WorldWideScience

Sample records for health risk profiles

  1. Health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.

  2. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  3. A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

  4. Risk Profile in a Sample of Patients with Breast Cancer from the Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk

  5. Personal Health Risks Behaviour Profile among University Students in the South East Nigeria: Implication for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom; Nwimo, Ignatius O.

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the personal health risks behaviour profile among university students in the south east of Nigeria. A random sample of 900 students completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of this number 821, representing about 91.2% return rate, were used for data analysis. Means and…

  6. Estimation of Hypertension Risk from Lifestyle Factors and Health Profile: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyuan Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it can also lead to other diseases which seriously harm the human health. Screening the risks and finding a clinical model for estimating the risk of onset, maintenance, or the prognosis of hypertension are of great importance to the prevention or treatment of the disease, especially if the indicator can be derived from simple health profile. In this study, we investigate a chronic disease questionnaire data set of 6563 rural citizens in East China and find out a clinical signature that can assess the risk of hypertension easily and accurately. The signature achieves an accuracy of about 83% on the external test dataset, with an AUC of 0.91. Our study demonstrates that a combination of simple lifestyle features can sufficiently reflect the risk of hypertension onset. This finding provides potential guidance for disease prevention and control as well as development of home care and home-care technologies.

  7. Latent profile analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among Koreans who have completed industrial accident care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wan-Suk; Moon, Ok-Kon; Yeum, Dong-Moon

    2017-10-07

    This study investigated the characteristics and health behavior profiles of 1,803 workers who had experienced industrial accidents. Average weekly exercise days, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, average daily sleep duration, and number of days of alcohol consumption were selected to investigate health behavior profiles. Specifically, latent profile analysis was applied to identify the health behavior profiles of people who had completed industrial accident care; the latent classes were the health-conscious type (n=240), the potential-risk type (n=850), and the high-risk type (n=713). Comparison of the health-conscious and potential-risk types indicated that younger subjects, the employed, and those with lower social status and life satisfaction were more likely to be the potential-risk type. Comparison of the health-conscious and high-risk types revealed that males, younger subjects, the employed, those without chronic illnesses, and those with lower social status and life satisfaction were more likely to be the high-risk type. The results suggest that industrial accident victims who have completed accident care have different health behaviors and it is necessary to improve health promotion based on health type characteristics.

  8. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  9. Segmenting by Risk Perceptions: Predicting Young Adults’ Genetic-Belief Profiles with Health and Opinion-Leader Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.; Greenberg, Marisa; Parrott, Roxanne L.

    2014-01-01

    With a growing interest in using genetic information to motivate young adults’ health behaviors, audience segmentation is needed for effective campaign design. Using latent class analysis, this study identifies segments based on young adults’ (N = 327) beliefs about genetic threats to their health and personal efficacy over genetic influences on their health. A four-class model was identified. The model indicators fit the risk perception attitude framework (Rimal & Real, 2003), but the covariates (e.g., current health behaviors) did not. In addition, opinion leader qualities covaried with one profile: those in this profile engaged in fewer preventative behaviors and more dangerous treatment options, and also liked to persuade others, making them a particularly salient group for campaign efforts. The implications for adult-onset disorders, like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency are discussed. PMID:24111749

  10. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M; Svendsen, Kristin V H

    2015-12-01

    Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  11. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  13. Behavioral Health Risk Profiles of Undergraduate University Students in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: Limited research has explored clustering of lifestyle behavioral risk factors (BRFs) among university students. This study aimed to explore clustering of BRFs, composition of clusters, and the association of the clusters with self-rated health and perceived academic performance. Method......: We assessed (BRFs), namely tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy nutrition, and inadequate sleep, using a self-administered general Student Health Survey among 3,706 undergraduates at seven UK universities. Results: A two-step cluster analysis...... generated: Cluster 1 (the high physically active and health conscious) with very high health awareness/consciousness, good nutrition, and physical activity (PA), and relatively low alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. Cluster 2 (the abstinent) had very low ATOD use, high health awareness, good...

  14. Synthesis of national risk profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained in computing the national risk profile for carbon fibers (CF) released after an aircraft accident (fire or explosion) are presented. The computation was performed by use of twenty-six individual conditional risk profiles, together with the extrapolation of these profiles to other U.S. airports. The risk profile was obtained using 1993 CF utilization forecasts, but numbers of facilities were taken from 1972 and 1975 census data, while losses were expressed in 1977 dollars.

  15. Impact of a pedometer-based workplace health program on cardiovascular and diabetes risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Backholer, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    %, OR: 1.3(1.0, 1.8)), sitting time (-0.6(-0.9, -0.3) hours/day), blood pressure (systolic: -1.8(-3.1, -.05) mmHg; diastolic: -1.8(-2.4, -1.3) mmHg) and waist circumference (-1.6(-2.4, -0.7) cm). In contrast, an increase was found for fasting total cholesterol (0.3(0.1, 0.4) mmol/L) and triglycerides (0......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations...

  16. Vulnerability, Risk Perception, and Health Profile of Marginalized People Exposed to Multiple Built-Environment Stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts: A Pilot Project

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Goble, Robert; Subedi, Rajendra; Greenberg, Sara; Taylor, Octavia

    2010-01-01

    Millions of low-income people of diverse ethnicities inhabit stressful old urban industrial neighborhoods. Yet we know little about the health impacts of built-environment stressors and risk perceptions in such settings; we lack even basic health profiles. Difficult access is one reason (it took us 30 months to survey 80 households); the lack of multifaceted survey tools is another. We designed and implemented a pilot vulnerability assessment tool in Worcester, Massachusetts. We answer: (1) H...

  17. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.

  18. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  19. Behavioral Health Risk Profiles of Undergraduate University Students in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: A Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Limited research has explored clustering of lifestyle behavioral risk factors (BRFs) among university students. This study aimed to explore clustering of BRFs, composition of clusters, and the association of the clusters with self-rated health and perceived academic performance. We assessed (BRFs), namely tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy nutrition, and inadequate sleep, using a self-administered general Student Health Survey among 3,706 undergraduates at seven UK universities. A two-step cluster analysis generated: Cluster 1 (the high physically active and health conscious) with very high health awareness/consciousness, good nutrition, and physical activity (PA), and relatively low alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. Cluster 2 (the abstinent) had very low ATOD use, high health awareness, good nutrition, and medium high PA. Cluster 3 (the moderately health conscious) included the highest regard for healthy eating, second highest fruit/vegetable consumption, and moderately high ATOD use. Cluster 4 (the risk taking) showed the highest ATOD use, were the least health conscious, least fruit consuming, and attached the least importance on eating healthy. Compared to the healthy cluster (Cluster 1), students in other clusters had lower self-rated health, and particularly, students in the risk taking cluster (Cluster 4) reported lower academic performance. These associations were stronger for men than for women. Of the four clusters, Cluster 4 had the youngest students. Our results suggested that prevention among university students should address multiple BRFs simultaneously, with particular focus on the younger students.

  20. Vulnerability, risk perception, and health profile of marginalized people exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Goble, Robert; Subedi, Rajendra; Greenberg, Sara; Taylor, Octavia

    2011-04-01

    Millions of low-income people of diverse ethnicities inhabit stressful old urban industrial neighborhoods. Yet we know little about the health impacts of built-environment stressors and risk perceptions in such settings; we lack even basic health profiles. Difficult access is one reason (it took us 30 months to survey 80 households); the lack of multifaceted survey tools is another. We designed and implemented a pilot vulnerability assessment tool in Worcester, Massachusetts. We answer: (1) How can we assess vulnerability to multiple stressors? (2) What is the nature of complex vulnerability-including risk perceptions and health profiles? (3) How can findings be used by our wider community, and what lessons did we learn? (4) What implications arise for science and policy? We sought a holistic picture of neighborhood life. A reasonably representative sample of 80 respondents captured data for 254 people about: demographics, community concerns and resources, time-activity patterns, health information, risk/stress perceptions, and resources/capacities for coping. Our key findings derive partly from the survey data and partly from our experience in obtaining those data. Data strongly suggest complex vulnerability dominated by psychosocial stress. Unexpected significant gender and ethnic disease disparities emerged: notably, females have twice the disease burden of males, and white females twice the burden of females of color (p Risk Analysis.

  1. Metabolite Profiles of Diabetes Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gerszten, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases present particular difficulty for clinicians because they are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent. We investigated whether metabolite profiles can predict the development of diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study. Five branched-chain and aromatic amino acids had highly-significant associations with future diabetes, while a combination of three amino acids strongly predicted future diabetes by up to 12 years (>5-fold increased risk for individuals in ...

  2. Behavioral Health Risk Profiles of Undergraduate University Students in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLimited research has explored clustering of lifestyle behavioral risk factors (BRFs among university students. This study aimed to explore clustering of BRFs, composition of clusters, and the association of the clusters with self-rated health and perceived academic performance.MethodWe assessed (BRFs, namely tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy nutrition, and inadequate sleep, using a self-administered general Student Health Survey among 3,706 undergraduates at seven UK universities.ResultsA two-step cluster analysis generated: Cluster 1 (the high physically active and health conscious with very high health awareness/consciousness, good nutrition, and physical activity (PA, and relatively low alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD use. Cluster 2 (the abstinent had very low ATOD use, high health awareness, good nutrition, and medium high PA. Cluster 3 (the moderately health conscious included the highest regard for healthy eating, second highest fruit/vegetable consumption, and moderately high ATOD use. Cluster 4 (the risk taking showed the highest ATOD use, were the least health conscious, least fruit consuming, and attached the least importance on eating healthy. Compared to the healthy cluster (Cluster 1, students in other clusters had lower self-rated health, and particularly, students in the risk taking cluster (Cluster 4 reported lower academic performance. These associations were stronger for men than for women. Of the four clusters, Cluster 4 had the youngest students.ConclusionOur results suggested that prevention among university students should address multiple BRFs simultaneously, with particular focus on the younger students.

  3. School Health Profiles 2014: West Virginia Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia Department of Education Office of Research, Accountability, and Data Governance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The School Health Profiles (Profiles) is a system of surveys assessing school health policies and practices in states, large urban school districts, and territories. Profiles surveys are conducted biennially by education and health agencies among middle and high school principals and lead health education teachers. Profiles monitors the current…

  4. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Marije; Lenters, Virissa; Slottje, Pauline; Pijpe, Anouk; Peeters, Petra H; Korevaar, Joke C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheij, Robert A; Pieterson, Inka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rookus, Matti A; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2018-02-03

    LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection, baseline characteristics of participants and the repeatability of key questionnaire items. 88 466 participants were enrolled in three cohort studies in 2011-2012. Exposure information was collected by a harmonised core questionnaire, or modelled based on occupational and residential histories; domains include air pollution (eg, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), noise, electromagnetic fields (EMF), mobile phone use, shift work and occupational chemical exposures. Chronic and subacute health outcomes are assessed by self-report and through linkage with health registries. Participants had a median age of 51 years at baseline (range 19-87), and the majority are female (90%), with nurses being over-represented. Median exposure levels of NO 2 , PM 2.5 , EMF from base stations and noise at the participants' home addresses at baseline were 22.9 µg/m 3 , 16.6 µg/m 3 , 0.003 mWm 2 and 53.1 dB, respectively. Twenty-two per cent of participants reported to have started using a mobile phone more than 10 years prior to baseline. Repeatability for self-reported exposures was moderate to high (weighted kappa range: 0.69-1) for a subset of participants (n=237) who completed the questionnaire twice. We are actively and passively observing participants; we plan to administer a follow-up questionnaire every 4-5 years-the first follow-up will be completed in 2018-and linkage to cause-of-death and cancer registries occurs on a (bi)annual basis. This prospective cohort offers a unique, large and rich resource for research on contemporary occupational and environmental health risks and will

  5. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  6. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  7. Venous thromboembolism: Risk profile and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgery in a tertiary hospital and to audit the VTE prophylaxis prescribed. ... This group of patients require formal preoperative VTE risk assessment using a recognised scoring model. ... The aim of this study was to establish the VTE risk profile.

  8. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedijk, M.; Lenters, V.; Slottje, P.; Pijpe, A.; Peeters, P.H.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Verheij, R.A.; Pieterson, I.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Rookus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we

  9. Cardiovascular risk profile in burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Becky; Younger, John F; Stockton, Kellie; Muller, Michael; Paratz, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Burn patients have prolonged derangements in metabolic, endocrine, cardiac and psychosocial systems, potentially impacting on their cardiovascular health. There are no studies on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after-burn. The aim of our study was to record lipid values and evaluate CVD risk in adult burn survivors. In a cross-sectional study patients ≥18 years with burn injury between 18-80% total burn surface area (TBSA) from 1998 to 2012 had total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides measured via finger prick. Means were compared to optimal ranges. Multivariate regression models were performed to assess the association of lipids with age, years after-burn and total body surface area % (TBSA). A p value Risk Score (FGCRS) was calculated. Fifty patients were included in the study. Compared to optimal values, patients had low HDL and high triglycerides. Greater %TBSA was associated with statistically significant elevation of triglycerides (p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p=0.027). The median FGCRS was 3.9% (low) 10-year risk of CVD with 82% of patients in the low-risk category. Patients involved in medium/high level of physical activity had optimal values of HDL, TC/HDL and triglycerides despite the magnitude of TBSA%. Adult burn survivors had alterations in lipid profile proportional to TBSA, which could be modified by exercise, and no increase in overall formally predicted CVD risk in this cross sectional study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk profile and health vulnerability of female workers who pick cotton by organanochlorine pesticides from southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmeen, Humaira; Qadir, Abdul; Mumtaz, Mehvish; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Syed, Jabbir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Jamil, Nadia; Nazar, Farva; Ali, Habib; Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq; Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine-pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener-specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3 ppb and from 16.4 ppb to 747.1 ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener-specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1193-1201. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Profiles of circulating inflammatory cytokines in colorectal cancer (CRC), high cancer risk conditions, and health are distinct. Possible implications for CRC screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Diakowska, Dorota; Kapturkiewicz, Bartosz; Bębenek, Marek; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-08-28

    Alternate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and surveillance strategies are needed to pre-select candidates for invasive methods. We compared systemic inflammatory profiles in CRC (n=99), health (n=98), high CRC-risk conditions (n=48) and overt inflammation (n=69) by multiplexed analysis of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, FGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, TNF-α, VEGF-A, and PDGF-B and CEA. Cytokines corresponded with CRC advancement. FGF2, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, TNF-α, and VEGF-A were higher than in controls already in stage I CRC with FGF2, IL1-β, and MIP-1α higher than in high CRC-risk individuals as well. Cytokine panels devised to differentiate early CRC from controls, adenomas, or inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD) had good accuracy but only IBD panel had promising specificity at 95% sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk profiles of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbul, Melanie; Schipper, Hyman M

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a dementing, neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately 500,000 Canadians and its prevalence is expected to double over the next 30 years. Although several medications may temporarily augment cognitive abilities in AD, there presently exists no proven method to avoid the inevitable clinical deterioration in this devastating condition. The delineation of risk factors for the development of AD offers hope for the advent of effective prevention or interventions that might retard the onset of symptoms. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of midlife risk factors implicated in the etiopathogenesis of sporadic AD. Although some risk factors are heritable and largely beyond our control, others are determined by lifestyle or environment and are potentially modifiable. In a companion paper, we introduce the concept of an Alzheimer Risk Assessment Clinic for ascertainment and mitigation of these and other putative dementia risk factors in middle-aged adults.

  13. Characteristics and respiratory risk profile of children aged less than 5 years presenting to an urban, Aboriginal-friendly, comprehensive primary health practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Anderson, Jennie; Dunbar, Melissa; Arnold, Daniel; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2017-07-01

    There are no published data on factors impacting on acute respiratory illness (ARI) among urban Indigenous children. We describe the characteristics and respiratory risk profile of young urban Indigenous children attending an Aboriginal-friendly primary health-care practice. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in a cohort study investigating ARI in urban Indigenous children aged less than 5 years registered with an Aboriginal primary health-care service. Descriptive analyses of epidemiological, clinical, environmental and cultural factors were performed. Logistic regression was undertaken to examine associations between child characteristics and the presence of ARI at baseline. Between February 2013 and October 2015, 180 Indigenous children were enrolled; the median age was 18.4 months (7.7-35), 51% were male. A total of 40 (22%) children presented for a cough-related illness; however, ARI was identified in 33% of all children at the time of enrolment. A total of 72% of children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. ARI at baseline was associated with low birthweight (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-5.94), a history of eczema (aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.00-7.15) and either having a family member from the Stolen Generation (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.33-9.03) or not knowing this family history (aOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.21-9.26). We identified an urban community of children of high socio-economic disadvantage and who have excessive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Connection to the Stolen Generation or not knowing the family history may be directly impacting on child health in this community. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between cultural factors and ARI. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  15. Cardiovascular risk profile in women and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in dementia development, including Alzheimer's disease. As cardiovascular risk profiles vary greatly by gender, with men suffering a greater burden of cardiovascular risk in midlife, this could lead to differences in dementia risk. To explore current evidence on the association between components of the cardiovascular risk profile and dementia risk in women and men, we reviewed all studies reporting the risk of dementia associated with cardiovascular risk factors stratified by gender and found 53 eligible articles out of over 4,000 published since the year 2000. Consistent results were found: 1) for exposures acting specifically in women: Overweight/obesity (harmful) and physical activity (protective), and 2) for exposures acting similarly in women and men: Moderate alcohol (protective) and hypertension, diabetes, and depression (harmful). A modified effect of tobacco or high cholesterol/statin use remained controversial. Available data do not allow us to assess whether selection of men with healthier cardiovascular profile (due to cardiovascular death in midlife) could lead in late life either to a difference in the distribution of risk factors or to a differential effect of these risk factors by gender. We recommend that results on dementia risk factors, especially cardiovascular ones, be reported systematically by gender in all future studies. More generally, as cardiovascular risk profiles evolve over time, more attention needs to be paid to the detection and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, as early as possible in the life course, and as actively in women as in men.

  16. Prevalence and cardiovascular risk profile of chronic kidney disease in Italy: results of the 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Minutolo, Roberto; Lo Noce, Cinzia; Palmieri, Luigi; De Curtis, Amalia; Iacoviello, Licia; Zoccali, Carmine; Gesualdo, Loreto; Conte, Giuseppe; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2015-05-01

    National surveys in countries outside Europe have reported a high prevalence (11-13%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies in Europe have provided a variable prevalence likely due to differences in study design, including age and extent of geographic areas, equation used to evaluate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD stages examined. The 2008-12 National Health Examination Survey in Italy randomly extracted samples from the general population aged 35-79 years, stratified by age and gender, from the resident list of each Italian region (440 persons/1.5 million of residents). We estimated the prevalence of CKD by means of urinary albumin : creatinine ratio and eGFR (CKD-EPI equation-enzymatic assay of serum creatinine). Cardiovascular (CV) risk profile was also evaluated. Three thousand eight hundred and forty-eight men and 3704 women were examined. In the whole population, mean age was 57 ± 12 and 56 ± 12 years in men and women, respectively; hypertension was prevalent in men and women, respectively (56 and 43%) and the same held true for overweight (48 and 33%), obesity (26 and 27%), diabetes (14 and 9%) and smoking (21 and 18%), whereas CV disease was less frequent (9 and 6%). Overall, the prevalence of CKD (95% confidence interval) was 7.05% (6.48-7.65). Early stages constituted 59% of the CKD population [Stage G1-2 A2-3: 4.16% (3.71-4.61) and Stage G3-5: 2.89% (2.51-3.26)]. At multivariate regression analysis, age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, CV disease and smoking were all independent correlates of CKD. CKD has a relatively lower prevalence in Italy, in particular for advanced stages, when compared with similar national surveys outside Europe. This occurs despite older age and unfavourable CV risk profile of the whole population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected Neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of suspected septicaemia in neonates in this locality. Five hundred and forty seven ...

  18. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  19. Risk profiling and screening for colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, I.

    2013-01-01

    The studies included in this thesis address a number of topics concerning risk stratification and differentiation in health care. As health care costs are increasing and the urge for prevention is rising, differentiating in the provision of health care may be one of the options for sustaining the

  20. Venous thromboembolism: Risk profile and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aims to describe the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk profile of women undergoing elective gynaecological surgery in a tertiary hospital and to audit the VTE prophylaxis prescribed. Methods. One hundred and nine women who underwent elective gynaecological surgery at Kalafong Provincial ...

  1. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  2. Risk-profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1992-01-01

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as an insurance vehicle and can be used at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. Either futures of swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices. While this does not necessarily maximize cash flow or present worth, it can protect a project or company for several years from downside price risk, thereby reducing the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cash flows or net incomes. This paper reports that reducing risk by limiting downside price exposure could alter budgeting decisions, allow continued or expanded operations of a particular property, or increase debt capacity

  3. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  4. Prevalence of Low Cardiovascular Risk Profile Among Diverse Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States by Age, Sex, and Level of Acculturation: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviglus, Martha L; Pirzada, Amber; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Chen, Jinsong; Allison, Matthew; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; González, Hector M; Kaplan, Robert C; Schneiderman, Neil; Sorlie, Paul D; Talavera, Gregory A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2016-08-20

    Favorable levels of all readily measurable major cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, low risk [LR]) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Data are not available on LR prevalence among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile among Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States and to examine cross-sectional associations of LR with measures of acculturation. The multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos examined 16 415 men and women aged 18 to 74 years at baseline (2008-2011) with diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Analyses involved 14 757 adults (mean age 41.3 years; 60.6% women). LR was defined using national guidelines for favorable levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index and by not having diabetes mellitus and not currently smoking. Age-adjusted LR prevalence was low (8.4% overall; 5.1% for men, 11.2% for women) and varied by background (4.2% in men of Mexican heritage versus 15.0% in women of Cuban heritage). Lower acculturation (assessed using proxy measures) was significantly associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women only: Age-adjusted odds ratios of having LR were 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17) for foreign-born versus US-born women and 1.96 (95% CI 1.49-2.58) for women residing in the United States profile is low. Lower acculturation is associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women but not men. Comprehensive public health strategies are needed to improve the cardiovascular health of US Hispanic/Latino adults. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  6. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  7. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  8. Cardiovascular risk-benefit profile of sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2010-01-01

    Sibutramine is a combined norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor used as an antiobesity agent to reduce appetite and promote weight loss in combination with diet and exercise. At a daily dose of 10-20 mg, it was initially considered to have a good safety profile, as it does not induce primary pulmonary hypertension or adverse effects on cardiac valves, in contrast to previous reports relating to some other antiobesity agents. However, it exerts disparate effects on cardiovascular risk factors. On the one hand, sibutramine may have antiatherogenic activities, as it improves insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and inflammatory markers, with most of these effects resulting from weight loss rather than from an intrinsic effect of the drug. On the other hand, because of its specific mode of action, sibutramine exerts a peripheral sympathomimetic effect, which induces a moderate increase in heart rate and attenuates the reduction in BP attributable to weight loss or even slightly increases BP. It may also prolong the QT interval, an effect that could induce arrhythmias. Because of these complex effects, it is difficult to conclude what the final impact of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes might be. Sibutramine has been shown to exert favorable effects on some surrogate cardiovascular endpoints such as reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy and improvement of endothelial dysfunction. A good cardiovascular safety profile was demonstrated in numerous 1- to 2-year controlled trials, in both diabetic and nondiabetic well selected patients, as well as in several observational studies. However, since 2002, several cardiovascular adverse events (hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction) have been reported in sibutramine-treated patients. This led to a contraindication of the use of this antiobesity agent in patients with established coronary heart disease, previous stroke, heart failure, or cardiac arrhythmias. SCOUT

  9. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  10. Risk profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1992-01-01

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought by some to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as insurance and can be utilized at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. This paper reports that either futures or swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices, an accomplishment very difficult or impossible to duplicate through other means, particularly with such integrity. Participation in futures or swaps does not necessarily maximize cashflow or present worth, it can either guarantee the price, put a minimum price in place or offer a combination of the above. A project or company can be protected for several years from downside price risk using swaps. Not being subject to market price swings substantially reduces the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cashflows or net incomes

  11. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  13. The association between the activity profile and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Foley, Louise; Scragg, Robert; Direito, Artur; Olds, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to better understand the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour and the relationship to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVDR) in adults aged 30-75 years. Cross-sectional. Data from two-year waves (2003-2004 and 2005-2006) of the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey were analysed in 2014. Accelerometer-derived time and proportion of time spent sedentary and on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated to generate four activity profiles based on cut-points to define low and high levels for the respective behaviours. Using health outcome data, CVDR was calculated for each person. Weighted multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the predicted effects of sedentary and physical activity behaviours on the CVDR score, adjusting for participants' sex, age group, race, annual household income, and accelerometer wear time. The lowest CVDR was observed among Busy Exercisers (high MVPA and low sedentary; 8.5%), whereas Couch Potatoes (low MVPA and high sedentary) had the highest (18.6%). Compared with the reference group (Busy Exercisers), the activity profile associated with the highest CVDR was Couch Potatoes (adjusted mean difference 3.6, SE 0.38, prisk landscape" was developed to better visualise the conjoint associations of MVPA and sedentary behaviour on CVDR for each activity profile. The association between MVPA was greater than that of sedentary behaviour; however, for people with low MVPA, shifts in sedentary behaviour may have the greatest impact on CVDR. Activity profiles that consider the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour differ in terms of CVDR. Future interventions may need to be tailored to specific profiles and be dynamic enough to reflect change in the profile over time. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Community health agents: profile and education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Junges, José Roque; Selli, Lucilda

    2011-01-01

    This research discusses the profile and education of the community health agents. There is no clarity about the kind of professional needed and the appropriate training to the fulfillment of the function. The research is a case study with exploratory methodology and qualitative approach. The data was collected with a focused group, formed by ten agents, intentional selected from those with more time in service in Family Health Strategy teams from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. The discussions were recorded and transcribed by the researcher. The data was interpreted by content analysis. The results pointed to some important questions concerning the identity of the community health agents: integration on the health team, insertion in the community, profile and education. The profile which emerges from the research, is not different from the one proposed by the Ministry of Health. However, the difference is the professionalization, an initiative assumed by the agent, guided by reality, which he faces in his activity. The gaps, perceived in his formation, cause the agent to construct his professional identity, determined more by the technical aspect of the scientific knowledge than by his social competence as a community agent.

  15. Risk profile of the RET A883F germline mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Bassett, John Howard Duncan

    2017-01-01

    the highest to high risk level, although no well-defined risk profile for this mutation exists. Objective: To create a risk profile for the A883F mutation for appropriate classification in the ATA risk levels. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: International collaboration. Patients: Included were 13 A...... seems to have a more indolent natural course compared to that of M918T carriers. Our results support the classification of the A883F mutation in the ATA high risk level....

  16. Comorbidities, metabolic risk profile and health-related quality of life in German patients with plaque-type psoriasis: a cross-sectional prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Arnd; Kupke, Carina; Behzad, Melika; Hertl, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Patients with psoriasis experience a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities and have a high burden of treatment. There is still a gap between treatment options and quality of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic data, comorbidities, and the limitations of quality of life in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. This epidemiological evaluation was designed as a single-center, cross-sectional, prospective study in Marburg, Germany. To investigate the association between mild to severe psoriasis and comorbidities, data were obtained from 133 patients. The average Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was 13.4, and the average Dermatology Life Quality Index was 6.3. Among the patients with severe psoriasis, 95% had been prescribed systemic treatments. Comorbidities were evaluated, with depression 30.8%, arterial hypertension 39.1%, and hypercholesterolemia 20.3% in all patients. Our findings underscore the importance of cardiovascular and metabolic risk screening for all patients with psoriasis. There is still a need for systemic treatments and the definition of treatment goals for psoriasis as a systemic inflammatory disease. Such goals should integrate parameters that include comorbidities and an improvement in health-related quality of life. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  18. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  19. The Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Stalking Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Troy E; Shea, Daniel E; Daffern, Michael; MacKenzie, Rachel D; Ogloff, James R P; Mullen, Paul E

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Stalking Risk Profile (SRP), a structured measure for assessing stalking risks. The SRP was administered at the point of assessment or retrospectively from file review for 241 adult stalkers (91% male) referred to a community-based forensic mental health service. Interrater reliability was high for stalker type, and moderate-to-substantial for risk judgments and domain scores. Evidence for predictive validity and discrimination between stalking recidivists and nonrecidivists for risk judgments depended on follow-up duration. Discrimination was moderate (area under the curve = 0.66-0.68) and positive and negative predictive values good over the full follow-up period ( Mdn = 170.43 weeks). At 6 months, discrimination was better than chance only for judgments related to stalking of new victims (area under the curve = 0.75); however, high-risk stalkers still reoffended against their original victim(s) 2 to 4 times as often as low-risk stalkers. Implications for the clinical utility and refinement of the SRP are discussed.

  20. Age and gender differences in health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.

  1. Risk profile of young people admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Stark, Patrick; Prakash, Chidambaram; Sawyer, Susan M

    2018-05-20

    Self-harm and suicidal behaviour is most prevalent during adolescence, but little is known about the risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour. Young people who self-harm are at an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not self-harm; adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour are particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to generate a risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital with suicidal behaviour. We conducted a 12-month retrospective audit of adolescent admissions to the mental health inpatient unit at a tertiary children's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Routinely collected data were used to generate a risk profile. We found that 212 of 271 (78.2%) admissions were due to suicidal behaviour. Of these, 107 (51%) adolescents were diagnosed with one or more mental disorders at discharge, most commonly major depressive disorder. Beyond known distal determinants of health risk, the proximal risk profile of these adolescents included factors relating to gender, substance use, prior mental health diagnoses and prior admission to hospital. Poor sleep was also a risk factor, with 159 (75%) reporting a recent history of sleeping problems. The very high proportion of admissions to the mental health inpatient unit due to suicidal behaviour reinforces the importance of finding effective methods of identification of the risk processes underpinning suicidal behaviours to reduce the unnecessary waste of young lives by suicide. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  3. Association of cardiometabolic risk profile with prehypertension accompany hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huili; Sun, Yuemin; Wang, Xuechun; Si, Quan; Yao, Wei; Wan, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Study suggested that elevated homocysteine showed a multiplicative effect on cardiovascular diseases in hypertensive subjects. It was reported that elevated homocysteine level was independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in prehypertensives. It remains unclear whether prehypertensives combined with elevated homocysteine have adverse cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to compare cardiometabolic risk profile between prehypertensives with hyperhomocysteinaemia and those without either condition. Plasma total homocysteine and risk profile were determined among 874 Chinese non-hypertension individuals in Tianjin. They were subdivided into four groups: prehypertension with hyperhomocysteinaemia (≥10 μmol/L), prehypertension with normal homocysteine (risk profile. Strict lipid management and weigh control may be needed in prehypertensives with elevated homocysteine.

  4. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Multidimensional profiles of health status: an application of the grade of membership model to the world health survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Andreotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO conducted the World Health Survey (WHS between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision

  7. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  9. Risk Profiles of Children Entering Residential Care: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Children in residential care are a heterogeneous population, presenting various combinations of risks. Existing studies on these children suggest high variability across multiple domains (e.g., academics, behavior). Given this heterogeneity, it is important to begin to identify the combinations and patterns of multiple risks, or risk profiles,…

  10. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  11. Contextual Risk Profiles and Trajectories of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Markiewitz, Nathan; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2018-04-09

    Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and used variable-centered approaches that fail to capture the configurations of factors that may jointly explain involvement in dating violence. The current study used a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis, to identify key configurations (or profiles) of contextual risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration across the neighborhood, school, friend and family contexts. We then examine the longitudinal associations between these contextual risk profiles, assessed during middle school, and trajectories of psychological and physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. Five contextual risk profiles were identified: school, neighborhood, and family risk; school and family risk; school and friend risk; school and neighborhood risk; and low risk. The highest levels of psychological and physical perpetration across grades 8 through 12 were among adolescents in the profile characterized by high levels of school, neighborhood, and family risk. Results suggest that early interventions to reduce violence exposure and increase social regulation across multiple social contexts may be effective in reducing dating violence perpetration across adolescence.

  12. Pregnancy - health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to areas where viral or bacterial infections could affect the health of an unborn baby. Men need to be careful, too. Smoking and alcohol may cause problems with the unborn baby. Smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use have also been shown to lower sperm ...

  13. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  14. Effect of a 4-year workplace-based physical activity intervention program on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees: the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yanagita, Masahiko; Fujieda, Yoshiharu; Kinoshita, Fujihisa; Naito, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tanaka, Taichiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-04-01

    Individuals who are physically fit or engage in regular physical activity have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and risk of mortality. We conducted a large-scale controlled trial of interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors, during which we assessed the effect of a workplace-based intervention program, which was part of a population strategy for promoting long-term increases in physical activity, on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees. Data were collected from 2929 participants and this report presents the results of a survey conducted in five factories for the intervention group and five factories for the control group at baseline and year 5. The absolute/proportional changes in HDL-cholesterol were 2.7 mg/dL (4.8%) in the intervention group and -0.6 mg/dL (-1.0%) in the control group. The differences between the two groups in the change in serum levels of HDL-cholesterol were highly significant (pphysical activity raises serum HDL-cholesterol levels of middle-aged employees. Increased awareness of the benefits of physical activity, using environmental rearrangement and health promotion campaigns, which especially target walking, may have contributed to a beneficial change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in the participants.

  15. System Risk Balancing Profiles: Software Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John C.; Sigal, Burton C.; Gindorf, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Software QA / V&V guide will be reviewed and updated based on feedback from NASA organizations and others with a vested interest in this area. Hardware, EEE Parts, Reliability, and Systems Safety are a sample of the future guides that will be developed. Cost Estimates, Lessons Learned, Probability of Failure and PACTS (Prevention, Avoidance, Control or Test) are needed to provide a more complete risk management strategy. This approach to risk management is designed to help balance the resources and program content for risk reduction for NASA's changing environment.

  16. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  17. [Health and drug consumption profile in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, Christophe; Ndo, Jean Rolin; Merabet, Omar; Kone, Hamidou; Rakotondrabe, Faraniaina Patricia

    2006-01-01

    To begin a renewal of national health policy in Cameroon, a steering committee from the Cameroon Ministry of Health and its partners sought to analyze health demand through a national population survey and supply capacity through a national survey of retail drug stores. A survey of healthcare consumers was also conducted. The present publication describes the results of the consumer survey. Their socioeconomic profile of these consumers was much higher than that of the general population. This indicates that the poorest do not use health facilities or even self-medication. Within the population of healthcare consumers, women and children used private for-profit (60 %) and nonprofit (65 %) private health facilities most often, while men used mainly private pharmacies (60 %) and street drug (medication) sellers (62 %). In all, 85 % of the users of formal drug retailers had had a consultation with a healthcare provider. The average consultation cost was 1,440 CFA Francs, but the 7 % who paid the provider directly had an average cost of 1,794 CFA Francs. In all, 22 % did not pay at all, because of free consultations in some health facilities (40 %), personal relationships with prescribers, or other reasons. Hospitalization costs averaged 4,800 CFA Francs, and medical examinations 4,534 CFA Francs. These two categories had the highest percentage of insured patients (12 % and 5 %). Drug costs were 5,067 CFA Francs from pharmacies and 1,308 CFA Francs in the street. Total healthcare costs per person averaged 14,990 CFA Francs. Weighted, drugs accounted for the largest share, followed by hospitalisation, medical examinations, consultations, and transportation. In the formal sector, less than 10 % reported paying fees directly to the healthcare providers rather than to the HF cashier. Except for consultation in the public sector, paying providers was associated with a lower bill. However, 24 % purchased drugs from the healthcare workers, which indicates that drug sales are

  18. The psychosocial profile of adolescent risk of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearsley-Smith, Cate A; Bond, Lyndal M; Littlefield, Lyn; Thomas, Lyndal R

    2008-06-01

    To contrast the psychosocial profile of adolescents with risk factors for homelessness, identified using Chamberlain and MacKenzie's self-report scale, compared to the profiles of homeless adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted contrasting profiles for (a) 137 homeless adolescents, (b) 766 secondary students reporting risk factors for homelessness, and (c) 4,844 students not reporting risks for homelessness. Fourteen percent of a representative population of at-school adolescents, from Victoria, Australia, showed elevated risk of homelessness. These adolescents showed depressive symptoms at least equivalent to homeless adolescents (RR 6.0, 95% CI: 4.9, 7.3, and RR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.8, respectively). In multivariate analyses, homeless and at risk adolescents reported equivalent levels of family conflict, early problem behaviour and low opportunities and rewards for family involvement. Compared to adolescents not at risk, at risk adolescents were more likely to be female and to show poorer social skills/assertiveness and depressive symptoms. Compared to at risk adolescents, homeless adolescents showed additional family, school, peer and individual risks, but lower depressive symptomatology. The findings highlight the potential we have to quickly and simply detect adolescents showing significant risk of homelessness. This sizable minority of adolescents report risks often equivalent to homeless adolescents. It is hoped that stakeholders working with young people will utilise this screening potential to identify and intervene effectively with this significant subpopulation of youth, and their families, while they are still at home and school.

  19. Children at health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, H R

    1992-01-01

    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  20. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  1. Problems of job-profile for risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    There is no job-profile for the risk analyst. It would be his job to detect and classify accident risks, i.e. make a diagnosis and type rationalization, and to subsequently analyse them with respect to their frequency and probability as well as to the extent of damage caused. (DG) [de

  2. Determinants of attaining and maintaining a low cardiovascular risk profile--the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Smit, Henriëtte A; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-02-01

    While maintenance of a low cardiovascular risk profile is essential for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, few people maintain a low CVD risk profile throughout their life. We studied the association of demographic, lifestyle, psychological factors and family history of CVD with attainment and maintenance of a low risk profile over three subsequent 5-year periods. Measurements of 6390 adults aged 26-65 years at baseline were completed from 1993 to 97 and subsequently at 5-year intervals until 2013. At each wave, participants were categorized into low risk profile (ideal levels of blood pressure, cholesterol and body mass index, non-smoking and no diabetes) and medium/high risk profile (all others). Multivariable-adjusted modified Poisson regression analyses were used to examine determinants of attainment and maintenance of low risk; risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. Generalized estimating equations were used to combine multiple 5-year comparisons. Younger age, female gender and high educational level were associated with higher likelihood of both maintaining and attaining low risk profile (P risk was 9% higher with each 1-unit increment in Mediterranean diet score (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.16), twice as high with any physical activity versus none (RR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16-4.04) and 35% higher with moderate alcohol consumption versus heavy consumption (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06-1.73). Healthy lifestyle factors such as adherence to a Mediterranean diet, physical activity and moderate as opposed to heavy alcohol consumption were associated with a higher likelihood of attaining a low risk profile. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple data base for identification of risk profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munganahalli, D.

    1996-12-31

    Sedco Forex is a drilling contractor that operates approximately 80 rigs on land and offshore worldwide. The HSE management system developed by Sedco Forex is an effort to prevent accidents and minimize losses. An integral part of the HSE management system is establishing risk profiles and thereby minimizing risk and reducing loss exposures. Risk profiles are established based on accident reports, potential accident reports and other risk identification reports (RIR) like the Du Pont STOP system. A rig could fill in as many as 30 accident reports, 30 potential accident reports and 500 STOP cards each year. Statistics are important for an HSE management system, since they are indicators of success or failure of HSE systems. It is however difficult to establish risk profiles based on statistical information, unless tools are available at the rig site to aid with the analysis. Risk profiles are then used to identify important areas in the operation that may require specific attention to minimize the loss exposure. Programs to address the loss exposure can then be identified and implemented with either a local or corporate approach. In January 1995, Sedco Forex implemented a uniform HSE Database on all the rigs worldwide. In one year companywide, the HSE database would contain information on approximately 500 accident and potential accident reports, and 10,000 STOP cards. This paper demonstrates the salient features of the database and describes how it has helped in establishing key risk profiles. It also shows a recent example of how risk profiles have been established at the corporate level and used to identify the key contributing factors to hands and finger injuries. Based on this information, a campaign was launched to minimize the frequency of occurrence and associated loss attributed to hands and fingers accidents.

  4. Risk Profiles for Falls among Older Adults: New Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Satariano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo address whether neighborhood factors, together with older adults’ levels of health and functioning, suggest new combinations of risk factors for falls and new directions for prevention. To explore the utility of Grade-of-Membership (GoM analysis to conduct this descriptive analysis.MethodThis is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 884 people aged ≥65 years from Alameda County, CA, Cook County, IL, Allegheny County, PA, and Wake and Durham counties, NC. Interviews focused on neighborhood characteristics, physical and cognitive function, walking, and falls and injuries. Four risk profiles (higher order interactions of individual and neighborhood factors were derived from GoM analysis.ResultsProfiles 1 and 2 reflect previous results showing that frail older adults are likely to fall indoors (Profile 1; healthy older adults are likely to fall outdoors (Profile 2. Profile 3 identifies the falls risk for older with mild cognitive impairment living in moderately walkable neighborhoods. Profile 4 identifies the risk found for healthy older adults living in neighborhoods with low walkability.DiscussionNeighborhood walkability, in combination with levels of health and functioning, is associated with both indoor and outdoor falls. Descriptive results suggest possible research hypotheses and new directions for prevention, based on individual and neighborhood factors.

  5. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  6. Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas J; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P; McCabe, Elizabeth; Lewis, Gregory D; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Fernandez, Céline; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Carr, Stephen A; Mootha, Vamsi K; Florez, Jose C; Souza, Amanda; Melander, Olle; Clish, Clary B; Gerszten, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Emerging technologies allow the high-throughput profiling of metabolic status from a blood specimen (metabolomics). We investigated whether metabolite profiles could predict the development of diabetes. Among 2,422 normoglycemic individuals followed for 12 years, 201 developed diabetes. Amino acids, amines and other polar metabolites were profiled in baseline specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cases and controls were matched for age, body mass index and fasting glucose. Five branched-chain and aromatic amino acids had highly significant associations with future diabetes: isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine and phenylalanine. A combination of three amino acids predicted future diabetes (with a more than fivefold higher risk for individuals in top quartile). The results were replicated in an independent, prospective cohort. These findings underscore the potential key role of amino acid metabolism early in the pathogenesis of diabetes and suggest that amino acid profiles could aid in diabetes risk assessment.

  7. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-02-28

    A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of single accident airport risk profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed for estimating the potential economic impacts of a carbon fiber release upon facilities within an 80 kilometer radius of a major airport. The model simulated the possible range of release conditions and the resulting dispersion of the carbon fibers. Each iteration of the model generated a specific release scenario, which would cause a specific amount of dollar loss to the surrounding community. By repeated iterations, a risk profile was generated, showing the probability distribution of losses from one accident. Using accident probability estimates, the risks profile for annual losses was derived. The mechanics are described of the simulation model, the required input data, and the risk profiles generated for the 26 large hub airports.

  9. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  10. Risk Profiles for Endometriosis in Japanese Women: Results From a Repeated Survey of Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Nagai, Kazue; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kubota, Toshiro; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors for endometriosis may differ according to diagnosis methodologies, such as study populations and diagnostic accuracy. We examined risk profiles in imaging-diagnosed endometriosis with and without surgical confirmation in a large population of Japanese women, as well as the differences in risk profiles of endometriosis based on history of infertility. Methods Questionnaires that included items on sites of endometriosis determined by imaging techniques and surgical procedure were mailed to 1025 women who self-reported endometriosis in a baseline survey of the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (n = 15 019). Results Two hundred and ten women had surgically confirmed endometriosis (Group A), 120 had imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without a surgical procedure (Group B), and 264 had adenomyosis (Group C). A short menstrual cycle at 18–22 years of age and cigarette smoking at 30 years of age were associated with significantly increased risk of endometriosis (Group A plus Group B), while older age was associated with risk of adenomyosis (Group C). In women with a history of infertility, a short menstrual cycle was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometriosis in both Group A and Group B, but risk profiles of endometriosis were different between Group A and Group B in women without a history of infertility. Conclusions Women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and those with imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without surgery have basically common risk profiles, but these risk profiles are different from those with adenomyosis. The presence of a history of infertility should be taken into consideration for evaluation of risk profiles. PMID:25716280

  11. Health risks of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    This volume examines occupational, public health, and environmental risks of the coal fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle, and unconventional energy technologies. The 6 chapters explore in detail the relationship between energy economics and risk analysis, assess the problems of applying traditional cost-benefit analysis to long-term environmental problems (such as global carbon dioxide levels), and consider questions about the public's perception and acceptance of risk. Also included is an examination of the global risks associated with current and proposed levels of energy production and comsumption from all major sources. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters; all are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and four in Energy Research Abstracts

  12. Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: a prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence.

  13. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors.

  14. Risk profiles and corporate social responsibility for socially disadvantaged groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanescu Cosmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a suitable mechanism to stimulate the effective redeployment of capital to social activities can be designed using the corporate social responsibility (CSR concept. Informational asymmetry about the real state of social risks influences the effectiveness of allocations in social protection. Reducing information asymmetries can be achieved by providing the corporations with socially determined risk profiles based on predetermined patterns. Offering concrete lines of action following the risk profiles approach which to base investment decisions of companies in CSR can maximize the results of such a mechanism. In a previous study the authors have developed a theoretical model for determining the poverty risk profile. This study aims to present the practical application of the theoretical model and to provide comments on some errors. Hence, the authors analyzed Buzau county municipalities in presenting the highest risk level determined by the theoretical model and related causes and performed an impact assessment of an investment in CSR based on a model. Specifically, the authors evaluated the impact of reducing the risk of poverty for a suitable investment in CSR. In the second part of the study, the authors analyzed the types of errors that can be found in the municipalities risk profile model due to the granularity of the data. Thus, for the error of over-inclusion, the authors assessed social allocative efficiency at the community level using benchmarking analysis, Data Envelopment respectively and analyzed the data of the under-inclusion error in Buzau county villages. The paper aims to analyze the relative limits on quantitative models and risk of poverty and the practical implementation of these types of models in the development of corporate social responsibility. The study provides also a useful tool which can be made available to companies in order to increase the vulnerable groups’ life quality and the satisfaction of

  15. The clinical profile of high-risk mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Freestone, Mark; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Holland, Josephine; Burns, Tom

    2013-07-01

    High-risk mentally disordered offenders present a diverse array of clinical characteristics. To contain and effectively treat this heterogeneous population requires a full understanding of the group's clinical profile. This study aimed to identify and validate clusters of clinically coherent profiles within one high-risk mentally disordered population in the UK. Latent class analysis (a statistical technique to identify clustering of variance from a set of categorical variables) was applied to 174 cases using clinical diagnostic information to identify the most parsimonious model of best fit. Validity analyses were performed. Three identified classes were a 'delinquent' group (n = 119) characterised by poor educational history, strong criminal careers and high recidivism risk; a 'primary psychopathy' group (n = 38) characterised by good educational profiles and homicide offences and an 'expressive psychopathy' group (n = 17) presenting the lowest risk and characterised by more special educational needs and sexual offences. Individuals classed as high-risk mentally disordered offenders can be loosely segregated into three discrete subtypes: 'delinquent', 'psychopathic' or 'expressive psychopathic', respectively. These groups represent different levels of risk to society and reflect differing treatment needs.

  16. Healthy Lifestyle through Young Adulthood and Presence of Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127

  17. Ohio Financial Services and Risk Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…

  18. Associations between Peer Harassment and School Risk and Protection Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari M.; Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and…

  19. A risk microbiological profile of the Australian red meat industry: risk ratings of hazard-product pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, John; Ross, Tom; Jenson, Ian; Pointon, Andrew

    2005-11-25

    A risk profile of microbial hazards across the supply continuum for the beef, sheep and goat meat industries was developed using both a qualitative tool and a semi-quantitative, spreadsheet tool, Risk Ranger. The latter is useful for highlighting factors contributing to food safety risk and for ranking the risk of various product/pathogen combinations. In the present profile the qualitative tool was used as a preliminary screen for a wide range of hazard-product pairings while Risk Ranger was used to rank in order of population health risk pairings for which quantitative data were available and for assessing the effect of hypothetical scenarios. 'High' risk hazard-product pairings identified were meals contaminated with Clostridium perfringens provided by caterers which have not implemented HACCP; kebabs cross-contaminated by Salmonella present in drip trays or served undercooked; meals served in the home cross-contaminated with Salmonella. 'Medium' risk hazard-product pairings identified were ready-to-eat meats contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and which have extended shelf life; Uncooked Comminuted Fermented Meat (UCFM)/Salami contaminated with Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Salmonella; undercooked hamburgers contaminated with EHEC; kebabs contaminated by Salmonella under normal production or following final "flash" heating. Identified 'low' risk hazard-product pairings included cooked, ready-to-eat sausages contaminated with Salmonella; UCFM/Salami contaminated with L. monocytogenes; well-cooked hamburgers contaminated with EHEC. The risk profile provides information of value to Australia's risk managers in the regulatory, processing and R&D sectors of the meat and meat processing industry for the purposes of identifying food safety risks in the industry and for prioritising risk management actions.

  20. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  1. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  2. The profile of quantitative risk indicators in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Basic, I.; Bilic-Zabric, T.; Spiler, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade strong initiative was observed which was aimed at incorporating information on risk into various aspects of operation of nuclear power plants. The initiative was observable in activities carried out by regulators as well as utilities and industry. It resulted in establishing the process, or procedure, which is often referred to as integrated decision making or risk informed decision making. In this process, engineering analyses and evaluations that are usually termed traditional and that rely on considerations of safety margins and defense in depth are supplemented by quantitative indicators of risk. Throughout the process, the plant risk was most commonly expressed in terms of likelihood of events involving damage to the reactor core and events with radiological releases to the environment. These became two commonly used quantitative indicators or metrics of plant risk (or, reciprocally, plant safety). They were evaluated for their magnitude (e.g. the expected number of events per specified time interval), as well as their profile (e.g. the types of contributing events). The information for quantitative risk indicators (to be used in risk informing process) is obtained from plant's probabilistic safety analyses or analyses of hazards. It is dependable on issues such as availability of input data or quality of model or analysis. Nuclear power plant Krsko has recently performed Periodic Safety Review, which was a good opportunity to evaluate and integrate the plant specific information on quantitative plant risk indicators and their profile. The paper discusses some aspects of quantitative plant risk profile and its perception.(author)

  3. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  5. Body composition indices and predicted cardiovascular disease risk profile among urban dwellers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  6. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  7. Мonitoring of the state of health of the school children trained in profile classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Chernenkov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problems of monitoring of teenagers health state in the conditions of educational reform: transition to profile training are reflected. During research it was established, that the majority of teenagers are not ready to an independent professional choice and profile training. Those teenagers who have chosen a profile training without the account of further professional choice, the risk a psychosomatic pathology formation is higher. the received results testify to necessity of obligatory monitoring of health state including an estimation of vegetative status, process of social adaptation, parametres of quality of life which are indicators of early psychosomatic diseases diagnostics. the decision of a problem of profile training choosing the future trade that demands from medical workers and psychologists of educational institutions carrying out annual periodic medical examination taking into account a prospective profile of training and professional factors, characteristic for each profession should be one of the primary goals of medical examination at school

  8. Health profiles in people with intellectual developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Folch-Mas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand the health profiles of people with intellectual disability (ID, focusing on the variables that are associated with a poorer health status. Materials and methods. Data were collected from the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency (EDAD 2008 of the Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE. The health data of 2 840 subjects with IDD were analyzed in order to verify the impact of different variables on their health profiles. Results. People with severe and profound levels of IDD presented a higher number of medical diagnoses.At residence centers there was a larger proportion of individuals with a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and more severe conditions; age also was an important factor. Conclusion. The health profiles of individuals with IDD differ depending on the severity level of their IDD and their degree of institutionalization. Further research is needed to provide better health care for people with IDD.

  9. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  10. Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Fromont, Sebastien C; Delucchi, Kevin; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Stephen; Bonas, Thomas; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are dying on average 25 years prematurely. The leading causes are chronic preventable diseases. In the context of a tobacco-treatment trial, this exploratory study examined the behavioral risk profiles of adults with SMI to identify broader interventional needs. Recruited from five acute inpatient psychiatry units, participants were 693 adult smokers (recruitment rate = 76%, 50% male, 45% Caucasian, age M = 39, 49% had income change 11 health behaviors, referencing the period prior to acute hospitalization. Participants averaged 5.2 (SD = 2.1) risk behaviors, including smoking (100%), high-fat diet (68%), inadequate fruits/vegetables (67%), poor sleep (53%), physical inactivity (52%), and marijuana use (46%). The percent prepared to change ranged from 23% for tobacco and marijuana to 76% for depression management. Latent class analysis differentiated three risk groups: the global higher risk group included patients elevated on all risk behaviors; the global lower risk group was low on all risks; and a mood and metabolic risk group, characterized by inactivity, unhealthy diet, sleep problems, and poor stress and depression management. The global higher risk group (11% of sample) was younger, largely male, and had the greatest number of risk behaviors and mental health diagnoses; had the most severe psychopathologies, addiction-treatment histories, and nicotine dependence; and the lowest confidence for quitting smoking and commitment to abstinence. Most smokers with SMI engaged in multiple risks. Expanding targets to treat co-occurring risks and personalizing treatment to individuals' multibehavioral profiles may increase intervention relevance, interest, and impact on health.

  11. Health profiles of overweight and obese youth attending general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Winifred D; Palmer, Millicent; Chondros, Patty; Kauer, Sylvia; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Sanci, Lena A

    2017-05-01

    Literature suggests that overweight and obese young people use healthcare services more often, but this awaits confirmation in primary care. To identify health profiles of underweight, overweight and obese young people attending general practice and compare them to normal-weight youth and also to explore the weight-related health risks of eating and exercise behaviour in the four different weight categories. This study used a cross-sectional design with baseline data from a trial including 683 young people (14-24 years of age) presenting to general practice. Through computer-assisted telephone interviews data were obtained on number and type of health complaints and consultations, emotional distress, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and eating and exercise behaviour. General practitioners (GPs) were consulted more often by overweight (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.28, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.57)) and obese youth (IRR: 1.54, 95% CI (1.21 to 1.97), but not for different health problems compared with normal-weight youth. The reason for presentation was seldom a weight issue. Obese youth reported lower physical HRQoL. Obese and underweight youth were less likely to be satisfied with their eating behaviour than their normal-weight peers. Exercise levels were low in the entire cohort. Our study highlights the need for effective weight management given that overweight and obese youth consult their GP more often. Since young people do not present with weight issues, it becomes important for GPs to find ways to initiate the discussion about weight, healthy eating and exercise with youth. ISRCTN16059206. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Environmental modeling and health risk analysis (ACTS/RISK)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aral, M. M

    2010-01-01

    ... presents a review of the topics of exposure and health risk analysis. The Analytical Contaminant Transport Analysis System (ACTS) and Health RISK Analysis (RISK) software tools are an integral part of the book and provide computational platforms for all the models discussed herein. The most recent versions of these two softwa...

  13. Risk Profile of Symptomatic Lacunar Stroke Versus Nonlobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Zini, Andrea; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Caso, Valeria; Dell'Acqua, Maria Luisa; Simone, Anna Maria; Lanari, Alessia; Costa, Paolo; Poli, Loris; De Giuli, Valeria; Gamba, Massimo; Ciccone, Alfonso; Ritelli, Marco; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia; Colombi, Marina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Grassi, Mario; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Padovani, Alessandro; Pezzini, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Although lacunar stroke (LS) and deep intracerebral hemorrhage (dICH) represent acute manifestations of the same pathological process involving cerebral small vessels (small vessel disease), it remains unclear what factors predispose to one phenotype rather than the other at individual level. Consecutive patients with either acute symptomatic LS or dICH were prospectively enrolled as part of a multicenter Italian study. We compared the risk factor profile of the 2 subgroups using multivariable logistic regression. During a time course of 9.5 years, 1931 subjects (1434 LS and 497 dICH; mean age, 71.3±13.3 years; males, 55.5%) qualified for the analysis. Current smoking was associated with LS (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; Prisk factor profile of dICH differs from that associated with LS. This might be used for disease risk stratification at individual level. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. African-American Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Representative Profile of Their Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to document the health profile of 252 African-American grandparents raising their grandchildren solo, compared with 1552 African-American single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System is used to compare the specific physical and mental health profiles of these two family groups. The findings suggest solo grandparents have prevalence of many health conditions, including arthritis (50.3 %), diabetes (20.1 %), heart attack (16.6 %) and coronary heart disease (16.6 %). Logistic regression analyses suggest that solo grandparents have much higher odds of several chronic health disorders in comparison with single parents, but this difference is largely explained by age. Although solo grandparents have good access to health care insurance and primary care providers, a substantial percentage (44 %) rate their health as fair or poor. Practice interventions to address African American solo grandparents' health needs are discussed.

  15. Profile of atrial fibrillation inpatients: Cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac rehabilitation programme delivery and referral patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Robyn; Zhang, Ling; Roach, Kellie; Sadler, Leonie; Belshaw, Julie; Kirkness, Ann; Proctor, Ross; Neubeck, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common; however, the cardiovascular risk factor profile and the patterns of delivery and referral to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in this population are poorly described. We conducted an audit of medical records (n = 145) of patients admitted with AF in one local health district in Sydney, Australia. Patients were aged a mean 72 years, and 51% were male. Lack of risk factor documentation was common. Despite this, 65% had two or more modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension (63%) and hypercholesterolaemia (52%). Referral to Phase II CR occurred for 25% and was decreased with permanent AF diagnosis and increased with more risk factors. AF patients admitted to hospital have multiple cardiovascular risk factors but limited risk factor screening and/or referral to outpatient CR programmes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Dynamic profile of health investment and the evolution of elderly health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Te-Fen; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have sought to examine the determinants of elderly health. Nevertheless, few of them incorporate a life-course perspective to analyze the dynamics of transition for both health conditions and their predictors. We utilize a nationally representative longitudinal data set of 4007 Taiwanese aged 60 or over and employ discrete-time duration models to investigate the association between annual mortality and its potential risk factors over a nearly twenty-year period (1989-2007). We place particular emphasis on the inherently dynamic character of Grossman's model, and specifically on how public and private health investment shape the personal health outcome over time. Our results support the hypothesis that depreciation rates depend on personal characteristics. In addition, we find that the dynamic profiles of both public and private health investment significantly influence the elderly mortality. An important implication of our study is that implementing universal health insurance and tobacco control programs are effective channels through which the government improves personal health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  18. A Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S.; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely due to changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (Old), and of a revised (New) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke, and validated this new FSRP in two external cohorts, the 3 Cities (3C) and REGARDS studies. Methods We computed the old FSRP as originally described, and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factors' prevalence and hazard-ratios for persons ≥ 55 years and for the subsample ≥ 65 years (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies respectively), and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. Results The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all three samples than the old FSRP (Calibration chi-squares of new/old FSRP: in men 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6 and 20.7/12.5; in women 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3 and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared to blacks. Conclusions A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. PMID:28159800

  19. Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A; Wolf, Philip A; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J; Himali, Jayandra J; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-03-21

    Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely as a result of changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (old) and of a revised (new) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke and validated this new FSRP in 2 external cohorts, the 3C (3 Cities) and REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) studies. We computed the old FSRP as originally described and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factor prevalence and hazard ratios for individuals ≥55 years of age and for the subsample ≥65 years of age (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies, respectively) and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all 3 samples than the old FSRP (calibration χ 2 of new/old FSRP: in men: 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6, and 20.7/12.5; in women: 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3, and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS, and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared with blacks. A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. On the Anonymity Risk of Time-Varying User Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Puglisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites and applications use personalisation services to profile their users, collect their patterns and activities and eventually use this data to provide tailored suggestions. User preferences and social interactions are therefore aggregated and analysed. Every time a user publishes a new post or creates a link with another entity, either another user, or some online resource, new information is added to the user profile. Exposing private data does not only reveal information about single users’ preferences, increasing their privacy risk, but can expose more about their network that single actors intended. This mechanism is self-evident in social networks where users receive suggestions based on their friends’ activities. We propose an information-theoretic approach to measure the differential update of the anonymity risk of time-varying user profiles. This expresses how privacy is affected when new content is posted and how much third-party services get to know about the users when a new activity is shared. We use actual Facebook data to show how our model can be applied to a real-world scenario.

  1. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...

  2. Health risks of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Ham, Martijn

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are not exempt from the practice of counterfeiting. In recent years, many reports have become available demonstrating the presence of fake medicines on the market. Several studies have demonstrated that they are quite often of bad quality. It is estimated that 5% of all world trade in branded goods is counterfeit, leading to huge financial losses for the pharmaceutical industry. But much more important, from a public health point of view, is that history has shown that such products may lead to a great health risk. The essence of counterfeit products and the reason they are so dangerous is the complete absence of quality control, since they are often indistinguishable from the genuine product. The existence of counterfeit drugs has long been ignored both by the pharmaceutical industry and by drug regulatory authorities. At present initiatives are being taken, nationally and internationally, to curb counterfeiting. It is now realised that a strong regulatory agency is essential, but the initiatives can only be successful if all parties concerned actively co-operate.

  3. Health profiles of foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2016-06-14

    The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care. Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters. More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public

  4. 78 FR 66010 - Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... availability of a draft risk profile entitled ``FDA Draft Risk Profile: Pathogens and Filth in Spices'' (draft... posed by consumption of spices in the United States by identifying the most commonly occurring microbial...

  5. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  6. Profile and Risk Factor Analysis of Unintentional Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamkar, Rahul; Seth, Bageshree; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-10-01

    To study the profile and various risk factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. The study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from 351 children presenting with unintentional injury to a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Data were collected about variables based on Haddon Phase Factor Matrix - host, environment and agent factors. Proportions for categorical variables across various groups were compared using Chi square test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the factors. Falls (36 %) were the most common injuries followed by bites (23 %). Majority of children were school going children (38 %) followed by preschool children (29 %). Forty-seven percent were from lower socioeconomic class. Commonest place of injury was home (48 %) and the commonest time was evening (49 %). Though there was male predominance in injuries, the difference across gender did not vary significantly (p = 0.15). Poisonings were significantly more common in infants and toddlers and in rural population (p risk of bites compared to urban (p Profile of injuries varies widely as per the variations in agent, host and environmental factors. Socio-environmental, economic conditions and infancy-toddler age groups are predisposing risk factors for bites and poisoning. Although rural areas and lower socioeconomic class population are more vulnerable to serious types of injuries, they still lack essential basic medical care.

  7. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  8. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  9. Victimization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Among Transgender Women in India: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Kershaw, Trace S

    2017-12-01

    Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience multiple forms of victimization such as violence and discrimination that can place them at risk for poor sexual health. To date, research overlooks the heterogeneity in experiences of victimization among TGW. Furthermore, few studies have examined the association between victimization and sexual risk among TGW in India, despite the high burden of HIV and victimization in this community. Latent profile analysis was performed to identify patterns of victimization in a convenience sample of 299 TGW recruited from nongovernmental organizations across four states in India. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine differences in sexual risk (i.e., alcohol use before sex; inconsistent condom use with a male regular partner, a male causal partner, and a male paying partner; and having multiple sexual partners) between latent profiles. Five distinct profiles of Indian TGW were identified based on the type and severity of victimization: (1) Low victimization, (2) High verbal police victimization, (3) High verbal and physical police victimization, (4) Moderate victimization, and (5) High victimization. While controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and marital status, results revealed that TGW in the moderate victimization and high victimization profiles had higher sexual risk than TGW in the low victimization and high verbal police victimization profiles. In addition, TGW in high verbal and physical police victimization profile had higher sexual risk than TGW in low victimization profile. These findings underscore the importance of tailoring sexual risk reduction interventions to the specific needs of TGW based on patterns of victimization.

  10. Bleeding Risk Profile in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Frederic; Husmann, Marc; Benenati, James F; Katzen, Barry T; Del Conde, Ian

    2016-06-01

    To assess the bleeding risk profile using the HAS-BLED score in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). A post hoc analysis was performed using data from a series of 115 consecutive patients (mean age 72.4±11.4 years; 68 men) with symptomatic PAD undergoing endovascular revascularization. The endpoint of the study was to assess bleeding risk using the 9-point HAS-BLED score, which was previously validated in cohorts of patients with and without atrial fibrillation. For the purpose of this study, the low (0-1), intermediate (2), and high-risk (≥3) scores were stratified as low/intermediate risk (HAS-BLED risk (HAS-BLED ≥3). The mean HAS-BLED score was 2.76±1.16; 64 (56%) patients had a HAS-BLED score ≥3.0. Patients with PAD Rutherford category 5/6 ischemia had an even higher mean HAS-BLED score (3.20±1.12). Logistic regression analysis revealed aortoiliac or femoropopliteal segment involvement, chronic kidney disease, as well as Rutherford category 5/6, to be independent risk factors associated with a HAS-BLED score ≥3. Patients with PAD, especially those presenting with Rutherford category 5/6 ischemic symptoms, have high HAS-BLED scores, suggesting increased risk for major bleeding. Prospective clinical validation of the HAS-BLED score in patients with PAD may help with the risk-benefit assessment when prescribing antithrombotic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  12. Memory Resilience to Alzheimer's Genetic Risk: Sex Effects in Predictor Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kirstie L; McFall, G Peggy; Andrews, Shea J; Anstey, Kaarin J; Dixon, Roger A

    2017-10-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 and Clusterin (CLU) C alleles are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and episodic memory (EM) decline. Memory resilience occurs when genetically at-risk adults perform at high and sustained levels. We investigated whether (a) memory resilience to AD genetic risk is predicted by biological and other risk markers and (b) the prediction profiles vary by sex and AD risk variant. Using a longitudinal sample of nondemented adults (n = 642, aged 53-95) we focused on memory resilience (over 9 years) to 2 AD risk variants (APOE, CLU). Growth mixture models classified resilience. Random forest analysis, stratified by sex, tested the predictive importance of 22 nongenetic risk factors from 5 domains (n = 24-112). For both sexes, younger age, higher education, stronger grip, and everyday novel cognitive activity predicted memory resilience. For women, 9 factors from functional, health, mobility, and lifestyle domains were also predictive. For men, only fewer depressive symptoms was an additional important predictor. The prediction profiles were similar for APOE and CLU. Although several factors predicted resilience in both sexes, a greater number applied only to women. Sex-specific mechanisms and intervention targets are implied. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The adolescent child health and illness profile. A population-based measure of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfield, B; Riley, A W; Green, B F; Ensminger, M E; Ryan, S A; Kelleher, K; Kim-Harris, S; Johnston, D; Vogel, K

    1995-05-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability and validity of an instrument to assess adolescent health status. Reliability and validity were examined by administration to adolescents (ages 11-17 years) in eight schools in two urban areas, one area in Appalachia, and one area in the rural South. Integrity of the domains and subdomains and construct validity were tested in all areas. Test/retest stability, criterion validity, and convergent and discriminant validity were tested in the two urban areas. Iterative testing has resulted in the final form of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition) having 6 domains with 20 subdomains. The domains are Discomfort, Disorders, Satisfaction with Health, Achievement (of age-appropriate social roles), Risks, and Resilience. Tested aspects of reliability and validity have achieved acceptable levels for all retained subdomains. The CHIP-AE in its current form is suitable for assessing the health status of populations and subpopulations of adolescents. Evidence from test-retest stability analyses suggests that the CHIP-AE also can be used to assess changes occurring over time or in response to health services interventions targeted at groups of adolescents.

  14. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Ricardo de Mattos Russo; Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Tavares, Jeane Marques Cunha; Ferreira, Renata Evelin Moreno; Camilo, Glauce Gomes da Silva; Neto, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  16. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro. Method: A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. Results: The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. Conclusion: The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  17. Autism Developmental Profiles and Cooperation with Oral Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y.; Yiu, Cynthia C. Y.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the associations between autism developmental profiles and cooperation with an oral health screening among preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A random sample of Special Child Care Centres registered with the Government Social Welfare Department in Hong Kong was selected (19 out of 37 Centres). All preschool…

  18. Risk Profile of Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs or Pork in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Houde, A; McEwen, S A

    2017-12-01

    The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP. We calculated summary estimates of prevalence using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3 software, employing the method of moments. Overall, we found the incidence of sporadic locally acquired hepatitis E in Canada, compiled from peer-reviewed literature or from diagnosis at the National Microbiology Laboratory to be low relative to other non-endemic countries. In contrast, we found the prevalence of detection of HEV RNA in pigs and retail pork livers, to be comparable to that reported in the USA and Europe. We drafted risk categories (high/medium/low) for acquiring clinical hepatitis E from exposure to pigs or pork in Canada and hypothesize that the proportion of the Canadian population at high risk from either exposure is relatively small. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  19. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  20. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  1. Health risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1997-01-01

    Worked out are the health risk indices for NPP personnel that could be used in normal operation and in case of accident. These indices concern temporary incapacity for work, invalidity, lethality, cancer, etc. Risk estimation is based on produced energy in NPP or on the collective dose of personnel exposure. Assessed are the specific risk values for NPP ''Kozloduy'', which show that the risk in normal operation is significantly low (of the order of 2.3 ./. 7.2 x 10 -4 for invalidity, lethality and cancer). Health risk indices can be used when comparing various alternative energy sources, as well as for determination of the power strategy of a country. (author)

  2. Defining a Contemporary Ischemic Heart Disease Genetic Risk Profile Using Historical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; van Driest, Sara L; Wells, Quinn S; Shaffer, Christian M; Edwards, Todd L; Bastarache, Lisa; McCarty, Catherine A; Thompson, Will; Chute, Christopher G; Jarvik, Gail P; Crosslin, David R; Larson, Eric B; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Peissig, Peggy L; Brilliant, Murray H; Linneman, James G; Denny, Josh C; Roden, Dan M

    2016-12-01

    Continued reductions in morbidity and mortality attributable to ischemic heart disease (IHD) require an understanding of the changing epidemiology of this disease. We hypothesized that we could use genetic correlations, which quantify the shared genetic architectures of phenotype pairs and extant risk factors from a historical prospective study to define the risk profile of a contemporary IHD phenotype. We used 37 phenotypes measured in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; n=7716, European ancestry subjects) and clinical diagnoses from an electronic health record (EHR) data set (n=19 093). All subjects had genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. We measured pairwise genetic correlations (rG) between the ARIC and EHR phenotypes using linear mixed models. The genetic correlation estimates between the ARIC risk factors and the EHR IHD were modestly linearly correlated with hazards ratio estimates for incident IHD in ARIC (Pearson correlation [r]=0.62), indicating that the 2 IHD phenotypes had differing risk profiles. For comparison, this correlation was 0.80 when comparing EHR and ARIC type 2 diabetes mellitus phenotypes. The EHR IHD phenotype was most strongly correlated with ARIC metabolic phenotypes, including total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (rG=-0.44, P=0.005), high-density lipoprotein (rG=-0.48, P=0.005), systolic blood pressure (rG=0.44, P=0.02), and triglycerides (rG=0.38, P=0.02). EHR phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic, and hypertensive diseases were also genetically correlated with these ARIC risk factors. The EHR IHD risk profile differed from ARIC and indicates that treatment and prevention efforts in this population should target hypertensive and metabolic disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  4. Work Profile of Community Health Extension Workers in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introdution: The goal of significant reduction in maternal and child mortality could be achieved if national health services de-emphasizes vertical public health programs and services and strengthen community services9. Community based service are usually directed toward identification of at risk groups in the community ...

  5. Evaluating a Health Risk Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelberg, Daniel B.

    1981-01-01

    A health risk reduction program at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) tested the efficacy of peer education against the efficacy of returning (by mail) health questionnaire results. A peer health education program did not appear to be effective in changing student attitudes or lifestyles; however, the research methodology may not have been…

  6. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crowdfunding our health: Economic risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-10-01

    Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method. These are projects covering health expenses, fundraising health initiatives, supporting health research, or financing commercial health innovation. Crowdfunding could economically benefit the health sector by expanding market participation, drawing money and awareness to neglected health issues, improving access to funding, and fostering project accountability and social engagement. However, the economic risks of health-related crowdfunding include inefficient priority setting, heightened financial risk, inconsistent regulatory policies, intellectual property rights concerns, and fraud. Theorized crowdfunding behaviours such as signalling and herding can be observed in the market for health-related crowdfunding. Broader threats of market failure stemming from adverse selection and moral hazard also apply. Many of the discussed economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding health campaigns are shared more broadly with those of crowdfunding projects in other sectors. Where crowdfunding health care appears to diverge from theory is the negative externality inefficient priority setting may have towards achieving broader public health goals. Therefore, the market for crowdfunding health care must be economically stable, as well as designed to optimally and equitably improve public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in risk factor profile after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete

    up 1 year after stroke. We constructed a baseline risk factor profile (RFP) of 6 variables: smoking, excessive drinking, physical inactivity, untreated hypertension, no cholesterol-lowering, and no antithrombotic treatment/warfarin at discharge from hospital. Each item was rated 0 or 1 giving...... a maximum score of 6 points. Mean baseline RFP-score was 1.6 Results. After 1 year we found a reduction in current smoking (p=0.008) and in excessive drinking (p=0.0001). There was no change in physical activity and in untreated hypertension. There was an increase in the proportion of patients on lipid......-lowering (p=0.011) and antithrombotic (p=0.0003) treatment yielding a reduction in RFP to 1.4 (phypertensive, and most patients with untreated hypertension and hypercholesterolemia remained untreated. By 1-year follow up 30 patients (9.4%) had had a non...

  9. New approaches in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www.arcrisk.eu).

  10. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  11. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abass

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu.

  12. Diagnostic profile and suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutfors, Johan; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Jönsson, Erik G; Ekbom, Anders; Nordström, Peter; Brandt, Lena; Ösby, Urban

    2010-11-01

    Earlier studies of patients with schizophrenia have investigated suicide risk in relation to specific psychiatric symptoms, but it remains to be better understood how suicide risk relates to the diagnostic profile in these patients. We identified all patients with a first clinical ICD-diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder in Stockholm County between 1984 and 2000. Patients who died by suicide within five years from diagnosis were defined as cases (n=84) and were individually matched with a similar number of living controls from the same population. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were retrieved from hospital records through a blind process. DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses for cases and controls were derived using the OPCRIT algorithm. A schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (i.e. schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder) was assigned by OPCRIT to 50% of the suicide cases and 62% of the controls. Criteria for schizophrenia were met by 41% of the cases and 51% of the controls; for schizoaffective disorder by 8% of the cases and 10% of the controls; for other psychosis by 23% of the cases and 25% of the controls; and for mood disorder by 26% of the cases and 12% of the controls. Using the schizophrenia diagnosis as a reference, suicide risk was significantly higher in patients meeting criteria for a mood disorder diagnosis with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-9.0). In patients with a clinical schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, a DSM-IV mood disorder diagnosis increases the suicide risk more than three-fold. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elderly fall risk prediction based on a physiological profile approach using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmara, Jafar; Zaboli, Mohammad Hassan; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    Falls play a critical role in older people's life as it is an important source of morbidity and mortality in elders. In this article, elders fall risk is predicted based on a physiological profile approach using a multilayer neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm. The personal physiological profile of 200 elders was collected through a questionnaire and used as the experimental data for learning and testing the neural network. The profile contains a series of simple factors putting elders at risk for falls such as vision abilities, muscle forces, and some other daily activities and grouped into two sets: psychological factors and public factors. The experimental data were investigated to select factors with high impact using principal component analysis. The experimental results show an accuracy of ≈90 percent and ≈87.5 percent for fall prediction among the psychological and public factors, respectively. Furthermore, combining these two datasets yield an accuracy of ≈91 percent that is better than the accuracy of single datasets. The proposed method suggests a set of valid and reliable measurements that can be employed in a range of health care systems and physical therapy to distinguish people who are at risk for falls.

  14. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Torben, Jørgensen; Schröder, Andreas Bak

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized......, and self-perceived health. CONCLUSION: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The profiles have the potential to be used in further epidemiological studies on risk factors and prognosis of somatic symptoms but should be confirmed in other...

  15. Psychosocial and clinical risk factor profiles in managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, M; Ciré, L; Scholl, J

    2000-06-01

    Over the past 10 years the IAS Foundation has performed more than 15,000 PREVENT check-ups on managers. In addition to a comprehensive clinical program of preventive examinations, the main emphasis is placed on extensive counseling. This counseling centres not only on personal behaviour patterns affecting the individual's health, but also on the psychomental capabilities of the patient within the context of the psychosocial stresses in managerial positions. Three cross-sectional studies examined: (1) the major cardiovascular risk factors (n = 974), (2) the psychosocial structure (n = 2,800) and (3) the relationships between clinical risk factors and psychological structural features (n = 200). According to expectations, managers showed somewhat lower cardiovascular risk levels than did other professional groups. However, nearly 70% of them reported various unspecific, psychovegetative complaints. Managers were subdivided into four psychological types, each representing roughly one quarter of the series: Type 1: anxiety, tension (20.5%); Type 2: repression, lack of self-control (22.2%); Type 3: challenge, ambition, self-control (27.6%); Type 4: healthy living, with self-control (29.7%). Type 3 resembles most closely classic type A behaviour and is seen in a good quarter of the overall cohort. This may indicate that not only people showing type A behaviour are predestined to occupy managerial positions, but that people with a type B structure also take up managerial positions. It is, however, in particular the type B behavioural patterns that are also associated with increased psychovegetative complaints. The relationships between psychosocial structural variables and clinical risk factors such as hypercholesteremia and high blood pressure are not very strong. Occupational health measures in organisations should also be established for managers, as they present an important employee group within the enterprise. In addition to examining them for cardiovascular risks

  16. Health profile and quality of life of elderly with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Freire de Almeida Vitorino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of hypertensive elderly women in the Family Health Strategy. Method: cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study that evaluated 60 hypertensive older women using the tool World Health Organization Quality of Life with 26 items divided into four domains: social relations, psychological, physical and environment. Results: regarding the quality of life in all domains, except the psychological domain, the quality of life was considered regular. The psychological domain demonstrated a quality of life that needs to improve. Some questions are presented as unsatisfactory, such as the items: pain and discomfort, dependence on antihypertensive medications, negative feelings, lack of health care and recreation. Conclusion: understanding the health profile and the quality of life of hypertensive elderly women allows better knowledge about them and their adaptation to the condition imposed by the disease, offering support for planning care strategies and health education interventions.

  17. PO-58 - Cardiovascular risk profile in survivors of adult cancer - results from the general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova-Noeva, M; Hermanns, I M; Schulz, A; Laubert-Reh, D; Zeller, T; Blankenberg, S; Spronk, H M; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Ten Cate, H; Wild, P S

    2016-04-01

    The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study. Presence of CVRFs and laboratory markers have been compared in individuals with (n=1,359) and without (n=13,626) history of cancer. Standard laboratory profile, including blood glucose and lipid profile, has been evaluated in 15,010 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Coagulation factors, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity were available in N=4,993. The individuals with history of cancer were older compared to no history of cancer with mean age of 61,5years and 54.4years, respectively (pprofile showed cancer survivors with lower erythrocyte, platelet and white blood cell counts and higher C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides levels (pprofile in individuals with history of cancer from a well characterized population-representative adult sample. It gives evidence for higher prevalence of CVRFs, particularly diabetes in this vulnerable population. Markers of inflammation as CRP and fibrinogen and vWF activity were higher in cancer survivors independent of the cardiovascular risk profile. These results underline the increased risk of CVD and need for development of cardio-oncology programs offering cardiovascular prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  19. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  20. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  1. The geriatric polytrauma: Risk profile and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Holger; Heppner, Hans Jürgen; Wohlfart, Kristina; Türkoglu, Alp

    2017-03-01

    In the German population, the percentage of elderly patients is increasing, and consequently there are more elderly patients among trauma cases, and particularly cases of polytrauma. The aim of this study was to present clinical results and a risk profile for geriatric polytrauma patients. Review of 140 geriatric (over 65 years of age) polytrauma patients who received prehospital treatment was performed. Severity of trauma was retrospectively assessed with Hannover Polytrauma Score (HPTS). Age, hemoglobin (Hb) level, systolic blood pressure (BP), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, timing of and necessity for intubation were analyzed in relation to mortality and in comparison with younger patients. Geriatric polytrauma patients (n=140) had overall mortality rate of 65%, whereas younger patients (n=1468) had mortality rate of 15.9%. Despite equivalent severity of injury (HPTS less age points) in geriatric and non-geriatric groups, mortality rate was 4 times higher in geriatric group. Major blood loss with Hb polytrauma patients. Additional risk factors include very low GCS score and systolic BP <80 mm Hg, for instance, as potential clinical indicators of massive bleeding and traumatic brain injury. Such parameters demand early and rapid treatment at prehospital stage and on admission.

  2. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  3. Health risks associated with obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    by three factors: first is the amount of fat, second is the distribution of fat ... The negative effects of obesity on health and cardiovascular ..... second and tenth leading causes of death in South Africa, respectively. ... Slow glucose removal rate.

  4. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depressed and have problems with anxiety and low self-esteem. Have marriages that end in divorce. Drinking too ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  5. [Cardiac risk profile in diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Harzheim, Erno; Gus, Iseu

    2004-08-01

    Mortality of diabetic patients is higher than that of the population at large, and mainly results from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) or abnormal fasting glucose (FG) in order to guide health actions. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative random cluster sampling of 1,066 adult urban population (> or =20 years) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 1999 and 2000. A structured questionnaire on coronary risk factors was applied and sociodemographic characteristics of all adults older than 20 years living in the same dwelling were collected. Subjects were clinically evaluated and blood samples were obtained for measuring total cholesterol and fasting glycemia. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 7 and a 5% significance level was set. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson's chi-square and continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test or Anova and multivariate analysis, all controlled for the cluster effect. Of 992 subjects, 12.4% were diabetic and 7.4% had impaired fasting glucose. Among the risk factors evaluated, subjects who presented any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality were at a higher prevalence of obesity (17.8, 29.2 and 35.3% in healthy subjects, impaired fasting glucose and DM respectively, pfasting glucose and DM, respectively, pfasting glucose and DM respectively, p=0.01). Subjects with any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality represent a group, which preventive individual and population health policies should target since they have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors.

  6. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  7. Procedures for health risk assessment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeley, M.R.; Tonner-Navarro, L.E.; Beck, B.D.; Deskin, R.; Feron, V.J.; Johanson, G.; Bolt, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and

  8. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  9. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  10. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    environmental risk assessment and the evaluation of risk reducing options. Quantitative approaches have become increasingly important during this time. The Panel has developed such methods in climatic mapping (in association with the Joint Research Councils), application of spatial spread models, re......With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU). Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop...... types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series...

  11. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2017-06-01

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Health Risks of Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M.N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic radiologic procedures carries small but real risks. Children, young adults and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. Exposure of patients to diagnostic energy levels of ionizing radiation should be kept to the minimum necessary to provide useful clinical information and allay patients concerns about radiation-related risks. Computerized Tomography (CT) accounts for two thirds of the cumulative patient dose from diagnostic radiological procedures and the cumulative dose from CT is rising as technological advances increase the number of indications and the capabilities of CT. Carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are the main concerns with ionizing radiation. The risk increases as the radiation dose increases. There is no minimum threshold and the risk is cumulative: a dose of 1 mSv once a year for 10 years is equivalent to a single dose of 10 mSv. Whenever practical, choose an imaging test that uses less radiation or no radiation and lengthen the periods between follow-up imaging tests. Some patients may avoid screening mammography because of fear of radiation-induced cancer, yet this test uses a very small radiation dose (0.6 mSv, much less than the annual dose from background radiation, 3.6 mSv). (author)

  13. Latent profile analysis of neuropsychological measures to determine preschoolers' risk for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; O'Neill, Sarah; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    Hyperactive/Inattentive preschool children show clear evidence of neuropsychological dysfunction. We examined whether patterns and severity of test scores could reliably identify subgroups of preschoolers with differential risk for ADHD during school-age. Typically developing (TD: n = 76) and Hyperactive/Inattentive (HI: n = 138) 3-4 year olds were assessed annually for 6 years (T1-T6). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to form subgroups among the HI group based on objective/neuropsychological measures (NEPSY, Actigraph and Continuous Performance Test). Logistic regression assessed the predictive validity of empirically formed subgroups at risk for ADHD diagnosis relative to the TD group and to each other from T2 to T6. Latent profile analysis yielded two subgroups of HI preschoolers: (a) selectively weak Attention/Executive functions, and (b) pervasive neuropsychological dysfunction across all measures. Both subgroups were more likely to have ADHD at all follow-up time-points relative to the TD group (OR range: 11.29-86.32), but there were no significant differences between the LPA-formed subgroups of HI children at any time-point. Objective/neuropsychological measures distinguish HI preschoolers from their TD peers, but patterns and severity of neuropsychological dysfunction do not predict risk for ADHD during school-age. We hypothesize that trajectories in at-risk children are influenced by subsequent environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, raising the possibility that they are amenable to early intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Risk profile and quality of dental restorations: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, Helal; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the percentage of recurrent caries with respect to the estimated caries risk profile obtained with a Cariogram, (2) to evaluate the quality of restorations in a Saudi population with several restorations and (3) to determine the additional value of bite-wing radiographs as an aid to quality evaluation. A total of 803 restorations were examined in 100 adults according to the United States Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Salivary and microbiological factors, dietary habits and plaque index were investigated. The Cariogram was used to evaluate the risk profiles. Class II bite-wing radiographs (n = 281) were taken to examine the marginal integrity and the anatomic form proximally. The patients were categorized according to 'the chance of avoiding caries' into three risk groups: 0%-20% (n = 38), 21%-40% (n = 28) and 41%-100% (n = 34). ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between the risk groups with respect to the recurrent caries (P percentage of the total restorations (56%) were diagnosed with recurrent caries. The quality of anatomic form and surface texture was unacceptable in the majority of cases. After adding the evaluations of class II bite-wings, the percentage of unacceptable restorations increased by 28% and 17% with regard to marginal integrity and anatomic form, respectively (P percentage 'chance of avoiding caries' as estimated by the Cariogram. The importance of bite-wings was emphasized as an aid to quality evaluation.

  15. Primary selection into shift work and change of cardiovascular risk profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Germann, Christina; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    A potential "healthy shift worker effect" may bias the studied effect of shift work on health. The observed differences among shift and day workers in health behavior and health outcomes can be caused by: (i) primary selection, (ii) the influence from the shift work-related environment, and (iii) the impact of shift work. We aimed to study these potential sources. A cohort of 4754 male trainees who had finished their professional training and started their career in production in a chemical company between 1995 and 2012 was identified. Among them, 1348 (28%) were involved in rotating shift work and 3406 (72%) in day work. Information on health behavior and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases was retrieved from the medical examinations. This information was then compared (i) at the beginning of training, (ii) at the end of training, and (iii) 3 years after the employment, in relation to the working time. At the beginning of the training, the prevalence of smokers was higher among future shift workers (26% versus 21%), from 1995 to 2012. During the training and the first three years of employment, a marginal decline of systolic blood pressure and an elevation of triglyceride were related with shift work. No difference was found with respect to other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Our findings do not support a primary selection in favor of shift workers. An impact of shift work on the risk profile of cardiovascular diseases was not indicated in the observation period.

  16. Radiation. Your health at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This public information pamphlet gives a simple account of the nature of ionizing radiations and their effects on human health. Sources of radiation, both natural and man-made, to which the population may be exposed and the setting of exposure limits are discussed. The need is stressed for more research into the effects of low levels of exposure over long periods of time. The aims of the Radiation and Health Information Service and a list of organizers in European countries are given. A reading list is included. (UK)

  17. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges. PMID:21358664

  18. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-07-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.

  19. Low-frequency fields - health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.

    1993-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields, epidemiological studies and discusses health risks in detail. He describes the assessment principles of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), medical principles for risk assessment, determination of limits and thesholds, and aspects of prevention. This is supplemented to by several fables and literature list. (Uhe) [de

  20. Health-related profiles of people with lower limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Morgan, Sara J; Kim, Jiseon; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    To construct profiles of self-reported health indicators to examine differences and similarities between people with lower limb loss and a normative sample (hereafter called the norm) and to compare health indicators between subgroups based on level and etiology of limb loss. Survey. General community. Adults with unilateral lower limb loss (N=1091) participated in this study. Eligibility criteria included lower limb loss due to trauma or dysvascular complications and regular use of a prosthesis. Not applicable. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item Health Profile version 1.0 measures physical function, pain interference, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with participation in social roles. The norm includes 5239 individuals representative of the U.S. general population in sex, age, race, ethnicity, and education. People with lower limb loss reported statistically significantly worse physical function, pain interference, and satisfaction with participation in social roles and significantly less fatigue than did the norm. People with transfemoral (ie, above-knee) amputation significantly differed in physical function from people with transtibial (ie, below-knee) amputation. Similarly, people with amputation due to trauma and dysvascular etiology significantly differed in physical function and satisfaction with social roles after adjusting for relevant clinical characteristics. People with lower limb loss generally report worse physical function, pain interference, and satisfaction with social roles than do the norm. People with dysvascular amputation reported worse physical function and satisfaction with social roles than did people with traumatic amputation. Health indicator profiles are an efficient way of providing clinically meaningful information about numerous aspects of self-reported health in people with lower limb loss. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  1. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m −3 ) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m −3 ). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m −3 as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale

  2. Profile and performance of nutritionists in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis FIGUEROA PEDRAZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the profile and performance of nutritionists in Primary Health Care. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out, and all nutritionists in two municipalities of Paraíba, Brazil, were interviewed. Information was collected through structured interviews on demographic characteristics, professional qualification, development of food and nutrition activities, knowledge and use of essential bibliography for the work in Primary Care. Results In one municipality there were 28 teams of the Family Health Strategy and in the other, nineteen teams. In all, nineteen nutritionists were interviewed, fourteen of whom were working in the health teams and five were working exclusively in the Family Health Support Centers. All but one were women and the majority were between 20 and 39 years; the majority (n=10 had no graduate training. Nutritionists from the basic health teams developed more public health nutrition actions, such as defining nutritional care protocols and vitamin A and iron supplementation than those from the Family Health Support Centers (11 versus 1; and 13 versus 1, respectively. About half were satisfied with work in general, and dissatisfaction was related to deficiencies in the availability and quality of anthropometric equipment, physical structure and material. Conclusion Nutritionists work in food and nutrition actions in collective health, emphasizing the importance of qualification and practices that better combine the programmatic agenda of this area with Primary Care.

  3. Pilot Study of a Computer-Based Parental Questionnaire and Visual Profile of Obesity Risk in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Marilyn A; Terhorst, Lauren; Zhang, Peng; Nakonechny, Amanda J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This group field-tested a computer-based, parental questionnaire entitled the Childhood Obesity Risk Questionnaire 2-5 (CORQ 2-5) designed to assess obesity risk in healthy preschoolers. COR 2-5 generates a profile of seven obesity risk factors. Field studies provided good internal reliability data and evidence of discriminant validity for the CORQ 2-5. Pediatric nurse clinicians found the CORQ 2-5 profile to be clinically relevant. The CORQ 2-5 is a promising measure of obesity risk in preschoolers who attend community-based health centers for their wellchild visits and who are not yet obese. CORQ 2-5 is intended to guide provider-parental obesity risk discussions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  5. Using a multifactorial approach to determine fall risk profiles in portuguese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz-Pereira, Vera; Carnide, Filomena; Ramalho, Fátima; André, Helô; Machado, Maria; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a multifactorial approach to characterize episodic and recurrent fallers risk profiles in Portuguese older adults. To accomplish the mentioned purpose, 1416 Portuguese older adults above 65 years were tested with three different field measurements: 1) health and falls questionnaire; 2) Physical Activity questionnaire and 3) a set of functional fitness tests. The subjects were divided in three different groups according to fall prevalence: non-fallers, subjects who did not report any falls during the previous year, episodic fallers, those who reported to have fallen only once during the previous year, and recurrent fallers, the ones that fell twice or more times during the previous year. Episodic and Recurrent fallers risk profiles were established using multifactorial logistic regression models in order to avoid confounding effects between the variables. The results showed that age was not a risk factor for either episodic or recurrent falling. In addition, health parameters were shown to be the factors distinguishing recurrent from episodic fallers. This may imply that, comparing with episodic falls, recurrent falls are more associated with higher presence of chronic conditions and are less likely to occur due to external factors. Furthermore, being a woman, having fear of falling and lower functional fitness levels were determinant factors for both episodic and recurrent falls. It is also important to note that, although total physical activity was only related with episodic falling, promoting physical activity and exercise may be the easiest and cheapest way to improve functional fitness and health levels and therefore, its role in fall prevention should not be underestimated. The results of this study reinforce the importance of using a multifactorial approach, not only focusing on cognitive-behavioral factors, but also on promoting physical activity and healthy lifestyles, when assessing fall risk or planning an intervention

  6. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper-boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-fuel-based energy technologies in the United States of America. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO 4 , NO 2 , and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analysed. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 'Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants. (4) Health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7x10 -9 average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5x10 -4 for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be unrealistic. As a final example of risk analysis, the cost-effectiveness analysis for proposed EPA standards for radionuclides is shown to be deficient by an analysis concluding that the cost per potential cancer avoided could range from US $70 million to US $140 billion

  8. Latex allergy: new insights to explain different sensitization profiles in different risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, C; Tavares-Ratado, P; Tomás, M R; Taborda-Barata, L; Tomaz, C T

    2008-07-01

    Differences in latex allergen sensitization profiles have been described between children subjected to repetitive surgical interventions and health care workers (HCW). 'Major' allergens for patients with spina bifida are Hev b 1, 3 and 7, while for HCW, 'major' allergens are Hev b 2, 5, 6.01 and 13. The reason for these differential sensitization profiles is currently unknown. To investigate latex allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. Eighty-two samples of commonly used surgical gloves (41 glove brands) were used for analysis. Specific allergen levels of Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02 on both surfaces of the gloves were quantified using an enzyme immunometric assay, a FITkit (FIT Biotech, Tampere, Finland). Differences in allergen levels were observed between internal and external surfaces of all glove types. Concentrations of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were significantly higher on external surfaces, while internal surfaces had higher allergen levels of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02. Analysis of surgical and examination gloves, powdered and nonpowdered gloves also showed that the content of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 was significantly higher on internal surfaces while that of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 was higher on external surfaces. Our study showed different allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. These results may suggest a relationship between latex allergen localization and sensitization routes in different risk groups.

  9. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  10. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  11. Pneumococcal vaccine targeting strategy for older adults: customized risk profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicer, Ran D; Cohen, Chandra J; Leibowitz, Morton; Feldman, Becca S; Brufman, Ilan; Roberts, Craig; Hoshen, Moshe

    2014-02-12

    guidelines. Health care managers and policy-makers may consider the strategic potential of utilizing clinical and administrative databases for creating population-specific risk prediction models to inform vaccination campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological profiles and emotional regulation characteristics of women engaged in risk-taking sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Nicolas; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the psychological profiles and emotional regulation characteristics of women involved in risk-taking sports. The research sample (N=180) consisted of three groups of women engaged in: (1) non-risk sports (N=90); (2) risk-taking sports for leisure purposes (N=53); or (3) risk-taking sports as professionals (N=37). Each participant completed five questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Risk & Excitement Inventory, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The results revealed significant differences between the groups' profiles. Of particular interest are the differences that exist between the profiles of Group 2 (escape profile, masculine gender identity, and high scores on sensation seeking, impulsivity, alexithymia) and Group 3 (compensation profile, androgynous gender identity, average score on sensation seeking, and low scores on impulsivity, alexithymia). We propose that the professional woman might be considered a model for preventing destructive risk-taking behaviors.

  13. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease : The doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  14. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.; Smit, H.A.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Daviglus, M.L.; Verschuren, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  15. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO 4 , NO 2 , and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO 2 . (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10 -9 average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10 -4 for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  16. Anomaly in the education–health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zajacova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education–health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups.Using the restricted 1999–2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: “some college”, vocational associate degree (AA, and academic AA.The data show that adults with “some college” or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile.This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling. Keywords: Education, Subbaccalaureate, Biomarkers, Health, Gradient, US adults

  17. Values profile of health career students from Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Véliz Burgos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Higher education institutions must include curricular strategies that enable students to make decisions according to the values and principles related to their professions. The objective of this study was to determine the values profile expressed by health career students from Southern Chile. Materials and methods: This is a quantitative cross-sectional descriptive study with a purposive sample of 242 (M = 20.1 years old nursing, psychology and kinesiology students to whom the Schwartz Value Survey was applied. Software SPSS 20.0 was used to perform a hierarchical clustering analysis and verify the values dimensions associated with each other. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests were conducted to verify the means differences among the scores of the values subscales. Results: Two large homogeneous clusters of values were identified. One consisted of the dimensions of Conformity, Security, Achievement, Tradition and Benevolence, and the other one of the dimensions of Hedonism and Stimulation. During the analysis of means, significant statistical differences were observed between the groups in the dimensions of Universalism, Power, Self-Direction, Benevolence, Conformity, Tradition and Achievement (p < 0.01. The most outstanding means differences were those between psychology and nursing students. In the dimensions of Power, Conformity and Tradition, kinesiology and nursing students showed higher means than psychology students (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The results reveal health career students’ values profile. The next step should be to compare those profiles with the values profile of graduates from each discipline, in order to contribute to the strengthening of the dimensions which students from each career consider important for their professional performance.

  18. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  19. Determinants of attaining and maintaining a low cardiovascular risk profile-the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Smit, Henriëtte A; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While maintenance of a low cardiovascular risk profile is essential for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, few people maintain a low CVD risk profile throughout their life. We studied the association of demographic, lifestyle, psychological factors and family history of CVD with

  20. Fall risk profile and quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kelly R; Noone, Paul L; Short, Krystal; Elley, C Raina; Haavik, Heidi

    2011-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fall risk factors in older chiropractic patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients and to see whether a history of falling was related to quality-of-life status. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 chiropractic practices throughout Auckland, New Zealand, and Melbourne, Australia. The study involved gaining a profile of health status, fall history, and fall risk from active chiropractic patients who were 65 years or older. One hundred ten older chiropractic patients were approached, and 101 agreed to participate in this study (response rate, 91.8%). Thirty-five percent of participants had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months. Of those that had fallen, 80% had at least a minor injury, with 37% of fallers requiring medical attention and 6% suffering a serious injury. The prevalence of most fall risk factors was consistent with published data for community-dwelling older adults. Quality of life of older chiropractic patients appeared to be good, but fallers reported a lower physical component summary score compared with nonfallers (P = .04). A portion of the older chiropractic patients sampled in this study had a substantial risk of falling. This risk could be assessed on a regular basis for the presence of modifiable fall risk factors, and appropriate advice, given when fall risks are identified. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profiling the mobile-only population in Australia: insights from the Australian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Haynes, Michele; Dinsdale, Shane; Western, Mark; Pennay, Darren

    2016-10-01

    The Australian population that relies on mobile phones exclusively has increased from 5% in 2005 to 29% in 2014. Failing to include this mobile-only population leads to a potential bias in estimates from landline-based telephone surveys. This paper considers the impacts on selected health prevalence estimates with and without the mobile-only population. Using data from the Australian Health Survey - which, for the first time, included a question on telephone status - we examined demographic, geographic and health differences between the landline-accessible and mobile-only population. These groups were also compared to the full population, controlling for the sampling design and differential non-response patterns in the observed sample through weighting and benchmarking. The landline-accessible population differs from the mobile-only population for selected health measures resulting in biased prevalence estimates for smoking, alcohol risk and private health insurance coverage in the full population. The differences remain even after adjusting for age and gender. Using landline telephones only for conducting population health surveys will have an impact on prevalence rate estimates of health risk factors due to the differing profiles of the mobile-only population from the landline-accessible population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies allow the high-throughput profiling of metabolic status from a blood specimen (metabolomics). We investigated whether metabolite profiles could predict the development of diabetes. Among 2,422 normoglycemic individuals followed for 12 years, 201 developed diabetes. Amino acids, amines, and other polar metabolites were profiled in baseline specimens using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cases and controls were matched for age, body mass index and fasting g...

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile in shift workers : cardiac control, biological and lifestyle risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van L.G.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Evidence available so far indicates a 40% excess cardiovascular disease risk among shift workers. As, in the Netherlands alone, about one million people are working in shifts, this might have a considerable public health impact. Factors responsible

  4. Profiling event logs to configure risk indicators for process delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pika, A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fidge, C.J.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wynn, M.T.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Risk identification is one of the most challenging stages in the risk management process. Conventional risk management approaches provide little guidance and companies often rely on the knowledge of experts for risk identification. In this paper we demonstrate how risk indicators can be used to

  5. Risk Profile Analysis on BIST30 Exchange Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ural, Mert; Demireli, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    Inthis study, a portfolio was created by using the stocks listed in BIST30 indexand the portfolio risk was measured by using Capital Asset Pricing Model. Afterthat risk decomposition was made by purifying the risk of the stocks from totalmarket risk and by this way the systematic and non-systematic risk amounts havebeen determined for both the portfolio and each stock.

  6. Genetic risk profiles for a childhood with severe overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J R; Estévez, M N; Giralt, P S; Cáceres, A; Pérez, L M L; González-Carpio, M; Ballester, F; Sunyer, J; Rodríguez-López, R

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was the description of a valid genetic risk score (GRS) to predict individuals with high susceptibility to childhood overweight by their genetic profiles. Case-control study including a group of children with high-risk familial predisposition to morbid obesity. Birth cohort from general population constituted the validation sample. For the discovery sample, 218 children with non-syndromic obesity and 190 control individuals were included. The validation sample was 653 children from two birth cohorts belonging to the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood] )project. 109 SNPs located in the genes FTO, SEC16B, BDNF, ETV5, SH2B1, GNPDA2, LYPLAL1, MSRA, TFAP2, KCTD15, MTCH2 and NEGR1, previously reported in association to body mass index (BMI) were analysed. For the validation sample, association between genome-wide data and BMI measurements between 3.5 and 5 years of age, were evaluated. The GRS includes six SNPs in the genes FTO, TFAP2B, SEC16B, ETV5 and SH2B1. The score distribution differs among cases and controls (P = 9.2 × 10(-14) ) showing a significant linear association with obesity (odds ratio [OR] per allele = 1.69; confidence interval [CI] 95% = 1.46-1.97; P = 4.3 × 10(-1) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.727; CI 95% = 0.676-0.778). The results were validated by the INMA cohort (OR per allele = 1.23 CI 95% = 1.03-1.48 and AUC = 0.601 CI 95% = 0.522-0.680). The use of our proposed genetic score provides useful information to determine those children who are susceptible to obesity. To improve the efficiency of clinical prevention and treatment of obesity, it is essential to design individualized based protocols in advance knowledge of the molecular basis of inherited susceptibility. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Assessment of health risks of policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals

  8. Assessment of health risks of policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ádám, Balázs, E-mail: badam@cmss.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnár, Ágnes, E-mail: MolnarAg@smh.ca [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael' s Hospital, Victoria 209, Rm. 3-26.22, M5B 1C6 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ádány, Róza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Bianchi, Fabrizio, E-mail: Fabriepi@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bitenc, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.bitenc@ivz-rs.si [National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chereches, Razvan, E-mail: razvan.m.chereches@gmail.com [Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Strada Mihail Kogalniceanu 1, 3400 Cluj (Romania); Cori, Liliana, E-mail: liliana.cori@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [NRW Centre for Health, Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Kobza, Joanna, E-mail: koga1@poczta.onet.pl [Public Health Department, Silesian Medical University, 18 Medykow Street, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Kollarova, Jana, E-mail: janakollarova@yahoo.com [Department of Health Promotion, Regional Public Health Authority, Ipelska 1, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  9. Anomaly in the education-health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999-2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: "some college", vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA. The data show that adults with "some college" or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile. This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling.

  10. Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiles Predict Four-Year Risk of Developing Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakado, Minoru; Nagao, Kenji; Imaizumi, Akira; Tani, Mizuki; Toda, Akiko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Jinzu, Hiroko; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Ishizaka, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is highlighted in its association with visceral obesity and hyperinsulinemia, and future diabetes. Indeed PFAA profiling potentially can evaluate individuals? future risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases, in addition to diabetes. However, few studies have been performed especially in Asian populations, about the optimal combination of PFAAs for evaluating health risks. We quantified PFAA levels in 3,701 Japanese subjects, and determined visceral ...

  11. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Quatromoni, Paula A; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Nam, Byung-H O; Cobain, Sonia; Kozak, Waldemar; Appugliese, Danielle P; Ordovas, Jose; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2005-11-01

    To identify the dietary patterns of adult men and examine their relationships with nutrient intake and chronic disease risk over long-term follow-up. Baseline 145-item food frequency questionnaires from 1,666 Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men were used to identify comprehensive dietary patterns. Independent 3-day dietary records at baseline and 8 years later provided estimates of subjects' nutrient intake by dietary pattern. Chronic disease risk factor status was compared at baseline and 16-year follow-up across all male dietary patterns. Cluster analysis was applied to food frequency data to identify non-overlapping male dietary patterns. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to compare nutrient intake, summary nutritional risk scores, and chronic disease risk status at baseline and follow-up by male dietary pattern. Five distinct and comprehensive dietary patterns of Framingham Offspring-Spouse men were identified and ordered according to overall nutritional risk: Transition to Heart Healthy, Higher Starch, Average Male, Lower Variety, and Empty Calories. Nutritional risk was high and varied by dietary pattern; key nutrient contrasts were stable over 8-year follow-up. Chronic disease risk also varied by dietary pattern and specific subgroup differences persisted over 16 years, notably rates of overweight/obesity and smoking. Quantitative cluster analysis applied to food frequency questionnaire data identified five distinct, comprehensive, and stable dietary patterns of adult Framingham Offspring-Spouse cohort men. The close associations between the dietary patterns, nutritional risk, and chronic disease profiles of men emphasize the importance of targeted preventive nutrition interventions to promote health in the male population.

  12. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Risk avoidance versus risk reduction: a framework and segmentation profile for understanding adolescent sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.

  14. [Health risks from pest control products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

    2014-05-01

    According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use.

  15. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  16. Has the economic crisis led to a new risk profile for international travellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, S; Pérez-Quílez, O; Vallès, X; Martínez-Cuevas, O; Sabrià, M; Valerio, L

    2015-11-01

    The economic world crisis has led to the migration of European workers to developing countries with a high incidence of infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to assess whether this context has produced an increase in the risks to international travellers for work reasons (TWR). Observational, retrospective study. The study population included TWR who were attended before travelling at an International Health Unit in the year 2007 (the year before the initiation of the European crisis) and in the year 2012 (when the structural crisis was established). A comparative socioeconomic analysis was performed as well as an analysis of the risk factors present in both groups. In 2007 and 2012 a total of 9,197 travellers were attended. Of these, there were 344 TWR (3.4%); 101 TWR (2.8%) in 2007 and 243 TWR (4.5%) in 2012 (pcrisis, there was a change in the profile of TWR. Their number has increased significantly, as has the proportion who present risk factors for contracting imported diseases. The International Health Units should adapt to these new circumstances and adopt preventive measures for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-05-01

    Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is oral health a risk factor for sexual health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane; Seymour, Robin

    2015-03-01

    New evidence suggests that the extent and severity of periodontal disease may be a significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction, sperm motility and time to conception. This paper reviews the evidence and informs members of the dental team when dealing with this sensitive issue. As more research is forthcoming the topic of oral and sexual health is likely to be part of regular routine medical screening. Any issue concerning oral health as a risk factor for sexual health is likely to be a sensitive subject, rarely discussed in the dental setting. However, as new evidence emerges, this topic is likely to get into the public domain. All members of the dental team should be aware of such an association. Clinical Relevance: Furthermore, the information in this paper may provide further incentive for certain patients to improve their oral health.

  19. Health at risk in immigration detention facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Kotsioni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF has provided medical and psychosocial support for asylum seekers and migrants held in different immigration detention facilities across Europe (in Greece, Malta, Italy and Belgium where the life, health and human dignity of vulnerable people are being put at risk.

  20. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  1. Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

  2. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  3. Occupational status and nutrition profile and health of public municipal employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pinheiro de Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Unhealthy lifestyles occur more often in low-socioeconomic status (SES groups. The assessment of isolated factors reduces the understanding of the problem instead of clarifying the dynamic interaction of these factors in influencing the health. Objective: To study the relationship between nutrition habits and health, and the coexistence of dietary risk factors, according to the occupational status of public municipal employees. Materials and Methods: An electronic epidemiological survey was conducted from September to December 2009. In total, 5,646 public municipal employees (temporary and permanent of the municipality (14.7% answered the questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, health, physical activity, nutritional profile, and working conditions related to eating were investigated. Occupational status was defined by the International Socio-Economic Index. The coexistence of dietary risk factors (low consumption of fruits and vegetables, high consumption of chicken skin and meat fat, and insufficient time to eat at work were evaluated using Venn diagrams. Results: Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight were more frequently reported in the low occupational status, and positive self-reported health was directly related to the occupational status of participants. Conclusion: Differences in health conditions and in the dietary habits of individuals according to occupational status indicate its relevance in the development of public and institutional policies that aim to promote health and reduce inequalities and the need for greater focus on those with lower occupational status.

  4. Bank Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance And Company Values in Banking Companies Go Public in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas; Elin Erlina Sasanti; Wahidatul Husnaini

    2017-01-01

    The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24...

  5. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-01-01

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods

  6. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  7. The Diverse Risk Profiles of Persistently Absent Primary Students: Implications for Attendance Policies in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2018-01-01

    The risk factors associated with absenteeism are well known. However, children's exposure to combinations of risks and how these relate to absence patterns remains unclear. Understanding variations in risk profiles among persistently non-attending children will inform the development of absence interventions. Using a longitudinal sample of…

  8. Gender Differences in Risk/Protection Profiles for Low Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Stephen D.; Renner, Lynette M.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2010-01-01

    Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6-11 in Wave 1) is examined using latent profile analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g.,…

  9. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  10. Frequency and prioritization of patient health risks from a structured health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; Glasgow, Russell E; Bello, Ghalib; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N; Sabo, Roy T; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Krist, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    To describe the frequency and patient-reported readiness to change, desire to discuss, and perceived importance of 13 health risk factors in a diverse range of primary care practices. Patients (n = 1,707) in 9 primary care practices in the My Own Health Report (MOHR) trial reported general, behavioral, and psychosocial risk factors (body mass index [BMI], health status, diet, physical activity, sleep, drug use, stress, anxiety or worry, and depression). We classified responses as "at risk" or "healthy" for each factor, and patients indicated their readiness to change and/or desire to discuss identified risk factors with providers. Patients also selected 1 of the factors they were ready to change as most important. We then calculated frequencies within and across these factors and examined variation by patient characteristics and across practices. On average, patients had 5.8 (SD = 2.12; range, 0-13) unhealthy behaviors and mental health risk factors. About 55% of patients had more than 6 risk factors. On average, patients wanted to change 1.2 and discuss 0.7 risks. The most common risks were inadequate fruit/vegetable consumption (84.5%) and overweight/obesity (79.6%). Patients were most ready to change BMI (33.3%) and depression (30.7%), and most wanted to discuss depression (41.9%) and anxiety or worry (35.2%). Overall, patients rated health status as most important. Implementing routine comprehensive health risk assessments in primary care will likely identify a high number of behavioral and psychosocial health risks. By soliciting patient priorities, providers and patients can better manage counseling and behavior change. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  11. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  12. Health risks maps. Modelling of air quality as a tool to map health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doorn, R.; Hegger, C.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental departments consider geographical maps with information on air quality as the final product of a complicated process of measuring, modelling and presentation. Municipal health departments consider such maps a useful starting point to solve the problem whether air pollution causes health risks for citizens. The answer to this question cannot be reduced to checking if threshold limit values are exceeded. Based on the results of measurements and modelling of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in air, the health significance of air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide is illuminated. A proposal is presented to map health risks of air pollution by using the results of measurements and modelling of air pollution. 7 refs

  13. The risks of innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2015-04-01

    Innovation in health care creates risks that are unevenly distributed. An evolutionary analogy using species to represent business models helps categorize innovation experiments and their risks. This classification reveals two qualitative categories: early and late diversification experiments. Early diversification has prolific innovations with high risk because they encounter a "decimation" stage, during which most experiments disappear. Participants face high risk. The few decimation survivors can be sustaining or disruptive according to Christensen's criteria. Survivors enter late diversification, during which they again expand, but within a design range limited to variations of the previous surviving designs. Late diversifications carry lower risk. The exception is when disruptive survivors "diversify," which amplifies their disruption. Health care and radiology will experience both early and late diversifications, often simultaneously. Although oversimplifying Christensen's concepts, early diversifications are likely to deliver disruptive innovation, whereas late diversifications tend to produce sustaining innovations. Current health care consolidation is a manifestation of late diversification. Early diversifications will appear outside traditional care models and physical health care sites, as well as with new science such as molecular diagnostics. They warrant attention because decimation survivors will present both disruptive and sustaining opportunities to radiology. Radiology must participate in late diversification by incorporating sustaining innovations to its value chain. Given the likelihood of disruptive survivors, radiology should seriously consider disrupting itself rather than waiting for others to do so. Disruption entails significant modifications of its value chain, hence, its business model, for which lessons may become available from the pharmaceutical industry's current simultaneous experience with early and late diversifications. Copyright

  14. Bank Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance And Company Values in Banking Companies Go Public in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.

  15. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-01-01

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage

  16. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies - a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.......5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co......-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters...

  17. Literacy Profiles of At-Risk Young Adults Enrolled in Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A latent profile analysis of 323 economically and academically at-risk adolescent and young adult learners yielded two classes: an average literacy class (92%) and a low literacy class (8%). The class profiles significantly differed in their word reading and math skills, and in their processing speeds and self-reported learning disabilities. The…

  18. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk profiles of patients attending an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou DT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Danai Tavonga Zhou,1,2 Vitaris Kodogo,1 Kudzai Fortunate Vongai Chokuona,1 Exnevia Gomo,1 Olav Oektedalen,3 Babill Stray-Pedersen21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Zimbabwe; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years. Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART- for total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings

  19. Comparing risk profiles of individuals diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT and HbA1c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Vistisen, D.; Witte, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods.......Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods....

  20. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Naswa, Prakriti; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies – a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents. -- Highlights: •Climate risks to energy infrastructures adversely impact energy security. •Case studies of a port and a railway show their future climate change vulnerability. •Managing climate-induced risks through preventive adaptation policies

  1. Maternal depressive symptomatology in México: National prevalence, care, and population risk profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study estimates the prevalence of depressive symptomatology (DS in women with children younger than five years of age, examines detection and care rates and probabilities of developing DS based on specific risk profiles. Materials and methods. The sample consists of 7 187 women with children younger than five drawn from the Ensanut 2012. Results. DS prevalence is 19.91%, which means at least 4.6 million children live with mothers who experience depressive symptoms indicative of moderate to severe depression. Rates of detection (17.06% and care (15.19% for depression are low. DS is associated with violence (OR=2.34; IC95% 1.06-5.15, having ≥4 children, having a female baby, older age of the last child, low birth weight, food insecurity, and sexual debut menor que 15 years old (p menor que 0.01. Accumulated probability of DS, taking into consideration all risk factors measured, is 69.76%. It could be reduced to 13.21% through prevention efforts focused on eliminating violence, food insecurity, bias against having a female baby, and low birth weight. Conclusions. DS is a compelling public health problem in Mexico associated with a well-defined set of risk factors that warrant attention and timely detection at various levels of care.

  2. Use of Life Course Work–Family Profiles to Predict Mortality Risk Among US Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Ivan Mejía; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between US women’s exposure to midlife work–family demands and subsequent mortality risk. Methods. We used data from women born 1935 to 1956 in the Health and Retirement Study to calculate employment, marital, and parenthood statuses for each age between 16 and 50 years. We used sequence analysis to identify 7 prototypical work–family trajectories. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with work–family sequences, with adjustment for covariates and potentially explanatory later-life factors. Results. Married women staying home with children briefly before reentering the workforce had the lowest mortality rates. In comparison, after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and education, HRs for mortality were 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58, 2.90) among single nonworking mothers, 1.48 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.98) among single working mothers, and 1.36 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.80) among married nonworking mothers. Adjustment for later-life behavioral and economic factors partially attenuated risks. Conclusions. Sequence analysis is a promising exposure assessment tool for life course research. This method permitted identification of certain lifetime work–family profiles associated with mortality risk before age 75 years. PMID:25713976

  3. Use of life course work-family profiles to predict mortality risk among US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Guevara, Ivan Mejía; Glymour, M Maria; Berkman, Lisa F

    2015-04-01

    We examined relationships between US women's exposure to midlife work-family demands and subsequent mortality risk. We used data from women born 1935 to 1956 in the Health and Retirement Study to calculate employment, marital, and parenthood statuses for each age between 16 and 50 years. We used sequence analysis to identify 7 prototypical work-family trajectories. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with work-family sequences, with adjustment for covariates and potentially explanatory later-life factors. Married women staying home with children briefly before reentering the workforce had the lowest mortality rates. In comparison, after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and education, HRs for mortality were 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58, 2.90) among single nonworking mothers, 1.48 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.98) among single working mothers, and 1.36 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.80) among married nonworking mothers. Adjustment for later-life behavioral and economic factors partially attenuated risks. Sequence analysis is a promising exposure assessment tool for life course research. This method permitted identification of certain lifetime work-family profiles associated with mortality risk before age 75 years.

  4. Health risk assessment for program managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.; Williamson, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a sensitivity analysis into the independent variables that determine the levels of health risks posed by buried plutonium and americium at a typical contaminated site in an arid region. Environmental Restoration Program Managers often must make decisions concerning cleanup levels, remediation alternatives, schedules, cost estimates, etc. based upon extraordinarily safe assumptions about risk assessment calculation inputs. This study reveals to the Program Manager which variables are major drivers to the calculated levels of risk posed by transuranic radionuclides and which ones have second order effects or less. The findings of this study should indicate which inputs should be the focus of attention during negotiations with regulators and of further empirical investigation

  5. Financial risk protection from social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayleigh; Mukherji, Arnab; Mullen, Patrick; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    This paper estimates the impact of social health insurance on financial risk by utilizing data from a natural experiment created by the phased roll-out of a social health insurance program for the poor in India. We estimate the distributional impact of insurance on of out-of-pocket costs and incorporate these results with a stylized expected utility model to compute associated welfare effects. We adjust the standard model, accounting for conditions of developing countries by incorporating consumption floors, informal borrowing, and asset selling which allow us to separate the value of financial risk reduction from consumption smoothing and asset protection. Results show that insurance reduces out-of-pocket costs, particularly in higher quantiles of the distribution. We find reductions in the frequency and amount of money borrowed for health reasons. Finally, we find that the value of financial risk reduction outweighs total per household costs of the insurance program by two to five times. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cardiometabolic risk factors and health behaviors in family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Ross

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare components of cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors of 20 family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients to those of age, gender, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to compare cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors in caregivers and controls at three time-points: pre-transplantation, discharge, and six weeks post-discharge. Measures included components of metabolic syndrome, Reynolds Risk Score, NMR serum lipoprotein particle analyses, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II. Mixed-model repeated measure analyses were used. There were no between or within group differences in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. There was a significant interaction effect between time and role in large VLDL concentration (VLDL-P (F (2, 76 = 4.36, p = .016, with the trajectory of large VLDL-P increasing over time in caregivers while remaining stable in controls. Within caregivers, VLDL particle size (VLDL-Z was significantly larger at time-point three compared to time-points one (p = .015 and two (p = .048, and VLDL-Z was significantly larger in caregivers than in controls at time point three (p = .012. HPLP-II scores were lower in caregivers than controls at all time-points (p < .01. These findings suggest that caregiving may have a bigger impact on triglycerides than on other lipids, and it is through this pathway that caregivers may be at increased cardiometabolic risk. More sensitive measurement methods, such as NMR lipoprotein particle analyses, may be able to detect early changes in cardiometabolic risk.

  7. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  8. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  9. How health risk from radiation is assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm-Crites, L.

    1994-07-01

    The likelihood that a dose of radiation will result in death from cancer at some future time can be estimated by multiplying the dose equivalent by a risk factor, or dose-to-risk conversion factor. Conversion factors, which are based on studies of atomic bomb survivors and others, provide approximate predictions of the health effects to be expected from a given radiological exposure. Following recommendations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy currently uses risk conversion factors of 4 x 10 -4 (0.0004 LCFs) per person-rem for workers and 5 x 10 -4 (0.0005 LCFs) per person-rem for the general public (NRC 1991; DOE 1993). The conversion factor for general public is slightly higher than that for workers because the general public includes infants and children, who are more susceptible to cancer. The current overall death rate from cancer in the United States is between 20 and 25 percent, in other words, cancer accounts for one out of nearly every four deaths. An action affecting a population of 20,000 people, with the estimated potential to induce one latent cancer fatality, should therefore be understood as adding one death from cancer to a normally expected total of 4500. Studies dedicated to improving their ability to predict radiation health effects are constantly in progress, nationally and internationally, and risk conversion factors are periodically revised to incorporate new experimental and epidemiological information

  10. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  11. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Characteristics of health education among secondary schools--School Health Education Profiles, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Williams, B I; Kinchen, S A; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    1998-09-11

    School health education (e.g., classroom training) is an essential component of school health programs; such education promotes the health of youth and improves overall public health. February-May 1996. The School Health Education Profiles monitor characteristics of health education in middle or junior high schools and senior high schools. The Profiles are school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from 35 state surveys and 13 local surveys conducted among representative samples of school principals and lead health education teachers. The lead health education teacher is the person who coordinates health education policies and programs within a middle or junior high school and senior high school. During the study period, almost all schools in states and cities required health education in grades 6-12; of these, a median of 87.6% of states and 75.8% of cities taught a separate health education course. The median percentage of schools that tried to increase student knowledge on certain topics (i.e., prevention of tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, violence, or suicide; dietary behaviors and nutrition; and physical activity and fitness) was > 72% for each of these topics. The median percentage of schools that tried to improve certain student skills (i.e., communication, decision making, goal setting, resisting social pressures, nonviolent conflict resolution, stress management, and analysis of media messages) was > 69% for each of these skills. The median percentage of schools that had a health education teacher coordinate health education was 33.0% across states and 26.8% across cities. Almost all schools taught HIV education as part of a required health education course (state median: 94.3%; local median: 98.1%), and more than half (state median: 69.5%; local median: 82.5%) had a written policy on HIV infection

  13. Physical activity and body composition, a risk profile analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several developing countries around the world are at present undergoing a process of epidemiological transition which is associated with various health problems. The globally enhanced prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity of children is a cause for major concern to health professionals. Very little is known about ...

  14. Risk profile in young patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, M.H.K.; Fazal, I.; Ejaz, A.; Awan, Z.I.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of risk factors in young patients with acute myocardial infarction and thus with ischemic heart disease (IHD), aged 20 to 40 years, in our population. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria who presented to emergency reception of the hospital with a diagnosis of Acute MI were included. The patients were admitted to coronary care unit (CCU) and were managed for Acute myocardial infarction (MI). Their detailed history was then taken including symptoms at presentation and their risk factors were assessed with the help of history and laboratory investigations. A total of 137 patients were included during the study period. Mean age was 36 years (SD=3.67). Majority of patients were males. Smoking was the major risk factor (64.2%) followed by family history of IHD (30.7%). Most frequent risk factor for Acute myocardial infarction (MI) at young age is smoking followed by family history. (author)

  15. Mind the public health leadership gap: the opportunities and challenges of engaging high-profile individuals in the public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shickle, Darren; Day, Matthew; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leadership has been criticized as being ineffective. The public health profession is relatively small. Critics have argued that there is over-emphasis on technical aspects and insufficient use of the 'community as a source of public health actions'. The paper analyses the resources, motivations and skills utilized by high-profile individuals who have made contributions to the public health agenda. The phenomenon of celebrity diplomacy is critiqued. Two exemplars are discussed: Jamie Oliver and Michael Bloomberg. The risks of involving celebrities are also considered. Leaders for public health demonstrate 'a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will' to make the 'right decisions happen'. While they may have ego or self-interest, in this context, at least, they channel their ambition for the public health cause, not themselves. Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk profile of NCAA Division III intercollegiate football athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia J; Abbey, Elizabeth L; Brandon, Barbara A; Reisman, Edward J; Kirkpatrick, Christina M

    2017-09-01

    Concerns about the long-term cardiovascular health implications of American football participation have been investigated at the professional and Division I levels, but limited research is available at the less resourced Division III level. Therefore, the objective was to assess the cardiovascular disease risk profile of NCAA Division III intercollegiate football athletes. Eighty-nine varsity football athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.7 years, height = 1.81 ± 0.07m, weight = 92.7 ± 16.2kg; n = 21 linemen, n = 68 non-linemen) at a private Division III university volunteered to participate. During a preseason pre-participation physical examination, all participants completed a health history screening form (to assess personal and family history of cardiac related pathologies), and were assessed for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP). Linemen only additionally gave a blood sample for fasting blood glucose and cholesterol analysis, and were assessed for waist and hip circumference, metabolic syndrome, and percent body fat (%BF). These measures were reported as averages and frequencies of elevated cardiovascular. Independent t-tests compared linemen to non-linemen, all other data was presented descriptively. On average, linemen were significantly taller, heavier, had a higher BMI and higher systolic BP than non-linemen (all P < 0.05); there was no difference in diastolic BP between the groups (P = 0.331). The average anthropometric and cardiac risk characteristics for linemen were largely within normal ranges, however analyzed individually, a substantial number of participants were at elevated risk (BMI ≥30 = 85.7%, %BF ≥25 = 71.4%, waist circumference ≥1 = 42.9%, hypertension = 9.5%, high density lipoproteins <40mg/dL = 42.9%, and triglycerides ≥150mg/dL = 6.7%; metabolic syndrome prevalence = 19%). Similar to research in elite athletics, linemen at a single Division III university have elevated

  18. [Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists. Results of the SOCRATES survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggianoi, Pompilio; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Bovenzi, Francesco; Colivicchi, Furio; Fattirolli, Francesco; Greco, Cesare; Mureddu, Gianfrancesco; Riccio, Carmine; Scherillo, Marino; Uguccioni, Massimo; Faden, Giacomo

    2013-09-01

    To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) study was undertaken. Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated website, was used for data entry, and data were transferred via the web to a central database. The survey was divided in 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of three national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1770 out of the 5240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned one or more sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 out of 5 classical risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and sex, could be considered at low-intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, more than 90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as a limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. The average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. Thus, there is a large room for improvement and a need for education and intervention.

  19. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. From Risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...

  1. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  2. Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile Is Associated With Lower Healthcare Costs and Resource Utilization: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Goals emphasize the value of optimizing risk factor status to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to quantify the overall and marginal impact of favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditure and resource utilization in the United States among those with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study population was derived from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Direct and indirect costs were calculated for all-cause healthcare resource utilization. Variables of interest included CVD diagnoses (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dysrhythmias, or heart failure), ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes, and CRF profile (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and obesity). Two-part econometric models were used to study expenditure data. The final study sample consisted of 15 651 MEPS participants (58.5±12 years, 54% female). Overall, 5921 (37.8%) had optimal, 7002 (44.7%) had average, and 2728 (17.4%) had poor CRF profile, translating to 54.2, 64.1, and 24.9 million adults in United States, respectively. Significantly lower health expenditures were noted with favorable CRF profile across CVD status. Among study participants with established CVD, overall healthcare expenditures with optimal and average CRF profile were $5946 and $3731 less compared with those with poor CRF profile. The respective differences were $4031 and $2560 in those without CVD. Favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower medical expenditure and healthcare utilization among individuals with and without established CVD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Is there a risk profile for the vulnerable junior doctor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D; Buttrey, S; Carberry, C; Lydon, S; O'Connor, P

    2016-08-01

    Mental ill health is prevalent among doctors, especially those in the early stages of postgraduate training. However, a paucity of research has examined factors predictive of psychological distress in this population. To report the findings from a multi-centre survey of mental health among junior doctors in Ireland, and assess the extent to which moderator variables (e.g., age, academic performance, nationality, etc.) alter the levels of psychological distress caused by internship. An online, anonymous, questionnaire was distributed to all interns in the Republic of Ireland in January 2012. A total of 270 interns responded to the survey (45.0 % response rate), with 48.5 % of the respondents having a score indicative of psychological distress. A regression model found that nationality, academic performance, intern training network, rating of work stressors, home stressors, and work-life balance were associated with differing levels of mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12. There is a need to consider moderator variables when examining mental health in healthcare populations to avoid drawing overly simplistic conclusions. Interns in Ireland reported particularly high levels of psychological distress compared to other studies of mental health among healthcare populations.

  4. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used...... pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC....

  5. Screening for prenatal substance use: development of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonkers, Kimberly A; Gotman, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace; Forray, Ariadna; Howell, Heather B; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    To report on the development of a questionnaire to screen for hazardous substance use in pregnant women and to compare the performance of the questionnaire with other drug and alcohol measures. Pregnant women were administered a modified TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-openers, Amnesia, K[C] Cut Down) questionnaire, the 4Ps Plus questionnaire, items from the Addiction Severity Index, and two questions about domestic violence (N=2,684). The sample was divided into "training" (n=1,610) and "validation" (n=1,074) subsamples. We applied recursive partitioning class analysis to the responses from individuals in the training subsample that resulted in a three-item Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale. We examined sensitivity, specificity, and the fit of logistic regression models in the validation subsample to compare the performance of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale with the modified TWEAK and various scoring algorithms of the 4Ps. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is comprised of three informative questions that can be scored for high- or low-risk populations. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale algorithm for low-risk populations was mostly highly predictive of substance use in the validation subsample (Akaike's Information Criterion=579.75, Nagelkerke R=0.27) with high sensitivity (91%) and adequate specificity (67%). The high-risk algorithm had lower sensitivity (57%) but higher specificity (88%). The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is simple and flexible with good sensitivity and specificity. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale can potentially detect a range of substances that may be abused. Clinicians need to further assess women with a positive screen to identify those who require treatment for alcohol or illicit substance use in pregnancy. III.

  6. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m 2 . 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The serious mental illness health improvement profile [HIP]: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile [HIP] is a brief pragmatic tool, which enables mental health nurses to work together with patients to screen physical health and take evidence-based action when variables are identified to be at risk. Piloting has demonstrated clinical utility and acceptability. Methods/Design A single blind parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary economic analysis and process observation. Unit of randomisation: mental health nurses [MHNs] working in adult community mental health teams across two NHS Trusts. Subjects: Patients over 18 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder on the caseload of participating MHNs. Primary objective: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on patients' physical wellbeing assessed by the physical component score of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS 36 Item Short Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2]. Secondary objectives: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on: cost effectiveness, mental wellbeing, cardiovascular risk, physical health care attitudes and knowledge of MHNs and to determine the acceptability of the HIP Programme in the NHS. Consented nurses (and patients will be randomised to receive the HIP Programme or treatment as usual. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 12 months with a process observation after 12 months to include evaluation of patients' and professionals' experience and observation of any effect on care plans and primary-secondary care interface communication. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis. Discussion The results of the trial and process observation will provide information about the effectiveness of the HIP Programme in supporting MHNs to address physical comorbidity in serious mental illness. Given the current unacceptable prevalence of physical comorbidity and mortality in the serious mental illness population, it is

  8. Profile of coronary heart disease risk factors in first-year university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is substantial evidence that coronary heart disease risk factors are present in people of all ages. The extent to which the problem exists in university students in South Africa has not been confirmed in the literature and needs further investigation. The aim of the study was to profile the coronary heart disease risk factors ...

  9. Nanomedicine and epigenome. Possible health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkova, Bozena; Dusinska, Maria; Gabelova, Alena

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that combines knowledge of nanotechnology and material science with pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, aiming to develop nanodrugs with increased efficacy and safety. Compared to conventional therapeutics, nanodrugs manifest higher stability and circulation time, reduced toxicity and improved targeted delivery. Despite the obvious benefit, the accumulation of imaging agents and nanocarriers in the body following their therapeutic or diagnostic application generates concerns about their safety for human health. Numerous toxicology studies have demonstrated that exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) might pose serious risks to humans. Epigenetic modifications, representing a non-genotoxic mechanism of toxicant-induced health effects, are becoming recognized as playing a potential causative role in the aetiology of many diseases including cancer. This review i) provides an overview of recent advances in medical applications of NMs and ii) summarizes current evidence on their possible epigenetic toxicity. To discern potential health risks of NMs, since current data are mostly based upon in vitro and animal models, a better understanding of functional relationships between NM exposure, epigenetic deregulation and phenotype is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The earthquake/seismic risk, vulnerability and capacity profile for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to understand the risks posed by earthquakes in Karonga based on roles and perception of stakeholders. Information was collected from several stakeholders who were found responding to earthquakes impacts in Karonga Town. The study found that several stakeholders, governmental and ...

  11. Profiling the environmental risk management of Chinese local environmental agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing frequency and impact of environmental accidents have pushed the issue of environmental risk management (ERM) to the top of the Chinese governments’ agendas and popularized the term ‘emergency response.’ Although the boundary between environmental accidents and other types of accidents

  12. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  13. Plasma lipid profile, atherogenic and coronary risk indices in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of chronic degenerative diseases like stroke and myocardial infarction in African subpopulations is reported to be increasing. In view of the association between dyslipidemia and these chronic degenerative diseases, we investigated some well-established cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol and ...

  14. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  15. Risk profiles of infants ≥32 weeks' gestational age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Infants in neonatal intensive care are at risk of swallowing difficulties, in particular oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and oesophageal dysphagia (OD). OPD is treated by speech-language therapists while OD is managed by doctors. Diagnosis of dysphagia is a challenge as equipment for instrumental ...

  16. Efficient Computation of Exposure Profiles for Counterparty Credit Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C.S.L.; Feng, Q.; Kandhai, D.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Three computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk management in the

  17. Efficient computation of exposure profiles for counterparty credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.L. de Graaf (Kees); Q. Feng (Qian); B.D. Kandhai; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThree computational techniques for approximation of counterparty exposure for financial derivatives are presented. The exposure can be used to quantify so-called Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA) and Potential Future Exposure (PFE), which are of utmost importance for modern risk

  18. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protective gear, alcohol use and overloading of passengers were the main risk factors observed. Our observations call for more stringent regulations and .... poor ventilation and noisiness have been cited by previous authors as reasons why people are reluctant to use helmets (15). In a study conducted in the highly ...

  19. Methodology of nanotechnogy's risks analysis for health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulova, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment is a multidisciplinary field, and an important tool for understanding and managing the potential risks from nanotechnologies. As new technologies develop, a crucial task is to understand the health and environmental impacts and to identify potential risks. (authors)

  20. [Health risks in the biotechnological industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, A; Maroni, M; Foà, V

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnology has been defined as the application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries. In considering health aspects of biotechnological development it must be underlined that the use of microorganisms in traditional industries, such as the production of food, bread, beer and dairy products, has not added significantly to the more usual industrial hazards. The risk factors encountered in the biotechnology industry can be defined as general, i.e., common to other industrial activities, and specific, i.e., depending on the presence of microorganisms and/or their metabolic products. The specific health risks vary according to the type of process, but can be grouped into three main categories: immunological diseases, toxic effects; pathological effects of microorganisms. Allergic immunological diseases such as bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis are by far the most frequent and well known diseases occurring among workers employed on biotechnological production. Toxic effects were observed among workers employed on the production of antibiotics and hormones or single cell proteins, where absorption of endotoxins has been described. Infectious diseases may arise from uncontrolled dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms through aerosols, dusts, aqueous and semisolid sludge effluents from biotechnological plants. The greatest risks occur in the production of antiviral vaccines, in research laboratories and in waste-water treatment plants. Risk of pathogenic effects has also been speculated from exposure to engineered microorganisms in laboratory and environmental or agricultural applications. Safety precautions consisting of protective measures, and effective barriers of containment (both physical and biological) have to be advised according to the hazardous characteristics of the organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Examining unpriced risk heterogeneity in the Dutch health insurance market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk

  2. Health risk evaluation of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, M; Ewetz, L; Gustafsson, L; Moldeus, P; Pershagen, G; Victorin, K [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1996-12-31

    At the request of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency a criteria document on nitrogen oxides has been prepared, and is intended to serve as a basis for revised air quality standards in Sweden. The criteria document is based on a thorough literature survey, and the health risk assessment is summarized in this presentation. The present standard for nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is 110 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 1-hour mean (98th percentile); 75 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 24- hour mean (98th percentile); and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 6-month mean (arithmetic eman during winter half-year). (author)

  3. Health risk evaluation of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, M.; Ewetz, L.; Gustafsson, L.; Moldeus, P.; Pershagen, G.; Victorin, K. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1995-12-31

    At the request of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency a criteria document on nitrogen oxides has been prepared, and is intended to serve as a basis for revised air quality standards in Sweden. The criteria document is based on a thorough literature survey, and the health risk assessment is summarized in this presentation. The present standard for nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is 110 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 1-hour mean (98th percentile); 75 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 24- hour mean (98th percentile); and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 6-month mean (arithmetic eman during winter half-year). (author)

  4. Online Professional Profiles: Health Care and Library Researchers Show Off Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly digital world, online profiles can help health care and library professionals showcase their research and scholarly work. By sharing information about their investigations, studies, and projects, health care and library researchers can elevate their personal brand and connect with like-minded individuals. This column explores different types of online professional profiles and addresses some of the concerns that come with using them. A list of online professional profile and platform examples is also provided.

  5. Uncertainties of nanotechnology: environmental and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Ramos, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology, as any leading edge technology, develops in the border of the unknown thing and, as such, it provokes a degree of uncertainty. On having manipulated the matter to a nanometric scale (thousand millionth of a meter), the potential risks suggest to be not only relatively unpredictable, but also imperceptible to our senses. In such a tenor, evaluating the eventual implications of the nanotechnological progress is a very complex task. And even more if we take into consideration all ethic, legal, socioeconomic, environmental and health issues. The present article evaluates studies and discourses related to promises about the use of nanostructures and their environmental impact. It also treats health impact by evaluating nanotechnology to medicine application, nano make-up and new cancer treatment.

  6. Review of health risks in acrylonitrile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, S S; Cohen, M B; Rajhans, G S

    1984-05-01

    The Occupational Health Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Labour began a study in 1978 for the evaluation of health risks associated with acrylonitrile (AN) exposure. Detailed hygiene and medical investigations were conducted in fourteen plants for evaluating AN exposure in various industrial processes. For companies were also studied in relation to mixed chemical exposure representing acrylic fibres, nitrile rubber, ABS-resin, and acrylic emulsions production. The possible interaction between AN and other coexisting chemical exposures was reviewed since dimethyl formamide, styrene, and butadiene have similar pharmacokinetics and possible synergistic effects. Exposure in acrylic fibre production may be synergistic and carcinogenic. Results of air monitoring indicated exposure levels to AN below 2 ppm (TWA) in most cases. Exposure to other co-existing chemicals was evaluated. Results of medical tests indicated no significant abnormalities in chest x-rays or liver function tests in currently exposed workers.

  7. Miniature Biosensor with Health Risk Assessment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea; Downs, Meghan; Kalogera, Kent; Buxton, Roxanne; Cooper, Tommy; Cooper, Alan; Cooper, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) monitoring is a medical requirement during exercise on the International Space Station (ISS), fitness tests, and extravehicular activity (EVA); however, NASA does not currently have the technology to consistently and accurately monitor HR and other physiological data during these activities. Performance of currently available HR monitor technologies is dependent on uninterrupted contact with the torso and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a high performance, robust earbud based biosensor with focused efforts on improved HR data quality during exercise or EVA. A health risk assessment algorithm will further advance the goals of autonomous crew health care for exploration missions.

  8. The dietary profile of socially vulnerable participants in health promotion programs in a brazilian metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Deus Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the dietary profile of participants who used two health promotion services located in socially vulnerable areas in a Brazilian metropolis. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with participants (n = 370 aged ≥ 20 years who joined two services of the Academias da Cidade program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study participants engaged in physical activity and nutritional education actions directed by the services from 2009 to 2010. The sociodemographic and economic conditions and health and nutrition profiles of each individual were assessed. RESULTS: Participants from a high social-risk who used the service did not demonstrate adequate intake of vegetables (54.6 versus 43.6%; p = 0.038, sweets (33.5 versus 23.2%; p = 0.030, soft drinks (28.5 versus 11.9%; p < 0.001, artificial juice (34.7 versus 22.6%; p = 0.011, and processed meat (48.8 versus 32.7; p = 0.002. However, in the other service, lower social vulnerability, a higher prevalence of abdominal adiposity (60.7 versus 43.0%; p = 0.004 and consumption of high-fat meat products (53.0 versus 36.5%; p = 0.002 was observed. CONCLUSION: Participants who used both services demonstrated inadequate food intake compatible with the development of chronic disease profiles. However, the participants in each service were distinct from each other. This suggests that promotion of healthy eating should to contemplate the territory and its interface with people health.

  9. Epidemiological profile of pregnant women in a basic health unit in Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Trevisanutto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the epidemiological profile of the pregnant women attending the Basic Health Unit (BHU of the Jardim Botânico in Sinop Mato Grosso, who presented the probable date of delivery until January 2017. Tracing the epidemiological profile of pregnant women, we hope to obtain pertinent information to identify possible gestational problems, to list their social conditions that may negatively influence pregnancy, to identify possible gestational risk factors and to identify the main complaints of this population. The research has a descriptive profile, with quantitative and qualitative approach. Twenty women, aged 18 years and over, regardless of their obstetric history, were treated at BHU Jardim Botânico, who were registered at Sispré-natal and who agreed to participate in the study. Pregnant women under the age of 18 years, who are not registered in Sispré-natal, and those who are not willing to participate in the survey were excluded. Data collection was done through a structured questionnaire with closed and open questions, being performed individually or with the companion's company during pre-scheduled interviews that were performed at the health unit or at a place indicated by the pregnant woman. The quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed, structured in spreadsheets and graphs through the programs Microsoft Office Excel and Word 2010, and the qualitative data were analyzed and distributed in categories according to Bardin method. To begin the data collection, the Ethics Committee of the Institution was requested in accordance with Resolution 466/2012 of the National Health Council. Participants signed the Free and Informed Consent Form, ensuring anonymity, confidentiality of data collected, right to withdraw from the study without any prejudice and authorization of access to the researcher and the results of the study.

  10. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  11. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  12. 78 FR 76628 - Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Availability; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...] Draft Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Availability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Availability'' that appeared in the Federal Register of November... Risk Profile on Pathogens and Filth in Spices: Availability.'' The notice provided a 60-day comment...

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, T M; Jørstad, H T; Twickler, T B; Peters, R J G; Tijssen, J P G; Essink-Bot, M L; Fransen, M P

    2017-07-01

    To explore the association between health literacy and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the differential effects by health literacy level of a nurse-coordinated secondary prevention program (NCPP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data were collected in two medical centres participating in the RESPONSE trial (Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists). CVD risk profiles were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Health literacy was assessed by the short Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM-D) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS-D); self-reported health literacy was evaluated by the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ-D). Among 201 CAD patients, 18% exhibited reading difficulties, 52% had difficulty understanding and applying written information, and 5% scored low on self-reported health literacy. Patients with low NVS-D scores had a higher CVD risk [mean SCORE 5.2 (SD 4.8) versus 3.3 (SD 4.1), p literacy levels without significant differences. Inadequate health literacy is prevalent in CAD patients in the Netherlands, and is associated with less favourable CVD risk profiles. Where many other forms of CVD prevention fail, nurse-coordinated care seems to be effective among patients with inadequate health literacy.

  14. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Population-based cohort study. Risk factors were measured at baseline (1987-1991) among 5574 cardiovascular disease-free adults aged 20-59 years. They were classified into four risk categories according to smoking status, presence of diabetes and widely accepted cut-off values for blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio and body mass index. Categories were subdivided (maintenance, deterioration, improvement) based on risk factor levels at six and 11 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cardiovascular disease incidence 5-10 years following the risk-change period were fitted using Cox proportional hazards models. Only 12% of participants were low risk at baseline, and only 7% maintained it. Participants who maintained a low risk profile over 11 years had seven times lower risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.41) than participants with long-term high risk profile, whereas those low risk at baseline whose profile deteriorated had three times lower risk (HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.71). Our results suggest that, within each baseline risk profile group, compared with a stable profile, improving profiles may be associated with up to two-fold lower HRs, and deteriorating profiles with about two-fold higher HRs. Our study, using long-term risk profiles, demonstrates the full benefits of low risk profile. These findings underscore the importance of achieving and maintaining low risk from young adulthood onwards. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  16. Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmet, Simon; Studer, Joseph; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Gmel, Gerhard

    2018-05-04

    Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25.42) from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). A latent profile analysis was performed on family background, personality and mental health factors. The derived profiles were compared with regards to means and prevalence rates of the behavioural addiction and substance use disorder scales. Seven latent profiles were identified, ranging from profiles with a positive family background, favourable personality patterns and low values on mental health scales to profiles with a negative family background, unfavourable personality pattern and high values on mental health scales. Addiction scale means, corresponding prevalence rates and the number of concurrent addictions were highest in profiles with high values on mental health scales and a personality pattern dominated by neuroticism. Overall, behavioural addictions and substance use disorders showed similar patterns across latent profiles. Patterns of family background, personality and mental health factors were associated with different levels of vulnerability to addictions. Behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may thus be the result of the same underlying vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of risk in adults with a low or high risk profile of developing type 2 diabetes; a cross sectional population-bases study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dekker, J.M.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the perceived seriousness and risk of type 2 diabetes among low risk with high risk profile non-diabetic subjects and examine the relationship of perceived risk with multiple self-reported risk indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study among 4435 low risk

  18. Mercury and omega-3 fatty acid profiles in freshwater fish of the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories: Informing risk benefit assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Matthew J; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Reyes, Ellen S; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2018-05-17

    Traditional foods have significant nutritional, sociocultural and economic value in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, and play a crucial role in promoting cultural continuity and sovereignty. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carry significant benefits for neurocognitive development and cardiovascular health. However, the health risks posed by methylmercury may serve to undermine the benefits of fish consumption in Northern Indigenous communities. The objective of this study was to characterize profiles for mercury (Hg) and fatty acids in fish species harvested across lakes of the Dehcho Region, in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories, to better understand the risks and benefits associated with traditional foods. Hg levels increased with trophic position, with the highest levels found in Burbot, Lake Trout, Walleye, and Northern Pike. Lake Trout, along with planktivorous species including Lake Whitefish, Cisco, and Sucker, demonstrated higher N-3 PUFAs than other species. Negative associations were observed between Hg and N-3 PUFAs in Lake Trout, Northern Pike, Walleye and Burbot. Further stratifying these relationships revealed significant interactions by lake. Significant differences observed in fatty acid and Hg profiles across lakes underscore the importance of considering both species- and lake-specific findings. This growing dataset of freshwater fish of the Dehcho will inform future efforts to characterize human Hg exposure profiles using probabilistic dose reconstruction models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  20. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles

  1. Prostate cancer risk profiles of Asian-American men: disentangling the effects of immigration status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D

    2014-04-01

    Asian-American men with prostate cancer have been reported to present with higher grade and later stage disease than white American men. However, Asian-American men comprise a heterogeneous population with distinct health outcomes. We compared prostate cancer risk profiles among the diverse racial and ethnic groups in California. We used data from the California Cancer Registry on 90,845 nonHispanic white, nonHispanic black and Asian-American men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2010. Patients were categorized into low, intermediate and high risk groups based on clinical stage, Gleason score and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Using polytomous logistic regression we estimated adjusted ORs for the association of race/ethnicity and nativity with risk group. In addition to the nonHispanic black population, 6 Asian-American groups (United States born Chinese, foreign born Chinese, United States born Japanese, foreign born Japanese, foreign born Filipino and foreign born Vietnamese) were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile compared to nonHispanic white men. The OR for high vs intermediate risk disease ranged from 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.49) for United States born Japanese men to 1.45 (95% CI 1.31-1.60) for foreign born Filipino men. These associations appeared to be driven by higher grade and prostate specific antigen rather than by advanced clinical stage at diagnosis. In this large, ethnically diverse, population based cohort Asian-American men were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile at diagnosis. This association varied by racial/ethnic group and nativity, and was not attributable to later stage at diagnosis. This suggests that Asian men may have biological differences that predispose to more severe disease. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  3. Benefits of leisure-time physical activity on the cardiovascular risk profile at older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, G B; Ziese, T; Kok, F J

    1999-08-01

    Intensity, frequency and duration of physical activity may contribute in different ways to the maintenance of cardiovascular health. Their relative importance may also change at different stages in life and this should be taken into account for activity recommendations. The relationship of frequency and duration of leisure-time physical activities with cardiovascular risk factors was studied in 4942 male and 5885 female participants aged 50-69, of the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study (1984-1991). After adjustment for several possible confounders, women with modest levels (2-12 times per month, 0.5-2 h per week) of moderate-to-vigorous activity (> or =5 kcal/kg/h) had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-1.8%), resting heart rate (-3.1%) and body mass index (-3.2%) values than sedentary women. Beneficial differences increased with frequency and duration of activity. Light activities (3-4.5 kcal/kg/h), conducted > or =5 times a week, were significantly associated with favourable lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.4%), resting heart rate (-2.3%) among women, and body mass index (women -2.9%, men -2.2%) among both genders. Recommended activity levels (> or =5 times, > or =3.5 h weekly) were associated with a lower prevalence of multiple risk factors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.75 for men and OR = 0.44 95% CI: 0.31-0.63 for women). For sedentary elderly, even less physical activity than currently recommended, is likely to improve the cardiovascular risk profile.

  4. Use of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W.; Kelly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Current human health risk assessment method for environmental risks typically use point estimates of risk accompanied by qualitative discussions of uncertainty. Alternatively, Monte Carlo simulations may be used with distributions for input parameters to estimate the resulting risk distribution and descriptive risk percentiles. These two techniques are applied for the ingestion of 1,1=dichloroethene in ground water. The results indicate that Monte Carlo simulations provide significantly more information for risk assessment and risk management than do point estimates

  5. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  6. Cost analysis and financial risk profile for severe reactor accidents at Waterford-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutbush, J.D.; Abbott, E.C.; Carpenter, W.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    To support Louisiana Power and Light Company (LP and L) in determining an appropriate level of nuclear property insurance for Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Waterford-3), ABZ, Incorporated, performed a series of cost analyses and developed a financial risk profile. This five-month study, conducted in 1991, identified the potential Waterford-3 severe reactor accidents and described each from a cleanup perspective, estimated the cost and schedule to cleanup from each accident, developed a probability distribution of associated financial exposure, and developed a profile of financial risk as a function of insurance coverage

  7. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  8. Health care service for ostomy patients: profile of the clientele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Damiana Menis Sasaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the profile of ostomy patients in a Health Care Service in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. This is an exploratory, descriptive and retrospective study. Data were obtained by registration forms of patients assisted from January 1st, 2000, to December 31st, 2010. Out of the 252 ostomy patients, 51.1% were females and 48.9% were males; the age group with the highest concentration was from 68 to 78 years old (26.3% for both genders, with mean age of 73 years old. The main reason for making the stoma was rectal (35.0% and colon neoplasm (14.1%. The prevalent stoma was temporary colostomy (41.4% and the period of permanence of the collecting equipment was longer than 36 months. Even though the service provides full assistance to the ostomy patients, it is necessary to review human resources aspects to provide appropriate assistance to its clientele.O estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil de pacientes estomizados de um Serviço de Atenção ao Estomizado de São José do Rio Preto e Região. A pesquisa é exploratória, descritiva e retrospectiva. Os dados foram obtidos das fichas cadastrais dos pacientes atendidos no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2010. Dos 252 estomizados, 51,1% eram mulheres e 48,9% homens, a faixa etária de maior concentração encontrou-se, em ambos os sexos, entre 68 a 78 anos (26,3% com média de idade de 73 anos. O principal motivo da confecção do estoma foi a neoplasia de reto (35,0% e cólon (14,1%. O estoma prevalente foi a colostomia temporária (41,4% e o tempo de permanência do equipamento coletor foi superior a 36 meses. O Serviço, embora proporcione assistência integral ao estomizado, necessita rever aspectos de recursos humanos à assistência adequada à clientela.

  9. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  10. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis.

  11. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M S Arun

    2013-11-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis.

  12. Lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean high-risk population: The ESCARVAL-RISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F; Redon, Josep; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Navarro-Perez, Jorge; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Sanchis-Domenech, Carlos; Fernandez-Gimenez, Antonio; Perez-Navarro, Ana; Bertomeu-Martinez, Vicente; Bertomeu-Gonzalez, Vicente; Cordero, Alberto; Pascual de la Torre, Manuel; Trillo, Jose L; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Uso, Ruth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Cooper, Richard; Sanz, Gines; Castellano, Jose M; Ascaso, Juan F; Carmena, Rafael; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The potential impact of targeting different components of an adverse lipid profile in populations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is not completely clear. This study aims to assess the association between different components of the standard lipid profile with all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. This prospective registry included high risk adults over 30 years old free of cardiovascular disease (2008-2012). Diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus was inclusion criterion. Lipid biomarkers were evaluated. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission due to coronary heart disease or stroke. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (aRR), absolute risk differences and population attributable risk associated with adverse lipid profiles. 51,462 subjects were included with a mean age of 62.6 years (47.6% men). During an average follow-up of 3.2 years, 919 deaths, 1666 hospitalizations for coronary heart disease and 1510 hospitalizations for stroke were recorded. The parameters that showed an increased rate for total mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke hospitalization were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.25, 1.29 and 1.23; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.22, 1.38 and 1.25; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.21, 1.30, 1.09. The parameters that showed highest population attributable risk (%) were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: 7.70, 11.42, 8.40; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: 6.55, 12.47, 8.73; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: 8.94, 15.09, 6.92. In a population with cardiovascular risk factors, HDL-cholesterol, Total/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratios were associated with a higher population attributable risk for cardiovascular disease compared to other common biomarkers.

  13. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  14. Risk management profile of etoricoxib: an example of personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Paola Patrignani, Stefania Tacconelli, Marta L CaponeDepartment of Medicine and Center of Excellence on Aging, “G. D’Annunzio” University School of Medicine, and “Gabriele D’Annunzio” University Foundation, CeSI, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs selective for cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (named coxibs has been driven by the aim of reducing the incidence of serious gastrointestinal (GI adverse events associated with the administration of traditional (t NSAIDs – mainly dependent on the inhibition of COX-1 in GI tract and platelets. However, their use has unravelled the important protective role of COX-2 for the cardiovascular (CV system, mainly through the generation of prostacyclin. In a recent nested-case control study, we found that patients taking NSAIDs (both coxibs and tNSAIDs had a 35% increase risk of myocardial infarction. The increased incidence of thrombotic events associated with profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent prostacyclin by coxibs and tNSAIDs can be mitigated, even if not obliterated, by a complete suppression of platelet COX-1 activity. However, most tNSAIDs and coxibs are functional COX-2 selective for the platelet (ie, they cause a profound suppression of COX-2 associated with insufficient inhibition of platelet COX-1 to translate into inhibition of platelet function, which explains their shared CV toxicity. The development of genetic and biochemical markers will help to identify the responders to NSAIDs or who are uniquely susceptible at developing thrombotic or GI events by COX inhibition. We will describe possible strategies to reduce the side effects of etoricoxib by using biochemical markers of COX inhibition, such as whole blood COX-2 and the assessment of prostacyclin biosynthesis in vivo.Keywords: etoricoxib, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, COX-2, gastrointestinal toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, prostacyclin

  15. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  16. Profiles of mental health care professionals based on work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.

  17. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  18. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masahisa [Lake Biwa Research Institute (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management.

  19. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  20. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahisa Nakamura

    1996-01-01

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management

  1. Methodology for the assessment of human health risks associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that the aquatic environment can be polluted by contaminates that are accumulated by freshwater fish and this may pose a health risk to the ... bioaccumulation potential and health risks of analytes, sound sampling design, risk assessment procedures and performing monitoring at different scales and ...

  2. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children......Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify children at increased cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to study whether markers of metabolism and inflammation, for example, circulating plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor, are associated with cardiometabolic...

  3. Profiling health and health-related services for children with special health care needs with and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtrow, Amy J; Okumura, Megumi J; Hilton, Joan F; Rehm, Roberta S

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to profile and compare the health and health services characteristics for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), with and without disabilities, and to determine factors associated with unmet need. Secondary data analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was conducted. The sociodemographics, health, and health services of CSHCN with and without disabilities were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to examine factors associated with unmet need for health services. Children from minority racial and ethnic groups and children living in or near poverty were over-represented among CSHCN with disabilities, compared with other CSHCN. Statistically higher percentages of CSHCN with disabilities had behavioral problems (39.6% vs 25.2%), anxiety/depressed mood (46.1% vs 24.0%), and trouble making/keeping friends (38.1% vs 15.6%) compared with other CSHCN. Thirty-two percent of CSHCN with disabilities received care in a medical home compared with 51% of other CSHCN. CSHCN with disabilities had higher rates of need and unmet need than other CSHCN for specialty care, therapy services, mental health services, home health, assistive devices, medical supplies, and durable medical equipment. The adjusted odds of unmet need for CSHCN with disabilities were 71% higher than for other CSHCN. CSHCN with disabilities had more severe health conditions and more health services need, but they less commonly received care within a medical home and had more unmet need. These health care inequities should be amenable to policy and health service delivery interventions to improve outcomes for CSHCN with disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  5. Risk Factor Profile in Parkinson's Disease Subtype with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marie L; Dauvilliers, Yves; St Louis, Erik K; McCarter, Stuart J; Romenets, Silvia Rios; Pelletier, Amélie; Cherif, Mahmoud; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    Numerous large-scale studies have found diverse risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), including caffeine non-use, non-smoking, head injury, pesticide exposure, and family history. These studies assessed risk factors for PD overall; however, PD is a heterogeneous condition. One of the strongest identifiers of prognosis and disease subtype is the co-occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).In previous studies, idiopathic RBD was associated with a different risk factor profile from PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that the PD-RBD subtype may also have a different risk factor profile. To define risk factors for PD in patients with or without associated RBD. In a questionnaire, we assessed risk factors for PD, including demographic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle variables of 189 PD patients with or without associated polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The risk profile of patients with vs. without RBD was assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration. PD-RBD patients were more likely to have been a welder (OR = 3.11 (1.05-9.223), and to have been regular smokers (OR = 1.96 (1.04-3.68)). There were no differences in use of caffeine or alcohol, other occupations, pesticide exposure, rural living, or well water use. Patients with RBD had a higher prevalence of the combined family history of both dementia and parkinsonism (13.3% vs. 5.5% , OR = 3.28 (1.07-10.0). The RBD-specific subtype of PD may also have a different risk factor profile.

  6. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri; Rania Mohammed Abudraz; Sayed G. Rizvi; Yahya M. Al-Farsi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factor...

  7. Urinary arsenic profile affects the risk of urothelial carcinoma even at low arsenic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chung, C.-J.; Huang, Steven K.; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). To explore the association between individual risk and urinary arsenic profile in subjects without evident exposure, 177 UC cases and 313 age-matched controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004 for a case-control study. Urinary arsenic species including the following three categories, inorganic arsenic (As III + As V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ), were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic methylation profile was assessed by percentages of various arsenic species in the sum of the three categories measured. The primary methylation index (PMI) was defined as the ratio between MMA V and inorganic arsenic. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was determined as the ratio between DMA V and MMA V . Smoking is associated with a significant risk of UC in a dose-dependent manner. After multivariate adjustment, UC cases had a significantly higher sum of all the urinary species measured, higher percent MMA V , lower percent DMA V , higher PMI and lower SMI values compared with controls. Smoking interacts with the urinary arsenic profile in modifying the UC risk. Differential carcinogenic effects of the urinary arsenic profile, however, were seen more prominently in non-smokers than in smokers, suggesting that smoking is not the only major environmental source of arsenic contamination since the UC risk differs in non-smokers. Subjects who have an unfavorable urinary arsenic profile have an increased UC risk even at low exposure levels

  8. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  9. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  10. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  11. Youth Sports Clubs' Potential as Health-Promoting Setting: Profiles, Motives and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Jeroen; Scheerder, Jeroen; Thibaut, Erik; Seghers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Setting and Objective: For decades, the World Health Organisation has promoted settings-based health promotion, but its application to leisure settings is minimal. Focusing on organised sports as an important leisure activity, the present study had three goals: exploring the health promotion profile of youth sports clubs, identifying objective…

  12. The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behaviour in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population's psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n = 1986). The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behaviour. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. School Readiness amongst Urban Canadian Families: Risk Profiles and Family Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for literature that identifies the effects of broad contextual risk on school readiness outcomes via family mediating mechanisms. This is especially true amongst diverse and urban samples characterized by variability in immigration history. To address this limitation, family profiles of sociodemographic and contextual risk…

  14. Validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale for Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Angela F. Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and explores the effect of gender and age on each of the subscales. The sensitivity of SURPS in differentiating substance users and nonusers using the SURPS is also investigated. Data were collected from a convenience…

  15. Profiles of Emergent Literacy Skills among Preschool Children Who Are at Risk for Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Konold, Timothy R.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of within-group variability in the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who are at risk for academic difficulties. We used the person-centered approach of cluster analysis to identify profiles of emergent literacy skills, taking into account both oral language and code-related skills.…

  16. Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion

  17. Substance use risk profiles and associations with early substance use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity (i.e., revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale) would be related to the lifetime prevalence and age of onset of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and to polydrug use in early adolescence.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5-6 Years: The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood

  19. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  20. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of...

  1. Variations in BMI and prevalence of health risks in diverse racial and ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A

    2010-09-01

    When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites, blacks, East Asians and Hispanics, we examine differences in the BMI-health-risk relationships for small BMI increments. The analysis is based on 11 years of data of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), with a sample size of 337,375 for the combined 1997-2007 Sample Adult. The analysis uses multivariate logistic regression models, employing a nonparametric approach to modeling the BMI-health-risk relationship, while relying on narrowly defined BMI categories. Rising BMI levels are associated with higher levels of chronic disease burdens in four major racial and ethnic groups, even after adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and three important health-related behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption). For all population groups, except East Asians, a modestly higher disease risk was noted for persons with a BMI ethnic groups regardless of BMI levels, the evidence presented here does not support the notion that the BMI-health-risk profile of East Asians and others warrants race-specific BMI cutoff points.

  2. Gut Microbiome Associates With Lifetime Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile Among Bogalusa Heart Study Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tanika N; Bazzano, Lydia A; Ajami, Nadim J; He, Hua; Zhao, Jinying; Petrosino, Joseph F; Correa, Adolfo; He, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Few studies have systematically assessed the influence of gut microbiota on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To examine the association between gut microbiota and lifetime CVD risk profile among 55 Bogalusa Heart Study participants with the highest and 57 with the lowest lifetime burdens of CVD risk factors. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was conducted on microbial DNA extracted from stool samples of the Bogalusa Heart Study participants. α Diversity, including measures of richness and evenness, and individual genera were tested for associations with lifetime CVD risk profile. Multivariable regression techniques were used to adjust for age, sex, and race (model 1), along with body mass index (model 2) and both body mass index and diet (model 3). In model 1, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each SD increase in richness, measured by the number of observed operational taxonomic units, Chao 1 index, and abundance-based coverage estimator, were 0.62 (0.39-0.99), 0.61 (0.38-0.98), and 0.63 (0.39-0.99), respectively. Associations were consistent in models 2 and 3. Four genera were enriched among those with high versus low CVD risk profile in all models. Model 1 P values were 2.12×10(-3), 7.95×10(-5), 4.39×10(-4), and 1.51×10(-4) for Prevotella 2, Prevotella 7, Tyzzerella, and Tyzzerella 4, respectively. Two genera were depleted among those with high versus low CVD risk profile in all models. Model 1 P values were 2.96×10(-6) and 1.82×10(-4) for Alloprevotella and Catenibacterium, respectively. The current study identified associations of overall microbial richness and 6 microbial genera with lifetime CVD risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  4. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  5. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  6. Methods to Quantify Uncertainty in Human Health Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aurelius, Lea

    1998-01-01

    ...) and other health professionals, such as the Bioenviroumental Engineer, to identify the appropriate use of probabilistic techniques for a site, and the methods by which probabilistic risk assessment...

  7. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  8. Cariogram caries risk profiles in adolescent orthodontic patients with and without some salivary variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsi, Georgia; Gizani, Sotiria; Twetman, Svante

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Cariogram caries risk profiles with and without salivary buffer capacity and mutans streptococci (MS) counts in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 healthy Greek adolescents who were undergoing orthodontic...... to the medium risk category when MS counts were excluded. The difference between the nine-item Cariogram and the MS-reduced version, however, was not statistically significant (P  =  .07). CONCLUSIONS: The Cariogram model may be used both with and without salivary tests for risk grouping in orthodontic practice....

  9. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Nursing Diagnosis Risk for falls: prevalence and clinical profile of hospitalized patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Victor, Marco Antonio de Goes; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to identify the prevalence of the Nursing Diagnosis (ND) Risk for falls in the hospitalizations of adult patients in clinical and surgical units, to characterize the clinical profile and to identify the risk factors of the patients with this ND. Method a cross-sectional study with 174 patients. The data was collected from the computerized nursing care prescriptions system and on-line hospital records, and analyzed statistically. Results the prevalence of the ND Risk for falls was 4%. The patients' profile indicated older adults, males (57%), those hospitalized in the clinical units (63.2%), with a median length of hospitalization of 20 (10-24) days, with neurological illnesses (26%), cardio-vascular illnesses (74.1%) and various co-morbidities (3±1.8). The prevalent risk factors were neurological alterations (43.1%), impaired mobility (35.6%) and extremes of age (10.3%). Conclusion the findings contributed to evidencing the profile of the patients with a risk of falling hospitalized in clinical and surgical wards, which favors the planning of interventions for preventing this adverse event. PMID:26107834

  11. Nursing Diagnosis Risk for falls: prevalence and clinical profile of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Victor, Marco Antonio de Goes; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of the Nursing Diagnosis (ND) Risk for falls in the hospitalizations of adult patients in clinical and surgical units, to characterize the clinical profile and to identify the risk factors of the patients with this ND. a cross-sectional study with 174 patients. The data was collected from the computerized nursing care prescriptions system and on-line hospital records, and analyzed statistically. the prevalence of the ND Risk for falls was 4%. The patients' profile indicated older adults, males (57%), those hospitalized in the clinical units (63.2%), with a median length of hospitalization of 20 (10-24) days, with neurological illnesses (26%), cardio-vascular illnesses (74.1%) and various co-morbidities (3±1.8). The prevalent risk factors were neurological alterations (43.1%), impaired mobility (35.6%) and extremes of age (10.3%). the findings contributed to evidencing the profile of the patients with a risk of falling hospitalized in clinical and surgical wards, which favors the planning of interventions for preventing this adverse event.

  12. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  13. Measuring compliance of conducting an occupational health risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health risk assessment in the occupational health nurse's practice. ... A quantitative, descriptive design was used in this study. ... A self-developed questionnaire was distributed by mail and e-mail, and authors sent respondents reminders.

  14. Lowering risk score profile during PCI in multiple vessel disease is associated with low adverse events: The ERACI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Pavlovsky, Hernan; Del Pozo, Juan; Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo M; Antoniucci, David

    2018-02-13

    In recent years angiographic risk scores have been introduced in clinical practice to stratify different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The SYNTAX score included all intermediate lesions in vessels ≥1.5 mm, consequently, multiple stent implantation was required. Four years ago, we built a new angiographic score in order to guide PCI strategy avoiding stent deployment both in intermediate stenosis as in small vessels, therefore these were not scored (ERACI risk score). The purpose of this mini review is to validate the strategy of PCI guided by this scoring, taking into account long term follow up outcomes of two observational and prospective registries where this policy was used. With this new risk score we have modified risk profile of our patient's candidates for PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery lowering the risk and PCI. The simple exclusion of small vessels and intermediate stenosis from the revascularization approach resulted in clinical outcome comparable with the one of fractional flow reserve guided revascularization. Low events rate at late follow up observed in both studies was also in agreement with guided PCI by functional lesion assessment observed by Syntax II registry, where investigators found lower events rate in spite of a few number of stents implanted per patient. use of ERACI risk scores may significantly reclassify patients into a lower risk category and be associated with low adverse events rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Mental health law profile on the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anna; Frewen, Justin

    2016-02-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the legislation that has been enacted in Ireland with respect to mental health, in particular the 2001 Mental Health Act. Although that Act was a positive step towards developing an Irish mental health service that protects the human rights of service users, a number of concerns remain, including issues related to consent and capacity, involuntary out-patient treatment and admission, the adversarial nature and timing of tribunals, and the lack of safeguards for voluntary patients.

  16. Risk factors for substances use and misuse among young people in France: What can we learn from the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Carré, A; Hassler, C; Spilka, S; Vanier, A; Barry, C; Berthoz, S

    2016-06-01

    The prevention of addictions in young people is a challenge for Mental and Public Health policies, and requires specific risk-screening tools. Specific personality traits, as assessed using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), could play a key role in the onset and escalation of substance use. This study aimed to examine (1) measurement invariance across age and gender (2) the effects of age and gender on associations between SURPS scores and the most frequently-consumed substances. Analyses were based on the responses from 5069 participants (aged 14-20 years) from the 2011 ESPAD-France dataset. Substance-use outcomes were experimentation and current frequency of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, and drunkenness. Our approach, consisting in analysing measurement and structural invariance and interaction terms, established the stability of (i) SURPS profiles, and (ii) relationships between these scores and substance experimentation and use over a developmental period ranging from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. Measurement invariance across genders was also confirmed despite the absence of scalar invariance for 2 items. Significant interactions between gender and SURPS factors were established, highlighting differential vulnerability, especially concerning Hopelessness and experimentation of alcohol and drunkenness, or Impulsivity and tobacco experimentation. Finally, Anxiety Sensitivity could be protective against substance use, especially for cannabis in girls. Our results suggest the relevance of the SURPS to assess vulnerability towards drug use, and underline the need to consider gender differences in addiction risks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Appreciating Complexity in Adolescent Self-Harm Risk Factors: Psychological Profiling in a Longitudinal Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Past research identifies a number of risk factors for adolescent self-harm, but often fails to account for overlap between these factors. This study investigated the underlying, broader concepts by identifying different psychological profiles among adolescents. We then compared new self-harm rates over a six-month period across different psychological profiles. Australian high school students (n = 326, 68.1% female) completed a questionnaire including a broad range of psychological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis produced six groups with different psychological profiles at baseline and rate of new self-harm at follow-up. The lowest rate was 1.4% in a group that appeared psychologically healthy; the highest rate was 37.5% in a group that displayed numerous psychological difficulties. Four groups with average self-harm had varied psychological profiles including low impulsivity, anxiety, impulsivity, and poor use of positive coping strategies. Identifying multiple profiles with distinct psychological characteristics can improve detection, guide prevention, and tailor treatment.

  18. Cardiovascular and metabolic profiles amongst different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: who is really at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Louwers, Yvonne V; Koster, Maria P H; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Lentjes, Eef W G; Fauser, Bart C J M; Laven, Joop S E

    2014-11-01

    To study the cardiometabolic profile characteristics and compare the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors between women with different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes. A cross-sectional multicenter study analyzing 2,288 well phenotyped women with PCOS. Specialized reproductive outpatient clinic. Women of reproductive age (18-45 years) diagnosed with PCOS. Women suspected of oligo- or anovulation underwent a standardized screening consisting of a systematic medical and reproductive history taking, anthropometric measurements, and transvaginal ultrasonography followed by an extensive endocrinologic/metabolic evaluation. Differences in cardiometabolic profile characteristics and CV risk factor prevalence between women with different PCOS phenotypes, i.e., obesity/overweight, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Women with hyperandrogenic PCOS (n=1,219; 53.3% of total) presented with a worse cardiometabolic profile and a higher prevalence of CV risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, compared with women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS. In women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS overweight/obesity (28.5%) and dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol≥3.0 mmol/L; 52.2%) were highly prevalent. Women with hyperandrogenic PCOS have a worse cardiometabolic profile and higher prevalence of CV risk factors compared with women with nonhyperandrogenic PCOS. However, all women with PCOS should be screened for the presence of CV risk factors, since the frequently found derangements at a young age imply an elevated risk for the development of CV disease later in life. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Conradie, Jaco; Lambert, Estelle V

    2013-12-21

    The global increase in the prevalence of NCD's is accompanied by an increase in risk factors for these diseases such as insufficient physical activity and poor nutritional habits. The main aims of this research study were to determine the extent to which insufficient physical activity (PA) clustered with other risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) in employed persons undergoing health risk assessment, and whether these risk factors were associated with higher healthcare costs. Employees from 68 companies voluntarily participated in worksite wellness days, that included an assessment of self-reported health behaviors and clinical measures, such as: blood pressure (BP), Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as total cholesterol concentrations from capillary blood samples. A risk-related age, 'Vitality Risk Age' was calculated for each participant using an algorithm that incorporated multiplicative pooled relative risks for all cause mortality associated with smoking, PA, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI, BP and cholesterol concentration. Healthcare cost data were obtained for employees (n = 2 789). Participants were 36±10 years old and the most prevalent risk factors were insufficient PA (67%) and BMI ≥ 25 (62%). Employees who were insufficiently active also had a greater number of other NCD risk factors, compared to those meeting PA recommendations (chi2 = 43.55; p employees meeting PA guidelines had significantly fewer visits to their family doctor (GP) (2.5 versus 3.11; p Physical inactivity was associated with clustering of risk factors for NCD in SA employees. Employees with lower BMI, better self-reported health status and readiness to change were more likely to meet the PA guidelines. These employees might therefore benefit from physical activity intervention programs that could result in improved risk profile and reduced healthcare expenditure.

  20. Risk profiles of personality traits for suicidality among mood disorder patients and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-H; Chen, H-C; Lu, M-L; Feng, J; Chen, I-M; Wu, C-S; Chang, S-W; Kuo, P-H

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between personality traits and suicidal ideation (SI) and attempt (SA) in mood disorder patients and community controls. We recruited 365 bipolar, 296 major depressive disorder patients, and 315 community controls to assess their lifetime suicidality. Participants filled out self-reported personality questionnaires to collect data of personality traits, including novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), extraversion (E), and neuroticism (N). We used logistic regression models adjusted for diagnoses to analyze combinational effects of personality traits on the risk of suicide. Additionally, radar charts display personality profiles for suicidal behaviours by groups. All personality traits were associated with the risk of suicidality with various effect size, except for E that showed protective effect. High N or HA had prominent and independent risk effects on SI and SA. Combinations of high N and low E, or high HA and NS were the risk personality profiles for suicidality. Higher N scores further distinguished SA from SI in mood disorder patients. Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high-risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2012-10-16

    Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.

  2. Cold - an underrated risk factor for health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Fabio Luís Silva do; Prado, Renata; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira

    HAM/TSP (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) is a slowly progressive disease, characterized by a chronic spastic paraparesis. It is not known if the disease carries an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile related to HAM/TSP and compare it with the general population. This was a cross-sectional study, with a control group. HAM/TSP patients were evaluated using cardiovascular risk scores (ASCVD RISK, SCORE and Framingham) and inflammatory markers (ultrasensitive CRP and IL-6), and compared with a control group of healthy individuals. We also evaluated the correlation between cardiovascular risk and the functional status of patients with HAM/TSP evaluated by the FIM scale. Eighty percent of patients in this study were females, mean age of 51 years (11.3). The control group showed an increased cardiovascular event risk in 10 years when ASCVD was analyzed (cardiovascular risk ≥7.5% in 10 years seen in 43% of patients in the control group vs. 23% of patients with HAM/TSP; p=0.037). There was no difference in ultrasensitive CRP or IL-6 values between the groups, even when groups were stratified into low and high risk. There was no correlation between the functional status of HAM/TSP patients and the cardiovascular risk. In this study, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with HAM/TSP was better than the risk of the control group. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Profile-IQ: Web-based data query system for local health department infrastructure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H; Leep, Carolyn J; Alexander, Dayna

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of National Association of County & City Health Officials' Profile-IQ, a Web-based data query system, and how policy makers, researchers, the general public, and public health professionals can use the system to generate descriptive statistics on local health departments. This article is a descriptive account of an important health informatics tool based on information from the project charter for Profile-IQ and the authors' experience and knowledge in design and use of this query system. Profile-IQ is a Web-based data query system that is based on open-source software: MySQL 5.5, Google Web Toolkit 2.2.0, Apache Commons Math library, Google Chart API, and Tomcat 6.0 Web server deployed on an Amazon EC2 server. It supports dynamic queries of National Profile of Local Health Departments data on local health department finances, workforce, and activities. Profile-IQ's customizable queries provide a variety of statistics not available in published reports and support the growing information needs of users who do not wish to work directly with data files for lack of staff skills or time, or to avoid a data use agreement. Profile-IQ also meets the growing demand of public health practitioners and policy makers for data to support quality improvement, community health assessment, and other processes associated with voluntary public health accreditation. It represents a step forward in the recent health informatics movement of data liberation and use of open source information technology solutions to promote public health.

  5. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Glenn W.; Vermeire, Theo; Munns, Wayne R.; Sekizawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species

  6. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  7. A probabilistic topic model for clinical risk stratification from electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Duan, Huilong

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification aims to provide physicians with the accurate assessment of a patient's clinical risk such that an individualized prevention or management strategy can be developed and delivered. Existing risk stratification techniques mainly focus on predicting the overall risk of an individual patient in a supervised manner, and, at the cohort level, often offer little insight beyond a flat score-based segmentation from the labeled clinical dataset. To this end, in this paper, we propose a new approach for risk stratification by exploring a large volume of electronic health records (EHRs) in an unsupervised fashion. Along this line, this paper proposes a novel probabilistic topic modeling framework called probabilistic risk stratification model (PRSM) based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The proposed PRSM recognizes a patient clinical state as a probabilistic combination of latent sub-profiles, and generates sub-profile-specific risk tiers of patients from their EHRs in a fully unsupervised fashion. The achieved stratification results can be easily recognized as high-, medium- and low-risk, respectively. In addition, we present an extension of PRSM, called weakly supervised PRSM (WS-PRSM) by incorporating minimum prior information into the model, in order to improve the risk stratification accuracy, and to make our models highly portable to risk stratification tasks of various diseases. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a clinical dataset containing 3463 coronary heart disease (CHD) patient instances. Both PRSM and WS-PRSM were compared with two established supervised risk stratification algorithms, i.e., logistic regression and support vector machine, and showed the effectiveness of our models in risk stratification of CHD in terms of the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC) analysis. As well, in comparison with PRSM, WS-PRSM has over 2% performance gain, on the experimental dataset, demonstrating that

  8. Demonstration of Risk Profiling for promoting safety in SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the risks and potential risks that may lead to accidents. It aims to look at how to improve risk assessment within SMEs for the benefit of all staff. Design/methodology/approach – The research included results from a Dutch project which...... identifies accident risks and safety barriers that are presented in a huge database and risk calculator. The method was first to develop a simple way of accessing this enormous amount of data, second, to develop a tool to observe risks and safety barriers in SMEs and to investigate the usefulness...... of the developed tools in real life, third, to collect data on risks and safety barriers in SMEs for two occupations by following 20 people for three days each and to create a risk profile for each occupations. Findings – The result is a simple way to go through all types of risks for accidents – a tool for risk...

  9. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  10. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  11. Risks, benefits, health and the food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines consumer attitudes and purchase behaviour towards risks and benefits of food products. Experimental approaches are used to analyse determinants of consumer risk and benefit perceptions regarding food products. The results suggest that perceptions and behaviour of consumers

  12. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  13. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  14. Does Lipid Profile Affect Thrombin Generation During Ramadan Fasting in Patients With Cardiovascular Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mouna; Chakroun, Taher; Chouchène, Saoussen; Hellara, Ilhem; Boubaker, Hamdi; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Khochtali, Ines; Hassine, Mohsen; Addad, Faouzi; Elalamy, Ismail; Nouira, Semir

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that diet and variation in lipid metabolism can influence blood coagulation, but little is known about the effect of Ramadan fasting on plasmatic coagulation pattern. We investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on thrombin generation (TG) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, and we aimed to assess the effect of lipid profile on TG parameters. The study was conducted in 36 adults having at least 2 CVD risks and in 30 healthy controls. Coagulation pattern was assessed by both classical clotting times and TG test. A complete lipid profile was performed simultaneously. Patients were invited 2 times: 1 week before Ramadan and during the last week of the Ramadan. The TG parameters were not different in patients with CVD risks compared to healthy controls. Fasting had no effect on plasmatic coagulation parameters and on TG profile. Individual analysis of the mean rate index (MRI) of TG revealed 3 groups: group 1 with no modification of MRI, group 2 with a significant increase in MRI (81.64 nM/min vs 136.07 nM/min; P fasting did not influence the global coagulation pattern in patients with CVD risks. Whereas, a significant increase in the propagation phase of TG was associated with a significant increase in cholesterol levels, which was not found with the other TG parameters.

  15. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostowski, P C; Foster, S A; Anderson, E L

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 x 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  16. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  17. Psychometric properties of the self-perception profile for children in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls : The NHLBI growth and health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumann, BC; Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Waclawiw, MA; Morrison, JA; Schreiber, GB

    1999-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is an epidemiologic study of 1,213 Black and 1,166 White girls (ages 9-10) of risk factors for obesity. NGHS used Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) to measure domain-specific competence and overall

  18. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: ► A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. ► An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. ► The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  19. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  20. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ena; Chen, Qiang; Goldman, Aaron L; Tan, Hao Yang; Healy, Kaitlin; Zoltick, Brad; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Callicott, Joseph H; Dickinson, Dwight; Berman, Karen F; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2017-11-01

    We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics. We also studied effects on brain morphometry in an overlapping sample of 280 subjects. There was almost no significant association of LOAD-RPS with cognitive or morphometric measures. However, there was a significant negative relationship between LOAD-RPS and hippocampal function (familywise error [small volume correction-hippocampal region of interest] p risk score based on APOE haplotype, and for a combined LOAD-RPS + APOE haplotype risk profile score (p risk genes on hippocampal function even in healthy volunteers. The effect of LOAD-RPS on hippocampal function in the relative absence of any effect on cognitive and morphometric measures is consistent with the reported temporal characteristics of LOAD biomarkers with the earlier manifestation of synaptic dysfunction before morphometric and cognitive changes. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk assessment - a research program aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl-Kiessling, K.; Ahlborg, U.; Bylin, G.; Ehrenberg, L.; Hemminki, K.; Lindell, B.; Nilsson, Robert; Bostroem, C.E.; Swarn, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a new research program for assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants. It is important to develop general methods for quantitative risk assessments and to improve the scientific base materials. (KAE)

  2. Cancer risk in MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutation carriers; different risk profiles may influence clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsoekh Dewkoemar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome (LS is associated with a high risk for colorectal cancer (CRC and extracolonic malignancies, such as endometrial carcinoma (EC. The risk is dependent of the affected mismatch repair gene. The aim of the present study was to calculate the cumulative risk of LS related cancers in proven MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutation carriers. Methods The studypopulation consisted out of 67 proven LS families. Clinical information including mutation status and tumour diagnosis was collected. Cumulative risks were calculated and compared using Kaplan Meier survival analysis. Results MSH6 mutation carriers, both males and females had the lowest risk for developing CRC at age 70 years, 54% and 30% respectively and the age of onset was delayed by 3-5 years in males. With respect to endometrial carcinoma, female MSH6 mutation carriers had the highest risk at age 70 years (61% compared to MLH1 (25% and MSH2 (49%. Also, the age of EC onset was delayed by 5-10 years in comparison with MLH1 and MSH2. Conclusions Although the cumulative lifetime risk of LS related cancer is similar, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutations seem to cause distinguishable cancer risk profiles. Female MSH6 mutation carriers have a lower CRC risk and a higher risk for developing endometrial carcinoma. As a consequence, surveillance colonoscopy starting at age 30 years instead of 20-25 years is more suitable. Also, prophylactic hysterectomy may be more indicated in female MSH6 mutation carriers compared to MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers.

  3. Mental health variables and sexual risk behaviour among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...

  4. Application of epigenetic data in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila L; McCullough, Shaun D; Hines, Ronald N; Vandenberg, John J

    2017-11-06

    Despite the many recent advances in the field of epigenetics, application of this knowledge in environmental health risk assessment has been limited. In this paper, we identify opportunities for application of epigenetic data to support health risk assessment. We consider current applications and present a vision for the future.

  5. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescence spans nearly a decade in which young people may initiate health risk behaviours such as unsafe sexual practices and the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD use). Most adolescent mortality and morbidity, attributable to such health risk behaviours, are preventable. Managing the ...

  6. Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Diet, Nutrition, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Frewer, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and food safety related diseases such as foodborne illnesses, some cancers, and obesity belong to the most challenging health concerns of our time. As a consequence, the provision of information about diet, health, and nutrition is increasing, spread rapidly by the (mass) media, including

  7. Ergogenic risks elevate health risks in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemer, Bernard A

    2003-11-01

    Young athletes may use many products and techniques in an attempt to increase competitive edge in sports. The doping techniques that were previously seen in elite adult athletes are now being noted in increasingly competitive elementary, middle, and high school male and female athletes. The risk of significant morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these products is substantially increased when other risk factors are present. The risk for heat-related illness and possible heat-related mortality is higher in physiologically immature, overweight, and poorly conditioned young athletes. These are the same athletes who may be more likely to use stimulant or anabolic steroid products in attempts to catch up on training and conditioning regimens, improve their competitive advantage, or improve their physiques. The risk for heat-related incidents is higher in young athletes who are predisposed to these events because of a family trait or a previous heat-related adverse event in their own medical histories. Combinations of these factors (eg, high osmotic dietary supplements, stimulants, pre-existing medical factors, adverse ambient conditions) may significantly increase a young athlete's chances of a serious, potentially fatal event. Similarly, the risk of cardiac-related sudden death in a young athlete is significantly increased by the use of stimulants such as methamphetamine. As is the case with heat-related adverse events, the risk of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality may be significantly increased when other variables are present, such as the presence of other medications and pre-existing medical factors. As athletic competition becomes increasingly intense for younger athletes, pediatricians need to be aware of the possibility that their young patients are using ergogenic aids that may increase the risk for sudden death significantly. Pediatricians should be aware of the products available to these young competitors, and of the co-factors that

  8. Unlicensed driving and other related health risk behaviors: a study of Montana high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Christian L; Laflamme, Lucie; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette

    2013-05-01

    Health risk behaviors tend to cluster in young people, not least among young drivers. Less is known about the health risk profile of young unlicensed drivers. This study investigates health risk behaviors among young unlicensed drivers compared to both their licensed and driving peers, and their non-driving peers. High school students participating in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System in Montana (US) and age-eligible to have a driver's license were studied (n=5985), categorized according to their self-reported car driving and license practice (licensed driving, unlicensed driving, and non-driving). Ten health risk behaviors, of which four were related to car riding/driving, were considered. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compile sex-specific odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) of adopting those behaviors using licensed drivers as a reference and adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Health risk behaviors tended to be more common among unlicensed drivers than other groups, although some behaviors were prevalent in all groups (i.e., alcohol use and lack of seat belt use). As a consequence, for both male and female students, there was a significant association between unlicensed driving and most health risk behaviors, except for being involved in a physical fight and riding with a drinking driver among female students. Young unlicensed drivers are more likely than licensed drivers to adopt several health risk behaviors both in car driving/riding or otherwise, in particular alcohol use and cigarette smoking. This challenges any simplistic approach as unlicensed driving in youth is not an isolated act suggesting public health and traffic safety initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  10. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  11. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  12. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...

  13. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Occupational safety and health management and risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in new technologies, substances and new ways of working make it necessary to look beyond traditional methods of risk management. General drivers to emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) risks are: globalisation; demographic changes; technical innovations; changes in risk

  15. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

  16. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    OpenAIRE

    Grudzen, Corita R.; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male pe...

  17. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  18. The relevance of the housing market for the banks’ risk profile in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The housing market is an important sector for Albanian banks. Housing market financing dominates retail loans, and at the same time, houses represent a high share of the pledged collateral. This study aims to evaluate the role that the housing market plays in the Albanian banks’ risk-taking profile. The empirical work confirms the statistically significant difference in the risk profile between real estate and non-real estate banks. The dynamics of the housing market influences both types of banks, but the real estate banks are more sensitive to the housing market conditions. The negative relationship between the housing market developments with specialization of banks in real estate market reflects the high informality of the housing market and handicaps such as governmental interference, institutional shortcomings and flawed enforcement of property rights.

  19. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to reduced breast cancer risk, and this reduction may be especially marked among women who bear their first child later...in life. In this ongoing case-control study, we examine the hormonal profiles of older Colorado mothers with and without a history of preeclampsia in...premenopausal, and are free of serious chronic disease. Cases are 14 Denver area women who experienced preeclampsia in their first pregnancy; controls are 13

  20. Identifying measures to balance the risk profile of the Tihange 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eer, A.M.; Monniez, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, each Nuclear Power Plant is subject to a periodic safety reassessment. In this context, it was found to be desirable to perform a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in support of the ten yearly back-fitting process. The Tihange 2 NPP is a 3-loop PWR having a thermal capacity of 2905 MW. Analysis of the plant's risk profile shows that implementing feasible measures for improvement of the shutdown risk, would be beneficial. This is because a configuration leading to significant risk, namely cold pressurization when the residual heat removal system is lost during reduced primary inventory, thus can be avoided. As a result the risk between reactor shutdown and power operation will be balanced. The presentation describes the lessons learnt regarding the Tihange 2 shutdown PSA model and the expected benefits following implementation of one of the proposed measures. (author)

  1. Risk profile of patients developing nonunion of the clavicle and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The most common complication following treatment of a clavicle fracture is nonunion. Most nonunions are symptomatic and treatment is mostly operative. The aim of this study was to describe risk profiles of patients developing nonunion and what outcome is observed following operative...... of functionality and patient reported satisfaction and remission of symptoms was done a minimum of six months post-operatively by mail. Response rate was 60%. RESULTS: The overall nonunion rate was 7.5%. Nine nonunions were initially treated operatively. Risk factors associated with nonunion of our series...

  2. Health effects and risks of radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the current widespread concern about the risks associated with indoor radon exposures, this paper explores the evidence on risk from human epidemiology studies, particularly in reference to EPA's 4-pCi/L action level value and from animal studies. While the EPA 4-pCi/L level has no legal force and is not a standard per se, it is becoming a de facto standard as several states are considering the level in pending legislation. Although risk can also be related to radiation dose from radon exposure, this perspective on risk is not treated in this chapter

  3. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  4. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  5. Sonographic biophysical profile in detection of foetal hypoxia in 100 cases of suspected high risk pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Khan, A.R.; Usman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The foetus has become increasingly accessible and visible as a patient over the last two decades. Ultrasound imaging has broadened the scope of foetal assessment. Dynamic real time B-Mode ultrasound is used to monitor cluster of biophysical variables, both dynamic and static collectively termed as biophysical profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sonographic biophysical profile score on perinatal outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity. Methods: This descriptive study was carried on 100 randomly select ed high risk pregnant patients in Radiology Department PGMI, Government Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from December 2007 to June 2008. Manning biophysical profile including non-stress was employed for foetal screening, using Toshiba ultrasound machine model Nemio SSA-550A and 7.5 MHZ probe. Results: Out of 100 cases 79 (79%) had a normal biophysical profile in the last scan of 10/10 and had a normal perinatal outcome with 5 minutes Apgar score >7/10. In 13 (13%) cases Apgar score at 5 minute was < 7/10 and babies were shifted to nursery. There were 2 (2%) false positive cases that showed abnormal biophysical profile scores of 6/10 but babies were born with an Apgar score of 8/10 at 5 minutes. There were 2 (2%) neonatal deaths in this study group. The sensitivity of biophysical profile was 79.1%, specificity 92.9%. Predictive value for a positive test was 98.55%; predictive value for a negative test was 41.93%. Conclusion: Biophysical profile is highly accurate and reliable test of diagnosing foetal hypoxia. (author)

  6. Health profile for Danish adults with activity limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Davidsen, Michael; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2017-01-01

    with no AL. There was no association between alcohol and AL and no association between fast food and some AL. CONCLUSION: Danish adults with AL experience a poorer health and well-being, and have an unhealthier lifestyle and poorer social relations than adults without AL. People with activity limitation...

  7. Mental health law profile: the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassani, Ghanem; Osman, Ossama T

    2015-08-01

    There are two federal laws in the UAE from 1981 that are specific to people with mental illnesses and disabilities. Efforts are presently being made to develop other laws addressing the protection of the vulnerable population, including women, children and the elderly. A new updated Mental Health Act is needed to keep in line with the UAE's major leaps achieved in healthcare.

  8. Mental health law profile: the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassani, Ghanem; Osman, Ossama T.

    2015-01-01

    There are two federal laws in the UAE from 1981 that are specific to people with mental illnesses and disabilities. Efforts are presently being made to develop other laws addressing the protection of the vulnerable population, including women, children and the elderly. A new updated Mental Health Act is needed to keep in line with the UAE’s major leaps achieved in healthcare.

  9. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  10. Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bel Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit. Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration

  11. Lateral facial profile may reveal the risk for sleep disordered breathing in children--the PANIC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikävalko, Tiina; Närhi, Matti; Lakka, Timo; Myllykangas, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Henri; Vierola, Anu; Pahkala, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the lateral view photography of the face as a tool for assessing morphological properties (i.e. facial convexity) as a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and to test how reliably oral health and non-oral healthcare professionals can visually discern the lateral profile of the face from the photographs. The present study sample consisted of 382 children 6-8 years of age who were participants in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. Sleep was assessed by a sleep questionnaire administered by the parents. SDB was defined as apnoeas, frequent or loud snoring or nocturnal mouth breathing observed by the parents. The facial convexity was assessed with three different methods. First, it was clinically evaluated by the reference orthodontist (T.I.). Second, lateral view photographs were taken to visually sub-divide the facial profile into convex, normal or concave. The photos were examined by a reference orthodontist and seven different healthcare professionals who work with children and also by a dental student. The inter- and intra-examiner consistencies were calculated by Kappa statistics. Three soft tissue landmarks of the facial profile, soft tissue Glabella (G`), Subnasale (Sn) and soft tissue Pogonion (Pg`) were digitally identified to analyze convexity of the face and the intra-examiner reproducibility of the reference orthodontist was determined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). The third way to express the convexity of the face was to calculate the angle of facial convexity (G`-Sn-Pg`) and to group it into quintiles. For analysis the lowest quintile (≤164.2°) was set to represent the most convex facial profile. The prevalence of the SDB in children with the most convex profiles expressed with the lowest quintile of the angle G`-Sn-Pg` (≤164.2°) was almost 2-fold (14.5%) compared to those with normal profile (8.1%) (p = 0.084). The inter-examiner Kappa values between the

  12. Perception of Suicide Risk in Mental Health Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Gale

    Full Text Available This study employed an independent-groups design (4 conditions to investigate possible biases in the suicide risk perception of mental health professionals. Four hundred participants comprising doctors, nurses and social workers viewed a vignette describing a fictitious patient with a long-term mental illness. The case was presented as being drawn from a sample of twenty similar clinical case reports, of which 10 were associated with an outcome of suicide. The participant tasks were (i to decide whether the presented vignette was one of those cases or not, and (ii to provide an assessment of confidence in that decision. The 4 conditions were used to investigate whether the presence of an associated face, and the nature of the emotional state expressed by that face, affected the response profile. In fact, there were no significant differences between conditions, but there was a significant bias across all conditions towards associating the vignette with suicide, despite the base rate being pre-determined at 50%. The bias was more pronounced in doctors and in male respondents. Moreover, many participants indicated substantial confidence in their decisions. The results are discussed in terms of availability bias and over-confidence bias.

  13. Cardiometabolic health and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Hannah C; Saw, Wilfred; Cheah, Benjamin C; Lin, Cindy S Y; Vucic, Steve; Ahmed, Rebekah M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Park, Susanna B

    2017-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) generally have a limited medical history and a normal body mass index, raising the possibility of a premorbid ALS phenotype. The prevalence of cardiometabolic factors was analyzed in 58 ALS patients via comprehensive cardiovascular assessments and compared with Australian population norms. ALS patients had good cardiac fitness and no reported cardiovascular events. Average blood pressure, heart rate, PR interval, and corrected QT interval were in the normal range. There were significantly fewer obese women in the ALS cohort (13.6%, P < 0.05) and more men with a normal body mass index than in the general population (47.2%, P < 0.001). The percentage of individuals who had never smoked was greater for the ALS cohort (55.8%, P ≤ 0.001), and the prevalence of dyslipidemia was lower (38.7%) compared with the general population (74.4%, P < 0.001). ALS patients had good cardiometabolic health, with evidence of a reduced vascular risk profile. Muscle Nerve 56: 721-725, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: a Risk for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Fedora; Tucci, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a natural oxide of the element titanium with low toxicity, and negligible biological effects. The classification as bio-inert material has given the possibility to normal-sized (>100 nm) titanium dioxide particles (TiO2-NPs) to be extensively used in food products and as ingredients in a wide range of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, such as sunscreens and toothpastes. Therefore, human exposure may occur through ingestion and dermal penetration, or through inhalation route, during both the manufacturing process and use. In spite of the extensively use of TiO2-NPs, the biological effects and the cellular response mechanisms are still not completely elucidated and thus a deep understanding of the toxicological profile of this compound is required. The main mechanism underlining the toxicity potentially triggered by TiO2-NPs seems to involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, metabolic change and potentially carcinogenesis. The extent and type of cell damage strongly depend on chemical and physical characteristics of TiO2-NPs, including size, crystal structure and photo-activation. In this mini-review, we would like to discuss the latest findings on the adverse effects and on potential human health risks induced by TiO2-NPs exposure.

  15. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  16. Cannabis use in children with individualized risk profiles: Predicting the effect of universal prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Vonkova, Hana; Čablová, Lenka; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect of a universal prevention intervention targeting cannabis use in individual children with different risk profiles. A school-based randomized controlled prevention trial was conducted over a period of 33 months (n=1874 sixth-graders, baseline mean age 11.82). We used a two-level random intercept logistic model for panel data to predict the probabilities of cannabis use for each child. Specifically, we used eight risk/protective factors to characterize each child and then predicted two probabilities of cannabis use for each child if the child had the intervention or not. Using the two probabilities, we calculated the absolute and relative effect of the intervention for each child. According to the two probabilities, we also divided the sample into a low-risk group (the quarter of the children with the lowest probabilities), a moderate-risk group, and a high-risk group (the quarter of the children with the highest probabilities) and showed the average effect of the intervention on these groups. The differences between the intervention group and the control group were statistically significant in each risk group. The average predicted probabilities of cannabis use for a child from the low-risk group were 4.3% if the child had the intervention and 6.53% if no intervention was provided. The corresponding probabilities for a child from the moderate-risk group were 10.91% and 15.34% and for a child from the high-risk group 25.51% and 32.61%. School grades, thoughts of hurting oneself, and breaking the rules were the three most important factors distinguishing high-risk and low-risk children. We predicted the effect of the intervention on individual children, characterized by their risk/protective factors. The predicted absolute effect and relative effect of any intervention for any selected risk/protective profile of a given child may be utilized in both prevention practice and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coagulation Profile as a Risk Factor for 30-day Morbidity Following Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronheim, Rachel S; Oermann, Eric K; Cho, Samuel K; Caridi, John M

    2018-02-15

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of abnormal coagulation profile to predict adverse events following posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (PCLF). PCLF is an increasingly common procedure used to treat a variety of traumatic and degenerative spinal conditions. Abnormal coagulation profile is associated with postoperative adverse events, including blood transfusion. There is a paucity of literature that specifically addresses the relationship between coagulation profile and complications following PCLF. ACS-NSQIP was utilized to identify patients undergoing PCLF between 2006 and 2013. A total of 3546 patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariate analysis was utilized to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative complications. Membership in the low-platelet cohort was an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.4 [1.0, 29.1], P = 0.049) and bleeding transfusion (OR = 2.0 [1.2, 3.4], P = 0.011). Membership in the high international normalized ratio group was an independent risk factor for pneumonia (OR = 6.3 [2.5, 16.1], P 48 hours (OR = 6.5 [2.3, 18.4], P 48 hours (OR = 4.8 [1.9, 12.4], P = 0.001), cerebrovascular accident/stroke with neurological deficit (OR = 24.8 [2.9, 210.6], P = 0.003), bleeding transfusion (OR = 2.1 [1.1, 4.1], P = 0.032), reoperation (OR = 3.6 [1.4, 9.3], P = 0.008), and sepsis (OR = 3.4 [1.1, 10.4], P = 0.031). This is the first large study to document abnormal coagulation profile as an independent predictor of outcomes following PCLF. Abnormal coagulation profile represents a predictor of complications that can be medically mitigated, and is therefore a valuable parameter to assess preoperatively. Coagulation profile should continue to play a role in targeting patients for risk stratification, preoperative optimization, and

  18. Risks and health effects in operating room personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg-Dijkmeijer, Marleen L.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to find the factors that pose a possible health risk to OR personnel. Work-related health problems of operating room (OR) personnel were signalled by an occupational physician and preparations for the development of new Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) were started with a

  19. On the front line of primary health care: the profile of community health workers in rural Quechua communities in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela; Malca, Rosa; Zumaran, Adriana; Miranda, J Jaime

    2006-05-17

    To describe the profile of community health workers--health promoters, traditional birth attendants and traditional healers--in rural Quechua communities from Ayacucho, Peru. Basic quantitative and qualitative information was gathered as part of a community health project implemented between 1997 and 2002 in 40 Andean communities with information from questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. The majority of current community health workers are men with limited education who are primarily Quechua speakers undertaking their work on a voluntary basis. Health promoters are mostly young, male, high school graduates. There exists a high drop-out rate among these workers. In contrast, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants possess an almost diametrically opposite profile in terms of age, education and drop-out rates, though males still predominate. At the community level the health promoters are the most visible community health workers. It is very important to consider and to be aware of the profile of community health workers in order to provide appropriate alternatives when working with these groups as well as with the indigenous population, particularly in terms of culture, language and gender issues.

  20. On the front line of primary health care: the profile of community health workers in rural Quechua communities in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaran Adriana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the profile of community health workers – health promoters, traditional birth attendants and traditional healers – in rural Quechua communities from Ayacucho, Peru. Methods Basic quantitative and qualitative information was gathered as part of a community health project implemented between 1997 and 2002 in 40 Andean communities with information from questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. Results The majority of current community health workers are men with limited education who are primarily Quechua speakers undertaking their work on a voluntary basis. Health promoters are mostly young, male, high school graduates. There exists a high drop-out rate among these workers. In contrast, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants possess an almost diametrically opposite profile in terms of age, education and drop-out rates, though males still predominate. At the community level the health promoters are the most visible community health workers. Conclusion It is very important to consider and to be aware of the profile of community health workers in order to provide appropriate alternatives when working with these groups as well as with the indigenous population, particularly in terms of culture, language and gender issues.

  1. Thematic web portals for different user profiles in a virtual health science library: Bibliosalut's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Páez, Virgili; Font, Mònica; Pastor-Ramon, Elena; Sastre-Suárez, Sílvia; Costa-Marin, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Normally users of a virtual health library have different professional profiles (physicians, nurses, pharmacists...) and/or they are from different specialties (Primary Health Care, Internal Medicine, Oncology...). This poster shows the experience of the Virtual Health Sciences Library of the Balearic Islands (Bibliosalut) of creating thematic web portals, which aims is to improve the experience of our users to browse and query to information resources and services of the virtual library and ...

  2. PHL10/460: Cancerfacts.com - Vertical Portal with Newly Developed Health Profiler

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, C; Brucksch, M

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Unlike general health portals such as WebMD and Drkoop.com that cover everything from the flu to heart disease, Silicon Valley-based cancerfacts.com is a so-called vertical portal. It covers only one small vertical niche of health care: cancer, and in particular, prostate cancer. As a value-added proprietary technology, the company offers its newly developed profile engine to health information retrievers. Methods Users are enabled to insert their specific medical information - r...

  3. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  4. A framework for profiling the characteristics of risk governance in diverse European natural hazard contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G.; Tweed, F.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are always managed within a broader context of relationships between governments, citizens, civil society and private business; these relationships shift and evolve over time with changing political currents and economic conditions. In Europe over the past 20 years or so, there has been a move away from government towards a broader practice of 'governance', a shift that is as relevant to the handling of natural hazards as it is to other societal concerns such as housing, economic regeneration or transport. Key characteristics of this change include the emergence of multi-level governance processes and the 'hollowing out' of the nation state; moves away from the exercise of centralised authority towards the involvement and collaboration of a multiplicity of actors specific to each policy area; the creation of new forms of authority and control; and changing distributions of responsibilities between the state and other actors. However, the extent to which these shifts have taken place across the full diversity of European national contexts and can be observed specifically in relation to the governance of natural hazards is open to analysis and debate. In this paper, we propose a framework for profiling risk governance approaches in relation to key characteristics identified in both the general governance literature and in more specific work on risk governance. This framework can be flexibly applied in relation to a specific hazard and national/regional context and enables qualitative profiling across a spectrum of nine governance characteristics. Past trends and likely future changes can also be represented. We discuss the formulation of this framework as well as illustrating how it can be used in a process of discussion and debate about risk governance issues. We provide examples of the ways in which the profiling approach can enable comparison between risk governance contexts and approaches, and how it can be used in a variety of potential settings.

  5. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  6. The diabetic foot risks profile in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Tshitenge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed: (1 to evaluate the proportion of each diabetic foot (DF risk category, according to the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF consensus, in patients attending the diabetic clinic in Selebi Phikwe Government Hospital (SPGH and (2 to examine some of the factors that may be associated with the progression to higher risk categories such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile.Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional chart review of patients who had attended the diabetic clinic in SPGH from January 2013 to December 2013 was performed. Patients were included if they had undergone a foot examination. Patients with amputation due to accident were excluded. The DF risk category was assessed by determining the proportion of patients in each of four risk categories, as described by the IWGDF consensus.Results: The study encompassed 144 records from patients reviewed for foot examination from January to December 2013. Patients’ ages were between 16 and 85 years, 46 (40% were male and 98 (60% were female. The majority (122, [85%] of patients were in DF risk category 0, whilst a limited number of patients were classified in risk category 1 (10, [6.9%], risk category 2 (7, [4.9%] and risk category 3 (5, [3.5%]. Most of the patients had the type 2 diabetes mellitus (139, [97%; 95% CI 92% − 99%]. Patients’ ages were associated with the progressively higher DF risk categories. The adjusted odd ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 1.03−1.14; p = 0.004.Conclusion: The present study revealed that about 15% of patients attending the SPGH diabetic clinic were categorised in higher risk groups for diabetic foot; patients’ ages were linked to the higher DF risk categories.

  7. Coagulation Profile as a Risk Factor for 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronheim, Rachel S; Oermann, Eric K; Cho, Samuel K; Caridi, John M

    2017-06-15

    A retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). The literature suggests that abnormal coagulation profile is associated with postoperative complications, notably the need for blood transfusion. However, there is little research that directly addresses the influence of coagulation profile on postoperative complications following PLF. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (ACS-NSQIP) was utilized to identify patients undergoing PLF between 2006 and 2013. Nine thousand two hundred ninety-five patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariate analysis was utilized to identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative complications. Low platelet count was an independent risk factor for organ space surgical site infections (SSIs) [odds ratio (OR) = 6.0, P 48 hours (OR = 4.5, P = 0.002), Acute renal failure (OR = 5.8, P = 0.007), transfusion (OR = 1.6, P risk factor for ventilation >48 hours (OR = 5.6, P = 0.002), cerebrovascular accident (CVA)/stroke with neurological deficit (OR = 5.1, P = 0.011), cardiac arrest (OR = 5.4, P = 0.030), transfusion (OR = 1.5, P = 0.020), and death (OR = 4.5, P = 0.050). High International Normalized Ration (INR) was an independent risk factor for pneumonia (OR = 8.7, P = 0.001), pulmonary embolism (OR = 5.6, P = 0.021), deep venous thrombosis/Thrombophlebitis (OR = 4.8, P = 0.011), septic shock (OR = 8.4, P = 0.048), and death (OR = 9.8, P = 0.034). Bleeding disorder was an independent risk factor for organ space SSI (OR = 5.4, P = 0.01), pneumonia (OR = 3.0, P = 0.023), and sepsis (OR = 4.4, P profile was an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients

  8. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  9. Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors for Acquiring HBV and/or HCV in HIV-Infected Population Groups in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Manjula; Baniya, Jagat Bahadur; Aryal, Nirmal; Shrestha, Bimal; Rauniyar, Ramanuj; Adhikari, Anurag; Koirala, Pratik; Oli, Pardip Kumar; Pandit, Ram Deo; Stein, David A; Gupta, Birendra Prasad

    2018-01-01

    HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3.62%, 2.93%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that spouses of HIV-positive migrant labourers were at significant risk for coinfection with HBV infection, and an age of >40 years in HIV-infected individuals was identified as a significant risk factor for HCV coinfection. Overall our study indicates that disadvantaged population groups such as intravenous drug users, migrant workers and their spouses, female sex workers, and men who have sex with HIV-infected men are at a high and persistent risk of acquiring viral hepatitis. We conclude that Nepalese HIV patients should receive HBV and HCV diagnostic screening on a regular basis.

  10. The profile of high-risk pregnancy in El-Mansoura city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Shadia A T; Gamal El-Deen, Amany A; Emam, Mohamed A; Omer, Abeer K F

    2005-01-01

    Proper screening techniques should be used for all pregnant women attending antenatal clinics to pick up the factors that qualify the pregnant women for a risky pregnancy. High-risk pregnancy identification is a challenging work. This study aimed to describe the profile of high-risk pregnancy in El-Mansoura city. The study was conducted on 750 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three hospitals in El-Mansoura city, where 250 women were chosen from each setting. A modified version of Morrison and Olsen (1979) high risk scoring inventory tool was used to collect the socioeconomic, biological, medical, reproductive and current pregnancy risk factors in the study sample. It also assessed the risk level whether low, moderate or high. The results revealed that among all women, 63.8% of the sample were at a high-risk, while 25.0 % of them were at a moderate-risk and only 11.2% were at low-risk. About 70.0% of the high-risk pregnant women were in their third trimester followed by 23.0% in the second trimester and only 7.1% were in the first trimester. About 5.9% of the women were at a high-risk because of polluted housing condition, 1.9% because of heart diseases Class capital I, Ukrainian or II, 5.2% because of diabetes mellitus, 4.2% because of hypertension and 14.9% because of previous cesarean section. On the other hand 14.8% women were at moderate risk because of their illiteracy, 29.2% of them for being short, 14.7%, 10.6% of them because of being teenagers or over 35 years of age, respectively, 12.6% of because they had a history of gestational diabetes and 32.8%of them because of anemia, 23.2% because urinary tract infection, 16.9% because of albuminuria, and 12.0% because of glucoseuria. Finally identifying the profile of high -risk pregnancy women is mandatory.

  11. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  12. Sources of uncertainty in characterizing health risks from flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of health risks associated with gas flaring was the focus of this paper. Health risk assessments for environmental decision-making includes the evaluation of scientific data to identify hazards and to determine dose-response assessments, exposure assessments and risk characterization. Gas flaring has been the cause for public health concerns in recent years, most notably since 1996 after a published report by the Alberta Research Council. Some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with identifying hazardous contaminants in flare emissions were discussed. Methods to predict human exposures to emitted contaminants were examined along with risk characterization of predicted exposures to several identified contaminants. One of the problems is that elemental uncertainties exist regarding flare emissions which places limitations of the degree of reassurance that risk assessment can provide, but risk assessment can nevertheless offer some guidance to those responsible for flare emissions

  13. Fall risk in Chinese community-dwelling older adults: A physiological profile assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Kar-Ho; Kwan, Marcella Mun-San; Lord, Stephen R; Lam, Andrew Kwok-Cheung; Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The short-form Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) is increasingly used in clinical practice for assessing fall risk in older people. However, a normative database is only available for Caucasian populations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a normative database for Hong Kong Chinese older people and examine the fall risk profile of this population. A total of 622 participants aged 60-95 years were recruited. Participants underwent the PPA (containing tests of contrast sensitivity, proprioception, quadriceps strength, reaction time and sway), and composite fall risk scores were computed. Participants were then followed up for falls for 1 year. Quadriceps strength and lower limb proprioception scores were comparable with those reported for Caucasian populations. However, contrast sensitivity, simple reaction time and postural sway scores were relatively poor. The average composite fall risk score was 1.7 ± 1.5, showing a "moderate" fall risk when compared with the Caucasian norms. Despite the relatively poor physical performances and moderately high fall risk scores, the incidence of one plus falls in the 1-year follow-up period was just 16.4%, with just 2.6% reporting two plus falls. The area under the curve for composite fall risk scores in discriminating fallers from non-fallers was 0.53 (95% CI 0.45-0.60). Despite poorer performance in PPA tests, the incidence of prospective falls in a Hong Kong Chinese population was low. In consequence, the PPA could not discriminate well between fallers and non-fallers. The present study provided normality data for short-form PPA measures for older Chinese people as a reference for further studies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Risk of Credit Cooperatives: An analysis based on the profile of the cooperated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto de Souza Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to analyze among the credit operations, those that generate larger breach of contract risk for the cooperative, with base in the profile of the cooperated, and to identify which the strategies can be pointed to avoid possible flaws in the next credit analyses. The work was divided in three stages. The first stage refers to the National Financial System, with the objective of demonstrating as in him the Cooperatives of Credit are inserted. The second stage approaches the System of Cooperative Credit, it presents that form is structured and his/her hierarchical level. The third stage treats of the System of Risk of Credit, in the which the risk, administration and the models of credit evaluation will be analyzed. It was verified that the most appropriate models for analysis of the Cooperatives of Credit are Credit Scoring Models and Credit Bureau, us which, through statistical techniques as the analysis discriminante and regression logistics, the characteristics of considered credits of larger breach of contract risk were demonstrated. The analysis based on identifying the "worse customer", because this generates larger breach of contract risk and it influences in the financial administration. It was ended that the most relevant variables to identify the breach of contract risk were the rude monthly income and the value liberated in the credit concession, because the largest concentration of breach of contract risk.

  15. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  16. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  17. Health risks for students on overseas placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Carolyn

    Health profession students are encouraged to take an elective during training and many do this overseas in tropical, low-income countries. Higher education institutions should offer advice and support on organising these placements but this varies and students may present for pre-travel health advice at their general practice or travel clinic. This article discusses how they should be advised.

  18. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS VIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    runoff to the rivers is a major threat for human health that consumes ... spinach were analyzed for Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd using FAAS. Based on ... health due to their toxicity, accumulative tendencies and persistence in the environment with.

  19. Clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenia in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan V Bhojaraja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection in the immunocompromised host has been a reason of concern in the clinical setting and a topic of debate for decades. In this study, the aim was to analyse the clinical profile of high-risk febrile neutropenic patients. Aims To study the clinical profile of high risk febrile neutropenia patients with the objective of identifying the most common associated malignancy, most common associated pathogen, the source of infection, to correlate the treatment and management with that of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA 2010 guidelines and to assess the clinical outcome. Methods A cross-sectional time bound study was carried out and a total of 80 episodes of high-risk febrile neutropenia were recorded among patients with malignancies from September 2011 to July 2013 with each episode being taken as a new case. Results Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (30 per cent was the most common malignancy associated, commonest source of infection was due to central venous catheters, the commonest pathogens were gram negative (52 per cent the treatment and management of each episode of high risk febrile neutropenia correlated with that of IDSA 2010 guidelines and the mortality rate was 13.75 per cent. Conclusion Febrile neutropenia is one of the major complications and cause of mortality in patients with malignancy and hence understanding its entire spectrum can help us reduce morbidity and mortality.

  20. Development of Knowledge Profiles for International eHealth eLearning Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Juliane; Sauermann, Stefan; Mense, Alexander; Forjan, Mathias; Urbauer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Professionals working in the multidisciplinary field of eHealth vary in their educational background. However, knowledge in the areas of medicine, engineering and management is required to fulfil the tasks associated with eHealth sufficiently. Based on the results of an analysis of national and international educational offers a survey gathering user requirements for the development of knowledge profiles in eHealth was conducted (n=75) by professionals and students. During a workshop the first results were presented and discussed together with the network partners and the attendees. The resulting knowledge profiles contain knowledge areas of all three thematic content categories including fundamentals of medical terminology, standards and interoperability and usability as well as basics of all three content categories. The knowledge profiles are currently applied in a master's degree programme at the UAS Technikum Wien and will be developed further.

  1. Risk - a symposium on the assessment and perception of risk to human health in Canada. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.

    1983-04-01

    The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS

  2. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1997-01-01

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  3. [Self-rating of oral health according to the Oral Health Impact Profile and associated factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.

  4. Risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes: is there a role for gene expression profiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Amer M; Prebet, Thomas; Saad Aldin, Ehab; Gore, Steven David

    2014-04-01

    Evaluation of: Pellagatti A, Benner A, Mills KI et al. Identification of gene expression-based prognostic markers in the hematopoietic stem cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(28), 3557-3564 (2013). Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) exhibit wide heterogeneity in clinical outcomes making accurate risk-stratification an integral part of the risk-adaptive management paradigm. Current prognostic schemes for MDS rely on clinicopathological parameters. Despite the increasing knowledge of the genetic landscape of MDS and the prognostic impact of many newly discovered molecular aberrations, none to date has been incorporated formally into the major risk models. Efforts are ongoing to use data generated from genome-wide high-throughput techniques to improve the 'individualized' outcome prediction for patients. We here discuss an important paper in which gene expression profiling (GEP) technology was applied to marrow CD34(+) cells from 125 MDS patients to generate and validate a standardized GEP-based prognostic signature.

  5. Risk Profile Indicators and Spanish Banks’ Probability of Default from a Regulatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Gómez-Fernández-Aguado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationships between the traditional bank risk profile indicators and a new measure of banks’ probability of default that considers the Basel regulatory framework. First, based on the SYstemic Model of Bank Originated Losses (SYMBOL, we calculated the individual probabilities of default (PD of a representative sample of Spanish credit institutions during the period of 2008–2016. Then, panel data regressions were estimated to explore the influence of the risk indicators on the PD. Our findings on the Spanish banking system could be important to regulatory and supervisory authorities. First, the PD based on the SYMBOL model could be used to analyse bank risk from a regulatory approach. Second, the results might be useful for designing new regulations focused on the key factors that affect the banks’ probability of default. Third, our findings reveal that the emphasis on regulation and supervision should differ by type of entity.

  6. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...

  7. Commercial viability of CNS drugs: balancing the risk/reward profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger S

    2014-01-01

    CNS has historically been a formidable therapeutic area in which to innovate owing to biological (e.g., complex neurobiology, difficulty reaching the target), as well as clinical (e.g., subjective clinical endpoints, high placebo response, lack of biomarkers) challenges. In the current market where many of the larger diseases are dominated by a generic standard of care, commercial challenges now make the triple threat of scientific-clinical-commercial risk too much for many players to tackle. However, opportunities do exist for smaller biotech companies to concentrate on narrowly focused patient populations associated with high unmet need for which risk can be tightly defined. In CNS, there are two major areas to balance the risk/reward profile and create commercially viable opportunities: To realize value, all companies (start-ups and big players) must define, measure and quantify clear and meaningful value to all stakeholders: physicians, patients, caregivers and payers. © 2013.

  8. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  9. Risk of misclassification with a non-fasting lipid profile in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; Hartong, Simone C C; Vermeer, Henricus J; Schoofs, Mariette W C J; Kofflard, Marcel J M

    2017-09-01

    Routinely fasting is not necessary for measuring the lipid profile according to the latest European consensus. However, LDL-C tends to be lower in the non-fasting state with risk of misclassification. The extent of misclassification in secondary cardiovascular prevention with a non-fasting lipid profile was investigated. 329 patients on lipid lowering therapy for secondary cardiovascular prevention measured a fasting and non-fasting lipid profile. Cut-off values for LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B were set at fasting LDL-C (calculated using the Friedewald formula), direct LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B. Net misclassification fasting measurements resulted in lower LDL-C (-0.2±0.4mmol/l, Pfasting LDL-C target of fasting state. In the non-fasting state net misclassification with direct LDL-C was 5.7% (95% CI 2.1-9.2%), 4.0% (95% CI 1.0-7.4%) with non-HDL-C and 4.1% (95% CI 1.1-9.1%) with apolipoprotein B. Use of non-fasting LDL-C as treatment target in secondary cardiovascular prevention resulted in significant misclassification with subsequent risk of undertreatment, whereas non-fasting direct LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B are reliable parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbani, Irene E; Rucci, Paola; Iapichino, Elena; Quartieri Bollani, Marta; Cauli, Gilla; Ceruti, Mara R; Gala, Costanzo; Bassi, Mariano

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies have analyzed the risk factors of antenatal and post-partum depression, evidence on the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS) between native-born and different groups of non-native born women living in the same country is scant. The aim of this article is to compare the prevalence and the risk profile for ADS across geographical areas in women recruited from two large hospitals of North-western Italy. The presence of ADS was defined as an Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥12 or a Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form (BDI-SF) score ≥9 or the presence of suicidal ideation/behavior. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ADS were calculated using logistic regression models. The prevalence of ADS was 12.4% among Italian women and ranged from 11.4% in other European to 44.7% in North-African women. Crude ORs of ADS were OR = 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.8) for Asian, 3.3 (95% CI, 1.9-5.6) for South-American and 5.7 (95% CI, 3.4-9.6) for North-African women. Marital problems, at-risk pregnancy, past psychiatric history, pharmacological treatment, psychological treatment, financial problems, change in residence and number of children were significantly associated with ADS in multivariate analyses, regardless of women's origin. After adjusting for these variables, the OR of ADS remained significant for South-American and North-African women. Our results demonstrate that the risk of ADS varies across geographical areas of origin and is highest among North-African women. The risk factors identified should be assessed in routine obstetric care to inform decisions about interventions to prevent post-partum depression and its consequences on the mothers and the newborns.

  11. Risk profiles for heavy drinking in adolescence: differential effects of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sambu; Beck, Anne; Matthis, Caroline; Genauck, Alexander; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Hohmann, Sarah; Fröhner, Juliane H; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Desrivières, Sylvane; Heinz, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Obermayer, Klaus

    2018-05-30

    Abnormalities across different domains of neuropsychological functioning may constitute a risk factor for heavy drinking during adolescence and for developing alcohol use disorders later in life. However, the exact nature of such multi-domain risk profiles is unclear, and it is further unclear whether these risk profiles differ between genders. We combined longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on the large IMAGEN sample (N ≈ 1000) to predict heavy drinking at age 19 from gray matter volume as well as from psychosocial data at age 14 and 19-for males and females separately. Heavy drinking was associated with reduced gray matter volume in 19-year-olds' bilateral ACC, MPFC, thalamus, middle, medial and superior OFC as well as left amygdala and anterior insula and right inferior OFC. Notably, this lower gray matter volume associated with heavy drinking was stronger in females than in males. In both genders, we observed that impulsivity and facets of novelty seeking at the age of 14 and 19, as well as hopelessness at the age of 14, are risk factors for heavy drinking at the age of 19. Stressful life events with internal (but not external) locus of control were associated with heavy drinking only at age 19. Personality and stress assessment in adolescents may help to better target counseling and prevention programs. This might reduce heavy drinking in adolescents and hence reduce the risk of early brain atrophy, especially in females. In turn, this could additionally reduce the risk of developing alcohol use disorders later in adulthood. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Mental Health Professionals' Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.

  13. Main health risks associated with Moroccan fishery products exported to European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.

  14. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  15. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2016. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2015. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  18. EO2HEAVEN: mitigating environmental health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EO2HEAVEN has the primary objective to contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationships between environmental changes and their impact on human health. To achieve this, the project followed a multidisciplinary and user...

  19. Health Risk Management for Bioenvironmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    with mission objectives. Decisions that include differing objectives, knowledge, and perceptions of those affected by the decision (e.g., workplace ...factors, controlling health care costs, predicting employee absenteeism , encouraging individuals to take a proactive stance concerning personal

  20. Occupational health policies on risk assessment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Seichi

    2010-09-01

    Industrial Safety and Health Law (ISH Law) of Japan requires abnormalities identified in evaluations of worker health and working environments are reported to occupational physicians, and employers are advised of measures to ensure appropriate accommodations in working environments and work procedures. Since the 1980s, notions of a risk assessment and occupational safety and health management system were expected to further prevent industrial accidents. In 2005, ISH Law stipulated workplace risk assessment using the wording "employers shall endeavor." Following the amendment, multiple documents and guidelines for risk assessment for different work procedures were developed. They require ISH Laws to be implemented fully and workplaces to plan and execute measures to reduce risks, ranking them from those addressing potential hazards to those requiring workers to wear protective articles. A governmental survey in 2005 found the performance of risk assessment was 20.4% and common reasons for not implementing risk assessments were lack of adequate personnel or knowledge. ISH Law specifies criminal penalties for both individuals and organizations. Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law promulgated in 2007, employers are obliged to make reasonable efforts to ensure employee health for foreseeable and avoidable risks. Therefore, enterprises neglecting even the non-binding provisions of guidelines are likely to suffer significant business impact if judged to be responsible for industrial accidents or occupational disease. To promote risk assessment, we must strengthen technical, financial, and physical support from public-service organizations, encourage the dissemination of good practices to reduce risks, and consider additional employer incentives, including relaxed mandatory regulations.

  1. Workplace Health Promotion: Assessing the Cardiopulmonary Risks of the Construction Workforce in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Lam, Wendy W T; Yoon, Sungwon; Zhang, Na; Xia, Nan; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Ke; Fielding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Health needs of different employee subgroups within an industry can differ. We report the results of a workplace cardiopulmonary risk assessment targeting workers and support staff in the construction industry. A free worksite-based cardiopulmonary risk assessment for 1,903 workers on infrastructural contracts across Hong Kong was initiated in May 2014. Cardiopulmonary risk screening was performed in 60-minute blocks for approximately 30 workers/block with individualized feedback and lifestyle counseling. Risk profiles stratified by occupational roles are differentiated using the χ2-test for categorical and Student's t-test for continuous variables. Most construction workers and clerks/professionals were male (83.2% and 71.2%, respectively) and Chinese (78.7% and 90.9%, respectively). Construction workers were older (mean: 44.9 years, SD 11.5) and less well-educated (6.1% received tertiary education) than clerks/professionals (35.0 years, 10.7; 72.6% received tertiary education), but more likely to be hypertensive (22.6% vs. 15.4%, pscreening can identify potentially high-cardiopulmonary-risk construction industry employee subgroups for onward confirmatory referral. Separate cardiopulmonary health promotion strategies that account for the varying lifestyle profiles of the two employee subgroups in the industry appear justified.

  2. The periconception maternal cardiovascular risk profile influences human embryonic growth trajectories in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, K P J; van Uitert, E M; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Koning, A H J; Mulders, A G M G J; Laven, J S E; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-06-01

    Is the maternal cardiovascular (CV) risk profile associated with human embryonic growth trajectories and does the mode of conception affect this association? This small study suggests that the maternal CV risk profile is inversely associated with first trimester embryonic growth trajectories in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies, but not in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Maternal high-blood pressure and smoking affect placental function, accompanied by increased risk of fetal growth restriction and low-birthweight. Mothers who experience pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction are at increased risk of CV disease in later life. In a prospective periconception birth cohort conducted in a tertiary hospital, 111 singleton ongoing pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating, no pre-existing maternal disease and no malformed live borns were investigated. Spontaneously conceived pregnancies with a reliable first day of the last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle of 25-31 days only (n = 66) and IVF/ICSI pregnancies (n = 45) were included. Women underwent weekly three-dimensional ultrasound scans (3D US) from 6- to 13-week gestational age. To estimate embryonic growth, serial crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were performed using the V-Scope software in a BARCO I-Space. Maternal characteristics and CV risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. The CV risk profile was created based on a score of risk factors, including maternal age, body-mass index, CV disease in the family, diet and smoking. Quartiles of the CV risk score were calculated. Associations between the CV risk score and embryonic growth were assessed using square root transformed CRL in multivariable linear mixed model analyses. From the 111 included pregnancies, 696 3D US data sets were obtained of which 637 (91.5%) CRLs could be measured. In the total group, The CV risk score was inversely, but not significantly

  3. [Health alert management and emerging risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillonel, J

    2010-12-01

    Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Complementarity of hydro and wind power: Improving the risk profile of energy inflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, Michel; Dupuis, Debbie; Couture-Cardinal, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    The complementarity of two renewable energy sources, namely hydro and wind, is investigated. We consider the diversification effect of wind power to reduce the risk of water inflow shortages, an important energy security concern for hydropower-based economic zones (e.g. Quebec and Norway). Our risk measure is based on the probability of a production deficit, in a manner akin to the value-at-risk, simulation analysis of financial portfolios. We examine whether the risk level of a mixed hydro-and-wind portfolio of generating assets improves on the risk of an all-hydro portfolio, by relaxing the dependence on water inflows and attenuating the impact of droughts. Copulas are used to model the dependence between the two sources of energy. The data considered, over the period 1958-2003, are for the province of Quebec, which possesses large hydro and wind resources. Our results indicate that for all scenarios considered, any proportion of wind up to 30% improves the production deficit risk profile of an all-hydro system. We can also estimate the value, in TW h, of any additional one percent of wind in the portfolio. (author)

  5. Risk profile of breast cancer following atypical hyperplasia detected through organized screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Tom; Farshid, Gelareh; Hiller, Janet; Roder, David

    2015-06-01

    Few population-based data are available indicating the breast cancer risk following detection of atypia within a breast screening program. Prospectively collected data from the South Australian screening program were linked with the state cancer registry. Absolute and relative breast cancer risk estimates were calculated for ADH and ALH separately, and by age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis. Post-hoc analysis was undertaken of the effect of family history on breast cancer risk. Women with ADH and ALH had an increase in relative risk for malignancy (ADH HR 2.81 [95% CI 1.72, 4.59] and (ALH HR 4.14 [95% CI 1.97, 8.69], respectively. Differences in risk profile according to time since diagnosis and age at diagnosis were not statistically significant. Estimates of the relative risk of breast cancer are necessary to inform decisions regarding clinical management and/or treatment of women with ADH and ALH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Masters Endurance Athletes With a Low Atherosclerotic Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Ahmed; Maestrini, Viviana; Rosmini, Stefania; Cox, Andrew T; Dhutia, Harshil; Bastiaenan, Rachel; David, Sarojini; Yeo, Tee Joo; Narain, Rajay; Malhotra, Aneil; Papadakis, Michael; Wilson, Mathew G; Tome, Maite; AlFakih, Khaled; Moon, James C; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-07-11

    Studies in middle-age and older (masters) athletes with atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease report higher coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores compared with sedentary individuals. Few studies have assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease in masters athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile. We assessed 152 masters athletes 54.4±8.5 years of age (70% male) and 92 controls of similar age, sex, and low Framingham 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores with an echocardiogram, exercise stress test, computerized tomographic coronary angiogram, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and a 24-hour Holter. Athletes had participated in endurance exercise for an average of 31±12.6 years. The majority (77%) were runners, with a median of 13 marathon runs per athlete. Most athletes (60%) and controls (63%) had a normal CAC score. Male athletes had a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques of any luminal irregularity (44.3% versus 22.2%; P =0.009) compared with sedentary males, and only male athletes showed a CAC ≥300 Agatston units (11.3%) and a luminal stenosis ≥50% (7.5%). Male athletes demonstrated predominantly calcific plaques (72.7%), whereas sedentary males showed predominantly mixed morphology plaques (61.5%). The number of years of training was the only independent variable associated with increased risk of CAC >70th percentile for age or luminal stenosis ≥50% in male athletes (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.15; P =0.016); 15 (14%) male athletes but none of the controls revealed late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Of these athletes, 7 had a pattern consistent with previous myocardial infarction, including 3(42%) with a luminal stenosis ≥50% in the corresponding artery. Most lifelong masters endurance athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile have normal CAC scores. Male athletes are more likely to have a CAC

  8. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L

    2009-08-01

    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  9. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  10. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their interaction with their GP in dealing with these health risk behaviours. Results: The research .... It also assisted in the layout and phrasing of the final ... The Committee for Research on Human Subjects issued a clearance certificate number ...

  11. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  12. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students. ... Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate ... positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or ...

  13. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-12-18

    Dec 18, 2009 ... In most developing countries wastewater treatment systems have very low ... from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk ... at the International Water Management Institute ( IWMI ), Sri Lanka.

  14. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  15. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  16. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  17. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  18. Genomic and Metabolomic Profile Associated to Clustering of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Rentero, Pilar; Mansego, María L; Morales, Jose Manuel; Galan, Inma; Pardo-Tendero, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Briongos, Laisa; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Redon, Josep; Monleon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To identify metabolomic and genomic markers associated with the presence of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) from a general population. One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, > 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters and metabolic markers were measured. Subjects were grouped according the number of CMRFs (Group 1: profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A differential metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial metabolism, extra mitochondrial metabolism, branched amino acids and fatty acid signals were observed among the three groups. The comparison of metabolomic patterns between subjects of Groups 1 to 3 for each of the genotypes associated to those subjects with three or more CMRFs revealed two SNPs, the rs174577_AA of FADS2 gene and the rs3803_TT of GATA2 transcription factor gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without three or more CMRFs who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile differed in the pattern of CMRFS cluster. Subjects of Group 3 and the AA genotype of the rs174577 had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to the CC and CT genotype. In contrast, subjects of Group 3 and the TT genotype of the rs3803 polymorphism had a lower prevalence of T2DM, although they were predominantly males and had higher values of plasma creatinine. The results of the present study add information to the metabolomics profile and to the potential impact of genetic factors on the variants of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  19. Communicating health risks to the public: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillier, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    ... under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Communicating health risks to the public : a global perspective 1. Health risk communication I. Hillier, Dawn, 1950- 614.4'4 ISBN-13: 978-0-566-08672-4 ISBN-10: 0 566 08672 7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ...

  20. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipoprotein profile, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, Roberta; De Mauri, Andreana; Valsesia, Ambra; Vidali, Matteo; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients; the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and impaired lipoprotein metabolism. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and some pro-inflammatory aspects of the lipoprotein profile in dialyzed patients in order to evaluate the relationship with the accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular accidents. In 102 dialysis patients and 40 non-uremic controls, we investigated the lipoprotein plasma profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and followed patients for 1 year to analyze the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly lower in uremic patients than controls, whereas CRP, SAA, ceruloplasmin, Lp-PLA2 and their ratio with apolipoprotein A1 were significantly higher. Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels >194 nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than patients with lower values. Our results show that in dialysis subjects: (1) low-density lipoproteins show a more atherogenic phenotype than in the general population; (2) high-density lipoproteins are less anti-inflammatory; (3) Lp-PLA2 could potentially be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk.

  2. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire using high- and moderateresolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixelbased modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  3. Beneficial impact on cardiovascular risk profile of water buffalo meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Guarini, P; Ferrari, P; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Schiavone, B; Giordano, A

    2010-09-01

    Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on cardiovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. Several important cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects divided in groups: recent consumers of water buffalo meat vs subjects who had never consumed water buffalo meat. In addition, long-standing consumers of water buffalo meat were evaluated. Age, gender, height, body weight, and the remaining diet (with the exception of cow meat consumption) were similar across groups. From baseline to follow-up, recent consumers of water buffalo meat change their intake of water buffalo meat from none to 600+/-107 g per week (Pconsumption from 504+/-104 to 4+/-28 (PConsumption of buffalo meat seems to be associated with several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. Awaiting further randomized clinical trials, this study suggests that a larger consumption of water buffalo meat could confer significant cardiovascular benefits, while continuing to provide a substantial proportion of the recommended daily allowance of protein.

  4. Emotional profile and risk behaviours among tattooed and non-tattooed students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Zrno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine differences in emotional profile and frequencies of certain risk behaviours between tattooed and non-tattooed students. Methods One hundred students fulfilled personality assessment (trust, timid, depressive, distrust, aggressive, gregarious, controlled, uncontrolled and questionnaire of socio-demographic data that also included some questions about possession of tattoo (time, place, motive and about certain risk behaviours (court punishment, consummation of alcohol, psychoactive substances and cigarettes. Results The total number of 35 (out of 100 students had a tattoo, and 67 wished to have a tattoo. There was no statistically significant difference in emotional profile between tattooed and nontattooed individuals, yet the differences were detected when the group of subjects who wanted a tattoo and those who did not want a tattoo were compared. Higher result on the aggression scale of and lower on control scale was gained by those with the wish for tattooing. Students with bigger tattoos (23 showed higher score on depression scale. Students in the tattooed group more frequently abused drugs and committed traffic offences compared to the students in non-tattooed group. Conclusion Results of this research as well as previous research show that the presence of a tattoo could be a rough indicator for possible emotional problems and risk behaviour, which could have significant implications in preventing these behaviours. Future studies are required on a larger and more representative sample as well as to clarify why young people decide to be tattooed.

  5. Profile of congenital heart disease and correlation to risk adjustment for surgery; an echocardiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, K.; Ahmed, W.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pattern and profile of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) in paediatric patients (age 1 day to 18 years) presenting to a paediatric tertiary referral centre and its correlation to risk adjustment for surgery for congenital heart disease. Over a period of 6 months, 1149 cases underwent 2-D echocardiography. It was a non-probability purposive sampling. This study showed 25% of all referrals had normal hearts. A male preponderance (38%) was observed from 1 year to 5 years age group. Nineteen percent of the cases were categorized as cyanotic CHD with the remaining as acyanotic variety. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) represented 10%, Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD) 24%, followed by Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) and Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), which comprised 6.6% and 6.5% respectively. VSD was the most common association in patients with more complex CHD (10%) followed by PDA in 3% and ASD in 1.2% of the cases. Most of the cases were category 2 in the RACHS-1 scoring system. VSD and TOF formed the major groups of cases profiled. Most of the cases recommended for surgery for congenital heart disease belonged to the risk category 2 (28.1%) followed by the risk category 1 (12.7%) of the RACHS-1 scoring system. (author)

  6. Adverse lipid profile elevates risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2018-05-05

    Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health insurance in South Africa: an empirical analysis of trends in risk-pooling and efficiency following deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, N; Hansl, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports an empirical investigation into the pattern of private health insurance coverage in South Africa before and after deregulation of the health insurance industry. More specifically, we sought to measure trends in risk-pooling over the period 1985-95, and to assess the impact of risk pooling on the costs of health insurance cover over this period. South African mutual health insurers (Medical Schemes) have existed for over 100 years, and have been regulated under a specific Act since 1967. Up until 1989, health insurers were required by law to community rate their premiums, and were not allowed to exclude high-risk enrolees from cover. In 1989 these regulations were removed, effectively allowing health insurers to risk-rate the cover which they provided, and exclude 'medically uninsurables'. Data were obtained from the office of the health insurance regulator (the Registrar of Medical Schemes) for the period 1985-95, and consisted of the statutory returns from all registered medical schemes for each year during the study period. Multiple regression methods were used to assess the determinants of changes in the risk pools of insurers, and their costs. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models were estimated. Unadjusted data suggest changes in risk-pooling since the deregulation period after 1985. Health insurers with open enrolment had worse than average risk profiles in the 1980s, but this reversed by the early 1990s, leaving them with significantly better risk profiles by 1995. Worsening risk profiles were associated with decreasing fund size, higher loss-ratios and past premium increases. Most models showed that risk rating of premiums was consistently associated with higher premiums, after adjustment for risk, quality, scale and other environmental differences between insurers. Likely explanations include the additional costs required for marketing and underwriting risk-rated policies, insufficient incentives to use cost-control techniques

  8. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  9. Risk Profile of the RET A883F Germline Mutation: An International Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Bassett, John Howard Duncan; Choudhury, Sirazum Mubin; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy Prakash; Howlett, Trevor A; Robinson, Bruce G; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Castinetti, Frederic; Vestergaard, Peter; Frank-Raue, Karin

    2017-06-01

    The A883F germline mutation of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene causes multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B. In the revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the A883F mutation has been reclassified from the highest to the high-risk level, although no well-defined risk profile for this mutation exists. To create a risk profile for the A883F mutation for appropriate classification among the ATA risk levels. Retrospective analysis. International collaboration. Included were 13 A883F carriers. The intervention was thyroidectomy. Earliest age of MTC, regional lymph node metastases, distant metastases, age-related penetrance of MTC and pheochromocytoma (PHEO), overall and disease-specific survival, and biochemical cure rate. One and three carriers were diagnosed at age 7 to 9 years (median, 7.5 years) with a normal thyroid and C-cell hyperplasia, respectively. Nine carriers were diagnosed with MTC at age 10 to 39 years (median, 19 years). The earliest age of MTC, regional lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis was 10, 20, and 20 years, respectively. Fifty percent penetrance of MTC and PHEO was achieved by age 19 and 34 years, respectively. Five- and 10-year survival rates (both overall and disease specific) were 88% and 88%, respectively. Biochemical cure for MTC at latest follow-up was achieved in 63% (five of eight carriers) with pertinent data. MTC of A883F carriers seems to have a more indolent natural course compared with that of M918T carriers. Our results support the classification of the A883F mutation in the ATA high-risk level. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  11. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes.......To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  12. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C.; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  13. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  14. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  15. Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...

  16. Health risks associated with swimming at an inland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming exposure to fecally-contaminated oceans and lakes has been associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Although treated and untreated sewage are often discharged to rivers, the health risks of swimming exposure on rivers has been less frequently ...

  17. Health risk behaviours among adolescent girls: A questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk behaviours among adolescent girls: A questionnaire versus the timeline follow-back procedure. ... E Africa, K van Deventer ... These risk behaviours include violence, cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use and abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviours, unhealthy eating habits and non-physical activity. The main ...

  18. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  19. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Cee E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

  20. Assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Robert.

    1991-02-01

    This report is a support document to an other report from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 'Risk assessment - a research programme aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment', report 3890, 1991 and is a survey of the scientific 'state of the art' in the different parts of risk assessment. Furthermore certain proposals are made concerning the scientific content of the future research in this area. (au)