisseurs de données et d’informations sur le climat. En Afrique, où les communautés sont particulièrement vulnérables, le ministère de la Santé et les Services de météorologie nationale doivent collaborer pour réduire le fardeau des maladies liées au climat.Le ministère de la Santé et l’Agence de météorologie nationale d’Ethiopie ont fait des progrès considérables dans le développement d’un système d’alerte et de réponse précoces basé sur les informations climatiques pour des maladies comme le paludisme et d

  10. Competence Development in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the popular concept of Competence Development as constructed of at least three different discourses (Life Long Learning, New Public Management and professionalisation) and discusses the relations between the transformations of the public sectors in Scandinavian Welfare States......, Competence Development and Professionalisation/Deprofessionalisation among the public employees....

  11. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges of the Devolved Health Sector in Kenya: Teething ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health sector was the largest service sector to be devolved under this new governance arrangement. The rationale for devolving the sector was to allow the county governments to design innovative models and interventions that suited the unique health needs in their contexts, encourage effective citizen participation ...

  13. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    This paper examines initiatives formulated by the government of Cameroon to promote sustainable development within its forestry sector, and proffers a series of policy recommendations for advancing sustainable forest management in Cameroon. Since the enactment of Cameroon's comprehensive forestry law (Law N0.

  14. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will co-finance NEPRU's research program on Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development. This will enable NEPRU to add value to projects funded by clients through applied policy-oriented research, and at the same time strengthen its position as the leading economic policy research institute in ...

  15. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health for Cambodian Entertainment Sector Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lee-Nah; Howard, Richard; Torriente, Anna Maria; Por, Chuong

    2016-08-01

    Cambodia has developed booming textile, garment, tourism, and entertainment service industries since the mid-1990s. The 2007 global financial crisis pushed many garment workers, who lost their jobs, into the entertainment sector. Entertainment workers are typically engaged informally by their employers and are subjected to long working hours, sexual harassment, and violence. Many who sell beverages are forced into excessive alcohol consumption as part of their work. Many are also expected by their employers and clients to provide sexual services. To address unsafe and unhealthy working conditions for these workers, an innovative occupational safety and health regulation was adopted in 2014. This first-of-its-kind occupational safety and health regulation was developed jointly by the Cambodian Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and employers' and workers' organizations in the entertainment sector. The implementation of this regulation can also be a viable contribution of occupational safety and health to HIV interventions for these workers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Leadership and Project Success in Development Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The study aims to investigate the relationship among the leadership, operational efficiency and project success in general and the impact of transformational leadership and operational efficiency on project success in particular. Design/methodology/approach - Mean comparison from descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression from inferential statistics was used to determine the association between variables and further impact of the transformational leadership and operational efficiency on project success in the development sector. The paper presents the results of a survey conducted among 200 employees from the top, middle & lower management levels of various national & international development organizations working in Pakistan like Microfinance Banks and other Rural Support Programs. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS was used to process data. Findings - The result shows positive association among transformational leadership, operational efficiency and project success. In addition, it was found that transformational leadership and operational efficiency have a positive and statistically significant impact on the project success. It is concluded that both transformational leadership and operational efficiency are vital to achieving the optimum level of success in any project, especially in the development sector. Research implications/limitations - The integral limitation of the study was the respondents because most of the development organizations have their operations in rural areas where access was difficult because of limited time and resources. In addition, such organizations are always reluctant to provide survey feedback. Originality/value/contribution - The paper contribution is in the theoretical and practical knowledge of the project success factors in the development sector which is still a somehow unexplored area. Regulators of the development sector may be benefited from this study.

  17. The Diffusion of Health Technology, Labor Productivity of Health Sector and Health Care Expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    熊谷, 成将; クマガイ, ナリマサ; Narimasa, KUMAGAI

    2003-01-01

    An econometric model of supply-side health sector in Japan was constructed in the current paper. The model is constituted from three vector error correction models. The diffusion process of health technology and the productivity of health sector are interrelated. In the model, both demand and supply of health care service, manpower in health sector and income distribution was taken into consideration. The employment adjustment depends on the differential in labor productivity. Due to the expa...

  18. Contributions of bioethics to health sector leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodelín, Ricardo; Fuentes, Damaris

    2012-07-01

    Leadership is the perception or acceptance by members of a group of their superior's ability to inspire, influence and motivate them to meet their goals and contribute to the achievement of shared objectives. This article analyzes the characteristics of bioethics and the profile of the bioethicist in relation to the comprehensive development required of health leaders. We address this relationship in the areas of research and clinical practice; intersectoral activity; health sciences education; bioethicist's profile; and influence on organizational structures, functioning and decisionmaking, with particular reference to development and current situation of these aspects in Cuba. KEYWORDS Bioethics, leadership, medical education, health professional education, health, values, workplace stress, Cuba.

  19. Third sector primary health care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A C; Bowers, S

    2000-03-24

    To describe key organisational characteristics of selected third sector (non-profit and non-government) primary health care organisations. Data were collected, in 1997 and 1998, from 15 third sector primary care organisations that were members of a network of third sector primary care providers, Health Care Aotearoa (HCA). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of managers and key informants using a semi-structured interview schedule, and from practice computer information systems. Overall the populations served were young: only 4% of patients were aged 65 years or older, and the ethnicity profile was highly atypical, with 21.8% European, 36% Maori, 22.7% Pacific Island, 12% other, and 7.5% not stated. Community services card holding rates were higher than recorded in other studies, and registered patients tended to live in highly deprived areas. HCA organisations had high patient to doctor ratios, in general over 2000:1, and there were significant differences in management structures between HCA practices and more traditional general practice. Third sector organisations provide services for populations that are disadvantaged in many respects. It is likely that New Zealand will continue to develop a diverse range of primary care organisational arrangements. Effort is now required to measure quality and effectiveness of services provided by different primary care organisations serving comparable populations.

  20. Newly developed compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Yongjun, Cheng; Wenjun, Sun; Meiru, Guo; Lian, Chen; Huzhong, Zhang; Gang, Li; Xiaoqiang, Pei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer has been developed and tested at the Lanzhou Institute of Physics. Its design is based on the mass separation of a 90° magnetic sector-field analyzer with a double trajectory, which has a magnetic induction of 0.7 T. The instrument can record mass range from 1 to 50 amu based on two special trajectories when the accelerating voltage of the ion source changes from 200 V to 2500 V. The dimensions of the device together with the electronic unit are approximately 220  ×  165  ×  165 mm3 (length  ×  depth  ×  height). The weight is 10.2 kg and the maximum power consumption was measured to be 20 W. The instrument successfully provided mass spectrum information on the vacuum test chamber, resolving power of about 58 at full width half maximum (FWHM), and demonstrated a sensitivity of 7.2  ×  10‑5 A Pa‑1. The compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer is designed for space application and can be extended to other portable analytical fields on Earth.

  1. Site, Sector, Scope: Mapping the Epistemological Landscape of Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    This essay presents a critical appraisal of the current state of baccalaureate Health Humanities, with a special focus on the contextual differences currently influencing the implementation of this field in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States and United Kingdom. I argue that the epistemological bedrock of Health Humanities goes beyond that generated by its written texts to include three external factors that are especially pertinent to undergraduate education: site (the setting of Health Humanities education), sector (the disciplinary eligibility for funding) and scope (the critical engagement with a program's local context alongside an emergent "core" of Health Humanities knowledge, learning, and practice). Drawing largely from the Canadian context, I discuss how these differences can inform or obstruct this field's development, and offer preliminary recommendations for encouraging the growth of baccalaureate Health Humanities-in Canada and elsewhere-in light of these factors.

  2. Organization and Finance of China’s Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP. Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China’s shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China’s evolution, adding another layer of

  3. EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL MASSES IN HEALTH SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Mathur

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 80% population residing in rural areas has not improved to desired goals from the basic health services provided to them. Local people have remained indifferent to them. They should be equal partners in the management of health services operating in their areas, therefore, a process needs to be designed to create conditions to know of economic, social and health problems for the whole community with their active participation and fullest possible relience upon the communities initiative to solve them.A community development programme was launched on 2nd Oct. 1952 in first five year plan and was hailed as a programme "of the people, for the people, by the people" to exterminate the triple enemies - poverty illness and ignorance. The community development programmes were envisaged as a multipurpose programme cordinated for agriculture, social welfare, education and health.      .It is currently recognized that despite of expansion of the primary health care infra structure upto village level, a comprehensive and effective approach to community health has not been yet achieved. Local community is not sufficiently involved in its own health care, consequently the impact in terms of community health remains small. A comprehensive and integrated approach to community health for population control and response to family welfare planning depends more than any other factor but on an assurance of survival of the children and by creating the right environment for small family norms. All this and change in attitude for the desire of a male child and improvement in low status of women is possible by community itself. Low rate of literacy in women, early marriage of girls are seriously impending the

  4. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  5. Health information systems in the private health sector : pooling of resources and purchasing of health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matshidze, Patrick; Hanmer, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of health information systems in the private health sector from a legislative and operational perspective, highlighting the duality of the South African health care...

  6. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  7. SARS and the Academic Health Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jean

    2005-02-01

    SARS illustrated the vulnerability of the entire country to the importation of new organisms and other unexpected health crises. As the federal government assumes a leadership role in developing programs and policies affecting the security of Canada, so, too, should it assume a leadership role in public health matters, especially in an era of possible bioterrorism. The essential needs of such a system include: * A real-time inventory of research and response capacity to include the academic, industry, and government communities that could respond to a major health crisis in the future. * Research platforms in place across the country such as appropriately secure animal care facilities, biobanks, and other technologies necessary to immediately address research issues arising from such a crisis. * Coordinated processes to move appropriate people and resources into place when a health crisis requires such action. * Financial contingency funds that can be mobilized on relatively short notice to respond to the needs of altered patient care patterns and research.

  8. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  9. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  10. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  11. Private sector accountable care organization development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck McAlearney, Ann; Hilligoss, Brian; Song, Paula H

    2017-03-01

    To explore accountable care organizations (ACOs) as they develop in the private sector, including their motivation for development, perspectives from consumers regarding these emerging ACOs, and the critical success factors associated with ACO development. Comprehensive organizational case studies of 4 full-risk private sector ACOs that included in-person interviews with providers and administrators and focus groups with local consumers. Sixty-eight key informant interviews conducted during site visits, supplemented by document collection and telephone interviews, and 5 focus groups were held with 52 consumers associated with the study ACOs. We found 3 main motivators for private sector ACO development: 1) opportunity to improve quality and efficiency, 2) potential to improve population health, and 3) belief that payment reform is inevitable. With respect to consumer perspectives, consumers were unaware they received care from an ACO. From the perspectives of ACO stakeholders, these ACOs noted that they prefer to focus on patients' relationships with providers and typically do not emphasize the ACO name or entity. Critical success factors for private sector ACO development included provider engagement, strategic buy-in, prior experience managing risk, IT infrastructure, and leadership, all meant to shift the culture to a focus on value instead of volume. These organizations perceived that pursuing an accountable care strategy allowed them to respond to policy changes anticipated to impact the way healthcare is delivered and reimbursed. Increased understanding of factors that have been important for more mature private sector ACOs may help other healthcare organizations as they strive to enhance value and advance in their ACO journeys.

  12. Sectoral job training as an intervention to improve health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K

    2010-04-01

    A growing literature on the social determinants of health strongly suggests the value of examining social policy interventions for their potential links to health equity. I investigate how sectoral job training, an intervention favored by the Obama administration, might be conceptualized as an intervention to improve health equity. Sectoral job training programs ideally train workers, who are typically low income, for upwardly mobile job opportunities within specific industries. I first explore the relationships between resource redistribution and health equity. Next, I discuss how sectoral job training theoretically redistributes resources and the ways in which these resources might translate into improved health. Finally, I make recommendations for strengthening the link between sectoral job training and improved health equity.

  13. Beyond trade: taking globalization to the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulaire, Nils

    2003-01-01

    The pace of globalization has brought the world to the brink of a new era in international relations. While the world has outgrown traditional mechanisms for addressing global issues, it has not yet developed new forms of effective governance. This temporary void poses threats and enormous opportunities. The public health sector will play a crucial "formal" role--that is, carried out by existing bodies such as WHO and the UN. But WHO does not necessarily represent the full spectrum of views and its members necessarily work, to some degree, for separate national interests. The formal dimension must be supplemented. Globalization is not synonymous with lack of regulation. Many responsible businesses would welcome a transparent and universally applied regulatory regime to prevent a race to the lowest standards. The economic benefits of globalization may hit a glass ceiling if societies outside the global economy become progressively poorer and less healthy. The business community is recognizing that good health is essential for economic growth and social stability. Globalization may cause millions to migrate for economic opportunity. The private sector's forward-thinkers recognize the health threats of migration and are beginning to view global health promotion as a means to ensure optimal market access.

  14. Are lessons from the education sector applicable to health care reforms? The case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuonzi, S A; Birungi, H

    2000-01-01

    The decision by donors to use external aid for poverty alleviation in very low-income countries and the redefinition of development to include human aspects of society have renewed interest in education and health services. The debate about accountability, priorities and value-for-money of social services has intensified. Uganda's universal primary education programme (UPE) has within 2 years of inception achieved 90% enrollment. The programme has been acclaimed as successful. But the health sector that has been implementing primary health care and reforms for two decades is viewed as having failed in its objectives. The paper argues that the education sector has advantages over the health sector in that its programme is simple in concept, and was internally designed involving few actors. The sector received strong political support, already has an extensive infrastructure, receives much more funding and has a straightforward objective. Nevertheless, the health sector has made some achievements in AIDS control, in the prevention and control of epidemics, and in behavioural change. But these achievements will not be noticed if only access and health-status are used to assess the health sector. However, UPE demonstrates that a universal basic health care is possible, given the same level of resources and political commitment. The lesson for the health sector is to implement a priority universal health care programme based on national values and to assess its performance using the objectives of the UPE.

  15. Private health care sector investment in Brazil: opportunities and obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Reynaldo

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian health system is based upon the constitutional right formulated in 1988, according to which health is the peoples' right and duty of the State. So being, it is essentially the government's responsibility, expressed in the so-called Sistema Unico de Saúde--SUS (single health system) Since its creation, however, it admits the existence of a supplementary health system, left to the private sector. In general terms, the public system is considered unsatisfactory in the services it renders. Its resources are distributed heterogeneously, favoring centers of advanced medical practice, to the detriment of basic health care. The supplementary system is considered of better quality, however with great variations and frequent accusations of being essentially profit driven, instead of being driven to the needs of the assisted population. The growing search for health plans is a direct consequence of the image perceived by the population regarding the quality and accessibility of the public services, as well as of the peoples' growing consciousness of their needs, rights and duties as citizens. The need for continuous quality improvement and cost reduction offers numberless opportunities for actions and investments. Initiatives to identify and implement the best medical practices, medical guidelines and actions are essential regarding those illnesses which are most frequent, of higher cost and of greater risk. Health plans and healthcare providers will necessarily have to focus on their common client. Therefore, organizations must be created in order to develop initiatives aimed to the quality of patient care, as well as to the collection and dissemination of data regarding the production and results of the main service providers. Consequently, immense opportunities are being opened for investments in the area of Information Technology, collection, analysis, and data dissemination. This paper analyses the main trends in the Brazilian health sector and from the

  16. Financial development and sectoral CO2emissions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO 2 ) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO 2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO 2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO 2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO 2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  17. The costs of the economic crisis in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Paul; Purcărea, Victor; Popa, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The Romanian health care system is facing a period of deep transformations, having in the last years some clear achievements, but also some acknowledged problems. Once the world's economic crisis appeared and manifested its first effects in Romanian economy, there will be some consequences in the health sector too. Regarding the Romanian social health insurance scheme, it's possible to assist to greater financial constraints in 2009 due to reduced contributions and a weaker economy. There are two possible solutions to face this challenge: diminishing the basic health services covered by the social health insurance system (difficult to be accepted by politicians and population) and better use of available resources based on an improvement of allowance and technical efficiency. The authors have made a critical analysis of the Romanian health care system facing the forecasted effects of the economic crisis and have proposed some interventions and solutions to reduce the effects at the level of the patient. In order to increase allowance efficiency clear measures are necessary to be taken at central and local level: improvement of financing mechanisms, alignment of the incentives used by the payment mechanisms for different type of providers, development of guides and protocols based on available resources, etc. For increased technical efficiency there is a need for adequate incentives within the financing and organization mechanisms in order to make the public providers more active in obtaining greater outputs from the available resources. The economic constraints will lead to the growth of the quality of medical services. This is the reason why the health system needs the development of the accreditation systems for providers. The audit of medical activities and reporting represents a mechanism which needs to be developed. Regarding the new health technologies' use new institutions and mechanisms need to be implemented. They will allow making certain decisions on

  18. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran.

  19. Leadership, the financial sector and development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that leadership is a vital factor for the realization of organizational goals in the public and private sector of any economy. This article therefore examines leadership, the financial sector and development in Nigeria. The financial sector represented by banks in this article is so crucial to the Nigerian ...

  20. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How Does Retiree Health Insurance Influence Public Sector Employee Saving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: -Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers;-Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.-After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. PMID:25479891

  2. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers.

  3. Scaling up the health workforce in the public sector: the role of government fiscal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Health workers play a key role in increasing access to health care services. Global and country-level estimates show that staffing in many developing countries - particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa - is far leaner than needed to deliver essential health services to the population. One factor that can limit scaling up the health workforce in developing countries is the government's overall wage policy which sometimes creates restrictions on hiring in the health sector. But while there is considerable debate, the information base in this important area has been quite limited. This paper summarizes the process that determines the budget for health wages in the public sector, how it is linked to overall wage policies, and how this affects staffing in the health sector. The author draws mainly from a recent World Bank report.

  4. [Collaboration between public health nurses and the private sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Okada, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We clarified collaborations between public health nurses (PHNs) and the private sector, such as nonprofit organizations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 private sector organizations and 13 PHNs who collaborate with them between December 2012 to October 2013. Interview guides were: overall suicide preventive measurements, details of collaboration between private sector organizations and PHNs, and suicide prevention outcomes/issues. Data from private sector organizations and PHNs were separately analyzed and categories created using qualitative and inductive design. Private sector organizations' and PHNs' categories were compared and separated into core categories by similarities. Six categories were created: 1. establishing a base of mutual understanding; 2. raising public awareness of each aim/characteristic; 3. competently helping high suicidal risk persons detected during each activity; 4. guarding lives and rehabilitating livelihoods after intervention; 5. restoring suicide attempters/bereaved met in each activity; and 6. continuing/expanding activities with reciprocal cohesion/evaluation. PHNs are required to have the following suicide prevention tasks when collaborating with private sector organizations: understanding the private sector civilization, sharing PHN experiences, improving social determinants of health, meeting basic needs, supporting foundation/difficulties each other (Dear editor. Thank you for kind comments. I was going to explain that PHNs and NPOs support each other their foundation of activity and difficulties in their activities. The foundations include knowledge, information, budgets, manpower etc. The difficulties mean like suffering faced with suicide during activities.), and enhancing local governments' flexibilities/ promptness.

  5. Sectoral transitions - modeling the development from agrarian to service economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-04-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's GDP, i.e the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations we characterise the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing 4 country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow 3 of 8 characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  6. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  7. health sector reform in sub-saharan africa: a synthesis of country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, most of public health problems persist and call for more concerted action. Policy Features. The process of health development in the Region has ...... GHANA. Projection of the financial requirements for the implementation of health sector programs. Projection of macro-economic growth for the next decade.

  8. Development of Agrotouristical Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena CHIRTOC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agrotouristical sector allows demand to space by engaging in recreational activities, sports and cultural entertainment, respond to the urban population growing interest towards the natural heritage and rural culture, having important implications in terms of economic and socio-political life of the Romanian village. The paper provides a brief analysis of the sector of agro-tourism in our country during 2000-2015, using the statistics presented by the National Institute of Statistics, to the eight regions level, namely: North West, Central, North East, South East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South West and West Oltenia.

  9. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  10. Electronic records management in the public health sector of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngulup

    Abstract. Implementation of electronic records management appears to be a serious challenge in the public health sector of Limpopo Province, South Africa, which sacrifices quality of health care. The ob- jective of this study was to establish how electronic records were managed and the current medi- cal recordkeeping ...

  11. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  12. Electronic records management in the public health sector of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of electronic records management appears to be a serious challenge in the public health sector of Limpopo Province, South Africa, which sacrifices quality of health care. The ob-jective of this study was to establish how electronic records were managed and the current medi-cal recordkeeping practice.

  13. Mitigating Health Risks in the Pottery Sector : Case Study in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mitigating Health Risks in the Pottery Sector : Case Study in Kumbharwada, Mumbai (India). Kumbharwada located in the Dharavi slum of Mumbai is a community of some 1 200 families, about half of which are involved in pottery production. The activity generates little income and harmful health and environmental effects ...

  14. health sector actions to improve nutrition: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuaIity/Calidad/. Qualite, 9:16. Hoffman, S., Zehner E., Harvey P., Piwoz E., Ndure K S.,. Combest C., Mwadime R., Quinn V. 2001. Essential health sector actions to improve maternal nutrition in Africa. RCQHC/. LINKAGES. Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care,. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Sanghvi, T. and ...

  15. Africa's Mining Sector Development: An Industry Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has in the past decade benefited from continuously increasing investment in the mining sector and is becoming a fully-fledged player in the world economy as a result of the mining boom. Growth in demand for mineral resources coming from emerging countries has transformed Africa, which previously received little ...

  16. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    forestry law (Law N0. 94/01 of 20th January 1994), which regulated the forestry sector in the country, the government, in particular, the Ministry of Forests and .... Forest management units. 7066647. 36.0. Sales by standing volume. 379745.2. 1.9. Protected areas. 3785653. 19.3. Total estimated forested land use regime.

  17. Using sustainability as a collaboration magnet to encourage multi-sector collaborations for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne; de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) places great emphasis on the role of multi-sector collaboration in addressing SDH. Despite this emphasis on this need, there is surprisingly little evidence for this to advance health equity goals. One way to encourage more successful multi-sector collaborations is anchoring SDH discourse around 'sustainability', subordinating within it the ethical and empirical importance of 'levelling up'. Sustainability, in contrast to health equity, has recently proved to be an effective collaboration magnet. The recent adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provides an opportunity for novel ways of ideationally re-framing SDH discussions through the notion of sustainability. The 2030 Agenda for the SDGs calls for greater policy coherence across sectors to advance on the goals and targets. The expectation is that diverse sectors are more likely and willing to collaborate with each other around the SDGs, the core idea of which is 'sustainability'.

  18. The response of banking sector development to financial and trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa's financial system is strongly bank-based and so this paper investigate whether economic growth, financial openness and trade openness contribute to the development of the banking sector in the presence and absence of global financial crisis. The results from PMG/ARDL suggest that banking sector develops ...

  19. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  20. Ideologies in the Swedish health sector today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1982-01-01

    Sweden has a long tradition of social democracy and corporate cooperation. Social problems are treated as technological questions that always should be solved through rational and neutral means. Today Sweden faces a crisis of economy as well as a crisis of medicine. In the spirit of consensus......, the state has proposed a new health reform emphasizing the responsibility of the public health service to prevent disease and provide equal access to care. It is claimed that improved health planning, based on epidemiological knowledge on inequalities, can solve the crisis in medicine within an improved...... system of primary care and prevention. However, in the context of the current economic crisis, the struggle against health hazards and cuts in public spending has intensified and the gap between the ideology of technological rationalism and reality has widened....

  1. Nursing leadership and health sector reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, C; Galbally, R

    2001-06-01

    The political, technological and economic changes that have occurred over the past decade are increasingly difficult to manage within the traditional framework of health-care, and the organisation of health-care is seen to need radical reform to sweep away many of the internal barriers that now divide one form of health-care, and one profession, from another. Nursing must equip itself with skills in advocacy and political action to influence the direction the system will take. Nursing currently suffers from a weakness in self-concept that goes hand in hand with a weakness in political status, and nursing leadership must build the foundations for both advocacy for others and self-advocacy for the nursing movement. The profession faces tensions between different conceptions of its role and status, its relationship to medicine, and its relationship to health. Health indices are tightly linked to status, and to trust, hope, and control of one's own life. Can nurses help empower others when they are not particularly good at empowering themselves? What will the role of the nurse be in creating the information flows that will guide people toward health? Nursing's long history of adaptation to an unsettled and negotiated status may mean that it is better fitted to make this adaptation than other more confident disciplines.

  2. Development of Treasury Service for National Economy Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Serhiy Kuzmenko

    2013-01-01

    The national economy agricultural sector development today is one of the key areas of the state support. Treasury servicing of budget funds intended for the support in agricultural sector is rendered by the State Treasury Service of Ukraine. This article deals with the study of current state treasury services in agricultural sector of Ukraine. In particular, the distribution and dynamics of the expenditures of the State Budget of Ukraine in financing public services and institutions in the fi...

  3. Plansalud: Plan sectorial concertado y descentralizado para el desarrollo de capacidades en salud, Perú 2010 - 2014 Plansalud: Decentralized and agreed sector plan for the capacity development in health, Peru 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizardo Huamán-Angulo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos humanos son el eje del accionar del sector salud; sin embargo, no necesariamente son el aspecto mejor atendido, por ello el Ministerio de Salud del Perú (MINSA conjuntamente con los gobiernos regionales generó el Plan Sectorial Concertado y Descentralizado para el Desarrollo de Capacidades en Salud 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD con el propósito de fortalecer las capacidades de los Recursos Humanos en Salud (RHUS y contribuir para que la atención de salud se desarrolle con eficiencia, calidad, pertinencia, equidad e interculturalidad en el marco de la descentralización, el Aseguramiento Universal de la Salud (AUS y las políticas de la salud. Con ese objeto se han propuesto tres componentes (asistencia técnica, capacitación y articulación educación - salud que agrupan a un conjunto importante de intervenciones, las cuales son planteadas y definidas de acuerdo al contexto nacional, regional y local, contribuyendo de ese modo a la mejora de las capacidades de gobierno, de gestión por competencias y la prestación de servicios de salud. El presente artículo muestra una primera aproximación de PLANSALUD, incluyendo aspectos relacionados a su planificación, gestión, financiamiento, estructura y funcionamiento, así como las medidas de monitoreo y evaluación.Human resources are the backbone of health sector actions; however, they are not necessarily the area with the greatest attention, therefore, the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA together with regional governments, led the Decentralized and Agreed Sector Plan for the Capacity Development in Health 2010-2014 (PLANSALUD with the aim of strengthening the capacities of Human Resources for Health (HRH and contribute to health care efficient development, quality, relevance, equity and multiculturalism, in the context of descentralization, the Universal Health Insurance (AUS and health policies. To achieve this goal, they have proposed three components (technical assistance, joint

  4. Development of Performance Dashboards in Healthcare Sector: Key Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Safdari, Reza; Torabi, Mashallah; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebraeil; Goodini, Azadeh

    2015-10-01

    Static nature of performance reporting systems in health care sector has resulted in inconsistent, incomparable, time consuming, and static performance reports that are not able to transparently reflect a round picture of performance and effectively support healthcare managers' decision makings. So, the healthcare sector needs interactive performance management tools such as performance dashboards to measure, monitor, and manage performance more effectively. The aim of this article was to identify key issues that need to be addressed for developing high-quality performance dashboards in healthcare sector. A literature review was established to search electronic research databases, e-journals collections, and printed journals, books, dissertations, and theses for relevant articles. The search strategy interchangeably used the terms of "dashboard", "performance measurement system", and "executive information system" with the term of "design" combined with operator "AND". Search results (n=250) were adjusted for duplications, screened based on their abstract relevancy and full-text availability (n=147) and then assessed for eligibility (n=40). Eligible articles were included if they had explicitly focused on dashboards, performance measurement systems or executive information systems design. Finally, 28 relevant articles included in the study. Creating high-quality performance dashboards requires addressing both performance measurement and executive information systems design issues. Covering these two fields, identified contents were categorized to four main domains: KPIs development, Data Sources and data generation, Integration of dashboards to source systems, and Information presentation issues. This study implies the main steps to develop dashboards for the purpose of performance management. Performance dashboards developed on performance measurement and executive information systems principles and supported by proper back-end infrastructure will result in

  5. The 'cube' meta-model for the information system of large health sector organizations--a (platform neutral) mapping tool to integrate information system development with changing business functions and organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkányi, László

    2002-01-01

    To develop information systems (IS) in the changing environment of the health sector, a simple but throughout model, avoiding the techno-jargon of informatics, might be useful for the top management. A platform neutral, extensible, transparent conceptual model should be established. Limitations of current methods lead to a simple, but comprehensive mapping, in the form of a three-dimensional cube. The three 'orthogonal' views are (a) organization functionality, (b) organizational structures and (c) information technology. Each of the cube-sides is described according to its nature. This approach enables to define any kind of an IS component as a certain point/layer/domain of the cube and enables also the management to label all IS components independently form any supplier(s) and/or any specific platform. The model handles changes in organization structure, business functionality and the serving info-system independently form each other. Practical application extends to (a) planning complex, new ISs, (b) guiding development of multi-vendor, multi-site ISs, (c) supporting large-scale public procurement procedures and the contracting, implementation phase by establishing a platform neutral reference, (d) keeping an exhaustive inventory of an existing large-scale system, that handles non-tangible aspects of the IS.

  6. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-08-16

    Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Our secondary objective was to describe the range of strategies that have been tried and to guide future evaluations of promising strategies for which there is insufficient evidence. We searched 14 electronic databases up to January 2014, including: CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; sociological, economic, political and other health databases; Human Resources Abstracts up to November 2010; Euroethics up to August 2015; and PubMed alerts from January 2014 to June 2016. We searched another 23 websites and online databases for grey literature up to August 2015, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Transparency International, healthcare anti-fraud association websites and trial registries. We conducted citation searches in Science Citation Index and Google Scholar, and searched PubMed for related articles up to August 2015. We contacted corruption researchers in December 2015, and screened reference lists of articles up to May 2016. For the primary analysis, we included randomised trials, non-randomised trials, interrupted time series studies and controlled before-after studies that evaluated the effects of an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector. For the secondary analysis, we included case studies that clearly described an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector, addressed either our primary or secondary objective, and stated the methods that the study authors used to collect and analyse data. One review author extracted data from the

  7. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  8. Private sector outlook: will the private sector develop existing and new conservation technologies in a timely fashion on its own

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Decisions and arguments made by the private sector on energy conservation investment and research and development (R and D) are discussed. Arguments (applicable to the industrial intermediate goods sector, to appliances, to community systems, and to the transportation sector) as to whether the private sector would allocate as much funding to energy conservation R and D as would be socially desirable are outlined. (MCW)

  9. [From the psychiatric sector to the mental health territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, Anne-Sophie; Deloro, Cyrille

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a noticeable change in public health policy, as well as a paradigm shift with the policy of a mental health territory. From a humanist sector policy, centred on the patient, we are moving towards a policy of a mental health territory, which, although taking into account the changing needs of a group of people, no longer considers the specific needs of the individual. The notion of a geographic breakdown of the organisation of care is becoming predominant.

  10. Strategic Planning in a Health Leadership Sector: A Report from UNESCO Chair in Health Education, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    K Bidad; F Farzadi; Pourpak, Z.; Moin, M.

    2009-01-01

    "nStrategic planning defines the formal decision of a company for its future. Like all organizations, health care sectors need to prepare their strategic planning and act according to it. UNESCO chair in health edu­cation as a leader health sector, describes the course and steps for preparing its strategic planning based on SWOT analysis technique. 

  11. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities? : A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, I.; Den Hertog, F.; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential,

  12. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities? - A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Ilse; den Hertog, Frank; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential,

  13. Cross-sectoral cancer care: views from patients and health care professionals regarding a personal electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudendistel, I; Winkler, E C; Kamradt, M; Brophy, S; Längst, G; Eckrich, F; Heinze, O; Bergh, B; Szecsenyi, J; Ose, D

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectoral cancer care is complex and involves collaboration from health care professionals (HCPs) across multiple sectors. However, when health information exchange (HIE) is not adequate, it results in impeded coordination and continuity of care. A web-based personal electronic health record (PEPA) under patients' control, providing access to personal health data across sectors, is being developed. Aim of this study was to explore perceived benefits and concerns. Using a qualitative approach, 10 focus groups were performed collecting views of three prospective user groups: patients with colorectal cancer (n = 12), physicians (n = 17) and other HCPs (n = 16). Representatives from different health sectors across the Rhine-Neckar region (Germany) participated. Data were audio- and videotaped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Our study shows that patients and HCPs expected a PEPA to enhance cross-sectoral availability of information, cross-sectoral cooperation and facilitate data management. Quality of cancer care was expected to be improved. Concerns were expressed in terms of data protection and data security. Concepts like a PEPA offer the chance to support HIE and avoid gaps of information in cross-sectoral cancer care. This may lead to improvements in coordination and continuity of care. Issues concerning data security and protection have to be addressed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  15. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  16. Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Nielsen, Camilla; Judd, Maria; Coyte, Peter C; Graham, Ian D

    2009-05-17

    in how the CoP concept is operationalized in the business and health sectors; hence, it is challenging to define the parameters of CoP groups. This may be one of the reasons for the lack of studies on the effectiveness of CoPs in the health sector. In order to improve the usefulness of the CoP concept in the development of groups and teams, further research will be needed to clarify the extent to which the four characteristics of CoPs are present in the mature and emergent groups, the expectations of facilitators and other participants, and the power relationship within CoPs.

  17. The roles of the health sector and health workers before, during and after violent conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie; Barbara, Joanna Santa; Arya, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a view of war as a significant population health problem, this article explores the roles of health workers in relation to violent conflict. Four different roles are identified, defined by goals and values--military, development, humanitarian and peace. In addition, four dimensions...... of health work are seen as cross-cutting factors influencing health work in violent conflict-- whether the health worker is an insider or outsider to the conflict, whether they are oriented to primary, secondary or tertiary prevention of the mortality and morbidity of war, whether they take an individual...... clinical or a population health approach, and whether they are oriented to policy and whole-sector change or not. This article explores the nature of these roles, the influence of these cross-cutting dimensions, the challenges of each role and finally commonalities and possibilities for cooperation between...

  18. The roles of the health sector and health workers before, during and after violent conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie; Barbara, Joanna Santa; Arya, Neil

    2010-01-01

    of health work are seen as cross-cutting factors influencing health work in violent conflict-- whether the health worker is an insider or outsider to the conflict, whether they are oriented to primary, secondary or tertiary prevention of the mortality and morbidity of war, whether they take an individual......Starting with a view of war as a significant population health problem, this article explores the roles of health workers in relation to violent conflict. Four different roles are identified, defined by goals and values--military, development, humanitarian and peace. In addition, four dimensions...... clinical or a population health approach, and whether they are oriented to policy and whole-sector change or not. This article explores the nature of these roles, the influence of these cross-cutting dimensions, the challenges of each role and finally commonalities and possibilities for cooperation between...

  19. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Our secondary objective was to describe the range of strategies that have been tried and to guide future evaluations of promising strategies for which there is insufficient evidence. Search methods We searched 14 electronic databases up to January 2014, including: CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; sociological, economic, political and other health databases; Human Resources Abstracts up to November 2010; Euroethics up to August 2015; and PubMed alerts from January 2014 to June 2016. We searched another 23 websites and online databases for grey literature up to August 2015, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Transparency International, healthcare anti-fraud association websites and trial registries. We conducted citation searches in Science Citation Index and Google Scholar, and searched PubMed for related articles up to August 2015. We contacted corruption researchers in December 2015, and screened reference lists of articles up to May 2016. Selection criteria For the primary analysis, we included randomised trials, non-randomised trials, interrupted time series studies and controlled before-after studies that evaluated the effects of an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector. For the secondary analysis, we included case studies that clearly described an intervention to reduce corruption in the health sector, addressed either our primary or secondary objective, and stated the methods that the study authors used to collect and

  20. Occupational Health and Safety in the Nigerian Public Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to explore the issue of occupational health and safety in the Nigerian public sector in Edo state. Available research and literature has shown that millions of workers all over the world have suffered from one form of occupational hazard or the other. In Nigeria, there is need for more empirical ...

  1. Crises and challenges in the Nigerian health Sector | Osibogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available Key words: Nigeria, Heath sector crises, Challenges Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health Care Vol.16(2) 2004: 1-7. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jcmphc.v16i2.32406.

  2. antiretroviral therapy for children in the public health care sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAEDIATRIC ART IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR. Paul Roux, . ... care level, many paediatricians and paediatricians in training feel themselves inadequate to manage infected children.' Pilot programmes offer an opportunity for health care workers to set ... are required to prescribe, dispense and promote adherence to HAART ...

  3. Diagnostic evaluation of dementia in the secondary health care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nationwide registry-based study of the quality of diagnostic evaluation for dementia in the secondary health care sector. METHOD: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from the patient population (4,682 patients) registered for the first time with a dementia diagn...

  4. Newborn hearing screening in the private health care sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    birthing services and is not covered by all medical aid schemes. The best practice recommendation for newborn hearing screening programmes is universal screening with coverage exceeding 95%.4,5,7 The current study demonstrates coverage rates for hearing screening in the private health sector that are significantly ...

  5. Strategic management of technology in public health sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic management of technology in public health sector in Kenya and South Africa. ... Design: The article reviews the processes of equipment planning, procurement and management. Analysis of results and observations from experts leads to recommendations and suggestions on good equipment management ...

  6. The private health sector in South Africa - current trends and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that these measures will undermine the principle of equity in health care, and will not solve the problems of the private sector. ... structures can be expected, the convergence of interests of large employers and trade unions in containing health care costs suggests that their emergence is a likely development.

  7. The Human Resource crisis in the Zambian Health Sector – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The human resource crisis facing the Zambian health sector has potential to derail existing health programs including millennium development goals. This paper will highlight the underpinning factors, analyze current interventions and propose alternative solutions to this crisis. Design: The study was done ...

  8. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1: measuring inputs and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2003-12-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. In this first part, some approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services are examined for their suitability to provide models for the health sector. The paper summarizes some major national and collaborative initiatives to develop measures for digital libraries, and analyses these approaches in terms of their relationship to traditional measures of library performance, which are focused on inputs and outputs, and their relevance to current debates among health information specialists. The second part* looks more specifically at evaluative models based on outcomes, and models being developed in the health sector.

  9. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jaclyn A; Ford, James D; Ford, Lea Berrang; Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Berry, Peter; Henderson, Jim; Heymann, Jody

    2012-06-19

    Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario - Canada's most populous province - include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve

  10. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Jaclyn A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into

  11. Cross-sector Service Provision in Health and Social Care: An Umbrella Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Winters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meeting the complex health needs of people often requires interaction among numerous different sectors. No one service can adequately respond to the diverse care needs of consumers. Providers working more effectively together is frequently touted as the solution. Cross-sector service provision is defined as independent, yet interconnected sectors working together to better meet the needs of consumers and improve the quality and effectiveness of service provision. Cross-sector service provision is expected, yet much remains unknown about how it is conceptualised or its impact on health status. This umbrella review aims to clarify the critical attributes that shape cross-sector service provision by presenting the current state of the literature and building on the findings of the 2004 review by Sloper. Methods: Literature related to cross-sector service provision is immense, which poses a challenge for decision makers wishing to make evidence-informed decisions. An umbrella review was conducted to articulate the overall state of cross-sector service provision literature and examine the evidence to allow for the discovery of consistencies and discrepancies across the published knowledge base. Findings: Sixteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged: Focusing on the consumer, developing a shared vision of care, leadership involvement, service provision across the boundaries, adequately resourcing the arrangement, developing novel arrangements or aligning with existing relationships, and strengthening connections between sectors. Future research from a cross-organisational, rather than individual provider, perspective is needed to better understand what shapes cross-sector service provision at the boundaries. Conclusion: Findings aligned closely with the work done by Sloper and raise red flags related to reinventing what is already known. Future researchers should look to explore novel areas rather than looking into

  12. Chiropractic practice in the Danish public health care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie

    2009-01-01

    and defined. Furthermore, a contextually relevant definition of an integral health care service is presented; and the professional importance for chiropractic in providing such services is also discussed. Finally, salient questions requiring empirical investigation in this context are posed; and selected......This commentary offers preliminary considerations around a phenomenological investigation of chiropractic services in a Danish public sector setting. In this narrative description, the main venue for chiropractic public (secondary) sector practice in the Danish context is briefly described...... issues around a qualitative research design approach are considered....

  13. Impact of Unbalanced Development of Economy on Financial Sector Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of c connection between the stability of development of the financial sector and its share in the aggregate volume of production. The article conducts a comparative study of the countries that suffered the large-scale financial and economic crisis in 2007 (USA and Great Britain and countries economies of which turned out to be more stable (Czech Republic, Poland and Finland. In the course of the study the article marks out indicators that allow characterisation of the degree of balancing of economic development. The developed approach is applied for analysis of the Ukrainian economy in the pre-crisis period. Results of the study allow assertion that excessive growth of the financial sector increases the risk of realisation of financial and economic crises independent on the level of economic development of a country. The article develops an approach to assessment of the role of the financial sector in economy. It underlines important aspects of its application for analysing economies of developing countries. The article leaves a vast expanse for further studies and focuses on importance of monitoring of the state and development of the financial sector with consideration of the direction and rates of development of other sectors of economy. The obtained results justify the necessity of use of indicators that characterise structure of the national economy by financial sector control bodies.

  14. ITER vacuum vessel sector manufacturing development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence [EFDA CSU, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: lawrence.jones@tech.efda.org; Bianchi, Aldo [Ansaldo Ricerche, Corso Perrone 25, 16161 Genova (Italy); Cros, Alain [Framatome ANP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Pietro, Enrico di [EFDA CSU, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Giraud, Benoit [Framatome ANP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Ioki, Kimihimo [ITER JCT, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Junek, Lubomir [Institute of Applied Mechanics Brno, Veveri 95, 61139 Brno (Czech Republic); Parodi, Bruno [Ansaldo Ricerche, Corso Perrone 25, 16161 Genova (Italy); Pick, Michael [EFDA CSU, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sanguinetti, Gian-Paulo [Ansaldo Ricerche, Corso Perrone 25, 16161 Genova (Italy); Tivey, Richard [ITER JCT, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Utin, Yuri [ITER JCT, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The ITER vacuum vessel, to be constructed on site from nine toroidal sectors, places as-welded manufacturing tolerances on the surfaces several times smaller than usual, in relation to its large size. Framatome ANP has proposed a manufacturing route for the sector construction, accepted as the reference by the ITER International Team. To facilitate the achievement of the required tight tolerances, EFDA has implemented a development programme, including the manufacturing part of the sector and the analysis of its distortion using SYSWELD computer modelling. This paper describes the manufacturing route and the results of the development programme so far.

  15. Contribution of Romanian Secondary Sector to Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina ALPOPI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shows the contribution of the secondary sector (industry and construction on the economic development of the regions, functional areas and the urban system in Romania. The development of economic activities of production is conditioned by certain geophysical, demographical, social and cultural characteristics. Considering that economic restructuring and privatization of industry put their mark on the evolution of the Romanian economy in recent years, it is absolutely necessary to take into account the influence of the secondary sector activities - industry and construction, to establish the development measures of romanian regions. One more reason is that the most industrialized cities prior 1990, dependent on a single branch of industry, losing the markets for these industries, recorded high unemployment, which in terms of social, equates to a high degree of poverty. Territorial development of the secondary sector shows large differences mainly due to natural barriers, level of accessibility to natural resources and public services of general interest. These gaps deep more economic and social problems existing in the territory. In the secondary sector, Romania follows closely the provisions of European Union policy, in order to develop a national competitive market, integrated into the European internal market. An example: in the industrial branch, employment share is approximately equal to the european average level. In terms of productivity, in Romania, in the context of a very low level of this indicator, its value is high in the industrial sector (especially in the manufacturing sector the specific productivity is above the national average. It is estimated that after 2014, the improvement of Romania's macroeconomic stability could generate rapid growth in the secondary sector. In Romania, industrial sector faces with problems such: the high level of resources not identified, poor promotion on domestic and foreign market

  16. Cross-Sector Leadership Development for Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Margaret A.; Burns, Helen K.; Barron, Gerald; Grofebert, Alice; Bednarz, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    After fall 2001, scientists and professionals recognized the importance of integrating public health with traditional first-response professions in planning and training for disasters. However, operationalizing this approach among professionals in the field confronted barriers that were both inter-cultural and jurisdictional. The Pennsylvania Preparedness Leadership Institute (PPLI) is a collaboration of the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public ...

  17. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities?: A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storm, I; Den Hertog, F; Van Oers, J.A.M; Schuit, A.J

    2016-01-01

    .... Method A qualitative descriptive analysis of five aspects of collaboration within sixteen Dutch municipalities was performed to examine the collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors: 1...

  18. Mental health promotion competencies in the health sector in Finland: a qualitative study of the views of professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Nina; Solin, Pia; Stengård, Eija; Kannas, Lasse; Kettunen, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate what competencies are needed for mental health promotion in health sector practice in Finland. A qualitative study was carried out to seek the views of mental health professionals regarding mental health promotion-related competencies. The data were collected via two focus groups and a questionnaire survey of professionals working in the health sector in Finland. The focus groups consisted of a total of 13 professionals. Further, 20 questionnaires were received from the questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin. A content analysis was carried out. In total, 23 competencies were identified and clustered under the categories of theoretical knowledge, practical skills, and personal attitudes and values. In order to promote mental health, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the principles and concepts of mental health promotion, including methods and tools for effective practices. Furthermore, a variety of skills-based competencies such as communication and collaboration skills were described. Personal attitudes and values included a holistic approach and respect for human rights, among others. The study provides new information on what competencies are needed to plan, implement and evaluate mental health promotion in health sector practice, with the aim of contributing to a more effective workforce. The competencies provide aid in planning training programmes and qualifications, as well as job descriptions and roles in health sector workplaces related to mental health promotion.

  19. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge.

  20. Cross-sector leadership development for preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Margaret A; Burns, Helen K; Barron, Gerald; Grofebert, Alice; Bednarz, G Daniel

    2005-01-01

    After fall 2001, scientists and professionals recognized the importance of integrating public health with traditional first-response professions in planning and training for disasters. However, operationalizing this approach among professionals in the field confronted barriers that were both inter-cultural and jurisdictional. The Pennsylvania Preparedness Leadership Institute (PPLI) is a collaboration of the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness. Team members are recruited from public health, emergency medicine, emergency management, hospitals, and public safety agencies from each of nine multi-county regions in Pennsylvania. Each team takes on a year-long project that addresses a strategic problem as a focus for capacity-building within its region. Unexpectedly during PPLI's first year in operation, a hepatitis-A outbreak tested whether one regional team could successfully mount the necessary integrated response. This experience, as well as the planned evaluation for PPLI, demonstrated both the successful processes and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative.

  1. The creation of the health consumer: challenges on health sector regulation after managed care era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We utilized our previous studies analyzing the reforms affecting the health sector developed in the 1990s by financial groups to frame the strategies implemented by the pharmaceutical industry to regain market positions and to understand the challenges that regulatory agencies are confronting. Methods We followed an analytical approach for analyzing the process generated by the disputes between the financial groups and the pharmaceutical corporations and the challenges created to governmental regulation. We analyzed primary and secondary sources using situational and discourse analyses. We introduced the concepts of biomedicalization and biopedagogy, which allowed us to analyze how medicalization was radicalized. Results In the 1990s, structural adjustment policies facilitated health reforms that allowed the entrance of multinational financial capital into publicly-financed and employer-based insurance. This model operated in contraposition to the interests of the medical industrial complex, which since the middle of the 1990s had developed silent reforms to regain authority in defining the health-ill-care model. These silent reforms radicalized the medicalization. Some reforms took place through deregulatory processes, such as allowing direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs in the United States. In other countries different strategies were facilitated by the lack of regulation of other media such as the internet. The pharmaceutical industry also has had a role in changing disease definitions, rebranding others, creating new ones, and pressuring for approval of treatments to be paid by public, employer, and private plans. In recent years in Brazil there has been a substantial increase in the number of judicial claims demanding that public administrations pay for new treatments. Conclusions We found that the dispute for the hegemony of the health sector between financial and pharmaceutical companies has deeply transformed the sector

  2. The creation of the health consumer: challenges on health sector regulation after managed care era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhy Emerson E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We utilized our previous studies analyzing the reforms affecting the health sector developed in the 1990s by financial groups to frame the strategies implemented by the pharmaceutical industry to regain market positions and to understand the challenges that regulatory agencies are confronting. Methods We followed an analytical approach for analyzing the process generated by the disputes between the financial groups and the pharmaceutical corporations and the challenges created to governmental regulation. We analyzed primary and secondary sources using situational and discourse analyses. We introduced the concepts of biomedicalization and biopedagogy, which allowed us to analyze how medicalization was radicalized. Results In the 1990s, structural adjustment policies facilitated health reforms that allowed the entrance of multinational financial capital into publicly-financed and employer-based insurance. This model operated in contraposition to the interests of the medical industrial complex, which since the middle of the 1990s had developed silent reforms to regain authority in defining the health-ill-care model. These silent reforms radicalized the medicalization. Some reforms took place through deregulatory processes, such as allowing direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs in the United States. In other countries different strategies were facilitated by the lack of regulation of other media such as the internet. The pharmaceutical industry also has had a role in changing disease definitions, rebranding others, creating new ones, and pressuring for approval of treatments to be paid by public, employer, and private plans. In recent years in Brazil there has been a substantial increase in the number of judicial claims demanding that public administrations pay for new treatments. Conclusions We found that the dispute for the hegemony of the health sector between financial and pharmaceutical companies has deeply

  3. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  4. Third sector organizations in rural development: a transaction cost perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VALENTINOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, rural development is supported by third sector organizations, such as nongovernmental organizations, farmer associations, and cooperatives. This essay develops a transaction cost explanation of these organizations’ role in rural areas. Since the traditional transaction cost theory is concerned with the choice of governance mechanisms within the for-profit sector, this essay adopts an alternative conceptualization of the notion of transaction cost by building on the theory of the division of labor. This theory regards transaction cost as a constraint on the division of labor causing the replacement of exchange with self-sufficiency. The proposed transaction cost explanation of rural third sector organizations consists of two arguments: 1 third sector organizations embody partial reliance on self-sufficiency; and 2 rural areas exhibit rurality-specific transaction cost acting as a constraint on the division of labor and thus creating a niche for third sector organizations. The essay concludes with suggesting a research program on developing an economic theory of the rural third sector.;

  5. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa.

  6. The Impact of Tourism Sector Development in the Albanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba KRUJA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today tourism is viewed as one of the largest and dynamically developing sectors of external economic activities in the world. The development of tourism sector is associated with considerable volumes of foreign currency inflows, new employment opportunities, infrastructure development, and new management experiences. All of these together positively contribute to the social and economic development of the countries. Beside these there are also other effects of tourism which will be considered in this paper. The aim of the research is to examine the impact of tourism sector development on the country economy. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the positive and negative impacts of tourism sector on the social and economic development of the countries; the systematic statistical data analysis of the direct contribution of the sector on the GDP and employment of Albania as a country in its infancy of development, compared to other European countries in maturity. The statistical data used in this research is provided by INSTAT (Albanian Institute of Statistics, AKT (National Tourism Agency and TSA (Tourism Satellite Account, a methodology quantified by the UN Statistics Division for the statistical data provided for the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism.

  7. Engaging the private sector in public health challenges in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, I.H.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging the private sector in healthcare is a central theme in the work of PharmAccess Foundation, a Dutch not-for-profit organization, based in Amsterdam, with offices in several African countries, including Namibia. This thesis describes interventions developed and applied in Namibia to engage

  8. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....

  9. A qualitative assessment of health extension workers' relationships with the community and health sector in Ethiopia: opportunities for enhancing maternal health performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Kea, Aschenaki Z; Datiko, Daniel G; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Tulloch, Olivia

    2015-09-30

    Health extension workers (HEWs) in Ethiopia have a unique position, connecting communities to the health sector. This intermediary position requires strong interpersonal relationships with actors in both the community and health sector, in order to enhance HEW performance. This study aimed to understand how relationships between HEWs, the community and health sector were shaped, in order to inform policy on optimizing HEW performance in providing maternal health services. We conducted a qualitative study in six districts in the Sidama zone, which included focus group discussions (FGDs) with HEWs, women and men from the community and semi-structured interviews with HEWs; key informants working in programme management, health service delivery and supervision of HEWs; mothers; and traditional birth attendants. Respondents were asked about facilitators and barriers regarding HEWs' relationships with the community and health sector. Interviews and FGDs were recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analysed. HEWs were selected by their communities, which enhanced trust and engagement between them. Relationships were facilitated by programme design elements related to support, referral, supervision, training, monitoring and accountability. Trust, communication and dialogue and expectations influenced the strength of relationships. From the community side, the health development army supported HEWs in liaising with community members. From the health sector side, top-down supervision and inadequate training possibilities hampered relationships and demotivated HEWs. Health professionals, administrators, HEWs and communities occasionally met to monitor HEW and programme performance. Expectations from the community and health sector regarding HEWs' tasks sometimes differed, negatively affecting motivation and satisfaction of HEWs. HEWs' relationships with the community and health sector can be constrained as a result of inadequate support systems, lack of

  10. Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

    2000-01-01

    New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted.

  11. Malawi - Infrastructure Development and Power Sector Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact was contracted by MCC to develop and conduct an evaluation of the Malawi Compact. Specifically, SI has been tasked to “assess the program design and...

  12. Health sector governance: should we be investing more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryatt, Robert; Bennett, Sara; Soucat, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Governance is central to improving health sector performance and achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, the growing body of research on governance and health has not yet led to a global consensus on the need for more investment in governance interventions to improve health. This paper aims to summarise the latest evidence on the influence of governance on health, examines how we can assess governance interventions and considers what might constitute good investments in health sector governance in resource constrained settings. The paper concludes that agendas for improving governance need to be realistic and build on promising in-country innovation and the growing evidence base of what works in different settings. For UHC to be achieved, governance will require new partnerships and opportunities for dialogue, between state and non-state actors. Countries will require stronger platforms for effective intersectoral actions and more capacity for applied policy research and evaluation. Improved governance will also come from collective action across countries in research, norms and standards, and communicable disease control.

  13. Health sector leadership in mitigating climate change: experience from the UK and NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheon, David; Rissel, Chris E; Hadfield, Glen; Madden, D Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The threat to human health from climate change means that all levels of government and private and public agencies will need to change their current practices to reduce carbon emissions. The health sector will also need to respond and change practice. The National Health Service in the United Kingdom is developing a systematic and strategic approach to reduce its carbon footprint, as described in the recently released NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy for England. The work is being led by the Service's new Sustainable Development Unit. While the Australian health care system has not yet embraced a shared vision for carbon reduction, there are examples emerging of how the sector is contributing to reduce greenhouse gas production. Examples from two NSW area health services to reduce energy use and promote active transport are presented. In both countries, these changes are supported by new legislation and policy.

  14. The challenge of effective workplace change in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Michael S; Mustard, Cam

    2007-01-01

    There is significant personal injury risk associated with the provision of high-quality healthcare. The magnitude of this risk, combined with the possibility that it can often go underappreciated by caregivers and the organizations they work for, might help explain why the health sector has largely missed out on the benefits of an overall declining trend in injury rates. Despite covering two very different topics in their lead papers, Shamian and El-Jardali and Clements, Dault and Priest present a surprising degree of overlap in relation to what might help enable effective workplace change. Leadership, role clarity, trust, respect, values and workplace culture are all viewed as key enablers of effective teamwork by Clements, Dault and Priest. They could also be considered required ingredients of successful workplace health initiatives, as discussed by Shamian and El-Jardali. A lot of background and positional work regarding teamwork and healthy workplaces exists, but this has not necessarily translated into front-line change. These authors have done an excellent job of pointing out the potential benefits of workplace changes. What is needed now is for someone to take the lead in developing, implementing and evaluating these changes. The adult human form is an awkward burden to lift or carry. Weighing up to 200 pounds or more, it has no handles, it is not rigid, and it is susceptible to severe damage if mishandled or dropped. When lying in bed, a patient is placed inconveniently for lifting and the weight and placement of such a load would be tolerated by few industrial workers.

  15. El contexto de las reformas del sector de la salud The context surrounding health sector reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vergara

    2000-08-01

    oportunidades para todo el mundo. Acostumbradas al proteccionismo del antiguo modelo de desarrollo, hoy en día las sociedades latinoamericanas perciben la amenaza de un modelo nuevo que no les ofrece ninguna red de protección social. La viabilidad de las políticas de reforma económica y social de las segunda fase, que se ajustan a las exigencias de un mundo "globalizado", depende, entonces, de poder vencer la desconfianza de la población y de lograr el respaldo de una mayoría política, social e institucional.In Latin America, health sector reforms have gone hand in hand with social and economic trends during the latter half of the twentieth century and have reflected the particular concept of "development" that has been in vogue at different times. Economic stagnation and increased social spending, both hallmarks of the 1960s, led to the decline of the "import substitution" development model, which had prevailed since the beginning of the century, and slowly gave way in the 1980s to the "globalization"model. From the earlier model, a transition took place toward a restructuring of production and a series of economic adjustment policies that led, ironically, to an increase in poverty in Latin America. Implementation of the new model has occurred in two phases. The first, known as the "social reform" or "first generation "phase, sprang from the notion that poverty is the sum of a number of material shortages that can be corrected through an equitable redistribution of a fixed volume of goods belonging to society. This conceptual framework, which was completely devoid of all historical linkages and separated from economic policy, led to social policies whose entire purpose was to mitigate poverty through subsidies targeting the poorest persons in the society. In the second phase of the globalization model, which arose in the 1990s and became known as the "second generation" or "postadjustment" phase, new economic rules came into play that were based primarily on

  16. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  17. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    2017-08-10

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Service, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  18. High performance work practices in the health care sector: A dutch case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/177012277

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present an empirical study of the effect of high performance work practices on commitment and citizenship behaviour in the health care sector. The theory suggests that individual employees are willing “to go the extra mile” when they are given the opportunity to develop

  19. Is the Water Sector Lagging behind Education and Health on Aid Effectiveness? Lessons from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Welle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE in three sectors – water, health and education – to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific mechanics such as Sector-Wide Approaches alone. National political leadership and governance are central drivers of sector AE, while national financial and procurement systems and the behaviour of actors who have not signed up to the Paris Principles – at both national and global levels – have implications for progress that cut across sectors. Sectors and sub-sectors do nonetheless have distinct features that must be considered in attempting to improve sector-level AE. In light of these findings, using political economy approaches to better understand and address governance and strengthening sector-level monitoring is recommended as part of efforts to improve AE and development results in the water sector.

  20. Strategic Employee Development in The Government Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Johnny; Guevara, Nathalie; Barnett, Rebecca; Thorpe, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    As with many other U.S. agencies, succession planning is becoming a critical need for NASA. The primary drivers include (a) NASA's higher-than-average aged workforce with approximately 50% of employees eligible for retirement within 5 years; and (b) employees who need better developmental conversations to increase morale and retention. This problem is particularly concerning for Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) organizations since they traditionally rely on more experienced engineers and specialists to perform their organizations' functions. In response to this challenge, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) S&MA organization created the Strategic Employee Development (SED) program. The SED program's goal is to provide a proactive method to counter the primary drivers by creating a deeper "bench strength" and providing a more comprehensive developmental feedback experience for the employee. The SED is a new succession planning framework that enables customization to any organization, and in this case, specifically for an S&MA organization. This is accomplished via the identification of key positions, the corresponding critical competencies, and a process to help managers have relevant and meaningful development conversations with the workforce. As a result of the SED, several tools and products were created that allows management to make better strategic workforce decisions. Although there are opportunities for improvement for the SED program, the most important impact has been on the quality of developmental discussions for employees.

  1. Private sector development Aligning goals for economic growth and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... As an engine of economic growth, private enterprise plays an important role in combatting poverty by creating jobs and livelihood opportunities. In helping developing countries pursue private sector development strategies that benefit women, youth, and the poor, innovative research supported by IDRC is ...

  2. road sector development and economic growth in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    2 Ethiopia Support Strategy Program II, International Food Policy Research Institute, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia ... A well-developed road transport sector in developing countries is assumed to fuel up the growth process through a ..... 111 only for two years. At the expiration of RSDP III, road density of Ethiopia has reached.

  3. Report on the model developments in the sectoral assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Ana; Termansen, Mette; Bouwer, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    The Objective of this Deliverable D3.2 is to describe the models developed in BASE that is, the experimental setup for the sectoral modelling. The model development described in this deliverable will then be implemented in the adaptation and economic analysis in WP6 in order to integrate adaptati...

  4. Data Hemorrhages in the Health-Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. Eric

    Confidential data hemorrhaging from health-care providers pose financial risks to firms and medical risks to patients. We examine the consequences of data hemorrhages including privacy violations, medical fraud, financial identity theft, and medical identity theft. We also examine the types and sources of data hemorrhages, focusing on inadvertent disclosures. Through an analysis of leaked files, we examine data hemorrhages stemming from inadvertent disclosures on internet-based file sharing networks. We characterize the security risk for a group of health-care organizations using a direct analysis of leaked files. These files contained highly sensitive medical and personal information that could be maliciously exploited by criminals seeking to commit medical and financial identity theft. We also present evidence of the threat by examining user-issued searches. Our analysis demonstrates both the substantial threat and vulnerability for the health-care sector and the unique complexity exhibited by the US health-care system.

  5. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  6. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  7. [Violence against women: the role of the health sector in international legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    To identify and describe the responsibilities attributed to health administrations in preventing and addressing violence against women in the international legislation on this issue. We carried out a content analysis of the laws on violence against women collected in the following legal databases: the Annual Review of Law of Harvard University, the United Nations' Secretary-General's database on Violence against Women, the International Digest of Health Legislation and Stop Violence against Women. All legal documents explicitly mentioning the participation of the health sector in interventions against violence against women were identified. Subsequently, the interventions selected were classified into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, as defined by the World Health Organization in its first World Report on Violence and Health (2002). Of the 115 countries analyzed, 55 have laws on violence against women that include the participation of the health sector in interventions concerning this phenomenon. In most of these countries, this participation focusses on reporting detected cases and on providing healthcare and assistance to women referred from police services. We identified 24 laws that explicitly mention the interventions developed by the health sector, mainly consisting of tertiary prevention. The laws of Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, El Salvador, Spain and the Philippines include interventions involving the three levels of prevention. One-fourth of the laws concerning violence against women studied incorporate specific interventions in the health sector, suggesting that a comprehensive approach to the problem is still required. Greater utilization of the potential of this sector is required in interventions to prevent violence against women. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Microeconomic principles in the health sector: The demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health has become a dominant economic and political issue over the past years, where many nations experience rapid rises in health care spending. The main reason why the health care sector does not operate entirely in accordance with economic market principles is the fact that inequalities in health and access to health care are understood as the lack of humanity and justice. Health care demands might seem as quite inelastic, but because of the health insurance, it shows a certain degree of price, income, cross - price and time elasticity. The subject of this study was the demand for health services in the Republic of Serbia in order to assess the ability of the public sector to meet the demand for providing these services. The underlying assumption was that public health can not adequately meet the needs of citizens due to insufficient investment in the sector and inefficient allocation of resources. To confirm this assumption, basic characteristics of health care market and the factors affecting the supply and demand for health services were discussed. Based on the analysis of investment in the health sector, the existing capacity and organization of health services, our research has shown that the public health system in the Republic of Serbia is not able to adequately meet the demand for health services. In the current economic situation in the Republic of Serbia, which already spends a significant portion of its GDP on health, there is no realistic possibility of increased spending on public health care system, although it can be expected that there will be increasing demand for health services and increase of costs. The health sector is not, and does not have the ability to be a perfectly competitive market, and the questions of its financing, rational and efficient organization is extremely delicate. However, health care economists and experts in health economics should give a significantly higher contribution in organizing health sector

  9. Lessons from the business sector for successful knowledge management in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Hovanec, Nina; Hastie, Robyn; Sibbald, Shannon

    2011-07-25

    The concept of knowledge management has been prevalent in the business sector for decades. Only recently has knowledge management been receiving attention by the health care sector, in part due to the ever growing amount of information that health care practitioners must handle. It has become essential to develop a way to manage the information coming in to and going out of a health care organization. The purpose of this paper was to summarize previous studies from the business literature that explored specific knowledge management tools, with the aim of extracting lessons that could be applied in the health domain. We searched seven databases using keywords such as "knowledge management", "organizational knowledge", and "business performance". We included articles published between 2000-2009; we excluded non-English articles. 83 articles were reviewed and data were extracted to: (1) uncover reasons for initiating knowledge management strategies, (2) identify potential knowledge management strategies/solutions, and (3) describe facilitators and barriers to knowledge management. KM strategies include such things as training sessions, communication technologies, process mapping and communities of practice. Common facilitators and barriers to implementing these strategies are discussed in the business literature, but rigorous studies about the effectiveness of such initiatives are lacking. The health care sector is at a pinnacle place, with incredible opportunities to design, implement (and evaluate) knowledge management systems. While more research needs to be done on how best to do this in healthcare, the lessons learned from the business sector can provide a foundation on which to build.

  10. Sensitivity of health sector indicators' response to climate change in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovie, Delali B K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the emerging burden of global climate change threatens the fidelity of routine indicators for disease detection and management of risks to public health. The threat partially reflects the conservative character of the health sector and the reluctance to adopt new indicators, despite the growing awareness that existing environmental health indicators were developed to respond to risks that may no longer be relevant, and are too simplistic to also act as indicators for newer global-scale risk factors. This study sought to understand the scope of existing health indicators, while aiming to discover new indicators for building resilience against three climate sensitive diseases (cerebro spinal meningitis, malaria and diarrhea). Therefore, new potential indicators derived from human and biophysical origins were developed to complement existing health indicators, thereby creating climate-sensitive battery of robust composite indices of resilience in health planning. Using Ghana's health sector as a case study systematic international literature review, national expert consultation, and focus group outcomes yielded insights into the relevance, sensitivity and impacts of 45 indicators in 11 categories in responding to climate change. In total, 65% of the indicators were sensitive to health impacts of climate change; 24% acted directly; 31% synergistically; and 45% indirectly, with indicator relevance strongly associated with type of health response. Epidemiological indicators (e.g. morbidity) and health demographic indicators (e.g. population structure) require adjustments with external indicators (e.g. biophysical, policy) to be resilient to climate change. Therefore, selective integration of social and ecological indicators with existing public health indicators improves the fidelity of the health sector to adopt more robust planning of interdependent systems to build resilience. The study highlights growing uncertainties in

  11. Identification of research activities for the dairy sector development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    implementation of the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture by contributing to a learning approach on farmers' groups, commodity ... Key words: Agricultural research and development, systemic and participatory approaches, Ugandan dairy sector. Introduction .... market is the main constraint in modern type farms. So, the.

  12. Role of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural experts in the field of biotechnology in Iran were surveyed in order to explore their perception about factors influencing the participation of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran. Based on the results of the study, policy making, marketing, infrastructural, educational and research factors ...

  13. Developing the organization's productivity strategy in various sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Looze, M.P. de; Have, K.T.; Rhijn, J.W. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present an approach to improve the organisation's productivity which is applicable in every industrial sector. The nucleus of the approach is to develop an optimal productivity strategy in an organization by the application of a uniform static model of productivity

  14. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  15. Isomorphic pressures, institutional strategies, and knowledge creation in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Min

    2007-01-01

    Health care organizations are facing surprisingly complex challenges, including new treatment and diagnostic technologies, ongoing pressures for health care institutional reform, the emergence of new organizational governance structures, and knowledge creation for the health care system. To maintain legitimacy in demanding environments, organizations tend to copy practices of similar organizations, which lead to isomorphism, and to use internal strategies to accommodate changes. A concern is that a poor fit between isomorphic pressures and internal strategies can interfere with developmental processes, such as knowledge creation. The purposes of this article are to, first, develop a set of propositions, based on institutional theory, as a theoretical framework that might explain the influence of isomorphic pressures on institutional processes through which knowledge is created within the health care sector and, second, propose that a good fit between isomorphic pressures factors and health care organizations' institutional strategic choices will enhance the health care organizations' ability to create knowledge. To develop a theoretical framework, we developed a set of propositions based on literature pertaining to the institutional theory perspective of isomorphic pressures and the response of health care organizations to isomorphic pressures. Institutional theory perspectives of isomorphic pressures and institutional strategies may provide a new understanding for health care organizations seeking effective knowledge creation strategies within institutional environment of health care sector. First, the ability to identify three forces for isomorphic change is critical for managers. Second, the importance of a contingency approach by health care managers can lead to strategies tailoring to cope with uncertainties facing their organizations.

  16. Sector specific features of innovative development in the Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasyuk I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day development of the Russian Federation is mostly shaped by the innovative development capacity of the national economy. Industry forms the core of such development. The paper presents the study of the current state of the innovative development in industry being the source of the basic innovations, as well as identifies the limitation factors. The authors have found out that low innovative activity of the industrial enterprises holds back the implementation of innovations in the related sectors, for instance, trade. It has also been found out that the course of the innovative development in the field of trade is also shaped by the sector-specific factors, which should be considered to adjust the innovation policy of a trading enterprise.

  17. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health.

  18. Development of Brazilian Biodiesel Sector from the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Françoise Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP. It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, this paper aims to analyse the perspective of biodiesel sector stakeholders in Brazil to understand whether NPBP directives are in consonance with the reality of the sector for its development. A questionnaire was created with 48 questions in order to understand the importance of 13 variables for the stakeholders, and the responses were treated by factor analysis (FA. The results showed the existence of a trade-off related to technological advances in biodiesel production that confronts NPBP directives, that is, the biodiesel sector tends not to evolve in terms of the use of advanced technologies. If policies change so as to develop the biodiesel sector using advanced technologies, NPBP should change its directives in order to involve family farmers in another way in the Brazilian economy.

  19. Health-sector responses to address the impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Pote-Shrestha, Raja Ram; Groneberg, David A; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral. Vector-borne diseases, diarrhoeal diseases including cholera, malnutrition, cardiorespiratory diseases, psychological stress, and health effects and injuries related to extreme weather are major climate-sensitive health risks in the country. In recent years, research has been done in Nepal in order to understand the changing epidemiology of diseases and generate evidence for decision-making. Based on this evidence, the experience of programme managers, and regular surveillance data, the Government of Nepal has mainstreamed issues related to climate change in development plans, policies and programmes. In particular, the Government of Nepal has addressed climate-sensitive health risks. In addition to the NAPA report, several policy documents have been launched, including the Climate Change Policy 2011; the Nepal Health Sector Programme - Implementation Plan II (NHSP-IP 2) 2010-2015; the National Health Policy 2014; the National Health Sector Strategy 2015-2020 and its implementation plan (2016-2021); and the Health National Adaptation Plan (H-NAP): climate change and health strategy and action plan (2016-2020). However, the translation of these policies and plans of action into tangible action on the ground is still in its infancy in Nepal. Despite this, the health sector's response to addressing the impact of climate change in Nepal may be taken as a good example for other low- and middle-income countries.

  20. Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system being controlled by district and central level authorities, leaving little room for lower level stake- holders to participate. Conclusion: For ... as staff directly involved in health-care service delivery and their allied personnel within ..... diagnoses; and prevention of infections at HFs, espe- cially at dispensary levels. HWs in ...

  1. [Good governance in the Burundi health sector financial reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerenboom, Peter Bob; Basenya, Olivier; Bossuyt, Michel; Ndayishimiye, Juvénal; Ntakarutimana, Léonard; van de Weerd, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Burundi introduced free healthcare for children under five and pregnant women in 2006. In 2010, this was linked to the Performance-Based Financing (PBF) approach. This article is designed to identify factors in these health financing reforms that have contributed to good governance in the health sector. Six criteria of good governance were used as an analytical framework. Results were derived from official reports and the international literature. The main contributions of these reforms to good governance in Burundi were the separation of functions, transparency in management and a meticulous description of administrative procedures. Scrupulous monitoring resulted in several corrective measures. Several unresolved questions remain, concerning the integration of vertical programmes and the sustainability of the system given the considerable costs, since funding is not yet fully ensured by the State and its partners.

  2. Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-05-01

    of CoP in this sector remained unclear. Conclusion There is no dominant trend in how the CoP concept is operationalized in the business and health sectors; hence, it is challenging to define the parameters of CoP groups. This may be one of the reasons for the lack of studies on the effectiveness of CoPs in the health sector. In order to improve the usefulness of the CoP concept in the development of groups and teams, further research will be needed to clarify the extent to which the four characteristics of CoPs are present in the mature and emergent groups, the expectations of facilitators and other participants, and the power relationship within CoPs.

  3. Improving child health promotion practices in multiple sectors – outcomes of the Swedish Salut Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2012-10-01

    -specific intervention packages developed and tested by end users, and introduced via interactive multisectoral seminars, shows potential for improving health promotion practices and collaboration across sectors. Consideration of the key facilitators and barriers for programme implementation as highlighted in this study can inform future improvement efforts.

  4. Slavery in New Zealand: What is the role of the health sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paula; Blaiklock, Alison; Stringer, Christina; Amaranathan, Jay; McLean, Margot

    2017-10-06

    Contemporary forms of slavery and associated adverse health effects are a serious, complex and often neglected issue within the New Zealand health sector. Slavery in New Zealand has most recently been associated with the fishing and horticulture industries. However, victims may be found in a number of other industry sectors, including the health and aged-care sectors, or outside of the labour market such as in forced, early (underage) and servile forms of marriage. Victims of slavery are at increased risk of acute and chronic health problems, injuries from dangerous working and living conditions, and physical and sexual abuse. These issues are compounded by restricted access to high-quality healthcare. Slavery is a violation of many human rights, including the right to health. New Zealand has obligations under international law to ensure that all victims of slavery have access to adequate physical and psychological care. The health sector has opportunities to identify, intervene and protect victims. This requires doctors and other health practitioners to demonstrate their leadership, knowledge and commitment towards addressing slavery and its health consequences in ways that are effective and do not cause further harm. Key recommendations for a safe approach towards identifying and managing people in situations of slavery include building rapport, and culturally competent practice with an empathetic non-judgmental approach. We also recommend that health organisations and regulatory and professional bodies develop culturally competent guidelines to respond safely to those identified in situations of slavery. These responses should be based on the respect, promotion and protection of human rights, and occur within a robust person-centric coordinated government response to addressing slavery in New Zealand.

  5. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  6. Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheya Melo Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. Objective: This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Materials and Methods: Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Results: Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5% of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre. Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Conclusions: Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.

  7. Mobile Phone Health Applications for the Federal Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Christin S; Weigel, Fred K

    2016-01-01

    As the US healthcare system moves toward a mobile care model, mobile phones will play a significant role in the future of healthcare delivery. Today, 90% of American adults own a mobile phone and 64% own a smartphone, yet many healthcare organizations are only beginning to explore the opportunities in which mobile phones can improve and streamline care. After searching Google Scholar, the Association for Computing Machinery Database, and PubMed for articles related to mobile phone health applications and cell phone text message health, we selected articles and studies related to the application of mobile phones in healthcare. From our initial review, we identified the potential application areas and continued to refine our search, identifying a total of 55 articles for additional review and analysis. From the literature, we identified 3 main themes for mobile phone implementation in improving healthcare: primary, preventive, and population health. We recommend federal health leaders pursue the value and potential in these areas; not only because 90% of Americans already own mobile phones, but also because mobile phone integration can provide substantial access and potential cost savings. From the positive findings of multiple studies in primary, preventive, and population health, we propose a 5-year federal implementation plan to integrate mobile phone capabilities into federal healthcare delivery. Our proposal has the potential to improve access, reduce costs, and increase patient satisfaction, therefore changing the way the federal sector delivers healthcare by 2021.

  8. Determinants of enrollment of informal sector workers in cooperative based health scheme in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque Sarker

    Full Text Available Providing access to affordable health care for the informal sector remains a considerable challenge for low income countries striving to make progress towards universal health coverage. The objective of the study is to identify the factors shaping the decision to enroll in a cooperative based health scheme for informal workers in Bangladesh and also help to identify the features of informal workers without health schemes and their likelihood of being insured.Data were derived from a cross-sectional in-house survey within the catchment area of a cooperative based health scheme in Bangladesh during April-June 2014, covering a total of 784 households (458 members and 326 non-members. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with cooperative based health scheme and explanatory variables.This study found that a number of factors were significant determinants of health scheme participation including sex of household head, household composition, occupational category as well as involvement social financial safety net programs.Findings from this study can be suggestive for policy-makers interested in scaling up health insurance for informal workers in Bangladesh. Shared funding from this large informal sector can generate new resources for healthcare, which is in line with the healthcare financing strategy of Bangladesh as well as the recommendation of the World Health Organization for developing social health insurance as part of the path to Universal Health Coverage.

  9. Health Sector Reform in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health sector reform is a 'sustained process of fundamental changes in national health policy, institutional arrangements, etc. guided by government and designed to improve the functioning and performance of the health sector and, ultimately, the health status of the population'. All the forty six countries in the African ...

  10. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 2: measuring impacts and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2004-03-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1 focuses on approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services. This paper investigates evaluative models developed for some innovative digital library projects, and some major national and international electronic health information projects. The value of ethnographic methods to provide qualitative data to explore outcomes, adding to quantitative approaches based on inputs and outputs is discussed. The paper concludes that new 'post-positivist' models of evaluation are needed to cover all the dimensions of the digital library in the health sector, and some ways of doing this are outlined.

  11. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  12. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Chu, Annie; Li, Zhihui; Shen, Jian; Subramanian, Subu; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH), education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA). Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans) disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the fastest growth (12

  13. Assessing development assistance for child survival between 2000 and 2014: A multi-sectoral perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Lu

    Full Text Available The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH, education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA.Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the

  14. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  15. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  16. El sector rural y el plan de desarrollo The rural sector in the Development Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado C. Absalón

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available El diagnostico del Plan de desarrollo sobre los problemas rurales desconoce los avances logrados por la Mision Rural durante 1996-1997 en la precision de la problematica rural y el las propuestas para resolverla. El diagnostico es muy parcial y de corte economicista y sus propuestas son imprecisas e insuficientes. No profundiza el analisis de las causa de la crisis y se limita a aceptar los hechos. Menciona diversos temas como -financiacion del sector rural, reforma agraria, pobreza y desarrollo rural, investigacion y transferencia de tecnologia, problematica social y de desarrollo institucional- pero no los desarrolla y no aclara a los actores cual sera el horizonte en deben actuar, de modo que sus expectativas sobre el futuro y sus desiciones de inversion estaran llenos de incertidumbre.The diagnosis of rural problems in the Development Plan ignores the advanees achieved by the Rural Mission in 1996-1997 in the specification of the rural problematic and in the proposals to resolve it. The diagnosis is very partial and economistic and its proposals are imprecise and insufficient. It does not analyze in depth the causes of the crisis and is limited to accepting the facts. It mentions diverse topics -financing of the rural sector, agrarian reform, poverty and rural development, research and technology transfer, social problems and institutional development- but it does not develop them and does not clarify for the actors involved in what horizon they must act, and therefore their expectations about the future and their investment decisions will be full of uncertainty.

  17. Public-Private health sector mix- way forward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in basic economics principles of how to maximise benefits for the population from the existing resourc- .... and high administrative costs, the private sector, with fee for service system of payment, is also generally ... private sector growth results in trans- fer of demands of the affluent from the public to the private sector, (e.g..

  18. Multi-Sectoral Action for Addressing Social Determinants of Noncommunicable Diseases and Mainstreaming Health Promotion in National Health Programmes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs share common behavioral risk factors and deep-rooted social determinants. India needs to address its growing NCD burden through health promoting partnerships, policies, and programs. High-level political commitment, inter-sectoral coordination, and community mobilization are important in developing a successful, national, multi-sectoral program for the prevention and control of NCDs. The World Health Organization′s "Action Plan for a Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of NCDs" calls for a comprehensive plan involving a whole-of-Government approach. Inter-sectoral coordination will need to start at the planning stage and continue to the implementation, evaluation of interventions, and enactment of public policies. An efficient multi-sectoral mechanism is also crucial at the stage of monitoring, evaluating enforcement of policies, and analyzing impact of multi-sectoral initiatives on reducing NCD burden in the country. This paper presents a critical appraisal of social determinants influencing NCDs, in the Indian context, and how multi-sectoral action can effectively address such challenges through mainstreaming health promotion into national health and development programs. India, with its wide socio-cultural, economic, and geographical diversities, poses several unique challenges in addressing NCDs. On the other hand, the jurisdiction States have over health, presents multiple opportunities to address health from the local perspective, while working on the national framework around multi-sectoral aspects of NCDs.

  19. A protocol for developing an evaluation framework for an academic and private-sector partnership to assess the impact of major food and beverage companies' investments in community health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ferris, Emily; Crossley, Rachel; Guillermin, Michelle; Costa, Sergio; Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    Public health leaders increasingly recognize the importance of multi-sector partnerships and systems approaches to address obesity. Public-private partnerships (PPP), which are joint ventures between government agencies and private sector entities, may help facilitate this process, but need to be delivered through comprehensive, transparent frameworks to maximize potential benefits and minimize potential risks for all partners. The City University of New York (CUNY) School of Public Health and the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) propose to engage in a unique academic-private-sector research partnership to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the food and beverage industry's investment in obesity and hunger prevention and reduction through community-level healthful eating and active living programs. The CUNY-HWCF academic-private partnership protocol described here incorporates best practices from the literature on PPP into the partnership's design. The CUNY-HWCF partnership design demonstrates how established guidelines for partnership components will actively incorporate and promote the principles of successful PPPs identified in various research papers. These identified principles of successful PPP, including mutuality (a reciprocal relationship between entities), and equality among partners, recognition of partners' unique strengths and roles, alignment of resources and expertise toward a common cause, and coordination and delegation of responsibilities, will be embedded throughout the design of governance, management, funding, intellectual property and accountability structures. The CUNY-HWCF partnership responds to the call for increased multi-sector work in obesity prevention and control. This framework aims to promote transparency and the shared benefits of complementary expertise while minimizing shared risks and conflicts of interest. This framework serves as a template for future academic-private research partnerships.

  20. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  1. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybowski, J. [Polish Power Grid Co., Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  2. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura

    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols. Timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD was used as indicator for preparedness. In focus group sessions and semistructured interviews, experiences of curative and public health stakeholders about the regional and national process of preparedness and response were listed. Timeliness recordings of all referred patients with suspected EVD (13) were collected from first date of illness until arrival in the referral academic hospital. Ebola preparedness was considered extensive compared with the risk of an actual patient, however necessary. Regional coordination varied between regions. More standardization of regional preparation and operational guidelines was requested, as well as nationally standardized contingency criteria, and the National Centre for Infectious Disease Control was expected to coordinate the development of these guidelines. For the timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD, the median delay between first date of illness until triage was 2.0 days (range: 0-10 days), and between triage and arrival in the referral hospital, it was 5.0 hours (range: 2-7.5 hours). In none of these patients Ebola infection was confirmed. Coordination between the public health sector and the curative sector needs improvement to reduce delay in patient management in emerging infectious diseases. Standardization of preparedness and response practices, through guidelines for institutional preparedness and blueprints for regional and national coordination, is necessary, as preparedness for emerging infectious

  3. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vian, Taryn

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector...

  4. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hotchkiss, David R; Banteyerga, Hailom; Tharaney, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    ... the factors that influence the performance of health workers. This empirical study investigates the factors that are associated with health worker motivation over time among public sector primary health care workers in Ethiopia...

  5. Health sector reform processes in Nigeria: A review of factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In most countries health care reform is aimed at improving the efficiency, equity and effectiveness of the health sector. Documentation of health sector reform experiences has focused primarily on efficiency and design of reforms, largely neglecting equity and the frequent experience that reforms are not fully ...

  6. Intra Sector Policy Interventions for Improvement of Iranian Health Financing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Bastani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: To determine an appropriate financial model for the health system of Iran, several studies have been conducted. But it seems that these studies were not comprehensive and further investigation is required. So to design a valid and enforceable mechanism, the study of policy interventions will be considered through consensus of all stakeholders. This investigation was done to determine the necessary policies and internal interventions for health care system financial improvement in Iran. Materials and methods: The present work was carried out through investigating all key stakeholders in the medical system and the related sectors in Iran, along with the analysis of internal and external communication by using SWOT and STEEP.V methods. Results: Strategic management of health-care costs, the development of a new financial system, clarity of costs, benefiting from health national accounts, the regulation of budget based on operations, preparing the credit of per capita from prepayment and risk accumulation, the development of referral systems and mechanisms, the establishment of public fund for services purchase, preventing the involvement of insurances in non-insurance cases, competing services with the private sector and increasing resources for the promotion of equality level have been determined as the key proposed interventions. Conclusion: It seems that the interventions based to the development of improving health financial system including the deployment of full accrual basis instead of cash basis, preparing and using services cost and operational budgeting and finally, cost management and productivity are the prerequisites of reforming health financial system.

  7. Capital dynamics and local health systems: searching for a comprehensive analysis of the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of a methodology aimed to analyze the health care sector according to the dynamics of capital accumulation. That approach could be summed up to more traditional approaches founded in the Public Health field, based in a political perspective. The proposal departs from concepts and methods of Industrial Organization, already used for health care markets, in the European and Latin-American (CEPAL contexts. We aggregated economic and historical variables to these approaches, which delimitate possibilities and impose constraints to the strategies of the local agents. The objective of the paper is to give methodological support to public managers at state and local level, whose role as the single commander in their territories is prescribed by the present health policy in Brazil. That includes all the fields related to private sector regulation in health: from planning the supply to quality control of providers.

  8. Health sector reforms in Nigeria: The need to integrate traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspite of the wide spread use, traditional medicines have not yet been integrated into the national health care systems of many developing countries, including Nigeria. This paper focuses on the need to integrate folk medicine into the mainstream health care system of Nigeria, which is hitherto dominated by allopathic ...

  9. Persistence as the path from motivation to performance in the Papua New Guinea health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elich, Luke

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how the individual capacity states of motivation, confidence, skill and ability relate to performance, and identifies a crucial role for the discretionary behaviour of individuals: specifically, employee persistence and innovation. The study Understanding the people and performance link: unlocking the black box undertaken by Purcell and colleagues is relied upon in constructing a theoretical framework for the conceptual interrelationships between performance and the human-resource-mediating variables, which is then applied within the Papua New Guinea (PNG) health sector context. The study by Purcell and colleagues, which was informed by organizations with well-developed and functioning human resource policies and practices, is distinguished from the PNG health sector, where human resource frameworks are largely ineffective--yet it is determined that the importance of 'discretionary behaviour' relative to performance, whilst varied, is undiminished.

  10. [Health inequities in mood disorders based on material and social deprivation in dwelling sectors ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Lesage, Alain; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Bergeron, Claude

    2012-12-01

    To compare mood disorder (MD) prevalence in Quebec in 2006, and compare health services and medication use, mortality and morbidity in patients with MD based on sex and the dwelling sector level of material and social deprivation. The objective was also to identify subgroups of individuals using health services in a larger proportion and having a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec medico-administrative data. The cohort is composed of adults diagnosed with MD and living in Quebec in 2006. Variables include: physician consultation, medication demand, consultation for substance or alcohol abuse, emergency visit, hospitalization for a mental disorder, and death. Dwelling sector types are defined by crossing Pampalon material and social deprivation quintiles. MD prevalence in 2006 was 3.06% (177 850 patients), with prevalence in women 1.7-fold with respect to men. Findings show a higher MD prevalence as well as a higher mortality and morbidity rate in materially and socially deprived dwelling sectors. Young men also represent a specifically vulnerable subgroup for many study variables. Public policies aimed at improving material conditions (income, education, employment) and breaking out social isolation would have an important impact on the population mental health. Public health program development should pay close attention to young men population.

  11. Access to safe legal abortion in Malaysia: women's insights and health sector response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE HEALTH SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tatiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises an assessment of the Romanian health financing policy and a detailed analysis of income and expenditure trends over the past seven years. The current situation of the health system is evaluated by reviewing the existing health legislation and documents on public health policies from Romania and from abroad, by analyzing the official statistics (the Romanian Yearbook of Health Statistics, Who database and by performing a healthcare system financial analysis. Although the financial efforts of the Romanian state to support the health system have increased, almost all the incomes and expenditures of the health care system having recorded significant increases, the population perception on health services worsened. Financing the health system continues to be inadequate and used in an ineffective way. Health is an essential component of well-being with major socio-economic implications. The organization and functioning of the health system depends on ensuring adequate funding. Romania must develop its health strategy in the context of European Union policies. These policies are based on values and principles such as promoting universal protection against financial risk, promoting a more equitable distribution of the financing burden, promoting equitable provision and use of services relative to need, improving the transparency and accountability of the system to the public, promoting quality and efficiency in service delivery, improving administrative efficiency, while ensuring the financial sustainability of the health system. In this context, in order to support a financially sustainable and high performing health system, the paper includes recommendations for increasing the public incomes in the health insurance system and options to streamline the healthcare services and expenses in the future.

  13. Is the level of financial sector development a key determinant of private investment in the power sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Farid; Lika, Ba; Noumba Um, Paul

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper seeks to assess the extent to which a country’s overall level of development and that of its financial sector, in particular, are factors that attract private capital into infrastructure projects. The authors investigate these effects in a 1990–2007 dataset on the power sector in 37 developing countries. The results suggest that economic growth is a key determinant of private investors’ investment in infrastructure projects, and that investors tend to take countries’ governance...

  14. Is the level of financial sector development a key determinant of private investment in the power sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Farid; Lika, Ba; Noumba Um, Paul

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper seeks to assess the extent to which a country’s overall level of development and that of its financial sector, in particular, are factors that attract private capital into infrastructure projects. The authors investigate these effects in a 1990–2007 dataset on the power sector in 37 developing countries. The results suggest that economic growth is a key determinant of private investors’ investment in infrastructure projects, and that investors tend to take countries’ governance qu...

  15. Lessons from the business sector for successful knowledge management in health care: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The concept of knowledge management has been prevalent in the business sector for decades. Only recently has knowledge management been receiving attention by the health care sector, in part due to the ever growing amount of information that health care practitioners must handle. It has become essential to develop a way to manage the information coming in to and going out of a health care organization. The purpose of this paper was to summarize previous studies from the business literature that explored specific knowledge management tools, with the aim of extracting lessons that could be applied in the health domain. Methods We searched seven databases using keywords such as "knowledge management", "organizational knowledge", and "business performance". We included articles published between 2000-2009; we excluded non-English articles. Results 83 articles were reviewed and data were extracted to: (1) uncover reasons for initiating knowledge management strategies, (2) identify potential knowledge management strategies/solutions, and (3) describe facilitators and barriers to knowledge management. Conclusions KM strategies include such things as training sessions, communication technologies, process mapping and communities of practice. Common facilitators and barriers to implementing these strategies are discussed in the business literature, but rigorous studies about the effectiveness of such initiatives are lacking. The health care sector is at a pinnacle place, with incredible opportunities to design, implement (and evaluate) knowledge management systems. While more research needs to be done on how best to do this in healthcare, the lessons learned from the business sector can provide a foundation on which to build. PMID:21787403

  16. Lessons from the business sector for successful knowledge management in health care: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbald Shannon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of knowledge management has been prevalent in the business sector for decades. Only recently has knowledge management been receiving attention by the health care sector, in part due to the ever growing amount of information that health care practitioners must handle. It has become essential to develop a way to manage the information coming in to and going out of a health care organization. The purpose of this paper was to summarize previous studies from the business literature that explored specific knowledge management tools, with the aim of extracting lessons that could be applied in the health domain. Methods We searched seven databases using keywords such as "knowledge management", "organizational knowledge", and "business performance". We included articles published between 2000-2009; we excluded non-English articles. Results 83 articles were reviewed and data were extracted to: (1 uncover reasons for initiating knowledge management strategies, (2 identify potential knowledge management strategies/solutions, and (3 describe facilitators and barriers to knowledge management. Conclusions KM strategies include such things as training sessions, communication technologies, process mapping and communities of practice. Common facilitators and barriers to implementing these strategies are discussed in the business literature, but rigorous studies about the effectiveness of such initiatives are lacking. The health care sector is at a pinnacle place, with incredible opportunities to design, implement (and evaluate knowledge management systems. While more research needs to be done on how best to do this in healthcare, the lessons learned from the business sector can provide a foundation on which to build.

  17. The relationship between the growth in the health sector and inbound health tourism: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçak, Harun

    2016-01-01

    One of the consequences of globalisation for Turkey, as well as in other emerging countries, has been an increasing trend in health tourism. Households have been considered choice the best option in terms of price and alternative possibilities while they have been solved their health problems. Previous studies have argued that the main drivers of the growth of inbound health tourism to developing countries are lower costs, shorter waiting periods, and better quality of care. This study aimed to test the effect of health and social service sector growth on the flow of inbound health tourism between 2004:Q1 and 2015:Q4 by employing Granger causality and Johansen cointegration approaches. Our findings suggested that there is a long-run Granger causality from domestic health and social work expenditures to health tourism income whereas this is non-existence in the opposite direction.

  18. The impact of robotics on employment and motivation of employees in the service sector, with special reference to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Mohammed Owais; Syed, Rumaiya Sajjad

    2014-12-01

    The economy is being lifted by the new concept of robotics, but we cannot be sure of all the possible benefits. At this early stage, it therefore becomes important to find out the possible benefits/limitations associated with robotics, so that the positives can be capitalized, established, and developed further for the employment and motivation of employees in the health care sector, for overall economic development. The negatives should also be further studied and mitigated. This study is an exploratory research, based on secondary data, such as books on topics related to robotics, websites, public websites of concerned departments for data and statistics, journals, newspapers and magazines, websites of health care providers, and different printed materials (brochures, etc). The impact of robotics has both positive and negative impacts on the employment and motivation of employees in the retail sector. So far, there has been no substantial research done into robotics, especially in the health care sector. Replacing employees with robots is an inevitable choice for organizations in the service sector, more so in the health care sector because of the challenging and sometimes unhealthy working environments, but, at the same time, the researchers propose that it should be done in a manner that helps in improving the employment and motivation of employees in this sector.

  19. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  20. Healthy firms: constraints to growth among private health sector facilities in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas E; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business

  1. Healthy firms: constraints to growth among private health sector facilities in Ghana and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent. Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent, accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent, and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent. A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to

  2. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  3. Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensor Tim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations, levels of care and regions (urban, rural. In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not

  4. Violencia contra las mujeres: el papel del sector salud en la legislación internacional Violence against women: the role of the health sector in international legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Ortiz-Barreda

    2012-10-01

    and addressing violence against women in the international legislation on this issue. Methods: We carried out a content analysis of the laws on violence against women collected in the following legal databases: the Annual Review of Law of Harvard University, the United Nations´ Secretary-General's database on Violence against Women, the International Digest of Health Legislation and Stop Violence against Women. All legal documents explicitly mentioning the participation of the health sector in interventions against violence against women were identified. Subsequently, the interventions selected were classified into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, as defined by the World Health Organization in its first World Report on Violence and Health (2002. Results: Of the 115 countries analyzed, 55 have laws on violence against women that include the participation of the health sector in interventions concerning this phenomenon. In most of these countries, this participation focusses on reporting detected cases and on providing healthcare and assistance to women referred from police services. We identified 24 laws that explicitly mention the interventions developed by the health sector, mainly consisting of tertiary prevention. The laws of Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, El Salvador, Spain and the Philippines include interventions involving the three levels of prevention. Conclusions: One-fourth of the laws concerning violence against women studied incorporate specific interventions in the health sector, suggesting that a comprehensive approach to the problem is still required. Greater utilization of the potential of this sector is required in interventions to prevent violence against women.

  5. in the health service sector – results of literature study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the existing literature related to the directions of change from thepoint of view of the influence that lean approach has for management and accounting in health care institutions.The article is an account of the content of the selected 19 papers (from more than 200 analyzed published in thefield within the period 1995–2013. The investigation of the literature was conducted in two basic perspectives:theoretical considerations and results of empirical research (case study, questionnaire survey.The method of literature analysis was applied for the realization of the aim formulated in the paper. Twogroups of articles were the object of the analysis: theoretical and presenting explanatory results of empiricalinvestigations.The lean approach, which originated in the motor industry (production factories, is fully suitable for use inhealthcare organizations operating in various cultural contexts, and for reforming national healthcare systems toincrease their efficiency. The spreading and adoption of the lean concept in the medical services sector has anevolutionary character, similarly to the earlier spread of lean in manufacturing industries.

  6. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  7. Setting research priorities across science, technology, and health sectors: the Tanzania experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sylvia; Kingamkono, Rose; Tindamanyire, Neema; Mshinda, Hassan; Makandi, Harun; Tibazarwa, Flora; Kubata, Bruno; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2015-03-12

    Identifying research priorities is key to innovation and economic growth, since it informs decision makers on effectively targeting issues that have the greatest potential public benefit. As such, the process of setting research priorities is of pivotal importance for favouring the science, technology, and innovation (STI)-driven development of low- and middle-income countries. We report herein on a major cross-sectoral nationwide research priority setting effort recently carried out in Tanzania by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in partnership with the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and the NEPAD Agency. The first of its type in the country, the process brought together stakeholders from 42 sub-sectors in science, technology, and health. The cross-sectoral research priority setting process consisted of a 'training-of-trainers' workshop, a demonstration workshop, and seven priority setting workshops delivered to representatives from public and private research and development institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, and other agencies affiliated to COSTECH. The workshops resulted in ranked listings of research priorities for each sub-sector, totalling approximately 800 priorities. This large number was significantly reduced by an expert panel in order to build a manageable instrument aligned to national development plans that could be used to guide research investments. The Tanzania experience is an instructive example of the challenges and issues to be faced in when attempting to identify research priority areas and setting an STI research agenda in low- and middle-income countries. As countries increase their investment in research, it is essential to increase investment in research management and governance as well, a key and much needed capacity for countries to make proper use of research investments.

  8. Organization and Finance of China's Health Sector: Historical Antecedents for Macroeconomic Structural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hilsenrath, Peter

    2016-01-01

    China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China's shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China's evolution, adding another layer of complexity to policy. © The

  9. Assessing the impact of humanitarian assistance in the health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Les; Hofmann Charles-Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Abstract There have been significant improvements in the design and management of humanitarian aid responses in the last decade. In particular, a significant body of knowledge has been accumulated about public health interventions in emergencies, following calls for developing the evidence base of humanitarian health interventions. Several factors have prompted this, such as the increased volume of humanitarian assistance with subsequent higher levels of scrutiny on aid spending, and greater ...

  10. Development of Sustainability Assessment Framework in Hydropower sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, Malaysian demand in energy sector was drastically increase due to technological developments. Since, hydropower is one of potential renewable energy source in Malaysia. The largest electricity utility company, Tenaga Nasional Berhad was provide an electricity to more than seven million people via independent suppliers in peninsular Malaysia and Sabah by intended a potential sustainable hydropower system. In order to increasingly the power capacity from current use, 1882 MW to more than 3000 MW by years 2020. In this study, the environmental issues and also the penalty to the responsible company especially on Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) towards their project or business are one of the problems. Other than that, every project or business has to prepare a sustainability statement or sustainability report as vital to Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad under their listing requirements. Next, the sustainability performance on their project cannot be determined to achieve the key performance indicators (KPI) satisfaction from Government, stakeholder or any responsible agencies. This study presents an exhaustive review of these studies and suggests a direction for future developments. Sustainability Assessment framework or self-assessment is decidedly as a significant framework to assist towards sustainability reporting and to produce a Sustainability index for Hydropower sector using a mathematical model study. The results reveal that, the quantitative measurement from Sustainability Assessment framework to Systematic Sustainability Asssesment tool can be produce. In doing so, it is possible to improve the performance of the project especially in hydropower planner.

  11. Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guariguata Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As countries in sub-Saharan Africa develop their economies, it is important to understand the health of employees and its impact on productivity and absenteeism. While previous studies have assessed the impact of single conditions on absenteeism, the current study evaluates multiple health factors associated with absenteeism in a large worker population across several sectors in Namibia. Methods From March 2009 to June 2010, PharmAccess Namibia conducted a series of cross-sectional surveys of 7,666 employees in 7 sectors of industry in Namibia. These included a self-reported health questionnaire and biomedical screenings for certain infectious diseases and non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors. Data were collected on demographics, absenteeism over a 90-day period, smoking behavior, alcohol use, hemoglobin, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, HIV status, and presence of hepatitis B antigens and syphilis antibodies. The associations of these factors to absenteeism were ascertained using negative binomial regression. Results Controlling for demographic and job-related factors, high blood glucose and diabetes had the largest effect on absenteeism (IRR: 3.67, 95%CI: 2.06-6.55. This was followed by anemia (IRR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.17-2.18 and being HIV positive (IRR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.12-1.95. In addition, working in the fishing or services sectors was associated with an increased incidence of sick days (IRR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.23-1.90; and IRR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.32-2.20 respectively. The highest prevalence of diabetes was in the services sector (3.6%, 95%CI:-2.5-4.7. The highest prevalence of HIV was found in the fishing sector (14.3%, 95%CI: 10.1-18.5. Conclusion Both NCD risk factors and infectious diseases are associated with increased rates of short-term absenteeism of formal sector employees in Namibia. Programs to manage these conditions could help employers avoid costs associated

  12. Challenges facing the early childhood development sector in South Africa

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    Eric Atmore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the context of young children in South Africa in 2012 is described and the main challenges affecting children and the early childhood development sector (ECD in South Africa are investigated. A situation analysis of ECD in South Africa was undertaken using South African government ECD policy and programme implementation reports. There has been progress since 1994, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The number of children in Grade R has trebled since 2001, government education and social development budgets have increased substantially and 58% of children at ECD centres nationally are now subsidised. More children are in provision and in better quality provision than before. However, much still remains to be done before we can say with confidence that the needs of our youngest children are being met. This study identifies infrastructure, nutrition, ECD programmes, teacher training, institutional capacity and funding as the major gaps in ECD provision.

  13. Local communities and health disaster management in the mining sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cronjé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.

  14. Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe The Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe están introduciendo reformas que pueden influir profundamente en la forma como se prestan los servicios de salud y en quienes los reciben. Tanto en la Cumbre de las Américas de 1994 como en la "Reunión Especial sobre Reforma del Sector de la Salud" de 1995, organizada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Banco Mundial y otros organismos multilaterales y bilaterales, los gobiernos de la Región decidieron apoyar la generación de capacidad de análisis y la capacitación en lo relativo a las reformas del sector de la salud. En consecuencia, en 1997, la OPS y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional lanzaron la "Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe". Esta iniciativa tiene un financiamiento de aproximadamente US$ 10 millones hasta el año 2002 para apoyar actividades en Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana, busca promover una prestación más equitativa y eficaz de los servicios básicos de salud sustentando actividades regionales, y se encuentra ya en su tercer año de implementación.Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health

  15. [Positioning Ecuador in the global health agenda as a result of sector reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Cristina; Emanuele, Carlos Andrés; Torre, Daniel De La

    2017-06-08

    Analyze strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to position the country in the global health agenda during the period 2011-2015 as a result of health sector reform. Documentary review and interviews with stakeholders in national and international agencies with respect to positioning in the global health sphere during the study period. It was observed that the reform process produced a new framework to manage international health relations. The MPH implemented strategies and mechanisms to place national health priorities and interests on the global health agenda at bilateral, regional, and global levels. As a result, the country took a leadership role in certain processes and attained recognition at various international forums. The MPH reform process contributed to recognition and establishment of Ecuador's public policy priorities in the global health agenda through strategies such as giving importance to putting national priorities on the global health agenda, guiding the global health approach exercised by the highest health authority, developing technical capabilities and skills in the International Relations Office, and raising awareness in technical bodies.

  16. Safeguarding the Health Sector in Times of Macroeconomic Instability

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The literature, while significant, indicates a need for stronger evidence on the impacts of reforms driven by macroeconomic instability, as well as for a better .... These six countries represent diverse cases in terms of population size, level of income, human development, and implementation of MAPs and health system ...

  17. Commercial Sector Development in Rural Communities: Trade Area Analysis. Hard Times: Communities in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas R.

    The paper addresses the importance of developing a rural community's commercial sector for economic development by providing some analytical tools. Procedures are outlined to estimate commercial sector activity in a community, to estimate commercial sector activity for various counties within a state (Nevada is used as an example), and to develop…

  18. Rising private sector and falling 'good health at low cost': health challenges in China, Sri Lanka, and Indian state of Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thresia, C U

    2013-01-01

    Despite having a captivating history of outstanding health achievements during the second half of the 20th century, China, Sri Lanka, and the Indian state of Kerala face several health challenges, particularly in the context of a shift in financing health care from a predominantly public-sector to a market-oriented provision. Over the 1990s, these "good health at low cost" (GHLC) regions faced widening health inequities and adverse health outcomes in relation to social, economic, and geographical marginalization, compared to another GHLC country, Costa Rica, and to Cuba, which have a similar history of health and economic profile. While the historical process of health development in China, Sri Lanka, and Kerala is closely entangled with the interrelated policies on health and allied social sectors with an abiding public-sector support, the retreat of the state and resultant increase in private-sector medical care and out-of-pocket spending resulted in widening inequities and medical impoverishment. Investigating the public health challenges and associated medical care-induced impoverishment, this article argues that the fundamental root causes of health challenges in these regions are often neglected in policy and in practice and that policymakers, planners, and researchers should make it a priority to address health inequities.

  19. Social protection and the informal sector in developing countries : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Sethuraman, S V

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at identifying the sources of income insecurity and vulnerability among workers in the informal sector in developing countries and examines alternative approaches to social protection for the informal sector. This is followed by a discussion on the challenges of developing a comprehensive approach to social protection for the sector, building on the 2000/1 WDR on poverty and the 2001 Social Protection Sector Strategy Paper.

  20. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Luz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.

  1. THE ROLE OF THE ICT SECTOR IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA MARIA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires the merge of objectives for economic growth, quality of life and environmental protection. If in the 70’s the need to shift towards sustainable development has been made on the basis of environmental concerns, with the Brundtland Report the concept gains economic and social dimensions. Challenges such as technology, globalization, competition, efficiency, competitiveness, determine the businesses need to adapt to the new economy. Support information to doing business in these conditions is given by IT. The transition to the information society is considered a step to achieve sustainable development. Information, which became resource both in the business and in everyday environment, is the challenge that economic and social pillars of sustainable development must potency. Based on the review of interest for the concept "information society" in Europe, this article discusses the impact of the ICT sector on economic and social pillars of sustainable development. Information and Communication Technology, identified as the fifth wave of technological innovation, is the support of information society. It is playing a supporting role for the activities of all areas with a significant impact on the economy and quality of life. Quantification of any process can be achieved through indicators, created to reflect the progression or regression of the proposed targets. Indicators are tools for measuring any process, so their importance is essential for making decision. Using the scheme of interactions between the pillars of sustainable development proposed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, I have emphasized the role of the ICT sector on the social and economic pillar. Based on the relations established, I analyzed the results of the information society indicators at european level. Although in Europe plans and strategies on the transition to a knowledge economy were developed in the last 15

  2. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Does banking development matter for new firm creation in the informal sector? Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Rajesh Raj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence on the effect of banking development on firm creation in the small firm sector. This paper examines whether differences in banking sector penetration across Indian districts explain the differences in firm start-ups in Indian informal sector. Our empirical strategy lies in examining the effect of the spread of banking facilities at the district level on new firm formation in the informal sector for the period 1994–1995 to 2010–2011. Our results confirm that local bank availability is associated with significant increase in enterprises in the informal sector and the effect is more pronounced for larger enterprises in the sector.

  4. Assessing the impact of humanitarian assistance in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Les

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been significant improvements in the design and management of humanitarian aid responses in the last decade. In particular, a significant body of knowledge has been accumulated about public health interventions in emergencies, following calls for developing the evidence base of humanitarian health interventions. Several factors have prompted this, such as the increased volume of humanitarian assistance with subsequent higher levels of scrutiny on aid spending, and greater pressure for improving humanitarian aid quality and performance. However, documentation of the ability of humanitarian interventions to alleviate suffering and curb mortality remains limited. This paper argues that epidemiological studies can potentially be a useful tool for measuring the impact of health interventions in humanitarian crises. Survey methods or surveillance systems are mainly used for early warning or needs assessment and their potential for assessing the impact of aid programmes is underutilised.

  5. Development and regional characteristics of the Hungarian information and communication sector (ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Nagy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of IC technologies and in parallel the increasing demand for more information and knowledge from the actors of economy, institutions and members of society created the ICT-sector into the core of “new economy” and information society. This process got an important role in the major research topics in economic and social geography, thanks to the high innovation capacity of the sector, the new forms of organizing economic activities and the discussed spatial and social effects of the development. The rising ICT sector and new elements of information society implied a special interest not only from basic research, but even applied research areas, for example the emerging role of ICTs in regional development and regional policies and some sectoral policies (economy, education, health etc.. This process had a special role in the former COMECON area. The info-intensive activities had a crucial role in building up a new, market-led model of economy in the transition period. The new forms of communication offer to re-organize the personal connections, the local societies and created new “spaces and places” for new communities. The double modernisation effect of ICTs in converging countries in the period of transition (1989/1990 – 2004 had a serious impact on spatial processes. In our paper we concentrate on the role of ICTs in transforming Hungarian economy, increasing the competitiveness of the country. We try to describe the spatial structure of the sector and its part in forming the new regional structure of the country.

  6. [Shifting of emphasis in the world health sector strategy; from political concerns to economic ones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu

    2003-11-01

    Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All".

  7. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

    2017-01-01

    During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods.

  8. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. AIMS: The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. RESULTS: The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. CONCLUSIONS: In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods. PMID:28616419

  9. Exploring the impact of customer relational benefit on relationship commitment in health service sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Huang, Jin-An; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Chang

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of health service sectors have begun to implement relationship marketing to try to establish long-term relationship with customers. Customer relational benefit has been an important subject for relationship marketing researchers. This study was conducted to investigate how customer relational benefit might influence relationship commitment in health service sectors. The research used a questionnaire survey that retrieved a total number of 403 valid questionnaires. The data were collected by way of personal visits and investigations of outpatients in three regional hospitals in Taiwan. After the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire sample were examined, the data were verified by using hierarchical regression analysis. Results showed that confidence benefit constituted the most pronounced factor for hospital customers. Confidence benefit, social benefit, and special treatment benefit were perceived by customers as the key factors that have a positive influence on relationship commitment. In particular, customers placing greater emphasis on confidence benefit tended to be less willing to establish relationship commitment. When health service managers develop marketing strategies using customer relational benefit, they will still need to enhance customer confidence benefit as one of the main ways of achieving future improvements. In the event where health service managers seek to install resources for establishing and maintaining a good relationship commitment with customers, the crucial factors of social and special treatment benefits should not be ignored when seeking to enhance the customers' perception of confidence benefit.

  10. The European Regional Development Fund and Romanian Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Georgeta Kuciel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania, as a Member State of the European Union since 2007, receive financial assistance through EU structural instruments. The goal of regional development policy is to reduce disparities in the level of wealth, income between different regions and Member States of the European Union. In our country, there are 8 development regions that receive non-refundable financial assistance through the European Regional Development Fund. The aim of this paper is to present a comparative situation of the projects financed by ERDF, related to the period of financial programming 2007-2013, in two different development regions of Romania: North-West and Central. The objective of this article is to analyze the ongoing and implemented projects in transportation sector for the programming period 2007-2013, through ERDF, for the two development regions. The concepts used in this article are the regional policy of the EU, structural funds. The approach is based on several scientific research. According to Iain Begg, the structural funds aim to promote economic development by stimulating growth rate of disadvantaged regions, public investment in infrastructure, training, productivity of businesses in the region. The paper is based on theoretical documentation regarding the structural funds, the concept of the European regional policy, the absorption rate. The main methods employed were the observation, the specialized literature and publications. The conclusion of this study is that the North-West region has managed to attract more European funds through the European Regional Development Fund in the period 2007-2013 for the rehabilitation of streets, county and national roads. The case study can be used in university as a frame of reference in order to compare one of the two analyzed regions with other development regions. Although the North-West region had an absorption rate higher than the Central, through ERDF, in the North-West were upgraded seven county roads

  11. AGRICO-INDUSTRIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT MODELING UNDER UNCERTAINTY AND RISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira NAVAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic modelling of the agro-industrial sector proposed in [1] is done. For this purposes production function dependent of three production factors: capital, land and labour was estimate. Fourteen more perspective branches were selected for examination, Gross Domestic Product values and volume values for examined sector and branches, supposed to stochastic shocks, were calculated.

  12. [Occupational hazards in the Moroccan craft sector and proposal for occupational health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Harourate, K; Belamallem, I; Laraqui, O; Verger, C

    1999-09-01

    The absence of occupational health services, the numerous occupational hazards and the high number of people working in the handicraft sector have sparked this study. Descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological studies were carried out throughout 1996 for different artisan activities: iron-work, jewellery making, rug making, tannery, "zellige", pottery, and woodworking. The study included 449 artisans and consisted of an analysis of work conditions, a medico-social questionnaire, a clinical examination and among certain artisans, a biological check-up, a respiratory check-up (thoracic x-ray and lung function testing), and a toxicological check-up. Poor work conditions and the absence of any technical protection (collective or individual) are common to all the workshops visited. Multiple risks as well as various and frequent pathologies were observed for all the artisan activities. The most common ailments are those linked to posture and musculo-skeletal problems (67.6%), oral (58.2%), ocular (46.9%), dermatological (35.7%), ear/nose/throat (35.3%), respiratory (31.1%), digestive (21.1%) and neurological (20.7%). Often the same artisan showed several simultaneous conditions linked to work. The legislative texts related to occupational health and safety are many and dispersed, and would profit by being updated and regrouped within a work code which would make them easier to consult and would allow all partners in the social sector to get to know them. In addition, this legislation which has been strengthened, is unfortunately not enforced. We should support every initiative focused on developing the prevention of occupational hazards and the spirit of safety within artisan workshops. The concern for occupational risks within the artisan milieu owes its importance to their abundance, the diversity of the professions involved, and the number of different risks to which artisans are exposed. The role of a worksite doctor is therefore considerable, and his field of

  13. What is the Meaning of Public Sector Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the dynamics involved in establishing discourses necessary for constructing organizational change within the public sector. Drawing upon critical discourse analysis, the study identifies two competing discourses – a ‘patient’ and a ‘healthy citizen’ discourse, which exist as s...

  14. Explaining Quality Management in the Danish and Swedish Public Health Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Örnerheim, Mattias; Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the development of diverse quality systems in the otherwise quite similar Danish and Swedish public health sectors. After decades of numerous piecemeal medical and managerial quality development programs in both countries, a nationwide mandatory accreditation system...... was introduced in the Danish health services in 2009. Nationwide quality indicator projects are also found in Sweden, but there has been political attempt to introduce a compulsory system. This article seeks to explain this difference. It argues, first, that resistance from the medical professions blocked...... the introduction of compulsory, nationwide quality systems in both countries for decades. Second, the implementation of the Danish accreditation system was triggered by a combination of unintended policy learning produced by local reforms in two counties and of the Ministry of Health’s carefully orchestrated...

  15. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  16. A literature review of teledermatology programs in the South African public health sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, LEM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of Teledermatology Programs in the South African Public Health Sector Laticha E. M. Walters, Maurice Mars, Richard E. Scott Abstract: This is presentation on teledermatology programs in South Africa that indicate the inequitable access...

  17. [Mobile applications for the health sector: apps to support scientific information and medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Barbaro, Annarita; Gentili, Donatella; Napolitani, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The market of mobile applications (apps) and wireless technology infrastructures is rapidly widening and diversifying to better meet users' needs. Over the last few years, the use of mobile technologies and applications has been increasingly expanding in many professional fields. Research and academic institutions, hospitals, and drug companies are heavily investing in this sector, also in Italy, even though the offer seems to be still limited at the moment. As far as the industry of scientific publishing is concerned, the main Italian publishing groups show an increasing interest in developing apps aiming at spreading their own products, following the example of international publishing companies. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the mobile applications and services available in the domain of scientific information relating to health disciplines and medical practice, especially within the Italian context. This study intends to inform professionals and users in the health sector about the benefits offered by the mobile technology, and to help them to become familiar with these tools. The two main online markets (iTunes and Google Play) have been analysed; search engines for apps and Italian STM publishers' websites have also been considered. Within this fast moving scenery, innovation is supported by the pressing demand for mobile access technology which has increased enormously. Not surprisingly, the most promising target of mobile technology is represented by scientific information tools relating to health.

  18. Developing a long-term condition's information service in collaboration with third sector organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Lesley; Greenwell, Kate; Corbett, Sally; Walker, Richard

    2014-06-01

    People with long-term conditions need to be signposted to high quality information and advice to understand and manage their condition. Information seeking tools combined with third sector information could help address their information needs. To describe the development and implementation of an information service for people living with long-term conditions at one NHS acute trust in the Northeast of England. An information service was trialled using bespoke information models for three long-term conditions in collaboration with third sector organisations. These guided people to relevant, timely and reliable information. Both clinician and service user questionnaires were used to evaluate satisfaction with the service. Appropriately designed information models can be used interchangeably across all services. Between 75% and 91% of users agreed that they were satisfied with various aspects of the service. Generally, users received relevant, understandable and high quality information at the right time. Nearly all health professionals (94-100%) felt the service was accessible, provided high quality information and did not significantly impact on their consultation time. The developed information service was well received by service users and health professionals. Specifically, the use of information prescriptions and menus facilitated access to information for people with long-term conditions. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  19. Developing an operational capabilities index of the emergency services sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.J.; Eaton, L.K.; Shoemaker, Z.M.; Fisher, R.E.; Veselka, S.N.; Wallace, K.E.; Petit, F.D. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-20

    In order to enhance the resilience of the Nation and its ability to protect itself in the face of natural and human-caused hazards, the ability of the critical infrastructure (CI) system to withstand specific threats and return to normal operations after degradation must be determined. To fully analyze the resilience of a region and the CI that resides within it, both the actual resilience of the individual CI and the capability of the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) to protect against and respond to potential hazards need to be considered. Thus, a regional resilience approach requires the comprehensive consideration of all parts of the CI system as well as the characterization of emergency services. This characterization must generate reproducible results that can support decision making with regard to risk management, disaster response, business continuity, and community planning and management. To address these issues, Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Sector Specific Agency - Executive Management Office, developed a comprehensive methodology to create an Emergency Services Sector Capabilities Index (ESSCI). The ESSCI is a performance metric that ranges from 0 (low level of capabilities) to 100 (high). Because an emergency services program has a high ESSCI, however, does not mean that a specific event would not be able to affect a region or cause severe consequences. And because a program has a low ESSCI does not mean that a disruptive event would automatically lead to serious consequences in a region. Moreover, a score of 100 on the ESSCI is not the level of capability expected of emergency services programs; rather, it represents an optimal program that would rarely be observed. The ESSCI characterizes the state of preparedness of a jurisdiction in terms of emergency and risk management. Perhaps the index's primary benefit is that it can systematically capture, at a given point in time, the

  20. Internet of Things for personal healthcare. : Study of eHealth sector. Smart wearable design.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarev, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Technologies are not still and Internet of Things concept introduces a lot of new possibilities for inno-vation, new products and user applications. All devices become truly personal and medical sector is not an exclusion. Telemedicine is a new approach to diagnostic and treatment, while smart healthcare solutions provide the user an ultimate health control. The purpose of my study is to understand what eHealth sector is and to provide clear guidelines for business and IT specialists on how t...

  1. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  2. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songstad Nils Gunnar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health

  3. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Moland, Karen Marie; Massay, Deodatus Amadeus; Blystad, Astrid

    2012-04-05

    Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system

  4. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C D; Greene, J K; Abramowicz, A; Riley, B L

    2016-06-01

    The Public Health Agency of Canada's Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP's partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP's multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external organizations interested in capturing and sharing new

  5. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    OpenAIRE

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from vario...

  7. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  8. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  9. Health system responsiveness after health sector evolution plan (HSEP): An inpatient survey in Kermanshah in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Farid; Karami-Matin, Behzad; Rezaei, Satar; Rajabi-Gilan, Nader; Soofi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness is one of the three main goals of the health system introduced by World Health Organization. This study aimed at examining health system responsiveness after Health Sector Evolution Plan in Kermanshah, Western Iran. A sample of 335 hospitalized patients was selected using proportionate allocation to population size method in the city of Kermanshah (Iran) in 2015. World Health Survey (WHS) questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis by STATA 12. The overall health system responsiveness score was 72.6. The best and worst performance for domains of dignity and autonomy were 82.2 and 62.5, respectively. Socio-demographic variables of the patients had no significant effect on the total health system responsiveness score. The principal component analysis findings indicated that 68% of the variance of the overall responsiveness score was explained by four components. The overall responsiveness score of each of the domains was higher than that of other similar previous studies in Iran. Although it is difficult to reach a conclusion, our findings may show better responsiveness of the health system compared to the previous reports.

  10. Integrating reproductive health services in a reforming health sector: the case of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliff, Monique; Mayaud, Philippe; Brugha, Ruairí; Semakafu, Ave Maria

    2003-05-01

    Universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services, integrated into a well-functioning health system, remains an unfulfilled objective in many countries. In 2000-2001, in Tanzania, in-depth interviews were conducted with central level stakeholders and focus group discussions held with health management staff in three regional and nine district health offices, to assess progress in the integration of reproductive health services. Respondents at all levels reported stalled integration and lack of synchronisation in the planning and management of key services. This was attributed to fear of loss of power and resources among national level managers, uncertainty as to continuation of donor support and lack of linkages with the Health Sector Reform Secretariat. Among reproductive health programmes, sexually transmitted infection (STI) control alone retained its vertical planning, management and implementation structures. District-level respondents expressed frustration in their efforts to coordinate STI service delivery with other, more integrated programmes. They reported contradictory directives and poor communication channels with higher levels of the Ministry of Health; lack of technical skills at district level to undertake supervision of integrated services; low morale due to low salaries; and lack of district autonomy in decision-making. Integration requires a coherent policy environment. The uncoordinated and conflicting agendas of donors, on whom Tanzania is too heavily reliant, is a major obstacle.

  11. Electronic records management in the public health sector of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngulup

    This is because e-health improves hospitals in terms of clinical diagnosis, home care delivery and education of health professionals. It also assists with health resources, transparent management, and general e-commerce covering both health institutions and patients through ICT (Akeh & Morfaw 2007). This can eventually.

  12. Challenges towards Realization of Health Care Sector Goals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human resource for health (HRH) is an essential building block for effective and efficient health care system. In Tanzania this component is faced by many challenges which in synergy with others make the health care system inefficient. In vision 2025 the country recognizes the importance of the health care ...

  13. [The use of management contracts and professional incentives in the public health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditterich, Rafael Gomes; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-04-01

    Results-based management is a cornerstone of reform in public administration, including the health field, and has become the basis for other innovations such as the institutionalization of management contracts and the use of professional incentives. This review article aims to introduce and discuss the use of such management contracts in the public health sector. Management by results has developed means and tools that highlight the importance of shared responsibility and mutual commitment between workers and management-level directors. Thus, preset goals are negotiated among all the stakeholders and are evaluated periodically in order to grant professional incentives. It is necessary to improve the mechanisms for control and observation, to more precisely determine the healthcare and management indicators and their patterns, to train stakeholders in designing the plan, and to improve the use of professional incentives in order to effectively increase accountability vis-à-vis the desired results.

  14. Occupational health policy and immigrant workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Wiggins, Melinda F; Fraser, Clermont; Levin, Jeffrey; Sidebottom, Jill; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies and practices in the Southeastern US. Worker protection in the AgFF sector is limited. Regulatory protections are generally weaker than other industrial sectors and enforcement of existing regulations is woefully inadequate. The vulnerability of the AgFF workforce is magnified by worker immigration status. Agricultural workers in particular are affected by a long history of "exceptionalism" under the law as many regulatory protections specifically exclude this workforce. A vulnerable workforce and high-hazard industries require regulatory protections that, at a minimum, are provided to workers in other industries. A systematic policy approach to strengthen occupational safety and health in the AgFF sector must address both immigration policy and worker protection regulations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Public-sector maternal health programmes and services for rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay Kanti; Anwar, Iqbal; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-04-01

    Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 in Bangladesh calls for an appreciation of the evolution of maternal healthcare within the national health system to date plus a projection of future needs. This paper assesses the development of maternal health services and policies by reviewing policy and strategy documents since the independence in 1971, with primary focus on rural areas where three-fourths of the total population of Bangladesh reside. Projections of need for facilities and human resources are based on the recommended standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1996 and 2005. Although maternal healthcare services are delivered from for-profit and not-for-profit (NGO) subsectors, this paper is focused on maternal healthcare delivery by public subsector. Maternal healthcare services in the public sector of Bangladesh have been guided by global policies (e.g., Health for All by the Year 2000), national policies (e.g., population and health policy), and plans (e.g., five- or three-yearly). The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), through its two wings-Health Services and Family Planning-sets policies, develops implementation plans, and provides rural public-health services. Since 1971, the health infrastructure has developed though not in a uniform pattern and despite policy shifts over time. Under the Family Planning wing of the MoHFW, the number of Maternal and Child Welfare Centres has not increased but new services, such as caesarean-section surgery, have been integrated. The Health Services wing of the MoHFW has ensured that all district-level public-health facilities, e.g., district hospitals and medical colleges, can provide comprehensive essential obstetric care (EOC) and have targeted to upgrade 132 of 407 rural Upazila Health Complexes to also provide such services. In 2001, they initiated a programme to train the Government's community workers (Family Welfare Assistants and Female Health Assistants) to provide skilled birthing care

  16. Structure and Prospects of Development of Public Sector of the Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Makarenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and the increasing threats to national security a special place is given to the public sector of the Russian economy. In a market economy, the public sector is actively used as a means to achieve the regulation of many public social and economic goals such as stable development of important strategic sectors of the economy. In this connection, the urgent task consists in forming a strong and effective public sector for maintaining the production of public goods and the provision of public services, ensuring sustainable development of the national economy and improving the quality of life of the population as a whole. The article describes the concept and essence of the public sector, defined by its role in the development of the economy and the country as a whole. The authors compare the concepts of the public sector and public property. The structure of the public sector includes general government and the sector of public corporations and organizations. The concept of state corporations is considered to be an integral part of the public sector. The statistical indicators and the general parameters of the public sector of the Russian economy are described. The analysis revealed a tendency to reducing the number of enterprises in the state and the municipal sector on the one hand, and the slowdown in the privatization, on the other hand. Among the promising areas of the public sector of the Russian economy the authors point out the creation of vertically integrated structures, the organization of which is controlled by the state and public-private partnerships support. The following operation of the state and municipal enterprises sector is still associated with the solution of important issues determining the scope, boundaries, and evaluating the effectiveness of the public sector.

  17. Panel 2.17: private commercial sector partnerships for health action in crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, Knut Ole; Sannerkvist, Milan; Hedger, Philip; Woodworth, Brent; Hyre, Anne; Cuddyre, Terrence; Waldman, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of the presentations and discussion of Panel 2.17, Private Commercial Sector Partnerships for Health Action in Crises of the Conference, Health Aspects of the Tsunami Disaster in Asia, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Phuket, Thailand, 04-06 May 2005. The topics discussed included issues related to private sector partnerships for health action in crises as pertain to the responses to the damage created by the Tsunami. It is presented in the following sections: (1) key questions; (2) issues and challenges; (3) lessons learned; (4) what was done well?; (5) what could have been done better?; and (6) conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction among specialists within the public and private health sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Brown, Paul M.; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2013-01-01

    Aim As in many countries, medical and surgical specialists in New Zealand have the opportunity of working in the public sector, the private sector or both. This study aimed to explore the level and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of specialists in New Zealand with working in the two....... Results Completed surveys were received from 943 specialists (47% response rate). Overall mean levels of satisfaction were higher in the private sector than the public sector while levels of dissatisfaction were lower. While the public system is valued for its opportunities for further education...... and dissatisfaction amongst specialists are different for the public and private sectors. Allowing specialists more freedom to work independently and to apply their own ideas in the workplace may enhance recruitment and retention of specialists in the public health system....

  19. Management of Electronic Documents in Public Sector: Analysis of Possibilities and Trends of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ožalienė, Audronė; Diana ŠAPARNIENĖ

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the process of modernization of Lithuanian public sector in the aspect of development of management of electronic documents. In order to ascertain the reasons why institutions of the Lithuanian public sector still hesitatingly move to means of management and administration of electronic documents and to identify the possibilities and trends of development of management of electronic documents in public sector, we carried out the analysis and structuring of scientific pu...

  20. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  1. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2015-08-01

    General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values age of the sample was 41.8 ± 7.9 years. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for GSQ was 0.79. The total mean score of general satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, psatisfaction. Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients.

  2. THE IMPACT OF ICT SECTOR ON THE SOCIAL PILLAR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA-MARIA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human being is the main axis in setting sustainable development goals. Sustainable development, through its components - economic and environmental, has only one beneficiary - the human factor who benefits of income, education, good quality environmental factors, and enjoy inter and intra-generational equity. Information technology and communications contributes to fulffiling the goals of sustainable development through access to information society services (e-health, e-government, e-learning, access to education. This article presents the sustainable development objectives and the impact of ICT sector on the social pillar of sustainable development. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.

  3. The Challenges and Issues Regarding E-Health and Health Information Technology Trends in the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    Like other industries, the utilization of the internet and Information Technology (IT) has increased in the health sector. Different applications attributed to the internet and IT in healthcare practice. It includes a range of services that intersect the edge of medicine, computer and information science. The presence of the internet helps healthcare practice with the use of electronic processes and communication. Also, health IT (HIT) deals with the devices, clinical guidelines and methods required to improve the management of information in healthcare. Although the internet and HIT has been considered as an influential means to enhance health care delivery, it is completely naive to imagine all new tools and mechanisms supported by the internet and HIT systems are simply adopted and used by all organizational members. As healthcare professionals play an important role in the healthcare sector, there is no doubt that mechanism of newly introduced HIT and new application of the internet in medical practice should be coupled with healthcare professionals' acceptance. Therefore, with great resistance by healthcare professionals new mechanism and tools supported by IT and the internet cannot be used properly and subsequently may not improve the quality of medical care services. However, factors affecting the healthcare professionals' adoption behavior concerning new e-health and HIT mechanism are still not conclusively identified. This research (as a theoretical study) tries to propose the source of resistance in order to handle the challenges over new e-technology in the health industry. This study uses the involved concepts and develops a conceptual framework to improve overall acceptance of e-health and HIT by healthcare professionals.

  4. The fundamentals of cross-sector collaboration for social change to promote population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, Joanne G; Desjardins, Sylvie; Bouchard, Louise

    2017-08-01

    Cross-sector collaboration is increasingly relied upon to tackle society's pressing and intractable problems. Chief among societal problems are unfavorable structural and social determinants of health. The ability to positively change these health determinants rests on the collaborative processes and structures of governance across diverse sectors in society. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework that sheds light on the basic requirements of cross-sector collaboration for social change to promote the health of populations. A search for theoretical articles on cross-sector collaboration in the fields of public administration and public health was conducted within the journal databases ABI/INFORM Complete and MEDLINE. This search strategy was supplemented by an internet search of the grey literature for high-profile models of cross-sector collaboration. The conceptual framework builds on previous scholarly work by placing emphasis on five essential conditions for collective impact, and on the pivotal role of collective learning. Collective learning, at the basis of planning and taking action, is at the core of effective cross-sector initiatives, specifically because of its critical role in constantly adapting strategies to changing circumstances and unanticipated situations within complex socio-ecological systems.

  5. Primary health care nurses implement and evaluate a community outreach approach to health care in the South African agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, J; Clarke, M; van Zyl, H; Daniels, K

    2007-12-01

    Early detection and effective case management of tuberculosis (TB) among a high-risk group of materially poor farm workers in an area of the Cape Winelands, South Africa, presents special challenges to the health community, where resource constraints lead to service reduction. In order to address this problem, local nurses established a collaborative partnership between permanent farm workers and their families, their employers, selected non-governmental organizations and the public health sector. In consultation with stakeholders, they developed an intervention primarily focusing on having peer selected trained lay health workers (LHWs) on farms, mentored and managed by nurses. To describe the complex process of implementation and evaluation of the LHW project, and provide a summary of a number of discrete studies evaluating the effectiveness, cost implications, and the perceptions and experiences of key stakeholders of the intervention. Quantitative and qualitative research methods conducted within the context of a pragmatic unblinded community cluster randomized control trial were used. Emphasis was placed on an iterative participatory interaction between the researchers and key stakeholders. The intervention contributed to significantly better successful treatment completion rates among adult new smear-positive TB cases. The process implemented proved cost-effective and was pivotal in initiating a community-based social development programme. The use of peer-selected LHWs within a wider programme of integrated care designed to merge technical biomedical approaches to disease management with more holistic social development activities, appears essential to meet the complex health needs in conjunction with public health of the rural poor.

  6. Health and development: some concerns about South Africa's health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J

    1996-09-01

    This critique of South Africa's health policy opens by noting that the World Health Organization's definition of health as "a state of complete physical mental and social well-being" recognizes that health is synonymous with development. Specific areas of concern are then identified as 1) the consequences for health and development of South Africa's emphasis on reducing the budget deficit, 2) the implications of maintaining a private health sector, and 3) the absence of health policy implementation planning. The analysis opens with a look at Mozambique's experience in setting up a health service after independence (between 1976 and 1980). Next, the unique features of South Africa's transition from apartheid to democracy are identified as the rapid migration of people to industrial centers for work, the continuing residence of the powerful European population, and an international context that limits opportunities to promote growth through social democratic policies. The implications of these factors to the health policy are that social inequalities will continue to exist because the health policy fails to delineate how health services will be provided to large urban areas and maintains a two-tier system. It is critical to nationalize the public sector and to involve health workers in the reform process.

  7. Crowdsourcing as an IT help tool to determine impact in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to propose a solution which applies the Crowdsourcing concept as the use of Information Technology to determine the perception of a social environment, which can perform a raised topic by an entity. In this case, the perception of Ruben Cruz Velez hospital with respect to: What opinion would you give about the Hospital Prevention and Promotion program?, in order to evaluate throughout Crowdsourcing, the Monitoring and Control Inspection (IVC mechanisms for the provision of health services and component effectiveness, processes and standards of the Mandatory Quality Assurance System and their impact on provision of health services to users in an accessible and equitable manner.It is important to highlight that the development of a web platform that allows citizen participation to evaluate the mechanisms of Inspection of Monitoring and Control (IVC of the provision of health services, analyzing the effectiveness of corrective actions and their impact on The provision of services to users in an accessible and equitable manner. Undoubtedly, in order to understand the current development and situation of traditional medicine in diverse geographical and cultural contexts, the way it adapts to its environment, and the type of health care available, it is necessary to locate it in the context of the models Health care in which it is inserted. The analysis of the current situation of traditional health systems, seen as subsystems of the total system, serves as a starting point for a more detailed reflection of their dynamics in Colombia, so thanks to the development of the CROWDSOURCING methodology as a tool To understand the current situation will help us to make valuable decisions for the future of the health sector particularly the beneficiary entities.

  8. General budget support: has it benefited the health sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Antunes, Adelio; Xu, Ke; James, Chris D; Saksena, Priyanka; Van de Maele, Nathalie; Carrin, Guy; Evans, David B

    2013-12-01

    There has been recent controversy about whether aid directed specifically to health has caused recipient governments to reallocate their own funds to non-health areas. At the same time, general budget support (GBS) has been increasing. GBS allows governments to set their own priorities, but little is known about how these additional resources are subsequently used. This paper uses cross-country panel data to assess the impact of GBS programmes on health spending in low-income and middle-income countries, using dynamic panel techniques to estimate unbiased coefficients in the presence of serial correlation. We found no clear evidence that GBS had any impact, positive or negative, on government health spending derived from domestic sources. GBS also had no observed impact on total government health spending from all sources (external as well as domestic). In contrast, health-specific aid was associated with a decline in health expenditures from domestic sources, but there was not a full substitution effect. That is, despite this observed fungibility, health-specific aid still increases total government health spending from all sources. Finally, increases in total government expenditure led to substantial increases in domestic government health expenditures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Institutional complexity and sustainable development in the EU electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciulli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades the European Union (EU) electricity sector has undergone numerous radical changes, which have been engendered largely by two key factors. On the one hand, EU countries have increasingly adopted deregulation and privatization policies. On the other hand, societal concerns about

  10. The Response of Banking Sector Development to Financial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the product market and so also for existing bankers and new bankers in the financial market. (Rajan and Zingales, 2003). It suffices to mention that financial openness, as argued by Mishkin. (2009), also fosters technology transfer in both the industrial and financial sector in an attempt to upgrade operational standards and ...

  11. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN SALES MANAGERS OF BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseevna Halifaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the problem of communicative competence of sales managers in bank sector and analyzes the results of research in building communicative competence.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-31

  12. Mining Sector CSR Behaviour: A Developing Country Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Ghana's gold mining sector, the relationship between company-specific CSR programmes and the initiatives or agreements firms are signatories to. It further analyzed the views of key stakeholders (managers, regulators, mining support organizations, ...

  13. Impact of Deregulation on Financial Sector Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The financial system in an economy is known to serve as the lubricant which facilitates the smooth running of the economy. The Nigeria financial sector has undergone several reforms since 1987 when the Structural Adjustment Programme was introduced. This paper investigates the impact of these reforms on the ...

  14. THE ROLE OF BANKING CREDIT IN DEVELOPMENT LEADING SECTORS AT SOUTH SULAWESI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Rahman Razak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure how far the role of bank loans extended to supportthe development of leading sectors in South Sulawesi Province during the period 2003 - 2007as the period of observat ion. Data used were secondary data analyzed by using descript ivestat ist ical analysis tools and Locat ion Quot ient methods (LQ. To perform measurements, theresults of LQ calculat ion each economic leading sector of this region compared with thevalue of the share or the average percentage dist ribut ion of bank loans extended to everyeconomic sector. Results showed that there were 5 (f ive sectors of the economy in SouthSulawesi Province that had values greater than 1 (one, so that the most valuable sector inthe economy of this region during the observat ion period, namely agriculture, mining andquarrying, elect ricity, gas and water supply, t ransport and communicat ions sector; and theservices sector. The role of bank credit in the development of leading sectors of this regionhad not been ef fect ive because there was st ill a fairly large gap between the value of its LQwinningeach of the sectors with the value of the average percentage of credit extended tothe leading sectors during the period of observat ion.

  15. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  16. Becoming a Teacher: Conceptual and Practice Development in the Learning and Skills Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bronwen

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on a mixed-methods study of in-service learning and skills sector (LSS) trainees, comprising beginning- and end-of-year surveys and six longitudinal case studies together with literature on trainees' development in the LSS, schools and higher education sectors, conceptual and practice development continua are proposed. Conceptions become…

  17. Financial Management Reforms in the Health Sector: A Comparative Study Between Cash-based and Accrual-based Accounting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhallaje, Masoud; Jafari, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Financial management and accounting reform in the public sectors was started in 2000. Moving from cash-based to accrual-based is considered as the key component of these reforms and adjustments in the public sector. Performing this reform in the health system is a part of a bigger reform under the new public management. The current study aimed to analyze the movement from cash-based to accrual-based accounting in the health sector in Iran. This comparative study was conducted in 2013 to compare financial management and movement from cash-based to accrual-based accounting in health sector in the countries such as the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Iran. Library resources and reputable databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL and SID, and Iranmedex were searched. Fish cards were used to collect the data. Data were compared and analyzed using comparative tables. Developed countries have implemented accrual-based accounting and utilized the valid, reliable and practical information in accrual-based reporting in different areas such as price and tariffs setting, operational budgeting, public accounting, performance evaluation and comparison and evidence based decision making. In Iran, however, only a few public organizations such as the municipalities and the universities of medical sciences use accrual-based accounting, but despite what is required by law, the other public organizations do not use accrual-based accounting. There are advantages in applying accrual-based accounting in the public sector which certainly depends on how this system is implemented in the sector.

  18. STD care in the South African private health sector | Schneider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To establish the accessibility and quality of sexually transmitted disease (SID) care provided by private general practitioners (GPs) and workplace health services in South Africa. Design. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random national sample of 120 GPs and 244 occupational health ...

  19. Health-Sector Performance in Post-Independent Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lot of studies had been carried out to ascertain the reasons for this poor performance, the findings from these studies are contradictory. Most of the studies in this area have treated health output or performance and health expenditure in Nigeria, without considering its link with governance. Therefore, this study examined ...

  20. Improved Financial Probity in the Health Sector Following the WHO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Reform emphasizes strict adherence to two procedures for disbursements of resources allocated to all the 196 member states as per approval from the World Health Assembly. Direct financial cooperation (DFC) are transactions where funds are transferred to government ...

  1. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service. Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province.

  2. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  3. The Brain Drain Potential of Students in the African Health and Nonhealth Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Crush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.

  4. Prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces: Effects on co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig; Romild, Ulla; Landstad, Bodil J

    2015-01-01

    Leaders and co-workers in Swedish public sector organizations are exposed to demanding psychosocial working conditions; more knowledge about workplace-based interventions in this sector of working life is needed. To compare co-workers' and leaders' self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions, and investigate how prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces affects these ratings. The longitudinal panel data consisted of 311 individuals (20 leaders, 291 co-workers) at 19 workplaces. Based on questionnaire data, statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U-Test, pair-wise Spearman correlations, a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA and Friedman's test. Results indicate differences in how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health and psychosocial working conditions. Leaders report work content that is more varied and interesting as well as more possibilities for personal development through work, yet they also report more tiredness, concern over managing their work situation and time pressure at work. Comparisons of mean values for used indicators show some improvements after one year, but also several non-significant or negative time trends two years after the interventions were initiated. The study provides some support for experienced differences between co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions in public sector workplaces, indicating the importance of different workplace-oriented prevention and rehabilitation interventions for these two categories of employees.

  5. Integration: the firm and the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J; France, George

    2014-07-01

    Integration in health care is a key goal of health reform in United States and England. Yet past efforts in the 1990s to better integrate the delivery system were of limited success. Building on work by Bevan and Janus on delivery integration, this article explores integration through the lens of economic theories of integration. Firms generally integrate to increase efficiency through economies of scale, to improve their market power, and resolve the transaction costs involved with multiple external suppliers. Using the United States and England as laboratories, we apply concepts of economic integration to understand why integration does or does not occur in health care, and whether expectations of integrating different kinds of providers (hospital, primary care) and health and social services are realistic. Current enthusiasm for a more integrated health care system expands the scope of integration to include social services in England, but retains the focus on health care in the United States. We find mixed applicability of economic theories of integration. Economies of scale have not played a significant role in stimulating integration in both countries. Managerial incentives for monopoly or oligopoly may be more compelling in the United States, since hospitals seek higher prices and more leverage over payers. In both countries the concept of transaction costs could explain the success of new payment and budgeting methods, since health care integration ultimately requires resolving transaction costs across different delivery organizations.

  6. The present and future roles of Traditional Health Practitioners within the formal healthcare sector of South Africa, as guided by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 was seen as the long awaited start-up of the traditional healing profession in South Africa. Act No 22 (2007 was strongly politically driven from the late 1960s onward. Many of these political motivators were based upon outdated cultural ideas, customs and traditions, rooted outside the modern day healthcare needs and demands of the particular population that traditional healing intends to serve. An in-depth needs and skills analysis, to test the viability and sustainability of the South African traditional healers as well as their positions and roles as health practitioners inside the formal healthcare sector, as guided and stipulated by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007, was lacking in this early development and start-up process. This resulted in the traditional healers’ present and future roles as specific healthcare practitioners being both undefined and insufficiently formulated. In addition their existing education, training, skills and abilities to compete in the formal healthcare sector were ignored. Therefore, since the promulgation of the Act in 2007, there was limited professional-development for traditional healers, to improve their immediate professionalism and thus to promote effective role-playing and management in the formal healthcare sector. The South African traditional healing professional model is still in the foundational stage of its professional development; a stage which the other registered/regulated healthcare practitioners of the country surpassed long ago, making them well-equipped for role-playing and management as health professionals in the formal healthcare sector. The whole venture of the statutory recognition of the traditional health practitioners in 2007 as new healthcare professionals with the promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 seems to increasingly be a failure. There is

  7. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Tara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to

  8. Managed behavioral health care in the public sector: will it become the third shame of the States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Carol T; Grazier, Kyle L; Holter, Mark

    2002-02-01

    Managed behavioral health care is increasingly being used in public mental health systems. While supporters cite potential benefits, critics describe dire consequences for individuals with serious, long-term mental illness. The situation has parallels with the major changes resulting from deinstitutionalization some four decades ago. Believing that analyzing history may prevent repeating some of its mistakes, the authors compare the antecedents, benefits, and negative effects of deinstitutionalization with those of the public-sector managed behavioral health care systems being developed today. Lessons learned from the earlier era include the need for careful general and technical planning; for assignment of responsibility, including monitoring, to the public sector; and for a focus on clients and the special needs generated by severe mental illnesses.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ZETIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consultancy industry is at the moment a cyclical industry, and in fact there is a direct dependence with global economic trends. Economic growth stimulates an increase in budgets for consulting economic agents, and on the other hand the recession makes global scale companies spend less for consulting. Large specialized companies and the solid experience in specific sectors are engaging increasingly longer in business consulting on the expense of pure consulting companies.

  11. Medicare and Medicaid Trends in Health Care Sectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) provides monthly and fiscal-year-to-date income and expenditure trends for Medicare Hospital Insurance (HI) and...

  12. Technology Development Prospects for the Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Indian power sector will face numerous challenges over the next four decades. More than one third of India's population currently do not have access to electricity. Urgent action is needed to overcome this problem of energy poverty. At the same time rapid economic growth is projected to increase electricity demand by fivefold to sixfold between now and 2050. Massive investments will be needed to meet this increased demand, but this will also create unique opportunities to transform the power sector towards a low-carbon future. This Information Paper presents in more detail the analysis for India published in Energy Technology Perspectives 2010. The paper investigates the best way of achieving deep CO2 emission cuts in the Indian power system while allowing the Indian economy to continue growing and meeting the challenge of alleviating energy poverty. It does so from a techno-economic perspective - building on detailed resource and technology data for India - and identifies the key power sector technologies needed for India to realise such a transition.

  13. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  14. Conceptualizations of postpartum depression by public-sector health care providers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2015-04-01

    In this article we describe the knowledge frameworks that 61 physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists from five public-sector health care facilities in Mexico used to conceptualize postpartum depression. We also demonstrate how providers applied social and behavioral antecedents in their conceptualizations of postpartum depression. Using grounded theory, we identify two frameworks that providers used to conceptualize postpartum depression: biochemical and adjustment. We highlight an emerging model of the function of social and behavioral antecedents within the frameworks, as well as the representation of postpartum depression by symptoms of distress and the perception among providers that these symptoms affected responsibilities associated with motherhood. The results provide a foundation for future study of how providers' conceptualizations of postpartum depression might affect detection and treatment practices and might be useful in the development of training materials to enhance the quality of care for women who experience any form of distress in the postpartum period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues, we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff, the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks. Given the range of terms used to

  16. Developments and Development Directions of Electronic Trade Platforms in US and European Agri-Food Markets: Impact on Sector Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Melanie; Hausen, Tobias; Schiefer, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Electronic trade platforms support trading transactions between enterprises. They have entered the business landscape including the agri-food sector only a few years ago. However, there already have been dramatic changes in the agri-food sectorÂ’s platform infrastructures. This paper analyzes developments in electronic trade platform infrastructures in the agri-food sector of the US and Europe between 2000 and 2002 and identifies development strategies of successful platforms. Of 85 platforms...

  17. Bridging the gap between evidence-based innovation and national health-sector reform in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Feinglass, Ellie S; Tobey, Rachel; Vaughan-Smith, Maya N; Nyonator, Frank K; Jones, Tanya C

    2004-09-01

    Although experimental trials often identify optimal strategies for improving community health, transferring operational innovation from well-funded research programs to resource-constrained settings often languishes. Because research initiatives are based in institutions equipped with unique resources and staff capabilities, results are often dismissed by decisionmakers as irrelevant to large-scale operations and national health policy. This article describes an initiative undertaken in Nkwanta District, Ghana, focusing on this problem. The Nkwanta District initiative is a critical link between the experimental study conducted in Navrongo, Ghana, and a national effort to scale up the innovations developed in that study. A 2002 Nkwanta district-level survey provides the basis for assessing the likelihood that the Navrongo model is replicable elsewhere in Ghana. The effect of community-based health planning and services exposure on family planning and safe-motherhood indicators supports the hypothesis that Navrongo effects are transferable to impoverished rural settings elsewhere, confirming the need for strategies to bridge the gap between Navrongo evidence-based innovation and national health-sector reform.

  18. Safety and health practice among laboratory staff in Malaysian education sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna Che Hassan, Nurul; Rasdan Ismail, Ahmad; Kamilah Makhtar, Nor; Azwadi Sulaiman, Muhammad; Syuhadah Subki, Noor; Adilah Hamzah, Noor

    2017-10-01

    Safety is the most important issue in industrial sector such as construction and manufacturing. Recently, the increasing number of accident cases reported involving school environment shows the important of safety issues in education sector. Safety awareness among staff in this sector is crucial in order to find out the method to prevent the accident occurred in future. This study was conducted to analyze the knowledge of laboratory staff in term of safety and health practice in laboratory. Survey questionnaires were distributing among 255 of staff laboratory from ten District Education Offices in Kelantan. Descriptive analysis shows that the understanding of safety and health practice are low while doing some job activities in laboratory. Furthermore, some of the staff also did not implemented safety practice that may contribute to unplanned event occur in laboratory. Suggestion that the staff at laboratory need to undergo on Occupational Safety and Health training to maintain and create safe environment in workplaces.

  19. Implementation and quality monitoring of e-communication across health care sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Qvist, Peter

    for general practice and hospitals. An important factor for patient-perceived quality of care is the cooperation between the health care sectors that provides services for the patient. In 2009 the Region of Southern Denmark launched a collaboration agreement called Sam:Bo between general practice, hospitals......Background: There has been an increased focus on how to improve the quality of care for patients that receives services from more than one sector in the health care system. Continuity in and coordination of patient pathways in the health care system are included in accreditation standards both...... and municipalities. The Sam:Bo agreement comprises guidelines for clinical pathways that involves more than one of the participating stakeholders and specified quality standards for the content and timeliness of information exchange across sectors. Part of the Sam:Bo agreement is the implementation of quality...

  20. Knowledge mobilisation in healthcare: a critical review of health sector and generic management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Peckham, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The health policy domain has displayed increasing interest in questions of knowledge management and knowledge mobilisation within healthcare organisations. We analyse here the findings of a critical review of generic management and health-related literatures, covering the period 2000-2008. Using 29 pre-selected journals, supplemented by a search of selected electronic databases, we map twelve substantive domains classified into four broad groups: taxonomic and philosophical (e.g. different types of knowledge); theoretical discourse (e.g. critical organisational studies); disciplinary fields (e.g. organisational learning and Information Systems/Information Technology); and organisational processes and structures (e.g. organisational form). We explore cross-overs and gaps between these traditionally separate literature streams. We found that health sector literature has absorbed some generic concepts, notably Communities of Practice, but has not yet deployed the performance-oriented perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm. The generic literature uses healthcare sites to develop critical analyses of power and control in knowledge management, rooted in neo-Marxist/labour process and Foucauldian approaches. The review generates three theoretically grounded statements to inform future enquiry, by: (a) importing the RBV stream; (b) developing the critical organisational studies perspective further; and (c) exploring the theoretical argument that networks and other alternative organisational forms facilitate knowledge sharing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applications of the balanced scorecard for strategic management and performance measurement in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouzi, Farshad; Shaharoun, Awaluddin Mohamed; Ma'aram, Azanizawati

    2014-05-01

    In order to attain a useful balanced scorecard (BSC), appropriate performance perspectives and indicators are crucial to reflect all strategies of the organisation. The objectives of this survey were to give an insight regarding the situation of the BSC in the health sector over the past decade, and to afford a generic approach of the BSC development for health settings with specific focus on performance perspectives, performance indicators and BSC generation. After an extensive search based on publication date and research content, 29 articles published since 2002 were identified, categorised and analysed. Four critical attributes of each article were analysed, including BSC generation, performance perspectives, performance indicators and auxiliary tools. The results showed that 'internal business process' was the most notable BSC perspective as it was included in all reviewed articles. After investigating the literature, it was concluded that its comprehensiveness is the reason for the importance and high usage of this perspective. The findings showed that 12 cases out of 29 reviewed articles (41%) exceeded the maximum number of key performance indicators (KPI) suggested in a previous study. It was found that all 12 cases were large organisations with numerous departments (e.g. national health organisations). Such organisations require numerous KPI to cover all of their strategic objectives. It was recommended to utilise the cascaded BSC within such organisations to avoid complexity and difficulty in gathering, analysing and interpreting performance data. Meanwhile it requires more medical staff to contribute in BSC development, which will result in greater reliability of the BSC.

  2. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol

    2014-01-01

    administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported......BACKGROUND: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach...... processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district...

  3. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  4. The Impact of Robotics on Employment and Motivation of Employees in the Service Sector, with Special Reference to Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Owais Qureshi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Replacing employees with robots is an inevitable choice for organizations in the service sector, more so in the health care sector because of the challenging and sometimes unhealthy working environments, but, at the same time, the researchers propose that it should be done in a manner that helps in improving the employment and motivation of employees in this sector.

  5. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECTORAL STRUCTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prushkivska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is showed the relationship of the sectoral structure and stages of economic development on the basis of civilization and formation approaches. There is analyzed sectoral structure through horizontal and vertical development, as well as through the model of the “whole” and a model of “functioning”. Found that the model of the “whole” of the sectoral structure reflects the civil society movement through the change of the proportion between sectors, and the model of “functioning” is quality development of individual sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary under the influence of developmental factors within a specific environment, which is ensured by the interaction of formal and informal institutions. The necessity of improvement of the existing theoretical three sectors model K. Clark through the use of a new methodological approach to the formation of the sectoral structure of “poles” of growth (branches in each specific sector. The necessity of structuring of economic systems based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative characteristics taking into account the peculiarities of national development.

  6. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  7. Crises and challenges in the Nigerian health Sector | Osibogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Monitoring and evaluation of health sector reforms in the WHO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerning results of the expected results of implementing cost recovery reforms such as improved quality of health services; equitable service utilisation; social sustainability through active community participation; and gains in efficiency were not always realised. Conclusions: Given that the aspects of the analysis ...

  9. Mitigating Health Risks in the Pottery Sector : Case Study in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... diversify the product. A number of complementary activities will also be carried out, including the introduction of refinements to pottery tools and ergonomics; vocational training for young people; health and nutrition education; alternative livelihoods; and skills upgrading in the areas of pottery diversification and marketing.

  10. Waiting Time Policies in the Health Care Sector. What Works?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    times. In addition, a range of other measures may indirectly have affected waiting times, such as a general increase in spending on health care, the general practitioners’ role as gate-keepers, increased use of activity-based hospital reimbursement, increasing use of private heath insurance and private...

  11. Challenges of the Devolved Health Sector in Kenya: Teething ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases using appropriate technology; promotion of mental, emotional and spiritual health; and the provision of essential drugs. For this to be achievable, counties must strengthen networks, empower community healthcare workers and promote meaningful community participation in decision making and the oversight of ...

  12. Health sector initiatives for disaster risk management in ethiopia: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster management phases; and impacts of drought

  13. Development of the Information Technology Sector in India: the Role of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna S. Ashmyanskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyses the role of government in developing the information technology sector in India, specifically its influence on the three factors that determine the development of the information technology sector: human resources, launch capital and infrastructure. By developing these factors, the Indian government has succeeded in prompt formation and promotion of the information technology sector. The development of human capital is mainly realized by developing public education programs. The establishment of close ties with the Indian diaspora played a crucial role. The diaspora acted as a link for transmission to India of expertise, investment and knowledge. The availability of start-up capital, especially venture capital, is another essential component for the success of the national information technology sector. The conditions created by a government for the development of the institution of venture investment in the country will be of fundamental importance. Thanks to the measures taken by the government of India, venture capital investment has become the main form of financing for start-ups in the information technology sector in India. Developed infrastructure is also an important factor in the development of the information technology sector. In India, a developing country with a vast territory, there was a problem of infrastructure development, and software technology parks became a solution to this problem for companies in the information technology sector. Over the past 20 years, software technology parks in India has evolved so that industrial parks created almost 50% of the total exports of the IT sector in India. The demonstrated state policy can be characterized as the model of state technological entrepreneurship according to which the Indian government played the roles of regulator, producer and promoter in the information technology sector and continues to do so until the present day.

  14. An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombini Manuela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7. Results The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling. Conclusions The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place – in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the

  15. An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah H; Ali, Siti Hawa; Shuib, Rashidah; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-07-24

    Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC) - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up. In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7. The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling. The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place - in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the model - and the system supporting it - needs to be flexible enough to

  16. Implementation Status of Accrual Accounting System in Health Sector

    OpenAIRE

    MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossien; Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Emami, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Management of financial resources in health systems is one of the major issues of concern for policy makers globally. As a sub-set of financial management, accounting system is of paramount importance. In this paper, which presents part of the results of a wider research project on transition process from a cash accounting system to an accrual accounting system, we look at the impact of components of change on implementation of the new system. Implementing changes is fraught wit...

  17. Crisis in the health sector: Impact on nurses' working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Lázaro, Alberto; Blanch-Ribas, Josep M; Roldán-Merino, Juan Francisco; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Ana María

    In a context of economic crisis and policies to reduce the public deficit, the budgets of the Catalan Health Institute (CHI) were cut by 15.33% between 2010 and 2014. To assess the perceived impact on nurses' work conditions of measures to contain health spending. The study design was descriptive and transversal. A sample of 1,760 nurses from the province of Barcelona answered a questionnaire on the perceived impact of health spending containment measures implemented in their workplace during the early years of the crisis. Among the main aspects of the perceived impact of these measures, 86.6% of the nurses identified a pay cut and an increase in the following relevant parameters of their working conditions: number of hours worked (66.7%), final ratio of treated patients (35.2%), task complexity and workload (75.3%), rotation through various departments (31.5%), work shifts (21.4%) or work areas (23.4%), job insecurity (58.4%) and loss of employment by dismissal (6.6%) or non-renewal of contract (9%). The perceived impact of the crisis showed a triple negative component: Pay cut, work overload and job insecurity. As a combined effect of this multiple trend, the nurses acknowledged a deterioration in their working conditions and quality of working life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  19. The Gateway Paper--public sector service delivery infrastructure and health reforms in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pakistan has an extensive public sector service delivery infrastructure consisting of a three tiered healthcare delivery system which includes Basic Health Units and Rural Health Centers forming the core of the primary health model, secondary care including first and second referral facilities providing acute, ambulatory and inpatient care through Tehsil Headquarter and District Headquarter hospitals and Tertiary Care comprising teaching hospitals. Notwithstanding, most people receive healthcare through private out-of-pocket payments made directly to the providers at the point of care. Recently, many attempts have been made to mainstream alternative arrangements of service delivery at various levels in order to bridge gaps in the present system of service delivery, albeit with limited success. As one of the core areas of reform-related interventions, the Gateway Paper makes a strong case for introducing change at two levels in order to obviate these issues. Firstly, at the level of hospitals the hospital sustainability reform process calls for major structural and financing adjustments, the development of appropriate policy frameworks, decentralizing hospital management to autonomous hospital boards and providing legal, managerial and fiscal autonomy to hospitals with appropriate community representation. At the primary healthcare level, a system for restructuring BHUs and RHCs has been supported--one that makes a case for appropriate checks and balances in order to ensure sustained improvements by redefining the roles of management, quality assurance, regulation and community oversight the latter through linkages with the devolution initiative. The Gateway Paper dovetails these alternative service delivery arrangements with parallel financing models.

  20. A Review and Critique of Teledermatology in the South African Public Health Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Laticha E M; Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80% of the world's population live in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Many of these countries must face a triple or quadruple burden of disease with severely limited resources and health systems. South Africa (SA) is one such country, and recognises the potential for e-health to moderate these limitations. Dermatological issues remain a concern in SA and globally. Indeed, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that a number of diseases are most likely to manifest themselves through a dermatological problem before becoming full-blown. However, there is an acute shortage of dermatologists in SA. Teledermatology has promise as a service delivery intervention. This study reports on the current status of teledermatology services in the public health sector of SA. The study adopted a qualitative, inductive research approach based on a structured literature review of teledermatology in SA. A modified Momentum-Treat tool was used to critique identified teledermatology services. 159 resources were identified, of which 68 were excluded. The remaining 91 resources revealed a history of ad hoc teledermatology services, of which few remained active. Requests for teledermatology service confirmations provided some feedback, together with follow-up meetings and interviews. No evidence of scaling of teledermatology services and integration into routine healthcare was found. Of eight services, 4 remain active. Review and modified Momentum-Treat critique showed opportunities for improved readiness assessment, programme governance, and alignment to government policy direction, in order to improve scaling and sustainability. Full-scale teledermatology integration is possible, but stronger programme development is needed. Findings will inform development of a teledermatology scale-up framework to assist with future integration of teledermatology into routine healthcare.

  1. How do sectoral policies support climate compatible development? An empirical analysis focusing on southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    England, MI; Stringer, LC; Dougill, AJ; Afionis, S

    2018-01-01

    Promoting inclusive and sustainable economic and social development whilst simultaneously adapting to climate change impacts and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions – Climate Compatible Development (CCD) – requires coherent policy approaches that span multiple sectors. This paper develops and applies a qualitative content analysis to assess national sector policies of ten southern African countries to determine their approaches for water, agriculture, forestry and energy and their compatibili...

  2. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves...... service coverage which, through the use of refrigerators, may improve nutritional intake. Privatization also results in a reduction in the frequency of interruptions, and thus may reduce the likelihood of food poisoning. We find some evidence that privatization reduced the frequency of low birth weight...... and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Results are not strong enough to inform the policy debate with respect to the benefits that privatizations have on the welfare of the poor....

  3. Bridging the gaps in the Health Management Information System in the context of a changing health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, Angelo S

    2010-06-25

    The Health Management Information System (HMIS) is crucial for evidence-based policy-making, informed decision-making during planning, implementation and evaluation of health programs; and for appropriate use of resources at all levels of the health system. This study explored the gaps and factors influencing HMIS in the context of a changing health sector in Tanzania. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in 11 heath facilities in Kilombero district between January and February 2008. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 43 health workers on their knowledge, attitude, practice and factors for change on HMIS and HMIS booklets from these facilities were reviewed for completeness. Of all respondents, 81% had never been trained on HMIS, 65% did not properly define this system, 54% didn't know who is supposed to use the information collected and 42% did not use the collected data for planning, budgeting and evaluation of services provision. Although the attitude towards the system was positive among 91%, the reviewed HMIS booklets were never completed in 25% - 55% of the facilities. There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitude and practice on HMIS between clinicians and nurses. The most common type of HMIS booklets which were never filled were those for deliveries (55%). The gaps in the current HMIS were linked to lack of training, inactive supervision, staff workload pressure and the lengthy and laborious nature of the system. This research has revealed a state of poor health data collection, lack of informed decision-making at the facility level and the factors for change in the country's HMIS. It suggests need for new innovations including incorporation of HMIS in the ongoing reviews of the curricula for all cadres of health care providers, development of more user-friendly system and use of evidence-based John Kotter's eight-step process for implementing successful changes in this system.

  4. Bridging the gaps in the Health Management Information System in the context of a changing health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyamtema Angelo S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Management Information System (HMIS is crucial for evidence-based policy-making, informed decision-making during planning, implementation and evaluation of health programs; and for appropriate use of resources at all levels of the health system. This study explored the gaps and factors influencing HMIS in the context of a changing health sector in Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in 11 heath facilities in Kilombero district between January and February 2008. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 43 health workers on their knowledge, attitude, practice and factors for change on HMIS and HMIS booklets from these facilities were reviewed for completeness. Results Of all respondents, 81% had never been trained on HMIS, 65% did not properly define this system, 54% didn't know who is supposed to use the information collected and 42% did not use the collected data for planning, budgeting and evaluation of services provision. Although the attitude towards the system was positive among 91%, the reviewed HMIS booklets were never completed in 25% - 55% of the facilities. There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitude and practice on HMIS between clinicians and nurses. The most common type of HMIS booklets which were never filled were those for deliveries (55%. The gaps in the current HMIS were linked to lack of training, inactive supervision, staff workload pressure and the lengthy and laborious nature of the system. Conclusions This research has revealed a state of poor health data collection, lack of informed decision-making at the facility level and the factors for change in the country's HMIS. It suggests need for new innovations including incorporation of HMIS in the ongoing reviews of the curricula for all cadres of health care providers, development of more user-friendly system and use of evidence-based John Kotter's eight-step process for implementing

  5. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  6. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; Juel Lau, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. RESULTS: Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA...

  7. The skills gap in nursing management in the South African public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Nurse managers are central to health delivery in South Africa. However, there is a paucity of research that analyzes their competence to successfully discharge their managerial role. To identify the competencies perceived to be important for effective nursing management in the South African public sector and the managers' self-assessed proficiency in these. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. 215 senior nursing managers at South African public sector hospitals. Respondents rated the level of importance that 51 proposed competencies had in their job and indicated their proficiency in each. Public sector managers ranked controlling as the most important competency, followed by leading, organizing, and self-management. Health/clinical skills, planning, and legal/ethical competencies were ranked as being relatively less important. They assessed themselves as being most competent in self-management, followed by planning, controlling, leading, and specific health skills. The competency gap was the largest for legal/ethical issues, organizing, and controlling. The competency gap for planning and self-management was relatively smaller. This research confirms that there is a lack of management capacity within the public health sector and also identifies the areas in which the lack of knowledge or skills is most significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The root causes of ineffective and inefficient healthcare technology management in Benin public health sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, T.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Coleman, H.L.S.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; de Cock Buning, Tjard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the root causes and solutions of main problems facing Healthcare Technology Management in Benin׳s public health sector. Conducted in Benin from 2008 to 2010, two surveys were used with key actors in Healthcare Technology Management. The first survey was based on 377

  9. Public-Private health sector mix- way forward | Buso | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debate arose out of a realisation of the weaknesses in the public health parallel with the ever-increasing private sector worldwide. The concept has been referred to in different terminologies, public-private mix, public private partnerships (PPP), public private initiatives (PPI). This paper aims to stimulate further debate on ...

  10. Demand for post-qualifying professional education in the health care sector in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpin-Davies, P J

    1996-10-01

    The British National Health Service is proposing to establish local consortia for educational contracting, with the wider involvement and responsibility being devolved to service providers. This paper addresses the economic considerations of purchasing post-qualifying professional education in the English hospital sector, for hospital nurses, doctors and physiotherapists in England.

  11. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  12. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies.

  13. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Lighting in the health care sector; Verlichting in de zorg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, R. [Grontmij, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The importance of light for people's health and welfare attracts frequent attention, not only the professional press but also in countless articles in newspapers and news magazines. Insufficient illumination can upset the biological clock and may even cause depression. In principle this applies to anyone who has to stay indoors all day or nearly all day; in the case of care homes it affects residents who have no regular opportunity to sit at a window, for example those who are bedridden. Research indicates that we need a minimum daily portion of daylight or of artificial light with similar qualities as daylight. This is also of great importance to night workers. [Dutch] Niet alleen in de vakpers, maar ook in tal van dag- en weekbladen, wordt regelmatig het belang van licht voor het welzijn en de gezondheid van de mens aan de orde gesteld. Gebrek aan voldoende licht kan het bioritme verstoren en zelfs leiden tot depressie. Dat geldt in principe voor alle mensen die om wat voor redenen dan ook de hele dag of nagenoeg de hele dag binnen moeten blijven. In zorginstellingen is dit vooral van toepassing voor degenen die zich niet regelmatig direct achter het ream kunnen bevinden, zoals mensen die bedlegering zijn. Want door onderzoek is gebleken dat we elke dag een voldoende portie daglicht nodig hebben of licht met overeenkomstige kwaliteiten als daglicht. Voor mensen die 's nachts moeten werken is het laatstgenoemde ook van groot belang.

  15. Domestic banking sector development and cross border mergers and acquisitions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikplimi K. Agbloyor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, economists have started taking a closer look at cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As due to its phenomenal rise in the past two decades. This study investigates the relation between banking sector development and cross M&As in Africa. Our sample consists of 11 African countries with data covering the period, 1993–2008. We use a Baltagi panel instrumental variable Error Component Two Stage Least Squares (EC2SLS estimator with the Baltagi-Chang estimators of the variance components to deal with endogeneity. The results of the study indicate that banking sector development promotes cross border M&A activity in Africa. We also document evidence suggesting that cross border M&A activity drives banking sector development in Africa. Overall, our evidence suggests a two-way causation between banking sector development and cross border M&As.

  16. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Efforts to explain the risk of abuse of entrusted power for private gain have examined the links between corruption and various aspects of management, financing and governance. Behavioural scientists and anthropologists also point to individual and social characteristics which influence the behaviour of government agents and clients. This article presents a comprehensive framework and a set of methodologies for describing and measuring how opportunities, pressures and rationalizations influence corruption in the health sector. The article discusses implications for intervention, and presents examples of how theory has been applied in research and practice. Challenges of tailoring anti-corruption strategies to particular contexts, and future directions for research, are addressed.

  17. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  18. Successful New Product Development by Optimizing Development Process Effectiveness in Highly Regulated Sectors: The Case of the Spanish Medical Devices Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.; Cabello-Medina, Carmen; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Visscher, Klaasjan; Groen, Arend J.; Tschirky, H.; Herstatt, C.; Probert, D.; Gemunden, H.G.; Colombo, M.G.; Durand, T.; de Weerd-Nederhof, P.C.; Schweisfurth, T.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid development and commercialization of new products is of vital importance for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in regulated sectors. Due to strict regulations, competitive advantage can hardly be achieved through the effectiveness of product concepts only. If an SME in a highly

  19. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-07-04

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population.

  20. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR: PROFESSIONAL VIEW FROM EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE EXPERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Kachieng’a

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has tried various strategies to improve access, quality and cost-efficiency in the health care delivery systems. However it is clear that the optimal approach has yet to be found. It has been recognised that health technology is an important element of this transformation, and will continue to play a vital role.
    It is almost evident that the way health technology is managed in health care institutions directly affects the quality of treatment patients receive. Although strategic importance of technology in health care has been documented widely in scientific literature; technology planning, procurement and management have not received the attention they deserve in the transformation of health care services in the country.
    The survey discussed in this paper investigated health care equipment maintenance problems and associated technological constraints from point of view of health technology managers, biomedical and clinical engineers. It also provides recommendations for competitive utilisation of technology in the public health sector.

  1. Editorial - Nanoscale: a new era for health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two decades ago, Meirelles wrote a doctoral dissertation in which he analyzed the miniaturization of devices, evolution of human productive processes, and its association with the reduced need for socially necessary work2. Devices that are smaller, lighter, and easier to transport and that have more ingenious and particular characteristics have enabled gradual distancing from the sources of raw materials. Miniaturization has followed and partly induced the development of transformations in production, namely through changes in labor and social functional aspects. Device miniaturization has had an important role in increasing productivity of human labor throughout the centuries.

  2. Results-Based Financing (RBF) in the health sector of a low-income country. From agenda setting to implementation: The case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Chimhutu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decade there has been growing concern about lack of results in the health sector of many low-income countries. Prompted by a need to achieve progress, Results-Based Financing (RBF) has become an increasingly popular policy option and has been seen as a solution for the unmet Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, for child health and maternal health. RBF pays for results of chosen health indicators rather than inputs and therefore appealing to both...

  3. Occupational health profile of workers employed in the manufacturing sector of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Shivali; Das, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    The occupational health scenario of workers engaged in the manufacturing sector in India deserves attention for their safety and increasing productivity. We reviewed the status of the manufacturing sector, identified hazards faced by workers, and assessed the existing legislations and healthcare delivery mechanisms. From October 2014 to March 2015, we did a literature review by manual search of pre-identified journals, general electronic search, electronic search of dedicated websites/databases and personal communication with experts of occupational health. An estimated 115 million workers are engaged in the manufacturing sector, though the Labour Bureau takes into account only one-tenth of them who work in factories registered with the government. Most reports do not mention the human capital employed neither their quality of life, nor occupational health services available. The incidence of accidents were documented till 2011, and industry-wise break up of data is not available. Occupational hazards reported include hypertension, stress, liver disease, diabetes, tuberculosis, eye/ hearing problems, cancers, etc. We found no studies for manufacturing industries in glass, tobacco, computer and allied products, etc. The incidence of accidents is decreasing but the proportion of fatalities is increasing. Multiple legislations exist which cover occupational health, but most of these are old and have not been amended adequately to reflect the present situation. There is a shortage of manpower and occupational health statistics for dealing with surveillance, prevention and regulation in this sector. There is an urgent need of a modern occupational health legislation and an effective machinery to enforce it, preferably through intersectoral coordination between the Employees' State Insurance Corporation, factories and state governments. Occupational health should be integrated with the general health services.

  4. Clinics and home-based care organisations: an interface between theformal and informal health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Adam Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    The article outlines the findings of a study designed to explore the working relationship between home-based caregivers and clinic nurses at locations in two informal settlements in Johannesburg, South Africa. By considering the views and experiences of both sponsored and unsponsored caregivers, the research focused on how degrees of informality affect this relationship. The nurse/caregiver relationship represents a primary interface between the formal and informal health sectors and is an important part of the country's primary healthcare system. Despite the attention given to linking home-based care (HBC) with the formal health system, very little research has examined the functionality of this link at the ground level. Through a number of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with nurses, home-based caregivers, and staff from the Department of Health, information was collected to better understand what systems are in place to facilitate the relationship between clinics and HBC organisations, and whether these systems are helping to create the desired results. Do the formal and informal health sectors complement and strengthen or do they distract and damage each other? By examining the influence of degrees of informality, the research also lends insight into how this distinction plays a role in healthcare provision. For instance, how does state support impact the link between the formal and informal health sectors and the ultimate quality of care? And what steps can be taken to improve the health system in this regard, as a whole? The findings point to a number of problems and challenges with integrating HBC into the formal health sector. Degrees of informality are found to have a profound impact on the work of home-based caregivers in some respects, but a surprising lack of impact in others. These issues need to be confronted in order to improve the existing system and, ultimately, health outcomes in South Africa.

  5. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  6. Estimated Global Disease Burden From US Health Care Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi D

    2017-10-26

    To quantify the increased disease burden caused by US health care sector life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 614 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2013. We screened for health damage factors that linked GHG emissions to disease burdens. We selected 5 factors, based on appropriate temporal modeling scales, which reflect a range of possible GHG emissions scenarios. We applied these factors to health care sector emissions. We projected that annual GHG emissions associated with health care in the United States would cause 123 000 to 381 000 disability-adjusted life-years in future health damages, with malnutrition being the largest damage category. Through their contribution to global climate change, GHG emissions will negatively affect public health because of an increased prevalence of extreme weather, flooding, vector-borne disease, and other effects. As the stewards of global health, it is important for health care professionals to recognize the magnitude of GHG emissions associated with health care itself, and the severity of associated health damages. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303846).

  7. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  8. Knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: computer literacy in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ebrahim; Andargie, Gashaw; Meseret, Solomon; Girma, Eshetu

    2013-03-20

    Incorporation of information technology advancements in healthcare has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developed countries have successfully incorporated information technology advancements in their healthcare system thus, improving healthcare. However, only a limited application of information technology advancements is seen in developing countries in their healthcare system. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 health workers who were selected using stratified sampling technique from all governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data was collected from April 15 to April 30, 2010 using a structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire from five government hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data was entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Analysis was done using multinomial logistic regression technique. A total of 270 participants, age ranging from 21 to 60 years responded to the survey (88.8% response rate). A total of 91 (33.7%) respondents had an adequate knowledge of computers while 108 (40.0%) had fair knowledge and 71(26.3%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge. A total of 38(14.1%) were adequately utilizing computers, 14(5.2%) demonstrated average or fair utilization and majority of the respondents 218(80.7%) inadequately utilized computers. Significant predictor variables were average monthly income, job satisfaction index and own computer possession. Computer knowledge and utilization habit of health workers were found to be very low. Increasing accessibility to computers and delivering training on the use of computers for workers will increases the knowledge and utilization of computers. This will facilitate the rate of diffusion of the technology to the health sector. Hence, programs targeted at enhancing knowledge and skill of computer use and

  9. Psychosocial safety climate: a multilevel theory of work stress in the health and community service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, M F; McTernan, W

    2011-12-01

    Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes.

  10. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  11. US Health Care Reform and Transplantation, Part II: impact on the public sector and novel health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, D A; Millman, D; Abecassis, M M

    2010-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed in 2010 will result in dramatic expansion of publically funded health insurance coverage for low-income individuals. It is estimated that of the 32 million newly insured, 16 million will obtain coverage through expansion of the Medicaid Program, and the remaining 16 million will purchase coverage through their employer or newly legislated insurance exchanges. While the Act contains numerous provisions to improve access to private insurance as discussed in Part I of this analysis, public sector coverage will significantly be affected. The cost of health care reform will be borne disproportionately by Medicare, which faces nearly $500 billion in cuts to be identified by a new independent board. Transplant centers should be concerned about the impact of the reform on the financial aspects of transplantation. In addition, this legislation also utilizes the Medicare Program to drive reform of the health care delivery system, by encouraging the development of integrated Accountable Care Organizations, experimentation with new 'models' of healthcare delivery, and expanded support for Comparative Effectiveness Research. Transplant providers, including transplant centers and physicians/surgeons need to lead this movement, drawing on our experience providing comprehensive multidisciplinary care under global budgets with publically reported outcomes.

  12. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  13. [Gender, age, occupation, economic sector and mental health in the workplace: the results of the study SALVEO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve; Durand, Pierre

    2015-04-29

    This article examined the contribution of gender, age, occupation and economic sector on psychological distress, depression and burnout. The data came from the SALVEO study carried out in 2009- 2012 among 2,162 workers employed in 63 Canadian workplaces. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated on the total sample and separately for men and women. The prevalences of psychological distress, depression and burnout were 23.8%, 5.8% and 3.9% respectively. Mental health problems varied between workplaces, but variations between workplaces were stronger for burnout. Differences between men and women were significant only for psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Unskilled workers were found more at risk for depression and burnout. Associations among age, occupation and economic sector were not the same between genders. Results from the SALVEO study highlight important mental health problems in workers that vary between workplaces, and that differences in symptomatology are associated with gender, age, occupation and economic sector. Gender reveals differentiated profiles of relationships. These results point towards the development of targeted approaches to the prevention of and intervention on mental health problems in workplaces.

  14. The essence of governance in health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Kirigia, Doris Gatwiri

    2011-03-28

    Governance and leadership in health development are critically important for the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national health goals. Those two factors might explain why many countries in Africa are not on track to attain the health MDGs by 2015. This paper debates the meaning of 'governance in health development', reviews briefly existing governance frameworks, proposes a modified framework on health development governance (HDG), and develops a HDG index. We argue that unlike 'leadership in health development', 'governance in health development' is the sole prerogative of the Government through the Ministry of Health, which can choose to delegate (but not abrogate) some of the governance tasks. The general governance domains of the UNDP and the World Bank are very pertinent but not sufficient for assessment of health development governance. The WHO six domains of governance do not include effective external partnerships for health, equity in health development, efficiency in resource allocation and use, ethical practises in health research and service provision, and macroeconomic and political stability. The framework for assessing health systems governance developed by Siddiqi et al also does not include macroeconomic and political stability as a separate principle. The Siddiqi et al framework does not propose a way of scoring the various governance domains to facilitate aggregation, inter-country comparisons and health development governance tracking over time.This paper argues for a broader health development governance framework because other sectors that assure human rights to education, employment, food, housing, political participation, and security combined have greater impact on health development than the health systems. It also suggests some amendments to Siddigi et al's framework to make it more relevant to the broader concept of 'governance in health development' and to the WHO African Region context. A strong

  15. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  16. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, David R; Banteyerga, Hailom; Tharaney, Manisha

    2015-10-29

    Although human resources for health have received increased attention by health systems decision-makers and researchers in recent years, insufficient attention has been paid to understanding the factors that influence the performance of health workers. This empirical study investigates the factors that are associated with health worker motivation over time among public sector primary health care workers in Ethiopia. The study is based on data from public sector health worker surveys collected through a convenience sample of 43 primary health care facilities in four regions (Addis Ababa, Oromia, Amhara, and Somali) at three points in time: 2003/04, 2006, and 2009. Using a Likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to statements regarding job satisfaction, pride in work, satisfaction with financial rewards, self-efficacy, satisfaction with facility resources, and self-perceived conscientiousness. Inter-reliability of each construct was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and indices of motivational determinants and outcomes were calculated for each survey round. To explore the associations between motivational determinants and outcomes, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out based on a pooled dataset. Among the sample public sector health workers, several dimensions of health worker motivation significantly increased over the study period, including two indicators of motivational outcomes-overall job satisfaction and self-perceived conscientiousness-and two indicators of motivational determinants-pride and self-efficacy. However, two other dimensions of motivation-satisfaction with financial rewards and satisfaction with facility resources-significantly decreased. The multivariate analyses found that the constructs of pride, self-efficacy, satisfaction with financial rewards, and satisfaction with facility resources were significantly associated with the motivational outcomes, after controlling for other factors. Overall, the findings

  17. CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISHERIES SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Fisheries has a strategic importance for supplying the population with food, while the sectors of the national economy with raw materials, for strengthening the country’s position in the international arena, for preserving spatial and national integrity of Ukraine, plays an important role in the restoration of natural resources and in the increase in employment. In recent years, fisheries sector of Ukraine is in a severe, protracted economic crisis. Considering its socio-economic and strategic importance for the state, there is a task for developing an effective policy for fisheries development in Ukraine that defines the relevance of the research and practical importance of its results. Thus, a compilation and analysis of the existing information on the current state and development of fisheries sector in the crisis period will allow a deeper understanding of problems in the fisheries sector in Ukraine and finding quick solutions. The main goal of the state policy in the field of fisheries in Ukraine has to be meeting the needs of the population in fish and fish products by creating conditions for effective operations and development of aquaculture and fishing enterprises. Findings. The article reviews the current state of the development of fisheries sector in Ukraine, consumption, catch, processing of fish and seafood, dynamics of fish product exports and imports, legislative and regulatory framework of fisheries sector, state of the implementation of WTO and EU requirements, as well as finding ways for the fisheries sector out from the crisis. Originality. This work is a compilation of the information on the current state of fisheries sector development in Ukraine. The information is provided in the form of a coherent presentation of information on the current state of fisheries sector in Ukraine, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Practical Value. The fact that the fisheries sector of Ukraine is still in a depressive state

  18. Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Antwi-Agyei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate Compatible Development (CCD aims to deliver adaptation and mitigation without compromising development progress. To date, adaptation, mitigation and development related to key climate-sensitive sectors have often been treated separately. This paper uses qualitative document analysis, content analysis, expert interviews and a multi-stakeholder workshop to: examine the extent to which policies in climate-sensitive sectors align in framing adaptation, mitigation and development action; and identify key areas of policy coherence in Ghana. The paper answers the following questions: (i To what extent are Ghana’s agriculture, energy, water, forest and wildlife sector policies aligned with climate adaptation, mitigation and development? (ii What is the extent of policy coherence amongst climate-sensitive sector policies? (iii Where are the key intervention points available to enhance CCD activities? Findings demonstrate that Ghana’s climate-sensitive sector policies in agriculture, water, energy, forest and wildlife arenas have elements that demonstrate good alignment with adaptation, mitigation, and development priorities. However, as yet, there is only “limited coherence” between climate-sensitive sector policies. The paper identifies the following intervention points: (i the need to attach greater importance to the threat posed by climate change to agriculture; and (ii the need to address the lack of inter-agency and inter-ministerial approaches for building partnerships with other stakeholders. Multi-stakeholder workshop discussions highlighted significant challenges relating to limited coordination amongst institutions and agencies, limited institutional capacity and a lack of resources in ensuring coherence. This requires strengthening of national institutions such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure effective collaboration amongst climate-sensitive sectors to deliver

  19. From drought to deluge: how information overload saturated absorption capacity in a disrupted health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Mark; Cometto, Giorgio; Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-11-01

    Provision of technical assistance is a common form of support to health sectors emerging from prolonged conflicts. But what actions signal that the Ministry of Health (MoH) is, or is not, actively analysing and digesting the output of this assistance? Where are the boundaries between doing with and doing for? This article presents a qualitative description of an early post-conflict policy process in southern Sudan, which represented an opportunity to test these boundaries. The methodology of provision of technical assistance to the MoH in the formulation of a human resource plan is reviewed. Initial objectives are compared with the results accomplished. Shortcomings are discussed and recommendations for technical assistance programmes in similar contexts are provided. Between October 2005 and May 2006, World Health Organization advisers supported the MoH in conducting a human resources assessment to lay the grounds for a human resources development plan. The study employed three consultants, ten data collectors and entailed questionnaires, field visits, interviews and a review of literature. The survey shed new important evidence on the human resources situation in southern Sudan, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, and formulated specific recommendations. The formulation of the human resources plan, however, took another direction, apparently unrelated to the findings of the survey. Various factors contributed to the scope and methodology of the survey being inappropriate to the reality of southern Sudan. In the presence of systemic capacity gaps, including uncertain governance and precarious management systems, the benefit of one-off comprehensive surveys is likely to be negligible. Inaction is not always rooted in the lack of information, as too often assumed; this case study exposes the limits of a rationalistic approach to policy formulation and planning in the field of human resources for health. An alternative approach that entails incremental steps

  20. Financial Development and Sectoral Output Growth in 19th century Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Katharina; Westermann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we re-evaluate the hypothesis that the development of the financial sector was an essential factor behind economic growth in 19th century Germany. We apply a structural VAR framework to a new annual data set from 1870 to 1912 that was initially recorded by Walther Hoffmann (1965). With respect to the literature, the distinguishing characteristic of our analysis is the focus on different sectors in the economy and the interpretation of the findings in the context of a two-sector ...

  1. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores (p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers’ knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers’ knowledge may decrease risky practices. PMID:28805712

  2. Health Sector Reform, Emotional Exhaustion, and Nursing Burnout: A Retrospective Panel Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hemmati, Soroor; Ebrahimzadeh, Najmeh; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2017-10-01

    Nursing burnout is affected by various factors, including work overload. Since the inauguration of the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) in Iran in 2014, government hospitals have been required to provide health services to the public at all levels. This decision, however, has increased the volume of patients admitted to government hospitals. Because nurses are on the front line of health services, they are faced with a greater load of care provision. This study aimed to evaluate nursing burnout before and after HSEP in Iran, with an emphasis on the differences between government and private hospitals. This retrospective panel study used Maslach's burnout inventory to evaluate nursing burnout in 371 nurses working in government and private hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, before and 7 months after the health sector reform. Chi-square test and paired t test were used to compare burnout scores. The results showed that nursing burnout had changed significantly after HSEP was launched (p = .030). A more detailed assessment found that burnout and emotional exhaustion had both increased significantly in the government-hospital group (ps = .014 and .001, respectively). However, no significant change in burnout was found in the private-hospital group over the same period. The findings of this study indicate an increase in nursing burnout in government hospitals. An important issue in every health sector reform is nursing resource management, with a focus on burnout. Accordingly, policymakers should consider the work overload situation of nurses and work to prevent increased burnout, especially emotional exhaustion.

  3. CORPORATE MODEL OF PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Makarenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of development and functioning of corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy. Today Russia is fully influenced by consequences of entry into world economy. Privatization processes, on the one hand, and increase in intervention of the state in economy, on the other hand, changed composition and structure of the public sector of the Russian economy. Establishment of large state corporations and further increase in scales and directions of Russian government’s policy. These corporations acquired an extensive set of functions, large volumes of state property (federal budgetary funds, different production and financial assets, which ensured their activity in the long run. The state corporations carry out an important role in ensuring stable development of national economic systems for already several years, smoothing the so-called “failures” of the market, and create the necessary conditions for overcoming the crisis phenomena. The author presents the classification of economic sectors consisting of public, municipal and private sectors, studies the character and structure of public sector of the developed foreign countries. The carried-out comparative characteristic of main national models of public sector allowed to reveal the extent of state’s influence on the economy in the North American, Western European and Asian countries, as well as to define the main features of public sector in these countries. The concept and essence of the state corporation, as well as trends of their creation and development are also studied. The author proposes the corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy and defines its main characteristics. The analysis of the conducted research allowed to draw a conclusion on the need of further development of the state corporations and large national companies with the state participation.

  4. Job satisfaction of primary health-care providers (public sector in urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01. Age and education level of health care providers don′t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi.

  5. [How to reduce health inequities by targeting social determinants: the role of the health sector in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Valle, Adolfo; Terrazas, Paulina; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    To study lines of action implemented in Mexico by the health sector from 2007 to 2012 in order to combat health inequities by targeting social determinants. To contribute to better understanding and knowledge of how health system inequalities in the Region of the Americas can be reduced. To formulate recommendations for designing a future public policy agenda to address the social determinants associated with health inequities in Mexico. The policies and programs established in the National Health Program (PRONASA) 2007 - 2012 were reviewed, and those that met four criteria were selected: i) they affected the social determinants of health (SDH); ii) they developed specific lines of action aimed at reducing health inequities; iii) they set concrete goals; and iv) they had been evaluated to determine whether those goals had been met. Three programs were selected: Seguro Popular, Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades (PDHO), and Caravanas de la Salud. Once each program's specific lines of action targeting SDH had been identified, the monitoring and evaluation indicators established in PRONASA 2007 - 2012, along with other available evaluations and empirical evidence, were used to measure the extent to which the goals were met. The findings showed that Seguro Popular had had a positive impact in terms of the financial protection of lower-income households. Moreover, the reduction in the gap between workers covered by the social security system and those who were not was more evident. By reducing poverty among its beneficiaries, the PDHO also managed to reduce health inequities. The indicators for Caravanas de la Salud, on the other hand, did not show statistically significant differences between the control localities and the localities covered by the program, except in the case of Pap tests. These findings have important public policy implications for designing an agenda that promotes continued targeting of SDH and heightening its impact in terms of reducing

  6. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye; Fazakerley, Jak A; Roberts, Clive L

    2013-11-01

    Optimistic estimates suggest that only 30-70% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These 'scavengers' as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the level of integration must be 'flexible'. In addition, the structure of the ISR should not be based on a 'universal' model but should instead take into account local contexts and conditions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Fulfillment Development among the Arab Sector in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Gith

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination and fulfillment are central components of personal development in both developing and developed societies. These terms are used frequently by many researchers, especially in the work by Maslow, who particularly emphasized this concept. This article presents a roadmap of sorts that describes the factors that can leverage and…

  8. The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Samuel N.

    A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the

  9. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services.

  10. [Managment system in safety and health at work organization. An Italian example in public sector: Inps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, G; Felicioli, G

    2010-01-01

    The Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (Inps) is one of the biggest Public Sector organizations in Italy; about 30.000 people work in his structures. Fifteen years ago, Inps launched a long term project with the objective to create a complex and efficient safety and health at work organization. Italian law contemplates a specific kind of physician working on safety and health at work, called "Medico competente", and 85 Inps's physicians work also as "Medico competente". This work describes how IT improved coordination and efficiency in this occupational health's management system.

  11. Extending voluntary health insurance to the informal sector: experiences and expectations of the informal sector in Kenya [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W. Barasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kenya has made a policy decision to use contributory health insurance as one of its key pre-payment health financing mechanisms. The National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF is the main health insurer in Kenya. While the NHIF has hitherto focused its efforts on providing health insurance coverage to individuals in the formal sector, it has recently broadened its focus to include individuals in the informal sector. This paper provides an analysis of the perceptions, and experiences of informal sector individuals in Kenya with regard to enrolment with the NHIF.  Methods: We collected data through key informant interviews (39 in two purposefully selected counties. Study participants were drawn from healthcare facilities contracted by the NHIF, and current, former, and prospective informal sector members. We analyzed data using a grounded approach.  Results: Participants felt that the NHIF provided inadequate information about the registration and membership processes as well as benefit entitlements. There was variable and inconsistent communication by the NHIF. There was also variance between the official benefit package and the actual benefits received by members. The NHIF registration requirements and processes presented an administrative barrier to obtaining membership. The NHIF premium level and contribution mechanism presents a financial barrier to current and prospective members. Healthcare providers discriminated against NHIF members compared to cash-payers or private insurance holders.  Conclusions: The NHIF could improve enrolment and retention of informal sector individuals by; 1 using communication strategies that are effective at reaching the informal sector, 2 improving the affordability of the premium rates, 3 simplifying the enrolment requirements and process, and 4 strengthening accountability mechanisms between itself and healthcare facilities to ensure that enrolled members receive the benefits that they are

  12. How does decentralisation affect health sector planning and financial management? a case study of early effects of devolution in Kilifi County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy; Gilson, Lucy; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-09-15

    accountability. In acknowledging the political nature of decentralisation polices, we recommend that health sector policy actors develop a broad understanding of the countries' political context when designing and implementing technical strategies for health sector decentralisation.

  13. Private Sector and Enterprise Development: Fostering Growth in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Lois is a past President of both the International Council for Small Business and the Canadian Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, and a ... International Development Week, observed February 4-10 this year, is an opportunity to focus on Canada's contributions to global development.

  14. Sector-Wide Approaches to Educational Development in Lesotho: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign aid in development process is also one phenomenon with inherent limitations requiring integrated solutions in advance. ... over traditional development project approach including Lesotho educational system situation, are in an assessment manner through an analytic framework elaborated upon in this paper.

  15. What drives the development of the MENA financial sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ben Naceur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a wide range of macroeconomic, fiscal and institutional factors in order to assess their relevance as determinants of financial development in MENA countries. A first interesting result is that bank and non-bank development are affected differently by the determinants under consideration. For example, growth does not promote banking activity; it promotes development of stock market liquidity. While we find that better institutions, in general, have a positive and significant effect on financial development, some institutional aspects matter more than others do. We also present evidence on the impact of macroeconomic factors, such as investment, inflation, savings, trade openness and financial liberalization, as key determinants of financial development in the MENA region, further reflecting a sharp contrast between bank and non-bank activity. Our results are robust to different specifications and different estimation techniques.

  16. The relevance of a coproductive capacity framework to climate change adaptation: investigating the health and water sectors in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple active partnerships in the health and water sectors in Cambodia exist to address climate change adaptation, operating beyond typical sectoral and organizational divides. Decisions around national adaptation policy are made predominantly by the relevant lead ministry, contrasting with where funding originates from (i.e., major donors, multilaterals, United Nation agencies. Adaptation policy is thus the result of a process of coproduction by state and nonstate actors. The research we present sought to understand the relationships that exist between knowledge- and decision-makers with respect to climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors in Cambodia, and the factors that enabled or constrained these relationships. Forty-four interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 organizations. We found that coproductive relationships were most effective when there were clearly defined roles and responsibilities, coordination of technical and financial resources, and trust. The two key factors of coproductive capacity that enabled and supported these partnerships were scientific resources and governance capability. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities given to various actors requires commensurate funding and greater consideration of existing relationships and power dynamics. The reliance on international scientific expertise also needs to be challenged so that local research capabilities can be developed and locally relevant, problem-specific information can be provided. The ongoing funding, codevelopment, and sharing of such knowledge would significantly enhance trust and cooperation.

  17. Health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector : insights from the Shepell-fgi Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report discussed health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector in relation to employee assistance program (EAP) data. The data were derived from oil and gas client organizations across Canada for 2008, and represented a population base of 14,685 employees. The data demonstrated that EAP utilization in the petroleum industry increased by approximately 5 per cent from 2006 to 2008. The sector's utilization was 34 per cent higher than the Canadian norm in 2006, and 40 per cent higher than in 2007 and 2008. Females used the EAP to a greater extent than males. A higher proportion of the spouses of workers accessed EAP than the national norm. Employees accessed EAP for assistance with work-life issues; family support services; and substance abuse interventions. Weight management and dietary consultations in relation to disease control were also of concern within the sector. A 66 per cent increase in childcare issues was noted, as well as a 148 per cent increase in eldercare issues, and a 112 per cent increase in addiction issues. The findings indicated that the EAP is being effectively communicated as a relevant and accessible tool. As the industry continues to develop in remote regions, new services and resources will be required to retain existing workforces and attract new employees. Prevention-focused training and services and program for at-risk groups are needed to ensure that employee health and productivity is maintained. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  19. Strategic management of technology in public health sector in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogembo-Kachieng'a, M; Ogara, W O

    2004-06-01

    To investigate factors contributing to health care equipment problems and associated technological investments in public hospitals. The article reviews the processes of equipment planning, procurement and management. Analysis of results and observations from experts leads to recommendations and suggestions on good equipment management practices in public hospitals. It also provides recommendations for competitive utilisation of equipment in the public health sector. Health care equipment management in Kenya and South Africa in 1999/2000. INSTITUTIONS: A total of 10 public equipment maintenance institutions, and 38 equipment maintenance experts participated in the survey. Majority of the participants were drawn from teaching hospitals. It is evident that the way health technology is managed in health care institutions directly affects the quality of treatment patients receive. Although strategic importance of technology in health care has been documented widely in scientific literature; equipment planning, procurement and management have not received the attention they deserve in the transformation of health care services in the two countries under the survey. The growing demand for more and better health care greatly expands the role of health care equipment in the delivery of health services. Kenya and South Africa have tried various strategies to improve access, quality and cost-efficiency in the health care delivery systems. However it is clear that the optimal method has yet to be found. Good management of health care equipment increases efficiency in health care services and enhances health outcomes.

  20. Growth and Development in the U.S. Retail Organic Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis A. Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses retail purchase data reported by the Nielsen Homescan panel to examine the development of selected U.S. organic food sectors since the implementation of the National Organic Standards. Results show that organic market shares within the fresh fruit and vegetable sectors grew slightly in 2003–2006. Apples, bananas, carrots, and tomatoes prove to have the highest share of organic sales within their sectors. The share of organic milk sales attributed to private labels has increased from 12 to 32 percent in 2004–2007. The organic market share within the strained baby food sector almost doubled from 8 to 15 percent in 2004–2007. Findings show a demographically diverse group of consumers willing to expend their food dollars on organic foods.

  1. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  2. Institutional conditions for sustainable private sector-led urban development projects : A conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the globe sustainable private sector-led urban development projects (SPUDPs) in the built environment rarely commence as real estate developers face several institutional barriers which limit their capacity to develop economic-viable, social-responsible, environmental-friendly urban places.

  3. Strategies for sustainable private sector-led urban development projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies and partnerships for delivering sustainable private sector-led urban development projects are yet to be effectuated. Despite the fact that actors in real estate development increasingly incorporate sustainability features into decision-making, it seems that developing sustainable urban

  4. Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects : Management, Partnerships & Effects in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of study is Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects. Such projects involve property developers taking a leading role and local authorities adopting a facilitating role in the management of the development of an urban area, based on a framework of public requirements and a formal

  5. Climate change and its effect on agriculture, water resources and human health sectors in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szwed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-model ensemble climate projections in the ENSEMBLES Project of the EU allowed the authors to quantify selected extreme-weather indices for Poland, of importance to climate impacts on systems and sectors. Among indices were: number of days in a year with high value of the heat index; with high maximum and minimum temperatures; length of vegetation period; and number of consecutive dry days. Agricultural, hydrological, and human health indices were applied to evaluate the changing risk of weather extremes in Poland in three sectors. To achieve this, model-based simulations were compared for two time horizons, a century apart, i.e., 1961–1990 and 2061–2090. Climate changes, and in particular increases in temperature and changes in rainfall, have strong impacts on agriculture via weather extremes – droughts and heat waves. The crop yield depends particularly on water availability in the plant development phase. To estimate the changes in present and future yield of two crops important for Polish agriculture i.e., potatoes and wheat, some simple empirical models were used. For these crops, decrease of yield is projected for most of the country, with national means of yield change being: –2.175 t/ha for potatoes and –0.539 t/ha for wheat. Already now, in most of Poland, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during summer, hence the water storage (in surface water bodies, soil and ground decreases. Summer precipitation deficit is projected to increase considerably in the future. The additional water supplies (above precipitation needed to use the agro-potential of the environment would increase by half. Analysis of water balance components (now and in the projected future can corroborate such conclusions. As regards climate and health, a composite index, proposed in this paper, is a product of the number of senior discomfort days and the number of seniors (aged 65+. The value of this index is projected to increase over 8-fold during

  6. Holding the World Bank accountable for leakage of funds from Africa's health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Fatma E

    2010-06-15

    This article explores the accountability of international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, for human rights violations related to the massive leakage of funds from sub-Saharan Africa's health sector. The article begins by summarizing the quantitative results of Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys performed in six African countries, all showing disturbingly high levels of leakage in the health sector. It then addresses the inadequacy of good governance and anticorruption programs in remedying this problem. After explaining how the World Bank's Inspection Panel may serve as an accountability mechanism for addressing the leakage of funds, discussing violations of specific Bank policies and procedures that would support a claim related to leakage and examining the relevance of human rights concerns to such as claim, the article explores some of the Panel's limitations and the positive steps taken to address these concerns.

  7. Lumbar spinal fusion patients' demands to the primary health sector: evaluation of three rehabilitation protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B; Lauerberg, Ida

    2006-01-01

    -articulated demands to the primary health care sector following lumbar spinal fusion and three different in-hospital rehabilitation regimens in a prospective, randomized study with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients were randomized 3 months post lumbar spinal fusion to either a 'video' group (one-time oral......Very few studies have investigated the effects or costs of rehabilitation regimens following lumbar spinal fusion. The effectiveness of in-hospital rehabilitation regimens has substantial impact on patients' demands in the primary health care sector. The aim of this study was to investigate patient...... instruction by a physiotherapist and patients were then issued a video for home exercise), or a 'café' group (video regimen with the addition of three café meetings with other fusion-operated patients) or a 'training' group (exercise therapy; physiotherapist-guided; two times a week for 8 weeks). Register...

  8. The role of the transport sector in the new partnership for Africa’s development (nepad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Mouchili

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years Africa has presented a gloomy socio-economic picture. The problems Africa faces are so complex and interlinked that a holistic approach is needed to address the issues. Africa is increasingly being marginalised from world development. It accounts for only about 2% of the world total economic exchanges (UNECA, 2000. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD is an initiative by African leaders to inspire political stability and address shortages in infrastructure, education and health in an attempt to end misery across Africa and launch its sustainable development. Inadequate infrastructure is a critical obstacle to intra-African trade and to the competitiveness of African products in international markets. Transport can facilitate the flow of people, ideas and technology. Bridging the transport infrastructure gap is therefore an important factor in unlocking the human and economic potential of the continent. NEPAD aims to coordinate and channel regionally fragmented efforts into one core long-term vision for the continent. NEPAD cannot work if there is too much high level strategic regional focus with little involvement of civil society, specific requirements and needs of African countries, and the private sector. It should develop some general high-level objectives and strategies related to transport operations and infrastructure, such as simplifying and harmonising transport regulations, deregulating the air industry and implementing the Yamoussoukro decisions, and focusing investments on transport corridors (road or rail.

  9. Spatial and Real Estate Management Determinants of Tourism Sector Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alina Źróbek-Różańska; Joanna Zielińska-Szczepkowska

    2014-01-01

    .... The realization of particular tasks is a very complex process, and requires rational and active spatial and real estate management, coherent with the principles of spatial order and sustainable development.

  10. Stress in the Health Sector and Effect of Optimism on the Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yigıt, Songul

    2015-01-01

    Job is an indispensable part of life. All employees face stress. The health sector has many properties that may lead to stress stemmingfrom its characteristic structure. Due to the fact that the slightest mistake may lead to loss of human life, satisfaction or dissatisfactionof employees has an importance not only in terms of individuals but also in terms of the society.Optimism is a viewpoint. An optimistic person can cope with any difficulties of life and survive dangerous situations with t...

  11. Competitive Analysis of the Health Sector By M. Porter 5 Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    COŞKUN, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Continuous improvement processes and methods of healthy competition, drive costs down. Quality of products and services is increasing constantly. What’s new approach leads to better spread widely and rapidly. Or non-competitive service providers or restructured living entropy shrinks and closes.Improves the quality and lower the costs of any competition in the sector over time increases the value for the customers. Health services, the complexity of the customer reach is different due to the ...

  12. The sociology of space as a catalyst for innovation in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Trust; de Villiers, Katusha; Douglas, Tania S

    2017-05-01

    This paper reviews the role of space in facilitating innovation. It draws on the sociology of space in exploring the social practices, institutional forces and material complexity of how people and spaces interact. We assess how space influences the development of innovative solutions to challenges in the health sector. Our aim is to advance an understanding of the social production of space for healthcare innovation. We draw empirical examples from the Innovation Hub at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town to illustrate that innovation does not take place in an institutional vacuum, but requires space that facilitates interaction of different players. This paper demonstrates that space matters in promoting innovation, particularly through its influence on social relationships and networks. An attractive and novel space, which is different from the usual workplace, stimulates innovation, mainly through being a base for the creation of an ecosystem for the productive interaction of different players. The interaction is important in inspiring new ideas, facilitating creative thought processes, maintaining the flow of information and bringing innovation to life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  14. Carbon footprint of telemedicine solutions--unexplored opportunity for reducing carbon emissions in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Ebi, Kristie L; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 40-70 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints.

  15. Occupational vs. industry sector classification of the US workforce: which approach is more strongly associated with worker health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J; Leblanc, William G; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Ocasio, Manuel A; McCollister, Kathryn E; Christ, Sharon L; Clarke, Tainya; Kachan, Diana; Davila, Evelyn P; Fernandez, Cristina A

    2011-10-01

    Through use of a nationally representative database, we examined the variability in both self-rated health and overall mortality risk within occupations across the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Industry Sectors, as well as between the occupations within the NORA Industry sectors. Using multiple waves of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) representing an estimated 119,343,749 US workers per year from 1986 to 2004, age-adjusted self-rated health and overall mortality rates were examined by occupation and by NORA Industry Sector. There was considerable variability in the prevalence rate of age-adjusted self-rated poor/fair health and overall mortality rates for all US workers. The variability was greatest when examining these data by the Industry Sectors. In addition, we identified an overall pattern of increased poor/fair self-reported health and increased mortality rates concentrated among particular occupations and particular Industry Sectors. This study suggests that using occupational categories within and across Industry Sectors would improve the characterization of the health status and health disparities of many subpopulations of workers within these Industry Sectors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Private Sector and Enterprise Development: Fostering Growth in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2011 ... Before joining IDRC, Lois spent several years with the Government of Canada, holding directorate positions related to economic framework policies, innovation policy, small business policy, and entrepreneurship development. She has consulted for the OECD and for the International Labour Organisation, ...

  17. Public sector employment for community development in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-26

    Nov 26, 2015 ... South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) provides an employment safety net for un- and under-employed people by guaranteeing them two days of work per week. Can a poverty reduction program such as this support community development? How? IDRC-supported experts at the Centre for the ...

  18. The Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development of the Rural Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Sukhinina, Veronika V.; Starikova, Lyudmila D.; Pecherskaya, Evelina P.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of the studied issue is determined by growing lag of rural territorial units in socioeconomic development, and one the other by their significance in such important aspects of the country, as ensuring food supply security, preservation of the available land, production, ecological, demographic and human potential.…

  19. Dairy sector development Indonesia : options for cooperation with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The dairy supply chain in Indonesia is described with its limitations and options for improvements. An integrated and participative approach with the dairy cooperatives as entry point is proposed to improve milk production at farm level. The Netherlands could contribute via development of business

  20. [Telematics in the public health sector. Where is the protection of health data?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voßhoff, Andrea; Raum, Bertram; Ernestus, Walter

    2015-10-01

    There is a long history of telematics in the German health system. Apart from the growing technical possibilities in the field, it is important to concentrate on the protection of health data in telematics applications. Health data in the hands of service providers or other third parties entails certain risks for the patient's personality rights, because these institutions may not be bound by the practice of medical confidentiality. In addition, big data processing risks make the individual lives of patients and insured persons totally transparent. Measures to reduce these risks have to be taken by the providers as well as by the users of telematics infrastructure; they are the ones who should explicitly address the relevant risks and dangers in a data protection and IT-security concept and develop adequate strategies to cope with these dangers. Additionally, the German legislator remains obliged to create a regulatory framework for the protection of patients' rights.

  1. Health spending slowdown is mostly due to economic factors, not structural change in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The source of the recent slowdown in health spending growth remains unclear. We used new and unique data on privately insured people to estimate the effect of the economic slowdown that began in December 2007 on the rate of growth in health spending. By exploiting regional variations in the severity of the slowdown, we determined that the economic slowdown explained approximately 70 percent of the slowdown in health spending growth for the people in our sample. This suggests that the recent decline is not primarily the result of structural changes in the health sector or of components of the Affordable Care Act, and that-absent other changes in the health care system-an economic recovery will result in increased health spending. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Developing a community-based psycho-social intervention with older people and third sector workers for anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingstone, Tom; Burroughs, Heather; Bartlam, Bernadette; Ray, Mo; Proctor, Janine; Shepherd, Thomas; Bullock, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn Anne

    2017-07-12

    One-in-five people in the UK experience anxiety and/or depression in later life. However, anxiety and depression remain poorly detected in older people, particularly in those with chronic physical ill health. In the UK, a stepped care approach, to manage common mental health problems, is advocated which includes service provision from non-statutory organisations (including third/voluntary sector). However, evidence to support such provision, including the most effective interventions, is limited. The qualitative study reported here constitutes the first phase of a feasibility study which aims to assess whether third sector workers can deliver a psychosocial intervention to older people with anxiety and/or depression. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of older people and third sector workers about anxiety and depression among older people in order to refine an intervention to be delivered by third sector workers. Semi-structured interviews with participants recruited through purposive sampling from third sector groups in North Staffordshire. Interviews were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using principles of constant comparison. Nineteen older people and 9 third sector workers were interviewed. Key themes included: multiple forms of loss, mental health as a personal burden to bear, having courage and providing/receiving encouragement, self-worth and the value of group activities, and tensions in existing service provision, including barriers and gaps. The experience of loss was seen as central to feelings of anxiety and depression among community-dwelling older people. This study contributes to the evidence pointing to the scale and severity of mental health needs for some older people which can arise from multiple forms of loss, and which present a significant challenge to health, social care and third sector services. The findings informed development of a psychosocial intervention and training for third sector

  3. BNDES CONTRIBUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOGISTIC SECTOR FOR THE 2014 WORLD CUP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Estender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics have stimulated competition for investments in the infrastructure for the transportation of passengers, and they have demanded the integration of all modals of the Brazilian transport sector. Why is the transportation sector considered fundamental for the economy success and for mega-events as the World Cup and the Olympics? Objective: Capacity of the country in attracting investments, modernization of all transportation hubs and for the logistics. For reorganization of urban and inter-urban mobility, the country counts with one principal player, the BNDES (Brazilian Development Bank. For the comprehensive time period between the years of 2010-2016, it has an investment perspective in logistics that can practically come close to the R$ 130 Billion (Brazilian Real, of this sum 43% comes from funds of the BNDES, 37% comes from the private sector and approximately 20% from public agencies. Dividing by transportation modals and applied in consolidated projects, sea port sector requirements will take roughly R$ 15 Billion (14% of the total sum; the railroad sector will have approximately the equivalent of R$ 56 Billion (52% of the total sum; the air transport project (TAV will take 31 billion (29% and the road sector with about 36 billion (34%. In summary, the direct participation of the BNDES in projects that integrate planning and actions of the public agencies for the resolution of the structural problems in urban centers is a determining factor for the growth of the country.

  4. Expanding health insurance scheme in the informal sector in Nigeria: awareness as a potential demand-side tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, David Ayobami; Akanbi, Saidat Abisola; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Bello, Segun

    2017-01-01

    The implementation and expansion of a health insurance scheme in the informal sector, particularly in developing countries, is a challenge. With the aid of an innovative Information-Education and Communication model, titled 'Understanding the concept of health insurance: An innovative social marketing tool', an assessment of the awareness and perception of the scheme among market women was carried out. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey, carried out among market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 351 women were interviewed using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was used to test associations between selected variables of interest. Logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of awareness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). A model controlling for participants' enrolment status was built and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) reported. Level of statistical significance was set at p educational status was the only predictor significantly associated with awareness of the NHIS. Respondents with post-primary education had 10 times the odds of being aware of the NHIS than respondents with no education or only primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 10.3; 95% CI = 4.1-26.0). Innovative models to enable potential beneficiaries, especially among the informal sector, to better comprehend and accept the concept of prepayment methods of financing healthcare costs is important in efforts to implement and expand a social health insurance scheme.

  5. Risk and protective factors associated with being a victim of aggression in the health sector. Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Parmigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: aggression against healthcare workers is an alarming issue worldwide. However, there is lack of data on psychological vulnerability factors (such as personality traits, attachment style which can constitute a risk or a protective factor for being a victim of an episode of violence in the health sector. Methods/design: the present protocol is a cross-sectional study on prevalence and characteristics of violent episodes experienced by nursing students in the clinical setting. Its aim is to identify risk and protective factors for becoming a victim of verbal and/or physical aggression among healthcare workers. Participants will undergo an intensive battery of psychometric tests, dealing with episodes of aggression in the previous year, attachment style, personality traits, perceived stress, health related quality of life and job strain. Conclusions: the findings derived from this study may be of value in identifying vulnerability factors in experiencing an episode of aggression in the health sector. In this respect, it is a step towards the development of valid training and support focused on health workers, aimed at teaching them how to modulate and manage their vulnerability factors in an efficient way.

  6. A study on determining the perception of learning organisation applications by health sector workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somunoğlu, Sinem; Erdem, Erhan; Erdem, Ummühan

    2012-12-01

    It is stated that in this century not only the societies, but also the communities have to confront with a reconstruction process due to the rapid developments and reformations. It is believed that it is only possible for the organisations to achieve their goals as long as they adapt to the changes, and they continue the learning process. Based on these ideas, this study aims to determine the perceptions of a learning organisation's applications by the workers at Health Centre in Denizli. In order to achieve this goal, a questionnaire method was used and in the questionnaire, questions inquiring about the examples from learning organisation processes as well as the questions representing socio-demographic characteristics of the workers were included. When the obtained results were analyzed, the health sector workers stated that there were some applications in their organisations intended for knowing, understanding and thinking organisation models which were among the learning organisation phases. The workers also stated that they thought their organisation implemented some applications such as "Each individual in my organisation has an equal chance to learn (33.3 %)", "Knowledge reaches every part of the organisation quickly and effectively (31.3 %)", "Our organisation provides the necessary environment for learning (37.5 %)" etc. Besides, they thought that the process of being a learning organisation was not totally completed. The workers pointed out the main obstacles to be a learning organisation and to organisational learning process as communication problems (46.9 %), factors originating from managers (37.5 %), learning obstacles originating from the individual himself (32.3 %) etc.

  7. Financial Health of the Higher Education Sector: Financial Results and TRAC Outcomes 2013-14. Issues Paper 2015/07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the financial health of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)-funded higher education sector in England. The analysis covers financial results for the academic year 2013-14, as submitted to HEFCE in December 2014, as well as the outcomes from the sector's Transparent Approach to Costing (TRAC)…

  8. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaan, Corien M; Öry, Alexander V; Schol, Lianne G C; Jacobi, André; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD).

  9. Ebola Preparedness in the Netherlands: The Need for Coordination Between the Public Health and the Curative Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Swaan (Corien); Öry, A.V. (Alexander V.); Schol, L.G.C. (Lianne G. C.); A. Jacobi (Andre); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A. Timen (Aura)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractContext: During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD).

  10. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOOTWEAR SECTOR: ONE COMPANY, TWO REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Terezinha Moll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the phenomenon of globalization, Brazilian companies have sought growth opportunities in several ways. Through tax incentives the states, from their governments, aimed to attract investment generating competition with others, a practice known as tax competition. Some companies, using this feature installed new production units or even moved to distant regions with poor socioeconomic conditions and poor qualification of manpower. This study aimed to examine the use of the territory from the case of a footwear company, located in two regions - South and Northeast - with quite diverse Human Development indices. From a comparative analysis of the perception of 658 workers of group D on development, it is assessed the impact of the industry installation in the new location, as well as with the workers working in the company's headquarters. It was also verified the socio economic growth of the municipalities of Nova Petrópolis in RS, and Russas, in Ceará, in the decade from 1997 to 2007.From the results of the research it has been identified differences between workers of the South Unit and the Northeast Unit regarding to formal education, salary level, family income, unionization, the first job, among others. As to the quality of life, satisfaction levels of workers before employment and after being hired by the company are also different in the two units. However there are points in common that relate to the acquisition of material goods, occupation and level of ambition of the workers.

  11. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  12. The status and development of informal sector and ICT access in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wakari

    466200 jobs ... government and other organisations in the attempt to improve performance in the sector, which supports a large ... developed and developing countries lies in the number and size of MSEs, support by individual governments, and the ..... It was found that the majority of manufacturing SMEs lacked awareness.

  13. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  14. Challenges of medicines management in the public and private sector under Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashigbie, Paul G; Azameti, Devine; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2016-01-01

    Ghana established its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2003 with the goal of ensuring more equitable financing of health care to improve access to health services. This qualitative study examines the challenges and consequences of medicines management policies and practices under the NHIS as perceived by public and private service providers. This study was conducted in health facilities in the Eastern, Greater Accra and Volta regions of Ghana between July and August 2014. We interviewed 26 Key Informants (KIs) from a purposively selected sample of public and private sector providers (government and mission hospitals, private hospitals and private standalone pharmacies), pharmaceutical suppliers and NHIS district offices. Data was collected using semi-structured interview guides which covered facility accreditation, reimbursement practices, medicines selection, purchasing and pricing of medicines, and utilization of medicines. Codes for data analysis were developed based on the study questions and also in response to themes that emerged from the transcripts and notes. Most KIs agreed that the introduction of the NHIS has increased access to and utilization of medicines by removing cost barriers for patients; however, some pointed out the increased utilization could also be corollary to moral hazard. Common concerns across all facilities were the delays in receiving NHIS reimbursements, and low reimbursement rates for medicines which result in providers asking patients to pay supplementary fees. KIs reported important differences between private and public sectors including weak separation of prescribing and dispensing and limited use of drugs and therapeutic committees in the private sector, the disproportionate effects of unfavorable reimbursement prices for medicines, and inadequate participation of the private sector providers (especially pharmacies and licensed chemical sellers) in the NHIS. Health providers generally perceive the NHIS to have had a

  15. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIMOURIZAD, Abedin; HADIAN, Mohamad; REZAEI, Satar; HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. Methods We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. Results The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. Conclusion When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation. PMID:26060721

  16. "The Major Forces that Need to Back Medical Tourism Were … in Alignment": Championing Development of Barbados's Medical Tourism Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Governments around the world have expressed interest in developing local medical tourism sectors, framing the industry as an opportunity for economic growth and health system improvement. This article addresses questions about how the desire to develop a medical tourism sector in a country emerges and which stakeholders are involved in both creating momentum and informing its progress. Presenting a thematic analysis of 19 key informant interviews conducted with domestic and international stakeholders in Barbados's medical tourism sector in 2011, we examine the roles that "actors" and "champions" at home and abroad have played in the sector's development. Physicians and the Barbadian government, along with international investors, the Medical Tourism Association, and development agencies, have promoted the industry, while actors such as medical tourists and international hospital accreditation companies are passively framing the terms of how medical tourism is unfolding in Barbados. Within this context, we seek to better understand the roles and relationships of various actors and champions implicated in the development of medical tourism in order to provide a more nuanced understanding of how the sector is emerging in Barbados and elsewhere and how its development might impact equitable health system development. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. The fiscal crisis in the health sector: Patterns of cutback management across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, Edoardo; Ferré, Francesca; Fattore, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The article investigates trends in health sector cutback management strategies occurred during the ongoing financial and fiscal crisis across Europe. A European-wide survey to top public healthcare managers was conducted in ten different countries to understand their perception about public sector policy reactions to the financial and economic crisis; answers from 760 respondents from the healthcare sector (30.7% response rate) were analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the characteristics of respondents, countries' institutional healthcare models and the trend in public health resources availability during the crisis associated to the decision to introduce unselective cuts, targeted cuts or efficiency savings measures. Differentiated responses to the fiscal crisis that buffeted public finances were reported both across and within countries. Organizational position of respondents is significant in explaining the perceived cutback management approach introduced, where decentralized positions detect a higher use of linear cuts compared to their colleagues working in central level organizations. Compared to Bismark-like systems Beveridge-like ones favour the introduction of targeted cuts. Postponing the implementation of new programmes and containing expenses through instruments like pay freezes are some of the most popular responses adopted, while outright staff layoffs or reduction of frontline services have been more selectively employed. To cope with the effects of the fiscal crisis healthcare systems are undergoing important changes, possibly also affecting the scope of universal coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  19. Conceptual framework of public health surveillance and action and its application in health sector reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Wondi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because both public health surveillance and action are crucial, the authors initiated meetings at regional and national levels to assess and reform surveillance and action systems. These meetings emphasized improved epidemic preparedness, epidemic response, and highlighted standardized assessment and reform. Methods To standardize assessments, the authors designed a conceptual framework for surveillance and action that categorized the framework into eight core and four support activities, measured with indicators. Results In application, country-level reformers measure both the presence and performance of the six core activities comprising public health surveillance (detection, registration, reporting, confirmation, analyses, and feedback and acute (epidemic-type and planned (management-type responses composing the two core activities of public health action. Four support activities – communications, supervision, training, and resource provision – enable these eight core processes. National, multiple systems can then be concurrently assessed at each level for effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost. Conclusions This approach permits a cost analysis, highlights areas amenable to integration, and provides focused intervention. The final public health model becomes a district-focused, action-oriented integration of core and support activities with enhanced effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost savings. This reform approach leads to sustained capacity development by an empowerment strategy defined as facilitated, process-oriented action steps transforming staff and the system.

  20. Determinants of village doctors' job satisfaction under China's health sector reform: a cross-sectional mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Lei, Trudy; Sun, Fiona; Xie, Zheng

    2017-04-18

    To strengthen rural health workforce, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to promote the job satisfaction of village doctors since the health sector reform. The purpose of this mixed-method study is to describe village doctors' job satisfaction under the context of health sector reform and investigate the associated factors. Data was obtained from a survey of village doctors across three Chinese provinces in 2014. Using a multistage sampling process, quantitative data was collected from village doctors through the self-administered questionnaire and analyzed by multilevel logistic regression models. Qualitative data was collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews on both village doctors and health managers. Theoretical coding was then conducted to analyze qualitative data. Among the 1221 respondents, 48.6% felt satisfied with their job. Older village doctors with less of a workload and under high-level integrated management were more likely to feel satisfied with their job. Village doctors who earned the top level of monthly income felt more satisfied, while on the county level, those who lived in counties with the highest GDP felt less satisfied. However, enrollment in a pension plan showed no significant difference in regards to village doctors' job satisfaction. Among 34 participants of qualitative interviews, most believed that age, income, and integrated management had a positive influence on the job satisfaction, while pension plan and basic public health care policies exhibited negative effects. Also, the increasing in availability of healthcare and health resources along with local economic development had negative effects on village doctors' job satisfaction. Village doctors' job satisfaction was quite low in regards to several determinants including age, income, workload, enrollment in a pension plan, integrated management, and county economic and medical availability development.

  1. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development of an improved commercial sector energy model for national policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1992-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory provided support to the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), under the Office of Planning and Assessment, to develop improved energy and environmental analysis tools. Commercial building sector energy models from the past decade were analyzed in order to provoke comment and stimulate discussion between potential model users and developers as to the appropriate structure and capability of a commercial sector energy model supported by CE. Three specific areas were examined during this review. These areas provide (1) a look at recent suggestions and guidance as to what constitutes a minimal set of requirements and capabilities for a commercial buildings energy model for CE, (2) a review of several existing models in terms of their general structure and how they match up with the requirements listed previously, and (3) an overview of a proposed improved commercial sector energy model.

  3. Regional development and the impact of the public sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between employment growth, human capital and regional development. To understand the spatial development of employment growth, we distinguish between the public and the private sector. The public sector has a major role in Denmark in the form of a large share...... of total employment and employment growth across space. We examine in particular the uneven geography of human capital and the relationships between the growth of human capital and total employment growth by Danish municipalities. It is moreover analysed, whether there is a concentration of human capital...... in the largest city-regions, and how such concentrations contribute to the uneven geography of employment growth. The paper concludes that both the public and private sectors are important regarding employment growth in Danish municipalities. Further, public and private human capital contributes to employment...

  4. Linking public sector corporate social responsibility with sustainable development: lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Ray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In recent years, a number of regulatory measures have been proposed by the Indian government to ensure corporate support to the goals of sustainable and inclusive development. The objective of these regulations is to achieve triple bottom line based growth. Notable among them is the mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR guidelines for public sector undertakings, first issued in April, 2010. I study the possibility and problems created by this effort by analyzing the policy documents and interviewing managers responsible for implementing CSR programmers in Indian public sector. Managers interviewed came from hydropower, coal, power distribution and shipping industries. Based on the study, four areas are identified that requires attention for effective linking between sustainable development and CSR; stakeholder engagement, institutional mechanisms, capacity building and knowledge management. Both government-public sector and public sector-community engagements have to be more streamlined. Institutional mechanisms have to be developed to see that CSR projects are effective and delivering. Importantly, managers at all levels need a better understanding of CSR and sustainable development. Since most projects are in rural areas, understanding of rural issues and sustainability is very important. Finally, such a large scale exercise in CSR should have a knowledge management mechanism to learn from the achievements and mistakes of the early years. I discuss the implication of the findings on India and other emerging economies many of which are struggling to balance

  5. Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentlinger, P. E.

    1996-01-01

    During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a PMID:8973238

  6. Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast: implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lipscomb, Hester J; Casanova, Vanessa; Neis, Barbara; Fraser, Clermont; Monaghan, Paul; Vallejos, Quirina M

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers', much less immigrant workers', occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Knowledge translation regarding financial abuse and dementia for the banking sector: the development and testing of an education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Bhatia, Sangita; Macnab, Jenna; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Financial abuse is the most common form of elder abuse. Capacity Australia, established to promote education regarding capacity and abuse prevention across health, legal and financial sectors, was awarded a grant by the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre to educate the banking sector on financial abuse and dementia. We aimed to develop a knowledge translation tool for bank staff on this issue. The banking sector across Australia was engaged and consulted to develop a tailored education tool based on Australian Banking Association's Guidelines on Financial Abuse Prevention, supplemented by information related to dementia, financial capacity and supported decision-making. The tool was tested on 69 banking staff across Australia from two major banks. An online education tool using adaptive learning was developed, comprising a pretest of 15 multiple choice questions, followed by a learning module tailored to the individual's performance on the pretest, and a post-test to assess knowledge translation. A significant increase in scores was demonstrated when baseline scores were compared with post-course scores (mean difference in scores = 3.5; SD = 1.94; t = 15.1; df = 68; p dementia, abuse and financial capacity. This online e-tool provides an effective medium for knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Change theory for accounting system reform in health sector: a case study of kerman university of medical sciences in iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

    2013-01-01

    ... fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin's change theory...

  9. Infection prevention and control in health facilities in post-Ebola Liberia: don't forget the private sector!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, N; Musa, E; Cooper, C; Van den Bergh, R; Owiti, P; Baller, A; Siafa, T; Woldeyohannes, D; Shringarpure, K; Gasasira, A

    2017-06-21

    Setting: Recognising the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC), a minimum standards tool (MST) was developed in Liberia to guide the safe (re-) opening and provision of care in health facilities. Objectives: To analyse the implementation of specific IPC measures after the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak between June 2015 and May 2016, and to compare the relative improvements in IPC between the public and private sectors. Design: A retrospective comparative cohort study. Results: We evaluated 723 (94%) of the 769 health facilities in Liberia. Of these, 437 (60%) were public and 286 (40%) were private. There was an overall improvement in the MST scores from a median of 13 to 14 out of a maximum possible score of 16. While improvements were observed in all aspects of IPC in both public and private health facilities, IPC implementation was systematically higher in public facilities. Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring IPC implementation using the MST checklist in post-Ebola Liberia. Our study shows that improvements were made in key aspects of IPC after 1 year of evaluations and tailored recommendations. We also highlight the need to increase the focus on the private sector to achieve further improvements in IPC.

  10. Infection prevention and control in health facilities in post-Ebola Liberia: don't forget the private sector!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, E.; Cooper, C.; Van den Bergh, R.; Owiti, P.; Baller, A.; Siafa, T.; Woldeyohannes, D.; Shringarpure, K.; Gasasira, A.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: Recognising the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC), a minimum standards tool (MST) was developed in Liberia to guide the safe (re-) opening and provision of care in health facilities. Objectives: To analyse the implementation of specific IPC measures after the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak between June 2015 and May 2016, and to compare the relative improvements in IPC between the public and private sectors. Design: A retrospective comparative cohort study. Results: We evaluated 723 (94%) of the 769 health facilities in Liberia. Of these, 437 (60%) were public and 286 (40%) were private. There was an overall improvement in the MST scores from a median of 13 to 14 out of a maximum possible score of 16. While improvements were observed in all aspects of IPC in both public and private health facilities, IPC implementation was systematically higher in public facilities. Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring IPC implementation using the MST checklist in post-Ebola Liberia. Our study shows that improvements were made in key aspects of IPC after 1 year of evaluations and tailored recommendations. We also highlight the need to increase the focus on the private sector to achieve further improvements in IPC. PMID:28744446

  11. Training and deployment of medical doctors in Tanzania post-1990s health sector reforms: assessing the achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirili, Nathanael; Kiwara, Angwara; Gasto, Frumence; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2017-04-04

    The shortage of a skilled health workforce is a global crisis. International efforts to combat the crisis have shown few benefits; therefore, more country-specific efforts are required. Tanzania adopted health sector reforms in the 1990s to ensure, among other things, availability of an adequate skilled health workforce. Little is documented on how the post-reform training and deployment of medical doctors (MDs) have contributed to resolving Tanzania's shortage of doctors. The study aims to assess achievements in training and deployment of MDs in Tanzania about 20 years since the 1990s health sector reforms. We developed a human resource for health (HRH) conceptual model to study achievements in the training and deployment of MDs by using the concepts of supply and demand. We analysed secondary data to document the number of MDs trained in Tanzania and abroad, and the number of MDs recommended for the health sector from 1992 to 2011. A cross-sectional survey conducted in all regions of the country established the number of MDs available by 2011. By 1992, Tanzania had 1265 MDs working in the country. From 1992 to 2010, 2622 MDs graduated both locally and abroad. This translates into 3887 MDs by 2011. Tanzania needs between 3326 and 5535 MDs. Our survey captured 1299 MDs working throughout the country. This number is less than 40% of all MDs trained in and needed for Tanzania by 2011. Maldistribution favouring big cities was evident; the eastern zone with less than 30% of the population hosts more than 50% of all MDs. No information was available on the more than 60% of MDs uncaptured by our survey. Two decades after the reforms, the number of MDs trained in Tanzania has increased sevenfold per year. Yet, the number and geographical distribution of MDs practicing in the country has remained the same as before the reforms. HRH planning should consider the three stages of health workforce development conceptualized under the demand and supply model. Auditing and

  12. Developing Sustainable Urban Water-Energy Infrastructures: Applying a Multi-Sectoral Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems (SEIS) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban infrastructure - broadly defined to include the systems that provide water, energy, food, shelter, transportation-communication, sanitation and green/public spaces in cities - have tremendous impact on the environment and on human well-being (Ramaswami et al., 2016; Ramaswami et al., 2012). Aggregated globally, these sectors contribute 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 96% of global water withdrawals. Urban infrastructure contributions to such impacts are beginning to dominate. Cities are therefore becoming the action arena for infrastructure transformations that can achieve high levels of service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and enhancing human well-being. Achieving sustainable urban infrastructure transitions requires: information about the engineered infrastructure, and its interaction with the natural (ecological-environmental) and the social sub-systems In this paper, we apply a multi-sector, multi-scalar Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems framework that describes the interactions among biophysical engineered infrastructures, the natural environment and the social system in a systems-approach to inform urban infrastructure transformations. We apply the SEIS framework to inform water and energy sector transformations in cities to achieve environmental and human health benefits realized at multiple scales - local, regional and global. Local scales address pollution, health, wellbeing and inequity within the city; regional scales address regional pollution, scarcity, as well as supply risks in the water-energy sectors; global impacts include greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts. Different actors shape infrastructure transitions including households, businesses, and policy actors. We describe the development of novel cross-sectoral strategies at the water-energy nexus in cities, focusing on water, waste and energy sectors, in a case study of Delhi, India. Ramaswami, A.; Russell, A.G.; Culligan, P.J.; Sharma, K

  13. Sustainable development: progresses and challenges of the refrigeration sector; Developpement durable: progres et defis du secteur du froid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The refrigeration engineering cover a huge sector of activities with applications in a considerable number of domains of the every day life, in particular in the domains of food, health, indoor environmental quality. It plays an important role in the sustainable development but there exists an important gap between industrialized and developing countries with respect to the availability of equipments and to the knowledge and training about refrigeration. This document presents first the 3 dimensions of the sustainable development: social, economical and environmental, and the role played by the refrigeration industry in each dimension. Then, it presents the strategies and realizations implemented by the refrigeration industry for the sustainable development: improvement of the energy efficiency of systems, progressive elimination of greenhouse and ozone-damaging refrigerants, development of substitution technologies, information and training. Then, it lists a series of actions or technologies to be implemented or to develop more in industrialized countries and some priority actions for the developing countries. (J.S.)

  14. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Jensen, Chris; Braaten, Tonje

    2014-07-08

    Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20-29- (P = 0.01) and 50-59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20-29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes.

  15. Development of Electronic Identification Measures in the Public Sector of Lithuania: Analysis of Alteration Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Petrauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze, assess and identify alteration possibilities of effective implementation of e-Identification technology solutions focusing on organization capabilities in the public sector of Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – different methods were used in the research. Content analysis method was used for the issues related to application of e-Identification solutions, technology management and organizational capabilities. During the pilot research, information on specificities of organization capabilities to implement e-Identification solution in the public sector was gathered, analyzed and interlinked with content analysis via comparative and deductive methods.Findings – the research shows that the gap in the area of development of e-Identification solutions in the public sector in Lithuania is affected by the lack of organizational capabilities that need to be developed internally. The challenge is to foster organizational capabilities in the environment, influenced by rapidly emerging new technology solutions (use of smartphones and applications and limited legal regulation. Lifecycle of any technology solutions becomes shorter and jeopardizes its use and functionality in time; therefore, public sector institutions could benefit from holistic e-Identification solution diffusion strategy that incorporates aspects of organizational capabilities.Research limitations/implications – the research findings are limited by the nature of the pilot research (peer review, level of experience in their organizations and environment as well as the geographic scope of the research.Practical implications – the article portrays public sector environment of implementation of e-Identification solutions and particularities of organizational capabilities to manage its development.Originality/value – originality of the article is in the research and assessment of country specific future proof needs to alter and improve the existing

  16. [Determinants of workplace health promotion in the insurance sector: results of a complete survey of German insurance companies in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T; Janssen, C; Plath, S-C; Steinhausen, S; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    The present study is aimed to assess the current level of workplace health promotion (WHP) within the German insurance sector and to examine whether and to what extent internal and external factors play a role in implementing non-statutory health promotion measures. Firstly, a telephone survey was conducted of German insurance companies fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the survey (n=258). It was enquired whether these companies wish to participate in a written survey on workplace health promotion. A written questionnaire was then sent to those companies meeting the criteria (n=140). The questionnaire contained questions on the company, number and type of workplace health promotion measures as well as the internal and external framework for workplace health promotion measures. In total, 68 questionnaires were filled in and returned. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate how external and internal variables influence workplace health promotion. The response rate was 48.57%. Workplace health promotion measures undertaken by those insurance companies taking part in the written survey were largely dominated by behavioural and relational prevention measures. Also on offer were measures from areas such as further education and prevention that seek to improve communication and team work. By contrast, diagnostic activities were only of minor importance. Incorporation into workplace health management (beta=0.469; pcompanies should increasingly incorporate such measures into specific health management programmes as well as general management measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control. Moreover, workplace health promotion measures should always be evaluated in terms of health and economic indicators. It should also be noted that small and medium-sized companies have the largest potential for improvement. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  17. Intersectoral planning for city health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff

    2012-04-01

    The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity.

  18. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  19. Influence of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye Olusogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria from 1985 to 2014, using secondary annual time series data on agricultural development (proxy by gross domestic product in the Agric sector road transport infrastructure (proxy by length of paved road per square kilometer of area export and capital, all obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN [3], and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS [16], statistical bulletins. The data were analyzed using Granger Causality test and Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques. The study concluded that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between road transport infrastructures (LRT also evidence was found of a unidirectional causality from agricultural sector development to transport infrastructure. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate and timely maintenance of existing roads should be carried out as well as enacting appropriate regulations that ensure proper implementation and completion of new road construction contracts in the country in order to boost agricultural sector development, reduce wastage of farm produce and increase the possibility of economic diversification.

  20. Developing new knowledge in collaborative relationships in megaproject alliances: Organizing reflection in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenswijk, M.B.; van Marrewijk, A.H.; Boersma, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new forms of public-private collaboration by members of a project-based organisation as a Community of Practice (CoP) in the Dutch construction sector. Cost overruns, time delays and corruption have put pressure on the relationship between the government and

  1. The Metaphysics of Collaboration: Identity, Unity and Difference in Cross-Sector Partnerships for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we critically discuss the ideal of alignment, unity and harmony in cross-sector partnerships (CSP) for wicked problems like sustainable development. We explore four characteristics of the concepts of identity, unity and difference which are presupposed in the partnership and

  2. Triple P business development in the Dutch agro-food sector : 9 cases of strategic innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Someren, van T.C.R.; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The 21st Century will be dominated by innovations in order to realize sustainable development. Innovative entrepreneurs will search for and create Triple P business cases and thereby transform industries. The Dutch agro-food sector innovation programme TransForum has stimulated and supported a wide

  3. Exploring accounting and sustainable development hybridisation in the UK public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, I.; Grubnic, S.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Owen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between accounting and sustainable development in two public sector contexts in the United Kingdom. By employing Miller et al.’s (2008) extended notion of hybridisation, the paper investigates transformations associated with practices, processes and expertises

  4. Skills Development in the Informal Sector in India: The Case of Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Uma, Gengaiah; Venkatram, Rengan

    2015-01-01

    The informal sector dominates India's economic life, so issues of skills development are particularly important. On the basis of a survey of 49 street food vendors in the Indian cities of New Delhi and Coimbatore, the authors of this article demonstrate that informal learning is a particularly significant form of vocational education and training.…

  5. The Internet bubble and the impact on the development path of the telecommunication sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation the impact of the Internet bubble on the development path of the telecommunication sector is being explored and explained. The insights obtained are used to provide recommendations for the formation of government policy and firm strategy in the aftermath. Periods of euphoria are

  6. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries - what can we learn from the private sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor in low and middle income countries have limited access to health services due to limited purchasing power, residence in underserved areas, and inadequate health literacy. This produces significant gaps in health care delivery among a population that has a disproportionately large burden of disease. They frequently use the private health sector, due to perceived or actual gaps in public services. A subset of private health organizations, some called social enterprises, have developed novel approaches to increase the availability, affordability and quality of health care services to the poor through innovative health service delivery models. This study aims to characterize these models and identify areas of innovation that have led to effective provision of care for the poor. Methods An environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was then purposively sampled to maximize variation. These cases were examined using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. Results After an initial sample of 46 studies, 10 case studies of exemplars were developed spanning different geography, disease areas and health service delivery models. These ten organizations had innovations in their marketing, financing, and operating strategies. These included approaches such a social marketing, cross-subsidy, high-volume, low cost models, and process reengineering. They tended to have a narrow clinical focus, which facilitates standardizing processes of care, and experimentation with novel delivery models. Despite being well-known, information on the social impact of these organizations was variable, with more data on availability and affordability and less on quality of care. Conclusions These private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have

  7. Urban cross-sector actions for carbon mitigation with local health co-benefits in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Tong, Kangkang; Fang, Andrew; Lal, Raj M.; Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Li, Yang; Yu, Huajun; Jiang, Daqian; Russell, Armistead G.; Shi, Lei; Chertow, Marian; Wang, Yangjun; Wang, Shuxiao

    2017-10-01

    Cities offer unique strategies to reduce fossil fuel use through the exchange of energy and materials across homes, businesses, infrastructure and industries co-located in urban areas. However, the large-scale impact of such strategies has not been quantified. Using new models and data sets representing 637 Chinese cities, we find that such cross-sectoral strategies--enabled by compact urban design and circular economy policies--contribute an additional 15%-36% to national CO2 mitigation, compared to conventional single-sector strategies. As a co-benefit, ~25,500 to ~57,500 deaths annually are avoided from air pollution reduction. The benefits are highly variable across cities, ranging from <1%-37% for CO2 emission reduction and <1%-47% for avoided premature deaths. These results, using multi-scale, multi-sector physical systems modelling, identify cities with high carbon and health co-benefit potential and show that urban-industrial symbiosis is a significant carbon mitigation strategy, achievable with a combination of existing and advanced technologies in diverse city types.

  8. Infrastructural development factors of leasing entrepreneurship in real sector of economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Ivleva, Elena; Kirdyashkin, Alexey; Shashina, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Given paper is aimed at determining factors, which influence leasing infrastructure development. It also examines the possibilities of overcoming infrastructural growth restrictions and barriers to the development of enterprises of industry, and construction sector. The phenomenon of infrastructural changes has been poorly researched economically and institutionally. These are a kind of quantitative and qualitative growth potential for the economy, for short and long-term periods for transportation or energy company and real estate development company.

  9. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  10. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Gl