WorldWideScience

Sample records for health researchers devising

  1. Devising a Composite Index to Analyze and Model Loneliness and Related Health Risks in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Lucy MSc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research presents a framework through which a spatial composite index is devised to determine areas of potential loneliness and associated health risks. The research is evidenced on the London borough of Southwark in the United Kingdom but is designed such that it could be applied more widely. Method: The work adopts a quantitative approach through the combination of census and accessibility variables at a small area level. The output is a scoring system whereby each area is assigned a value indicating the likely presence of loneliness and potentially corresponding health risks. Results: Findings imply that loneliness is quantifiable and that this correlates with socioeconomic and accessibility measures. A strong clustering is evident in Southwark. Discussion: This research builds on previous attempts to locate and quantify loneliness with favorable results. The outcome provides a replicable solution to assist the public service with the targeting of areas deemed most at risk from loneliness and resultant mental and physical health conditions at a time when such issues are high on the political agenda.

  2. Market Research in Public Education: AASA Keeps Its Ear to the Ground to Devise Strategic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of marketing research can be gauged simply through an examination of the wide range of organizations that use research. These organizations include small and large businesses, manufacturing and technology companies, policymakers, nonprofit organizations and government agencies. Marketing research focuses on the identification of…

  3. Learning Devise for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Sakti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  4. Drama and Citizenship - Devised Drama for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Heikkinen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article I will give an example of a linguistic program I have been doing with sixth form college students from Finland and the Netherland and link this action research to the meaning of drama education, and of the potential of devised drama as a part of civic Education. Method: I will explain the theory of devised drama, then I will highlight the research and finally, I will conclude the research findings. The analytical framework used in this article is well-suited for drama education with youth. I would like to characterize drama education dramaturgy not as Aristotelian nor Brechtian, but as an 'open or joint - making together - dramaturgy'. Findings: The term 'drama' is often used to describe the process of making work that does not necessarily demand an outside audience, and 'theatre' to identify work, that is focused on performing to an outside audience. 'Devised drama' relies both on process and product. Leaning how to make devised drama is an important as learning about its processes and start thinking: 'why we came up with these ideas of us and fictional drama world?'

  5. Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists are helping communities and policymakers develop and implement policies and practices designed to improve public health, especially for groups such as children, the elderly or the socioeconomically disadvantaged.

  6. Snakebite management in Iran: Devising a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite in Iran has been a health concern. However, management of snakebite is not standardized and varies from center to center. This study is aimed at devising an evidence-based comprehensive protocol for snakebite management in Iran, to reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Materials and Methods: A narrative search in electronic databases was performed. Fifty peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, and textbooks were reviewed and practical details were extracted. Our currently used protocol in the Mashhad Toxicology Center was supplemented with this information. Consequently an improved wide-range protocol was developed. The protocol was then discussed and amended within a focus group comprised of medical toxicologists and internal medicine specialists. The amended version was finally discussed with expert physicians specialized in different areas of medicine, to be optimized by supplementing other specific considerations. Results: During a one-year process, the protocol was finalized. The final version of the protocol, which was designed in six steps, comprised of three components: A schematic algorithm, a severity grading scale, and instructions for supportive and adjunctive treatments. The algorithm pertains to both Viperidae and Elapidae snakebite envenomations and consists of a planned course of action and dosing of antivenom, based on the severity of the envenomation. Conclusion: Snakebite envenomation is a clinical toxicologic emergency, which needs to be treated in a timely and organized manner. Hence, a multi-aspect protocol was designed to improve the clinical outcomes, reduce unnecessary administration of antivenom, and help physicians make more proper clinical judgments.

  7. Discovering emotional honesty through devised theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Peter; Cantillon, Peter; Hafler, Max

    2014-04-01

    Despite many calls for a focus on supporting the development of doctors as individuals, many curricula are still characterised by an emphasis on the transmission of predefined knowledge, skills and values. Special study modules (SSMs) were introduced to ensure some element of student selection based on personal interests. We present our experience of an SSM designed to introduce students to drama, as a way of exploring the profession of medicine and their own development as doctors. We created a 3-week, full-time SSM, based on a devised theatre model for fourth-year medical students in an Irish medical school. This article describes the processes and outcomes of our devised theatre SSM. A devised piece is not a conventional theatre play, but a theatrical event created from the contributions of all participants, based around a central theme. We found that a devised theatre approach helped students to explore personal perspectives on the profession of medicine, healing and their development as doctors. It then allowed them to perform their insights before an audience of their peers. By participating, the students developed an emotional honesty with them-selves and with each other. They thought and wrote about their chosen profession. They also learned about physical and interpersonal discipline, ethical issues, teamwork and acquired some lifelong skills. Our experience as evidenced by the students' reflective diaries suggests that devised theatre offers potential as a means of encouraging the personal and professional development of medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Children's Environmental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  9. Health Research Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Health Research Information Tracking System (HRIT) is an expansion of the Child Health Research database that collects and maintains categorization, description,...

  10. Plague and Paideia: Sabotage in Devising Theatre with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This ethnography, completed by the classroom teacher in a publicly funded secondary school in Mississauga, Canada, explores issues of conflict and sabotage that affected a devising project with suburban young people. The processes of devising generated ethnographic data that included a play script and videotaped rehearsals and performances. As…

  11. Leadership for primary health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, David

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, I have put together a new theory of leadership. This paper describes its four propositions, which are consistent with the research literature but which lead to conclusions that are not commonly held and seldom put into practice. The first proposition is a model describing the territory of leadership that is different from either the Leadership Qualities Framework, 2006 or the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, 2010, both of which have been devised specifically for the NHS (National Health Service). The second proposition concerns the ill-advised attempt of individuals to become expert in all aspects of leadership: complete in themselves. The third suggests how personality and capability are related. The fourth embraces and recommends the notion of complementary differences among leaders. As the NHS seeks increasing leadership effectiveness, these propositions may need to be considered and their implications woven into the fabric of NHS leader selection and development. Primary Health Care research, like all fields of collective human endeavour, is eminently in need of sound leadership and the same principles that facilitate sound leadership in other fields is likely to be relevant to research teams.

  12. Devising a Language Certificate for Primary School Teachers of English

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marina Bondi; Franca Poppi

    2007-01-01

      This paper sets out to examine how the Common European Framework of Reference can be employed as a useful tool for the purpose of devising a language certificate meant to assess the competence needed...

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-24

    Dec 24, 2009 ... Int J Health Res, December 2009; 2(4): 290. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and ...

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Expression of leptin in PCOS. Int J Health Res, September 2010; 3(3): 164. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health ...

  15. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is a peer reviewed journal and is open to contributions from both the national and ...

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international ... It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and ... original research papers, reviews, commentaries and case reports on current.

  17. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    >*/ HSLIC Native American Health Information Services UNM Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center MSC09 5100 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 Native Services Librarian Phone: ( ...

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Statistics and Medical Students. Int J Health Res, September 2009; 2(3): 231. Reprinted from. International Journal of. Health Research. Peer-reviewed Online ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to .... are faced with the challenge of applying.

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Adiponectin and Ghrelin Metabolic Syndrome in Cuban-Americans. Int J Health Res, June 2010; 3(2): 92. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is ...

  20. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  1. Research Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Research Journal of Health Sciences is dedicated to promoting high quality research work in the field of health and related biological sciences. It aligns with the mission of the Osun State University, which is “to create a unique institution, committed to the pursuit of academic innovation, skills-based training and a ...

  2. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  3. Research priorities in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershagen, G

    1999-06-19

    Environmental issues tend to greater political attention than do environmental health aspects. Therefore, when conflicts of interest occur with other environmental concerns, negative consequences for public health may result. For example, a strategy to substantially reduce indoor ventilation in many dwellings in Scandinavia in order to save energy has led to increased humidity levels and higher prevalences of house dust mites. Wood burning for local heating is promoted because it is a renewable source of energy, and diesel vehicles are promoted because they emit lower levels of carbon dioxide per kilometer compared to conventional gas engines, but both practices lead to increased emissions of fine particulates, which have been associated with adverse health effects. Increasing the level of resources available for research into environmental health is one way to help environmental health issues receive greater attention. Environmental health research initiatives taken by the European Commission, the European Science Foundation, and the World Health Organization's regional office for Europe are noted. Environmental health research is multidisciplinary and should encompass basic science as well as applied research. International collaboration is often very useful in environmental health research.

  4. Men's health research: under researched and under appreciated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Verma, Sarita

    2008-03-01

    It is well-known that men tend to live longer than women. Despite this, women's health research, as a category of research, is much better recognized than men's health research. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research--Institute of Gender and Health has recognized this issue, and is currently attempting to determine research gaps in men's health research.

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    www.ijhr.org. Abstracting/Indexing. Embase, Index Corpenicus, Chemical Abstracts, ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to ... 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and.

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published ... 1School of Public health, University of Alabama at. Birmingham, USA. 2Georgia Division of ..... retrospective study done in Japan to determine the attributable risk factors to ...

  7. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow ..... 00.44E|WHO/CDS/CSR/EDC/2000.9. UNAIDS,.

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... vegetable fat, was purchased from a local market in Benin City ...

  10. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-02

    Jun 2, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... Chemistry, Faculty of. Pharmacy, University of. Lagos ...

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. The journal welcomes ... Original Research Article. Development and Evaluation of a Training Programme .... A concise pocket sized manual measuring. 15.2 x 10.3 cm consisting of 32 ...

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international ... Madonna University, Elele Campus, Rivers State ... Depending on the prevailing social factors such as socio- ... the problems of the disease led to the development of Directly ... and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty ..... Political commitment with increased.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    organizations by giving money for charity. Nevertheless, volunteering in health research (for example, as participants and data collectors) is considered a way of supporting these organizations. This article discusses the projected role of nonprofit organizations in encouraging people's voluntary participation in different types ...

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... cannot submit online should send their manuscript by e-mail attachment (in single file) to the editorial office below. Submission ..... Schistosoma haematobium: a potential tool for monitoring ...

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published ... species and identified by standard procedures. The susceptibility of the isolated .... was Salmonella typhi accounting for 69% of the total isolates, followed by ...

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to .... stomach wall receptor site bioavailability and increases the efficacy of drugs to reduce acid secretion.6. Suitable Drug Candidates for Gas- troretention. Various ... Positive results were obtained in preclinical.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. All manuscripts must be in ... ingredients (API) with excellent physicochemical stability in comparison to some other dosage forms, and also provide means of ...

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to .... synthetic polymers. Natural polymers primarily remain attractive for a number of reasons as they are economical, readily available, capable of modifications, and .... chloride was corrected for sampling effects.

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-16

    Jun 16, 2008 ... online should send their manuscript by e-mail attachment (in single file) to the editorial office below. Submission ... The Editorial Office. International Journal of Health Research. Dean's Office, College of Medicine. Madonna University, Elele Campus, River State .... rights” checklist: (1) the right drug, (2) the.

  1. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to ... interest and relevance. ..... Conflict of Interest. No conflicting interests associated with this work. Contribution of Authors. We declare that this work was done by the author(s) named in this article and all liabilities.

  2. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-02

    Jun 2, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... Pharmacy Education: University of Benin Experience. Received: 10-May-08 ... Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an ...

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of ...

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and .... surrounding desert area of Choyr City, ... Currently smoking. 33(38.4). Habitual alcohol drinker. 19(21.8). Subjective symptoms n (%). Eye (with symptoms). 42(48.3). Respiratory (with symptoms).

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to ... membrane by the application of an externally .... Table 1: Solubility and partition coefficients of glibenclamide in ethanol: PB binary systems. Partition coefficients. Composition of donor system (ethanol: PB).

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research articles, reviews, and case reports in health sciences and related disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular ... Evaluation of Post-Operative Visual Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. [Epistemology as health research propedeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Calvo, Manuel; Román Torres, Pilar; Lapetra Peralta, José

    2011-01-01

    The present article advocates the need for epistemological training prior to the study of biostatistics and epidemiology. Taking Plato as the starting point, we reached this conclusion after analysis of the paradigm problems affecting biostatistics and the connotations of causality and research time in major epidemiological designs. External validity is intimately linked to the philosophical problem of induction. Evidence-based health could be renamed as "neopositive health" and could possibly have a French origin. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  9. Evaluation of a wetland classification system devised for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript is part of an FY14 RAP product: "Functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin: A report to Region 10". This report included this technical information product which is a manuscript that has now been fully revised, reviewed and published in a scientific peer-reviewed publication with open access (doi:10.1007/s11273-016-9504-0). The journal article scientific abstract is as follows: "Several wetland classification schemes are now commonly used to describe wetlands in the contiguous United States to meet local, regional, and national regulatory requirements. However, these established systems have proven to be insufficient to meet the needs of land managers in Alaska. The wetlands of this northern region are predominantly peatlands, which are not adequately treated by the nationally-used systems, which have few, if any, peatland classes. A new system was therefore devised to classify wetlands in the rapidly urbanizing Cook Inlet Basin of southcentral Alaska, USA. The Cook Inlet Classification (CIC) is based on seven geomorphic and six hydrologic components that incorporate the environmental gradients responsible for the primary sources of variation in peatland ecosystems. The geomorphic and hydrologic components have the added advantage of being detectable on remote sensing imagery, which facilitates regional mapping across large tracts of inaccessible terrain. Three different quantitative measures were used to evaluate the robu

  10. A biophysical vascular bubble model for devising decompression procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    Vascular bubble models, which present a realistic biophysical approach, hold great promise for devising suitable diver decompression procedures. Nanobubbles were found to nucleate on a flat hydrophobic surface, expanding to form bubbles after decompression. Such active hydrophobic spots (AHS) were formed from lung surfactants on the luminal aspect of ovine blood vessels. Many of the phenomena observed in these bubbling vessels correlated with those known to occur in diving. On the basis of our previous studies, which proposed a new model for the formation of arterial bubbles, we now suggest the biophysical model presented herein. There are two phases of bubble expansion after decompression. The first is an extended initiation phase, during which nanobubbles are transformed into gas micronuclei and begin to expand. The second, shorter phase is one of simple diffusion-driven growth, the inert gas tension in the blood remaining almost constant during bubble expansion. Detachment of the bubble occurs when its buoyancy exceeds the intermembrane force. Three mechanisms underlying the appearance of arterial bubbles should be considered: patent foramen ovale, intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses, and the evolution of bubbles in the distal arteries with preference for the spinal cord. Other parameters that may be quantified include age, acclimation, distribution of bubble volume, AHS, individual sensitivity, and frequency of bubble formation. We believe that the vascular bubble model we propose adheres more closely to proven physiological processes. Its predictability may therefore be higher than other models, with appropriate adjustments for decompression illness (DCI) data. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Validating an image segmentation program devised for staging lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Anthony

    2017-10-02

    Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging systems are an important tool for assessing the progression of lymphoma. PET-CT systems offer the ability to quantitatively assess lymphocytic bone involvement throughout the body. There is no standard methodology for staging lymphoma patients using PET-CT images. Automatic image segmentation algorithms could offer medical specialists a means to evaluate bone involvement from PET-CT images in a consistent manner. To devise and validate an image segmentation program that may assist staging lymphoma by determining the degree of bone involvement based from PET-CT studies. A custom-made program was developed to segment regions-of-interest from images by utilising an enhanced fuzzy clustering technique that incorporates spatial information. The program was subsequently tested on digital and physical phantoms using four different performance metrics before being employed to extract the bony regions of clinical PET-CT images acquired from 248 patients staged for lymphoma. The algorithm was satisfactorily able to delineate regions-of-interest within all phantoms. When applied to the clinical PET-CT images, the algorithm was capable of accurately segmenting bony regions in less than half of the subjects (n = 103). The performance of the algorithm was adversely affected by the presence of oral contrast, metal implants and the poor image quality afforded by low dose CT images in general. Significant changes are necessary before the algorithm can be employed clinically in an unsupervised fashion. However, with further work performed, the algorithm could potentially prove useful for medical specialists staging lymphoma in the future.

  12. Translational health research: perspectives from health education specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Holly J; Davis, Sharon

    2012-11-08

    The phrase "from bench to bedside to curbside" is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models.Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportunity to learn from the translational efforts of other professions and enhance our research, practice, and community partnerships through translational efforts. In this paper, a Translational Health Education Research framework for health education researchers is suggested to foster increased translational efforts within our profession as well as to promote interdisciplinary collaborations to translate a variety of health-related research. A conceptual framework adapted from translational health disparities research that highlights the level and scope of translational research necessary for changes in practice and policy is also provided.

  13. Research Award: Global Health Research Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Deadline: August 7, 2013. Please note that all applicafions must be sent electronically. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial.

  14. [Progress in research of mobile health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Ning, P S; Cheng, P X; Hu, G Q

    2016-10-10

    With the rapid development of mobile communication technology and the growing popularity of smartphones worldwide, mobile health has become an extension of e-Health and Tele-Health, and is of value in the research and practice of public health. In this paper, we systematically assessed research literature of mobile health' s application on disease prevention and control as well as health promotion. Based on the characteristics of current literature, this paper focused on the application of mobile health in maternal health promotion, chronic disease management, and communicable disease prevention and control to provide reference for the mobile health intervention research in China.

  15. Community participation in clinical health research - a new research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review article is to explore and describe the notion of community participation in clinical health research, the complexities and challenges thereof and the paradigm shift of closing the gap between theory and practice, researcher and community in clinical health research. A new research paradigm is ...

  16. Health economics and outcomes research fellowship practices reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kangho; Gabriel, Susan; Adams, Michelle A; Arcona, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) fellowship training programs devised by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) and the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) suggest that continuous improvements are made to ensure that postgraduate training through didactic and professional experiences prepare fellows for HEOR research careers. The HEOR Fellowship Program at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation was standardized to enhance the fellows' HEOR research understanding and align professional skill sets with the ACCP-ISPOR Fellowship Program Guidelines. Based on feedback from an internal task force comprised of HEOR employees and current and former fellows, the HEOR Fellowship Program was normatively and qualitatively assessed to evaluate the current curricular program. Fellowship program activities were instituted to ensure that the suggested minimum level requirements established by the guidelines were being met. Research opportunities enabling fellows to work hand-in-hand with other fellows and HEOR professionals were emphasized. Curricular enhancements in research methodology and professional training and development, and materials for a structured journal club focusing on specific methodological and HEOR research topics were developed. A seminar series (e.g., creating SMART Goals, StrengthsFinder 2.0) and professional courses (e.g., ISPOR short courses, statistics.com) were included to enhance the fellows' short- and long-term professional experience. Additional program attributes include an online reference library developed to enrich the current research facilities and a Statistical Analysis Software training program. Continuously assessing and updating HEOR fellowship programs keeps programs up-to-date in the latest HEOR concepts and approaches used to evaluate health care, both professionally and educationally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Priority setting in research: user led mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisoni, Marjorie; Wilson, Christine Ann; Morgan, Karen; Edwards, Bethan; Simon, Natalie; Langley, Emma; Rees, Helen; Wells, Amanda; Tyson, Philip John; Thomas, Phil; Meudell, Allen; Kitt, Frank; Mitchell, Brian; Bowen, Alan; Celia, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Involving people in health research is increasingly recognised as being important to make sure that research is focused more on the needs of people who use health services. At present, ideas about what should be researched most often comes from researchers and/or health professionals like doctors and nurses rather than people with a lived experience of mental illness. In this study, we will talk with this group of people from across Wales to explore what they think research into their health services should focus on. The findings from this work will help to influence the work of the National Centre for Mental Health Research Partnership Group; as well as` researchers and health professionals and others who concentrate on mental health research. The Research group is a partnership between people with a lived experience of mental ill health and professionals with an interest in mental ill health. The group plan to take forward the ideas that came from this research and some of the ideas have already been used to increase funding in the area of mental health research. Background This paper is the result of continued collaboration between members of the Service User and Carer Research Partnership, based in Wales and supported by the National Centre for Mental Health, Health and Care Research Wales, and Hafal. The aim of this study was to explore the research priorities of people with experience of mental health services which include people with a lived experience of mental ill health, their carers, and professionals. Method A nominal group technique was used to gather data. A one-day workshop 'Getting Involved in Research: Priority Setting' was held to gather the ideas and suggestions for research priorities from people who have experience of mental health services. Results Twenty-five participants attended the workshop. 5 were mental health professionals, 20 had a lived experience of mental ill health, (of which 3 were also carers). 11 were male and 14 were female

  18. Understanding Health Research Ethics in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jeevan Raj; Khatri, Rekha; Harper, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 health research activities have been carried out between 1991 and 2014. These range from addressing immediate health problems at the country level through operational research, to evaluations and programmatic interventions that are aimed at generating evidence, to more systematic research activities that inform global scientific and policy debates. Established in 1991, the Ethical Review Board of the Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) is the central body that has the formal regulating authority of all the health research activities in country, granted through an act of parliament. Based on research conducted between 2010 and 2013, and a workshop on research ethics that the authors conducted in July 2012 in Nepal as a part of the on-going research, this article highlights the emerging regulatory and ethical fields in this low-income country that has witnessed these increased health research activities. Issues arising reflect this particular political economy of research (what constitutes health research, where resources come from, who defines the research agenda, culture of contract research, costs of review, developing Nepal's research capacity, through to the politics of publication of data/findings) and includes questions to emerging regulatory and ethical frameworks. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  20. Translational health research: perspectives from health education specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Holly J.; Davis, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The phrase ?from bench to bedside to curbside? is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models. Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportu...

  1. HEATING AND LIGHTING DEVISES IN THE INTERIOR OF UKRAINIAN’S FALK HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEGOROVA V.S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Housing belongs to the most important elements of the traditional culture of the Ukrainian people. The essential and defining element of both ancient and modern housing are heating and lighting devices. The importance of the problem is that not everyone knows the elements of the national housing of Ukrainian interior designing for lighting and heating. The furnace, bench, stove belong to the composing of traditional heating systems of folk housing of Ukraine. Varieties of sources, means, methods and devices were torch, candles, lanterns, lamps by which people light the room in the daytime or evening time. Purpose. Share a variety of heating and lighting devises in the interior of peasant houses of Ukraine to research the materials from which they were made, to determine the particular use. Conclusion. The main heating device of Ukrainians is a traditional oven. However, it should be noted that the space heating function was performed as stove and bench. Different devises of light: torch, flame, candle, lamp, are known in the system of artificial lighting of premises of ancient Ukrainians.

  2. Embodied knowledge: writing researchers' bodies into qualitative health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Laura L

    2006-02-01

    After more than a decade of postpositivist health care research and an increase in narrative writing practices, social scientific, qualitative health research remains largely disembodied. The erasure of researchers' bodies from conventional accounts of research obscures the complexities of knowledge production and yields deceptively tidy accounts of research. Qualitative health research could benefit significantly from embodied writing that explores the discursive relationship between the body and the self and the semantic challenges of writing the body by incorporating bodily details and experiences into research accounts. Researchers can represent their bodies by incorporating autoethnographic narratives, drawing on all of their senses, interrogating the connections between their bodily signifiers and research processes, and experimenting with the semantics of self and body. The author illustrates opportunities for embodiment with excerpts from an ethnography of a geriatric oncology team and explores implications of embodied writing for the practice of qualitative health research.

  3. Toward Devising Measures of Quality and Effectiveness across All Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Pryor, John H.

    2011-01-01

    The primary users of the current college ranking systems do not seem to be high-school students and families, but college presidents, board members, and development officers. As structured, the commercial ranking systems imply a precision that is not corroborated by research on what matters in college, nor can college quality be accurately summed…

  4. Current role of research ethics committees in health research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current role of research ethics committees in health research in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: A qualitative study. ... South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home ... To document the current role of HRECs in the ethical practice of health research in Nigeria, 4 years after the establishment of the NHREC.

  5. Devising the right energy efficiency strategy for homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, L.; Hull, A. [Eaga Partnership Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Eaga Partnership Ltd. was established in 1990 and has gained a reputation as a national program manager with a specialty in retrofit energy efficiency. Eaga acquired Homeworks in 2003, which motivates homeowners to conserve energy through energy efficiency. This presentation described Eaga's current customer view and how it plans to grow across Canada. Their current markets include paying customers, social landlords, First Nations, remote rural areas, and disadvantaged low income groups. The motivating factors for energy conservation and efficiency include reduced energy costs, time saving, improved home values, better health, better air quality, safety and reduced greenhouse gases. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    International Journal of ... The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related ... and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... study population and was commoner in males (5.9%) than in.

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    electric power supply and internet services, could limit its full application. Conclusion: Although the knowledge of the health professionals on e-health and telemedicine was poor, majority of them were in support of the services. There is therefore the need to intensify training workshops for health professionals and improve ...

  9. Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-13

    Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features innovative research on improving maternal and child health in Africa. January 13, 2017. Image. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at HSR2016 Conference. IDRC / Louise Guenette. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at the Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems ...

  10. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... A new publication, Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: a methods reader, was launched at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Cape Town, South Africa in October 2014. The reader was published by the Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern ...

  11. Cornus mas (Linnaeus Novel Devised Medicinal Preparations: Bactericidal Effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Kyriakopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of Cornus mas L. (=Cornus mascula L., Cornaceae, are well described in Hippocratian documents, and recent research provides experimental evidence for some of these properties. However, the chemical components of Cornus mas L. that may be of pharmaceutical importance are relatively unstable. In this respect a novel methodology for plant nutrient element extraction that provides favorable conditions for simultaneous stabilization of such fragile and unstable structures has been devised. Using this methodology, medicinal preparations derived from Cornus mas L. fresh fruits, proved to possess significant antimicrobial activity selective against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. This effect became apparent with the addition of sodium bromide in the extraction procedure and varied with the ion availability during extraction. The identification of novel agents with potent antimicrobial activity against these species is of medical importance to overcome the problem of universal antibiotic resistance.

  12. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  13. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  14. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a Collaborative Canada-South Project. IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital interest to developing countries, such as health. This project is concerned with learning how to structure and manage Canada-South research ...

  15. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Their deaths can best be reduced by increasing infant birth weight through addressing women's and maternal health in the preconception and interconception ..... Kakehashi M. An international data analysis on the level of maternal and child health relation to socioeconomic factors. Hiroshima J. Med Sci 2001; 50:9-16.

  17. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  18. A translational framework for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-04-28

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment. We therefore outline a translational framework for public health research. Our framework redefines the objective of translation from that of institutionalising effective interventions to that of improving population health by influencing both individual and collective determinants of health. It incorporates epidemiological perspectives with those of the social sciences, recognising that many types of research may contribute to the shaping of policy, practice and future research. It also identifies a pivotal role for evidence synthesis and the importance of non-linear and intersectoral interfaces with the public realm. We propose a research agenda to advance the field and argue that resources for 'applied' or 'translational' public health research should be deployed across the framework, not reserved for 'dissemination' or 'implementation'.

  19. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines (including medicine ... Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical ... ingredients (API) with excellent physicochemical stability in comparison to ...

  1. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  2. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs...

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance. ... manuscripts should normally be 10,000 words (20 single-spaced typewritten pages) for review, 6,000 words for research articles, 3,000 .... tannins as major phytoconstituents present in alcoholic ...

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. Submission of ... Preparation, Jobelyn. ® ..... Policy, International Development Research. Center, Ottawa, Canada,1994. 3. WHO. Traditional medicine. Fact Sheet N134,. WHO, Geneva, 1996. 4. Hans S.

  5. [Marketing research in health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Marketing research is the systematic and objective search for, and analysis of, information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing. The key words in this definition are: systematic, objective and analysis. Marketing research seeks to set about its task in a systematic and objective fashion. This means that a detailed and carefully designed research plan is developed in which each stage of the research is specified. Such a research plan is only considered adequate if it specifies: the research problem in concise and precise terms, the information necessary to address the problem, the methods to be employed in gathering the information and the analytical techniques to be used to interpret it. Maintaining objectivity in marketing research is essential if marketing management is to have sufficient confidence in its results to be prepared to take risky decisions based upon those results. To this end, as far as possible, marketing researchers employ the scientific method. The characteristics of the scientific method are that it translates personal prejudices, notions and opinions into explicit propositions (or hypotheses). These are tested empirically. At the same time alternative explanations of the event or phenomena of interest are given equal consideration.

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-06-06

    Jun 6, 2009 ... Pharmacy, SRM University, Kattan- kulathur, Kancheepuram District -. 603203, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Physiology, Chetti- nadu Hospital and Research. Institute, Kelambakkam, Kanchee- puram District - 603203, Tamil. Nadu, India. 3Asthagiri. Herbal. Research. Foundation, 14/1, II Main Road,.

  7. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 2: Qualitative research in health services research in Germany - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2012-08-01

    This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the

  8. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  9. Community participation in clinical health research - a new research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The idea of community participation in health and research can be found in all major international and national declarations, including South Africa. Researchers are no longer perceived as having the right to exercise monopoly on conducting and explaining their research, but are perceived to have a duty to empower the ...

  10. Health Policy and Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gprudhomme

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... approach is task-shifting; for instance, almost half of sub-Saharan African countries now use non-physician clinicians to perform some minor surgeries. Other approaches have included increasing the number of community health workers or redesigning training programs to match local priorities. Yet, human ...

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related .... hepatic marker enzymes, serum glutamate .... Applied Chemistry, Division of Clinical Chemistry: Definition of the terms certification, licensure and accreditation in clinical chemistry. J Clin Chem.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Waithaka et al. Biochemical Parameters in Adult Kenyans. Int J Health Res, September 2009; 2(3): 260. Introduction. A reference range of a clinical chemistry parameter is a set of values used in the interpretation of a clinical chemistry report. There are two types of reference ranges categorized as subject based and group.

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and believed that abstinence from sexual intercourse and health education remains viable preventive measures. However, only. 171(32.8%) of respondents were ready to be screened for HIV infection. Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents (n=521). Variable. Frequency. Age group. Early adolescence.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and the high ozone forming potential of many organic compounds found in car emissions which adversely effect human health and other living organisms and ecosystems. The increasing awareness about the consequences of fuel combustion on the local and global environ- mental issues together with the continued and.

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. The journal welcomes original .... preventable diseases. In May 2006, the. Immunization Plus Days (IPDs) ... transportation to institutional care, inability to pay for services, and resistance among some.

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. The journal welcomes ... association with chronic diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and type II ... transportation and leisure time/exercise or sport). Physical activity levels are assessed by asking.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-01

    Sep 1, 2008 ... deprivation aggravates health risk factors including depression, anxiety5,6, cognitive dysfunctions7,8,9, impaired motor activity10, behavioral irritability .... hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) was measured at. 240 nm. Briefly, assay mixture consisted of 3 ml of H2O2 phosphate buffer and 0.05 ml of supernatant of ...

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The significant effect of gender as a factor affecting choice is seem in the fact that females seems to be more careful in their choice because males have a higher tendency to patronize the patent medicine stores and would visit any health facility without any particular preference. (p<0.05). The marital status also goes to show.

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Indexing. Embase, Index Corpenicus, Scopus, PubsHub, Chemical Abstracts, Socolar, ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... preparations in ayurveda recommended for the.

  20. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilse, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions-some in real time-while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions.

  1. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilsen, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions—some in real time—while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions. PMID:26259009

  2. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-27

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information ... Outputs. Reports. Building National Health Research Information System - COHRED : health research web; final technical report for the period March 27, 2008 - September 27, 2009. Download PDF.

  3. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  4. Archives: International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: International Journal of Health Research. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Health Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  5. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report. Author(s):. Corlien M. Varkevisser, Indra Pathmanathan, and Ann Brownlee. Publisher(s):. KIT, IDRC.

  6. Global health and primary care research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, J.W.; Starfield, B.; Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.; Haq, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    A strong primary health care system is essential to provide effective and efficient health care in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Although a direct link has not been proven, we can reasonably expect better economic status when the health of the population is improved. Research in

  7. Introduction: New Research on Migration and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A. Cornelius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue on migration and health derives from an interdisciplinary research workshop held on May 13-14, 2010 under the auspices of the Center of Expertise on Migration and Health (COEMH, a component of the University of California’s Global Health Institute (UCGHI. The COEMH Research Training Workshop brought together 20 advanced graduate students and recent postdoctoral fellows from throughout the University of California system to present their recently completed or ongoing, fiel...

  8. Criticism of health researches: why and how

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Ashrafi-rizi; Fatemeh Zarmehr

    2016-01-01

    Research is one of the most important ways of science production (1). The purpose of research is exploring the unknown and explaining the variables that affect the human life. In the health sciences the purpose of which is health promotion, research is valued as much as human life (2). In many scientific texts, there is an emphasis on the importance of health researches in the quality of human life; the lack of attention to the quality of the publishing process is considered as the cause of m...

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... Review Article. Hyperforin: A lead for Antidepressants. Received: 28-Dec-08. Revised: 09-Jan-09. Accepted: 13-Jan-09. Abstract. Depression is a complex but treatable disorder .... human electron encephalogram (EEG).

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... engineering fields). It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare ... not significantly modify the normal behavioral repertoire of .... Table 1: Behavioral changes following acute oral doses of Jobelyn®.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... engineering fields). It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an international .... were observed for 72 hr include behavioral changes, locomotion, convulsions.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    2008-03-05

    Mar 5, 2008 ... research and collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of .... metry 18, chemiluminescence method 19, electron spin resonance spectroscopy 20, nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spec-.

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    were promptly transported to the Molecular. Biology and Biotechnology Laboratory of the. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research,. Yaba, Lagos (NIMR) within one hour of collection for proper processing. For the isolation of Salmonella species, a loopful of stool sample was inoculated aseptically into a McCartney bottle.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering fields). ... disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews, commentaries and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance. .... Intra-operative polypoidal tissue was ...

  15. The Use of Smartphones for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Yvonne Chan, Yu-Feng; McConnell, Michael V; Shaw, Stanley Y; Trister, Andrew D; Friend, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    Because of their growing popularity and functionality, smartphones are increasingly valuable potential tools for health and medical research. Using ResearchKit, Apple's open-source platform to build applications ("apps") for smartphone research, collaborators have developed apps for researching asthma, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson disease. These research apps enhance widespread participation by removing geographical barriers to participation, provide novel ways to motivate healthy behaviors, facilitate high-frequency assessments, and enable more objective data collection. Although the studies have great potential, they also have notable limitations. These include selection bias, identity uncertainty, design limitations, retention, and privacy. As smartphone technology becomes increasingly available, researchers must recognize these factors to ensure that medical research is conducted appropriately. Despite these limitations, the future of smartphones in health research is bright. Their convenience grants unprecedented geographic freedom to researchers and participants alike and transforms the way clinical research can be conducted.

  16. [Health care professional view on biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Jodar, E; Torres, M; Dalmau, D

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research is a necessary subject and enjoys social prestige. To ascertain the views and expectations of health care professionals on research, analysing the influence of their academic training and professional level. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to physicians and qualified nurses working in a, tertiary hospital, seven primary care centres and two nursing homes (health care centres for the elderly). Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.817. Response rate: 64% (432 out of 682 questionnaires distributed). Women: 71%. Mean age: 37 years. Mean years involved in health care: 14 years. 79% of people considered research as a part of their job, although in practice only 43% were doing it. Overall participation in activities was: Conferences (71%), education (42%), publications (34%) and ongoing projects (17%). Physicians dedicated more off duty time (37%) to research than qualified nurses (CI95%: 28 to 46%). The majority of physicians having their doctoral thesis would like to carry out research activities, and 84% did so in their free time and 74% had active research projects in progress. They identified physician workload as the main factor that impedes performing research. Proposals to increase research activities were focused on improving resources. The majority of health care professionals expressed a great motivation. The perception of research varies depending upon professional qualification. Physicians having their doctoral thesis were more involved and had a different perception of research, being more critical about available resources. Overall research perception was more positive among those with less academic training, as well as among those centres with less research activities.

  17. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health. Deadline: September 7, 2016. Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research ...

  18. Analyzing and Interpreting Research in Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While qualitative research is used when little or nothing is known about the subject, quantitative research is required when there are quantifiable variables to be measured. By implication, health education research is based on phenomenological, ethnographical and/or grounded theoretical approaches that are analyzable ...

  19. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  20. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth). Deadline: 12 September 2012. Please note that all applications must be sent electronically. IDRC's Research Awards are a unique opportunity for master's and doctoral-level students, as well as recent graduates to enhance their research skills and gain a fresh ...

  1. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short.

  2. Leadership research in business and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Connie; Larson, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    To summarize research on leadership in the health care and business literature and to identify the outcomes of leadership on individuals, groups, and organizations. A computerized search and review of research studies was conducted in the health care and business literature from 1970-1999. Studies were categorized and analyzed according to participants, design, primary topic area, and effects or outcomes of leadership. Most of the health care and business literature on leadership consisted of anecdotal or theoretical discussion. Only 4.4% (n = 290) of 6,628 articles reviewed were data-based. Further, the largest proportion of the research (120/290, 41.4%) was purely descriptive of the demographic characteristics or personality traits of leaders. Other studies showed the influence of leadership on subordinates (27.9%). Only 15 (5.2%) of 290 research articles include correlations of qualities or styles of leadership with measurable outcomes on the recipients of services or positive changes in organizations. Research on leadership in the health care and business literature to date has been primarily descriptive. Although work in the social sciences indicates that leadership styles can have a major influence on performance and outcomes, minimal transfer of this work to the health care system is evident. Limited research on leadership and health care outcomes exists, such as changes in patient care or improvements in organizational outputs. In this era of evidence-based practice, such research, although difficult to conduct, is urgently needed.

  3. The Health Information Literacy Research Project*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. Methods: A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. Results: A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. Conclusions: It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources. PMID:19851494

  4. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :17. Research Article (Human Resources for Health). Postoperative outcome of caesarean sections and other major emergency obstetric surgery by clinical officers and medical officers in Malawi. Garvey Chilopora1, Caetano Pereira2,3, ...

  5. International Journal of Health Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal publishes original research articles, reviews, and case reports in health sciences and related disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields.

  6. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  7. Culture: The missing link in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa Singer, M; Dressler, W; George, S

    2016-12-01

    Culture is essential for humans to exist. Yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to identifying how culture works or developing standards to guide the application of this concept in health research. This paper describes a multidisciplinary effort to find consensus on essential elements of a definition of culture to guide researchers in studying how cultural processes influence health and health behaviors. We first highlight the lack of progress made in the health sciences to explain differences between population groups, and then identify 10 key barriers in research impeding progress in more effectively and rapidly realizing equity in health outcomes. Second, we highlight the primarily mono-cultural lens through which health behavior is currently conceptualized, third, we present a consensus definition of culture as an integrating framework, and last, we provide guidelines to more effectively operationalize the concept of culture for health research. We hope this effort will be useful to researchers, reviewers, and funders alike. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  9. Health Benefits of Leisure. Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Research indicates that leisure participation enhances health at various levels, reducing stress and promoting better physical and mental health. Participation in personally meaningful leisure activities serves as a buffer to life's stressful events. Leisure professionals must work to promote leisure as a priority in people's lives. (SM)

  10. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norine G.

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  11. Strengthening Health Systems Research Capacity in Mozambique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There have been some successes in reducing the disease burden through programs targeting specific communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV-AIDS. However, further improvements cannot be achieved without addressing broad health systems issues. This research project will strengthen health ...

  12. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2 : Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health ... Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local Journalism in Emergency and Post-outbreak Periods. The World Federation of Science Journalists ...

  13. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nelson K. Sewankambo is the Principal of the College of Health Sciences at Makerere University. For 11 years, he was Dean of the university's School of Medicine, the precursor to the college. A longtime advocate of advancing health research and policy in Africa, Sewankambo led the effort that established the REACH ...

  14. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC's Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) program explores the links between human health and well‐being and producve and sustainable ecosystems. Read more about past and current projects funded by the Ecohealth program. As a transdiciplinary and applied research approach, ecohealth ...

  15. Measuring the impact of allied health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan Heath, Karen Grimmer-Somers, Steve Milanese, Susan Hillier, Ellena King, Kylie Johnston, Kylie Wall, Olivia Thorpe, Alexandra Young, Saravana KumarSchool of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA rankings are given to academic journals in which Australian academics publish. This provides a metric on which Australian institutions and disciplines are ranked for international competitiveness. This paper explores the issues surrounding the ERA rankings of allied health journals in Australia.Methods: We conducted a broad search to establish a representative list of general allied health and discipline-specific journals for common allied health disciplines. We identified the ERA rankings and impact factors for each journal and tested the congruence between these metrics within the disciplines.Results: Few allied health journals have high ERA rankings (A*/A, and there is variability in the impact factors assigned to journals within the same ERA rank. There is a small group of allied health researchers worldwide, and this group is even smaller when divided by discipline. Current publication metrics may not adequately assess the impact of research, which is largely aimed at clinicians to improve clinical practice. Moreover, many journals are produced by underfunded professional associations, and readership is often constrained by small numbers of clinicians in specific allied health disciplines who are association members.Conclusion: Allied health must have a stronger united voice in the next round of ERA rankings. The clinical impact of allied health journals also needs to be better understood and promoted as a research metric.Keywords: allied health, research impact, publication metrics

  16. Call for Implementation Research Proposals: Health Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... Introduction. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce a call for implementation research proposals to contribute to national and regional efforts to improve health systems responsiveness in West Africa (WA). Two separate but complementary thematic areas of ...

  17. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings.

  18. Writing usable qualitative health research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies--the findings in reports of those studies--and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience.

  19. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A; Williams, Brie

    2015-03-03

    Over 20 million Americans are currently or have been incarcerated. Most are from medically underserved populations; 1 in 3 African American men and 1 in 6 Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetime. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of persons involved with the criminal justice system is unknown. To describe NIH funding for research on the health and health care needs of criminal justice-involved persons. Review of NIH grants (2008-2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. U.S. criminal justice system. Criminal justice-involved persons participating in NIH-funded clinical research. NIH research and training grants awarded, by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Of more than 250 000 NIH-funded grants, 180 (criminal justice health research. The 3 most common foci were substance use or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). The National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even compared with the NIH's overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area.

  20. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  1. [Leadership behaviour and health - current research state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, S; Kuhnert, S; Zimber, A; Nienhaus, A

    2011-01-01

    The link between leaders' behaviour and health has only recently been the focus of scientific research and the results which already exist on this topic have, to date, not been systematically evaluated or summarized. The objective of this article is to make an attempt to provide a summarised overview of the current state of research. Subject-related databases list 42 publications dealing with the relationship between leaders' behaviour and the state of health and well-being of their employees. The literature discusses leaders' behaviour as being both a stressor (source of stress) and a resource. The publications discussed here also provide the first empirical evidence on the influence of various leadership styles on the health of the employees. In particular, transformational and employee-orientated leadership are considered to be beneficial to health. But the question of how leaders' behaviour influences health has not been satisfactorily explained. In most of the publications included, a direct link was assumed and, in the majority of cases, confirmed empirically. In addition, it also appears that there may be an indirect influence which may be moderated or mediated by, e. g., working conditions or the personality of the individual. The relatively small number of research examinations into the influence of leaders' behaviour on the health and well-being of their staff shows that there is a need for additional research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  3. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amy J; White Hat, Emily R; Angal, Jyoti; Grey Owl, Victoria; Puumala, Susan E; Baete Kenyon, DenYelle

    2015-12-22

    The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  4. Portraying Reflexivity in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, John; Green, Bill

    2016-09-01

    A model is proposed for supporting reflexivity in qualitative health research, informed by arguments from Bourdieu and Finlay. Bourdieu refers to mastering the subjective relation to the object at three levels-the overall social space, the field of specialists, and the scholastic universe. The model overlays Bourdieu's levels of objectivation with Finlay's three stages of research (pre-research, data collection, and data analysis). The intersections of these two ways of considering reflexivity, displayed as cells of a matrix, pose questions and offer prompts to productively challenge health researchers' reflexivity. Portraiture is used to show how these challenges and prompts can facilitate such reflexivity, as illustrated in a research project. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  6. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  7. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    about professional competence development and the qualification for value clarification not necessarily expressed through ethical rules but rather in fundamental views, reasoning, linguification and reflections - and b) a methodological discussion about the developmental approach. The research strategy...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... relatable to health educational development. The overall value theme is elucidated by two development projects that transform as well as challenge specific health-educational practices. This forms the basis of the development of a critical, constructive and practice-oriented perspective on competence...

  8. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  9. [Contribution of Health Care Research to Establishing Social Equality in Health and Health Care Opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, H; Pförtner, T-K

    2016-02-01

    Social inequalities in health and health care services represent issues of major concern. Findings in this area reveal inequalities in health and health care indicating disadvantages for individuals with a low socioeconomic background. Although the health care system plays a marginal role in the explanation of inequalities in health, health services research can be an important part in the development of equal health opportunities. The current article describes the causal associations between social inequalities, health inequalities and the health care service. Health services research can make a contribution to increasing equal opportunities in health and health care service. Against this background, we discuss the existing potential and need of research in the area of health services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Health Policies Require New Multidisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to underline the need for researchers from different disciplines to work together while health policies are not a matter for doctors, hospitals and pharmacies only. We need a wider approach to find new, efficient financial solutions for sustainable solutions of the population's need for health. We here present a "industrial diagram" interpreting health related actions, proposing an interdisciplinary approach, finding where the cost is and suggesting more socially efficient and qualified network solutions, where every disciplinary voice is listened to.

  11. Network science and oral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  13. Indian research on disaster and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on disaster mental health research is the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Key words like disasters, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami and flood were searched from its electronic database and relevant articles are discussed. The cross-referenced articles and relevant researches conducted on disasters in India which are published elsewhere were the secondary sources of information. There have been many epidemiological studies and only a few interventional studies...

  14. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heewon

    2016-03-01

    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature? © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  16. Privacy, security, and the public health researcher in the era of electronic health record research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal D; Sarwate, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Health data derived from electronic health records are increasingly utilized in large-scale population health analyses. Going hand in hand with this increase in data is an increasing number of data breaches. Ensuring privacy and security of these data is a shared responsibility between the public health researcher, collaborators, and their institutions. In this article, we review the requirements of data privacy and security and discuss epidemiologic implications of emerging technologies from the computer science community that can be used for health data. In order to ensure that our needs as researchers are captured in these technologies, we must engage in the dialogue surrounding the development of these tools.

  17. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  18. Kempe devised the focal mechanism without any spe- cific goal in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Kempe devised the focal mechanism without any spe- cific goal in mind. It was examined entirely from math- ematical and theoretical considerations. But it found an industrial application after almost 100 years of its invention. 5. Conclusions. The enormous contribution of Kempe in the field of mathematics and kinematics ...

  19. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will be led by researchers from the Institute for Peruvian Studies. From the case studies, best practices and recommendations for effective intercultural health programming will be drawn. Results will be shared with local and national actors, including the Peruvian body responsible for implementing intercultural ...

  20. Research Article ( Human Resources for Health ) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Article ( Human Resources for Health ) Postoperative outcome of caesarean sections and other major emergency obstetric surgery by clinical officers ... 24 hours postoperatively – and regarding occurrence of pyrexia, wound infection, wound dehiscence, need for re-operation, neonatal outcome or maternal death.

  1. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts for publication in Tanzania Journal of Health Research should be prepared in accordance with the fifth edition of the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” established by the Vancouver Group (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, ICMJE). The complete ...

  2. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information on health research, and will therefore need to concentrate its efforts on data collection. The challenges and lessons learned during the two experiences will be documented for the benefit of other ...

  3. Capacity Building in Global Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Cooper, Sara; Van Bortel, Tine; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Lund, Crick

    2012-01-01

    Research-generated information about mental disorders is crucial in order to establish the health needs in a given setting, to propose culturally apt and cost-effective individual and collective interventions, to investigate their implementation, and to explore the obstacles that prevent recommended strategies from being implemented. Yet the capacity to undertake such research in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited. This article describes two methods that have proved successful in strengthening, or that have the potential to strengthen, mental health research capacity in low-resource settings. We identify the central challenges to be faced, review current programs offering training and mentorship, and summarize the key lessons learned. A structured approach is proposed for the career development of research staff at every career stage, to be accompanied by performance monitoring and support. A case example from the Mental Health and Poverty Project in sub-Saharan Africa illustrates how this approach can be put into practice—in particular, by focusing upon training in core transferrable research skills. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:13–24.) PMID:22335179

  4. It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolovich Lisa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1 Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2 Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3 Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4 The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions

  5. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  6. [A transdisciplinary model for public health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, José Aureliano

    2013-11-01

    Human resources education for health workers has been predominantly discipline-oriented and fragmented, influencing research design and, in turn, scientific output. Several authors argue that university education should transition from disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity. To gather the theoretical underpinnings for this subject of international interest, a literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EBSCO, and SciELO databases in 2012, using the terms "transdisciplinary and translational research" in Spanish and English. The majority of authors believe that identifying problems from different perspectives by specialists and community members and leaders will be conducive to more effective intersectoral interventions. They suggest undertaking organizational change to reshape reshaping work styles and self-organizational forms of scientific activity. Finally, a transdisciplinary model for public health research has been proposed that is based on traditional project design tools, but with variations borrowed from a complex systems approach.

  7. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This article aims: (I) to re-examine the use and usefulness of categorisation based on 'race'. ethnicity and 'population group' membership in public heatth research; and (ii) to assess the consequences of using these categories for describing, analysing and redressing disparities in health within South Africa The ...

  8. Health services research, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, and Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, W R; Garcia, A I

    1994-01-01

    Recent findings of research supported by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) confirm the need for additional health services research on the effectiveness and appropriateness of dental care, and the way in which dental care is provided and financed. This paper presents an overview of relevant AHCPR programs, gives examples of dental health services research supported by the Agency, and describes ways in which Fellows of the American College of Dentists could participate in the development and dissemination of health services research. New knowledge generated by dental health services research will be useful to dentists in meeting many of their professional obligations. Translating that knowledge into improved quality of care will depend directly upon the best collaborative efforts of dentists in all professional settings and may include collaboration with academic researchers. As leaders in the profession, Fellows of the American College of Dentists are regarded as instrumental in conveying the findings of health services research to their colleagues, stimulating critical review, and making recommendations to guide research in the future.

  9. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008. Key activities will include mobilizing Canadian investment in global health research, building global health research capacity in Canada and LMICs, translating research into action, nurturing partnerships between researchers in Canada ...

  10. Transnational corporations and health: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Frances Elaine; Margaret Anaf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) are part of an economic system of global capitalism that operates under a neoliberal regime underpinned by strong support from international organisations such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and most nation states. Although TNCs have grown in power and influence and have had a significant impact on population health over the past three decades, public health has not developed an integrated research agenda to study them. This article outlines the shape of such an agenda and argues that it is vital that research into the public health impact of TNCs be pursued and funded as a matter of priority. The four areas of the agenda are: assessing the health and equity impacts of TNCs; evaluating the effectiveness of government regulation to mitigate health and equity impacts of TNCs; studying the work of activist groups and networks that highlight adverse impacts of TNCs; and considering how regulation of capitalism could better promote a healthier and more equitable corporate sector. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-02-01

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators. (PMA)

  13. Integrated Knowledge Translation: illustrated with outcome research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyde, Michele; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; Lazure, Kelly; Vanderkooy, John; Chevalier, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Through this article the authors present a case summary of the early phases of research conducted with an Integrated Knowledge Translation (iKT) approach utilizing four factors: research question, research approach, feasibility, and outcome. iKT refers to an approach for conducting research in which community partners, referred to as knowledge users, are engaged in the entire research process. In this collaborative approach, knowledge users and researchers jointly devise the entire research agenda beginning with the development of the research question(s), determination of a feasible research design and feasible methods, interpretation of the results, dissemination of the findings, and the translation of knowledge into practice or policy decisions. Engaging clinical or community partners in the research enterprise can enhance the utility of the research results and facilitate its uptake. This collaboration can be a complex arrangement and flexibility may be required to accommodate the various configurations that the collaboration can take. For example, the research question can be jointly determined and refined; however, one person must take the responsibility for orchestrating the project, including preparing the proposal and application to the Research Ethics Board. This collaborative effort also requires the simultaneous navigation of barriers and facilitators to the research enterprise. Navigating these elements becomes part of the conduct of research with the potential for rewarding results, including an enriched work experience for clinical partners and investigators. One practice implication is that iKT may be considered of great utility to service providers due to its field friendly nature.

  14. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  15. Criticism of health researches: why and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi-rizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research is one of the most important ways of science production (1. The purpose of research is exploring the unknown and explaining the variables that affect the human life. In the health sciences the purpose of which is health promotion, research is valued as much as human life (2. In many scientific texts, there is an emphasis on the importance of health researches in the quality of human life; the lack of attention to the quality of the publishing process is considered as the cause of much damage (3-10. The result of health researches is usually published as a paper, thesis, research project and book, the contents of all needs to be assessed. This process is named Research Review or Research Critique (2. Research critique is done during publishing process or after it, and in this paper we deal with it after publishing health texts. The broker chain between information producer and consumers who is the critic (Reviewer and critique journals has been less attended. In short, Soltani indicates that the purpose of critique as a defense of society’s cultural rights is to help the reader to choose the appropriate work, help the writer identify his weak points and his strengths (11, and also prevent damage to the society, especially people’s health. In the critique of health researches, there are two essential stages: in the first stage, the work is studied quickly by the critic (Survey study. The aim of this study is gaining knowledge of the text and usually the bibliographic information of work like title, writer, incentive of work, headings and so on is assessed briefly (12. In the second stage, a critical study is done. The critical study is the most important and most critical step in the reviewing the texts. “In this study, the critic judges as to the accuracy, reliability, or value of the text based on criteria or standards. This type of study is the key to the appropriate understanding. This method is necessary to determine the truth

  16. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes. PMID:28119991

  18. Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-10-09

    Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on Health Research for Development. Book cover Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on Health Research for. Editor(s):. Victor Neufeld and Nancy Johnson. Publisher(s):. IDRC. October 9, 2001. ISBN: Out of print. 260 pages.

  19. Marco Polo’s 'Devisement dou monde' and Franco-Italian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Andreose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript BNF fr. 1116 (F is the best surviving witness of the Devisement dou monde both for the quality of its reading and because it offers the closest version to the original form of the text. The book was written by Marco Polo, who had travelled for 24 years in Asia in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, and Rustichello da Pisa, an Arthurian romance writer, while both were prisoners in Genoa in 1298. The language in which the work was first written – an Old French heavily sprinkled with morphological as well as lexical Italianisms – is considered as a representative example of «Franco-Italian». The great heterogeneity of the texts usually included within this category, however, might provide an incorrect impression as regards both the original linguistic form of the Devisement and the audience to whom it was originally addressed. The language of the MS BNF fr. 1116 does not display strong similarities to the hybrid language used in Northern Italy for chivalric literature, which is traditionally called «Franco-Italian» or «Franco-Venetan». Some linguistic correspondences enable us to connect the MS BNF fr. 1116 with the group of Old French manuscripts copied by Pisan scribes while incarcerated in Genoa prison, following the battle of Meloria (1284. The fragment of the Devisement recently discovered by C. Concina appears to be very similar to F. Both graphic and phonetic evidences suggest that this witness, too, has to be localised to Tuscany.

  20. Development of the Good Health Research Practice course: ensuring quality across all health research in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Patricia; Elango, Varalakshmi; Horstick, Olaf; Ahmad, Riris Andono; Maure, Christine; Launois, Pascal; Merle, Corinne; Nabieva, Jamila; Mahendradhata, Yodi

    2017-03-31

    Quality and ethics need to be embedded into all areas of research with human participants. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines are international ethical and scientific quality standards for designing, conducting, recording and reporting trials involving human participants. Compliance with GCP is expected to provide public assurance that the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants are protected and that the clinical research data are credible. However, whilst GCP guidelines, particularly their principles, are recommended across all research types, it is difficult for non-clinical trial research to fit in with the exacting requirements of GCP. There is therefore a need for guidance that allows health researchers to adhere to the principles of GCP, which will improve the quality and ethical conduct of all research involving human participants. These concerns have led to the development of the Good Health Research Practice (GHRP) course. Its goal is to ensure that research is conducted to the highest possible standards, similar to the conduct of trials to GCP. The GHRP course provides training and guidance to ensure quality and ethical conduct across all health-related research. The GHRP course has been run so far on eight occasions. Feedback from delegates has been overwhelmingly positive, with most delegates stating that the course was useful in developing their research protocols and documents. Whilst most training in research starts with a guideline, GHRP has started with a course and the experience gained over running the courses will be used to write a standardised guideline for the conduct of health-related research outside the realm of clinical trials, so that researchers, funders and ethics committees do not try to fit non-trials into clinical trials standards.

  1. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  2. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Parker

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  3. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  4. Ethics, collective health, qualitative health research and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Correa, Fernando Peñaranda

    2015-09-01

    The scientific field is characterized by the disputes about the delimitation of the field problems, methods and theories that can be considered scientific. The recognition that it is not neutral, that a researcher is a moral subject, and its practices are moral ones, entail that moral reflections, that is, ethics, should be a core process of every researcher. Therefore ethics is not a heteronomous issue, and cannot be reduced to guidelines. In the first part of this article we examine the need to develop an open approach to the construction of guidelines in a plural scientific field that must take into account diverse paradigms, which implies different values. The Brazilian process of writing guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities in the context of the Ministry of Health will be discussed as an example. In the second part we expand the analysis of research ethics posing a perspective that integrates qualitative research, social justice and discipline trends. In the final considerations we explore the possibility that research ethics is better discussed taking into account the ontology, epistemology and political values rather than one specific methodological approach or from a dichotomic perspective between biomedicine versus social science and humanities.

  5. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  7. Health services research doctoral core competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holve Erin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This manuscript presents an initial description of doctoral level core competencies for health services research (HSR. The competencies were developed by a review of the literature, text analysis of institutional accreditation self-studies submitted to the Council on Education for Public Health, and a consensus conference of HSR educators from US educational institutions. The competencies are described in broad terms which reflect the unique expertise, interests, and preferred learning methods of academic HSR programs. This initial set of core competencies is published to generate further dialogue within and outside of the US about the most important learning objectives and methods for HSR training and to clarify the unique skills of HSR training program graduates.

  8. Impact in Participatory Health Research: What Can We Learn from Research on Participatory Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Health Research is a collective term adopted globally for participatory action research in a health context. As an approach to research, it challenges current ways used within the health sciences to measure research impact as research, learning and action are integrated throughout the research process and dependent on context and…

  9. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  10. Clear-cut?: facilitating health librarians to use information research in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew; Brice, Anne

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, staff at the universities of Sheffield and Oxford commenced an unfunded project to examine whether it is feasible to apply critical appraisal to daily library practice. This aimed to establish whether barriers experienced when appraising medical literature (such as lack of clinical knowledge, poor knowledge of research methodology and little familiarity with statistical terms) might be reduced when appraising research within a librarian's own discipline. Innovative workshops were devised to equip health librarians with skills in interpreting and applying research. Critical Skills Training in Appraisal for Librarians (CRISTAL) used purpose-specific checklists based on the Users' Guides to the Medical Literature. Delivery was via half-day workshops, based on a format used by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Two pilot workshops in Sheffield and Oxford were evaluated using a brief post-workshop form. Participants recorded objectives in attending, their general understanding of research, and whether they had read the paper before the workshop. They were asked about the length, content and presentation of the workshop, the general format, organization and learning environment, whether it had been a good use of their time and whether they had enjoyed it. Findings must be interpreted with caution. The workshops were enjoyable and a good use of time. Although the scenario selected required no clinical knowledge, barriers remain regarding statistics and research methodology. Future workshops for librarians should include sessions on research design and statistics. Further developments will take forward these findings.

  11. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health inequities and improve health services, systems, and policies in developing countries. We are particularly interested in research on maternal and child health that reflects primary health needs and the prevention and ...

  12. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  13. [Health services research in psycho-oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, A; Hartung, T J

    2015-03-01

    Given the increasing incidence of cancer and improved diagnostics and cancer treatments, the number of cancer patients in industrialized nations is increasing worldwide. Multimodal treatment regimens, which contribute to a tumor-free survival or extend patients life expectancy can, however, alone or in combination increase the risk of physical and psychosocial long-term problems or late complications. For many patients cancer has become a chronic disease and is associated with significant physical and psychosocial problems that affect the quality of life in the medium and longer-term perspective. Common problems of cancer patients in the longer course of the disease include chronic and post-cancer pain, cancer-specific fatigue, psychosocial distress and impairment in self-management and activities of daily living, work participation and quality of life. Current developments with respect to both curative and palliative oncological care have various implications for health services research in psycho-oncology. These questions relate to issues of care needs, service provision and the appropriateness of care, issues of development, implementation and scientific evaluation of patient-centered and affordable support programs for different groups of cancer patients with different supportive care needs, issues of access and utilization of supportive care services, as well as questions of appropriate outcome criteria of health services research.

  14. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablin, M. H. (Compiler); Brooks, C. (Compiler); Ferraro, G. (Compiler); Dickson, K. J. (Compiler); Powers, J. V. (Compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (Compiler); Zafren, B. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

  15. Devising assisted reproductive technologies for wild-derived strains of mice: 37 strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiji; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Otaka, Naoki; Hama, Daiki; Furuya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichikawa, Eri; Ijuin, Maiko; Taguma, Kyuichi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Takashima, Rika; Kadota, Masayo; Hiraiwa, Noriko; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Wild-derived mice have long offered invaluable experimental models for mouse genetics because of their high evolutionary divergence from laboratory mice. A number of wild-derived strains are available from the RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC), but they have been maintained as living stocks because of the unavailability of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this study, we sought to devise ART for 37 wild-derived strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus maintained at the BRC. Superovulation of females was effective (more than 15 oocytes per female) for 34 out of 37 strains by treatment with either equine chorionic gonadotropin or anti-inhibin serum, depending on their genetic background (subspecies). The collected oocytes could be fertilized in vitro at mean rates of 79.0% and 54.6% by the optimized protocol using fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa, respectively. They were cryopreserved at the 2-cell stage by vitrification with an ethylene glycol-based solution. In total, 94.6% of cryopreserved embryos survived the vitrification procedure and restored their normal morphology after warming. A conventional embryo transfer protocol could be applied to 25 out of the 35 strains tested. In the remaining 10 strains, live offspring could be obtained by a modified embryo transfer protocol using cyclosporin A treatment and co-transfer of ICR (laboratory mouse strain) embryos. Thus, ART for 37 wild-derived strains was devised successfully and is now routinely used for their preservation and transportation. The information provided here might facilitate broader use and wider distribution of wild-derived mice for biomedical research.

  16. Devising assisted reproductive technologies for wild-derived strains of mice: 37 strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Wild-derived mice have long offered invaluable experimental models for mouse genetics because of their high evolutionary divergence from laboratory mice. A number of wild-derived strains are available from the RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC, but they have been maintained as living stocks because of the unavailability of assisted reproductive technology (ART. In this study, we sought to devise ART for 37 wild-derived strains from five subspecies of Mus musculus maintained at the BRC. Superovulation of females was effective (more than 15 oocytes per female for 34 out of 37 strains by treatment with either equine chorionic gonadotropin or anti-inhibin serum, depending on their genetic background (subspecies. The collected oocytes could be fertilized in vitro at mean rates of 79.0% and 54.6% by the optimized protocol using fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa, respectively. They were cryopreserved at the 2-cell stage by vitrification with an ethylene glycol-based solution. In total, 94.6% of cryopreserved embryos survived the vitrification procedure and restored their normal morphology after warming. A conventional embryo transfer protocol could be applied to 25 out of the 35 strains tested. In the remaining 10 strains, live offspring could be obtained by a modified embryo transfer protocol using cyclosporin A treatment and co-transfer of ICR (laboratory mouse strain embryos. Thus, ART for 37 wild-derived strains was devised successfully and is now routinely used for their preservation and transportation. The information provided here might facilitate broader use and wider distribution of wild-derived mice for biomedical research.

  17. Research ethics in global mental health: advancing culturally responsive mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhdeep Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%, non-communicable diseases (22%, vector borne diseases (6%, tuberculosis (6% and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%. Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12 th Plan over next five years.

  19. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  20. Health | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    by-step with the development of a Health Systems Research (HSR) proposal and field testing (Part 1) and with data analysis and report writing (Part 2). Read more about Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 1: ...

  1. Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home > Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  3. Mediation Analysis for Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica E M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-08-15

    Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation. We used data on 900,726 births from 2003 to 2007 in the Penn Moms study, conducted in Pennsylvania, to assess the extent to which breastfeeding prior to hospital discharge explained the racial disparity in infant mortality. Overall, for every 1,000 births, 3.36 more infant deaths occurred among non-Hispanic black women relative to all other women (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 3.93). Using the difference and generalized product methods to assess the disparity that would remain if everyone breastfed prior to discharge suggested a complete elimination of the disparity (risk difference = -0.87 per 1,000 births; 95% confidence interval: -1.39, -0.35). In contrast, doubly robust methods suggested a reduction in the disparity to 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 2.20, 2.71) more infant deaths per 1,000 births among non-Hispanic black women. Standard approaches for mediation analysis in health disparities research can yield misleading results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A history of health and medical research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Timothy; Anderson, Warwick P

    2014-07-07

    Health and medical research has played an important role in improving the life of Australians since before the 20th century, with many Australian researchers contributing to important advances both locally and internationally. The establishment of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to support research and to work to achieve the benefits of research for the community was significant. The NHMRC has also provided guidance in research and health ethics. Australian research has broadened to include basic biomedical science, clinical medicine and science, public health and health services. In October 2002, the NHMRC adopted Indigenous health research as a strategic priority. In 2013, government expenditure through the NHMRC was $852.9 million. This article highlights some important milestones in the history of health and medical research in Australia.

  5. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  6. Health sciences research and Aboriginal communities: pathway or pitfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Kaplan-Myrth, Nili; Tait, Caroline; Martin, Carmel Mary; Chartrand, Larry; Hogg, William; Tugwell, Peter; Valaskakis, Gail; Macaulay, Ann C

    2004-03-01

    To provide health researchers and clinicians with background information and examples regarding Aboriginal health research challenges, in an effort to promote effective collaborative research with Aboriginal communities. An interdisciplinary team of experienced Aboriginal-health researchers conducted a thematic analysis of their planning meetings regarding a community-based Aboriginal health research training project and of the text generated by the meetings and supplemented the analysis with a literature review. Four research challenges are identified and addressed: (1) contrasting frameworks of Western science and indigenous knowledge systems; (2) the impact of historic colonialist processes upon the interface between health science research and Aboriginal communities; (3) culturally relevant frameworks and processes for knowledge generation and knowledge transfer; and (4) Aboriginal leadership, governance, and participation. Culturally appropriate and community-controlled collaborative research can result in improved health outcomes in Aboriginal communities and contribute new insights and perspectives to the fields of public health and medicine in general.

  7. Devising a protocol-related statistical mechanics framework for granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillusson, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Devising a statistical mechanics framework for jammed granular materials is a challenging task as those systems do not share some important properties required to characterize them with statistical thermodynamics tools. In a recent paper [Asenjo et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)], a new definition of a granular entropy, which puts the protocol used to generate the packings at its roots, has been proposed. Following up these results, it is shown that the protocol used in Asenjo et al. can be recast as a canonical ensemble with a particular value of the temperature. Signature of gaussianity for large system sizes strongly suggests an asymptotic equivalence with a corresponding microcanonical ensemble where jammed states with certain basin volumes are sampled uniformly. We argue that this microcanonical ensemble is not Edwards's microcanonical ensemble and generalize this argument to other protocols.

  8. Designing research funding schemes to promote global health equity: An exploration of current practice in health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-11-23

    International research is an essential means of reducing health disparities between and within countries and should do so as a matter of global justice. Research funders from high-income countries have an obligation of justice to support health research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) that furthers such objectives. This paper investigates how their current funding schemes are designed to incentivise health systems research in LMICs that promotes health equity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with 16 grants officers working for 11 funders and organisations that support health systems research: the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, Comic Relief, Doris Duke Foundation, European Commission, International Development Research Centre, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Research Council of Norway, Rockefeller Foundation, UK Department of International Development, UK Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust. Thematic analysis of the data demonstrates their funding schemes promote health systems research with (up to) five key features that advance health equity: being conducted with worst-off populations, focusing on research topics that advance equitable health systems, having LMIC ownership of the research agenda, strengthening LMIC research capacity, and having an impact on health disparities. The different types of incentives that encouraged proposed projects to have these features are identified and classified by their strength (strong, moderate, weak). It is suggested that research funders ought to create and maintain funding schemes with strong incentives for the features identified above in order to more effectively help reduce global health disparities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana

    Full Text Available Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of

  10. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... and private sector commitment.Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria...

  11. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  12. Health research in Africa: Are we communicating our findings to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health research in Africa: Are we communicating our findings to relevant stakeholders? ... ties and research institutes generate new knowledge and ideas. However, it is ... general public is part of researchers' social responsibil- ity; it ensures ...

  13. Clinical health research in India: is there a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Suhail I; Dutta, Sourav; Mateen, Sayyad; Kazi, Rehan; Jagade, Mohan

    2011-04-01

    A vibrant health research industry is an indispensible asset for societal development. Health research focus and output in India is sadly not at par with the magnitude and distribution of the prevalent disease burden. In the current scenario of the ever evolving Indian public health sector, the balancing of research efforts between different competing fields, especially when resources are meagre, is a delicate one and quite typical of the problems anticipated in developing countries. To progress, the nation's clinical health research needs good quality, authentic and relevant research in the varied aspect of public health. Rhetoric or theoretical concepts alone cannot move the health status and research forward in this country. Evidence and evidence based medicine have revitalised the academic aspects of the public health sector. But, its up to the Indian policy makers, administrators and medical professionals to assure that the vast research opportunity this country offers is exploited to its maximum potential.

  14. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    OpenAIRE

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. ...

  15. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Saharan Africa continues to deal with high morbidity and mortality rates related to health inequalities and diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. View moreUsing Evidence to Reduce Health Inequalities in East and Southern ...

  16. Striving for better health through health research in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Cabinet of Health Research and Development (CHRD) has recently been established as the first health research institute in one of the world's newest nations, Timor-Leste. We discuss the development of this initiative to build health research capacity within the context of Timor-Leste's health system, history and future goals. PMID:22490170

  17. HIV and health systems: research to bridge the divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    Concern that HIV programs in low-income countries may strain weak health systems and undermine achievement of other priority health goals has resulted in a research agenda focused on measuring the effects of past HIV investments on non-HIV services and outcomes. However, this research has limited value for informing future health policies and programs, which increasingly view health systems as the common platform for delivery of HIV and other health services. These policies reflect a shift in the framing of HIV care and treatment from emergency response to routine health service. In this paradigm, relevant areas for research are strengthening, scaling, and sustaining health systems in low-income countries to reduce all-cause mortality and morbidity, including deaths from HIV. To build an evidence base to support current and future health systems and policy, researchers need to move from retrospective studies to prospective research and adopt innovative study designs and analytic methods.

  18. Health trajectory research: a call to action for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; Wyman, Jean F; Gaugler, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    The focus of health trajectory research is study of health over time for individual persons, families, or communities. The person-focused, time-based perspective reflects health as it is experienced over the life course and maps directly onto processes of care, contributing to ease in translation of results to practice. The agenda focuses on theoretical and empirical components needed to (a) build health trajectory science; (b) develop the scientific workforce to conduct health trajectory research; (c) integrate health trajectory research with other critical, emerging areas of nursing science (genomics and genetics, informatics, dynamic systems and communication); and (d) apply health trajectory research across the life span and continuum of care. Agenda items point the way toward a reorientation of nursing research that incorporates and emphasizes understanding of individual health trajectories.

  19. Feminist intersectionality: bringing social justice to health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A

    2011-05-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011

  20. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  1. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  2. Devising work schedules for a collective: favouring intergenerational collaboration among counsellors in a shelter for female victims of conjugal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatigny, Céline

    2011-01-01

    The work activity of counsellors in shelters for female victims of conjugal violence is explored. The consortium of shelters requested the study because of complaints of worker stress, difficulties in management and high employee turnover. This qualitative and participatory community study involved a team of specialists in ergonomics and social work from the Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la santé, la sociélté et l'environnement (CINBIOSE), brought together by the Community Outreach Service of Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM). Presented here are the study findings pertaining to training. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews and 80 hours of observation of work and training were conducted with counsellors from two contrasting shelters. Observations revealed an intense collaborative activity involving communication by many means. Nonetheless, young counsellors interviewed complained of having few opportunities to develop their counselling skills because they were isolated on evening, night and weekend shifts. In collaboration with the ergonomists, one shelter experimented with new ways of devising the work schedule to favour learning and training. By transforming the training mechanism, job status and work schedules, the shelter made the conditions more conducive to the development of counsellors' skills and health, while eliminating turnover for at least the two following years.

  3. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  4. Coordinating and Strengthening the Health Research System in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to address some fundamental gaps in Zambia's health research system. These gaps include the lack of a central body to fund and regulate research; low institutional capacity; health policies and programs that are often out of step with health needs; and an evidence base that is fractured, scattered, ...

  5. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 1 March 2012, the South African Minister of Health operationalised section 71 of the National Health Act (NHA), ushering in a new phase of research regulation. When read with sections 1, 11 and 16 of the NHA, section 71 describes the legal norms for undertaking various forms of health research in South Africa.

  6. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...

  7. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  8. Custom-devised and generic digital enhancement of images for people with maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, Susan J; Mei, Ming

    2009-07-01

    enhancement as the custom-devised filters. Generic filters, which are easier to apply than the custom-devised filters, are appropriate for rehabilitation purposes.

  9. Creating a new investment pool for innovative health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Tracey-Lea; Patel, Anushka; Jan, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Recent trends in health research funding towards 'safe bets' is discouraging investment into the development of health systems interventions and choking off a vital area of policy-relevant research. This paper argues that to encourage investment into innovative and perceivably riskier health systems research, researchers need to create more attractive business cases by exploring alternative approaches to the design and evaluation of health system interventions. At the same time, the creation of dedicated funding opportunities to support this work, as well as for relevant early career researchers, is needed.

  10. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  11. The Emotional Work of Doing eHealth Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, Maria; Mkulo, Zawadhafsa; Boynton, Petra M

    2017-01-01

    Within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), researchers have become more aware of the interplay between the work they are doing and their own health and wellbeing. These issues have been discussed mostly in the context of HCI research around sensitive issues (Sensitive HCI). We argue that researcher wellbeing needs to be considered in all eHealth and mHealth research. Here, we focus on the \\emph{emotional labour} required by the political and organisational structures of eHealth research, and il...

  12. Current role of research ethics committees in health research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... All authors met the criteria for authorship. Conflict of interest. Research project funded by the International. Development Research Centre (ref. no. 105714 – 001). Acknowledgements. We acknowledge contributions to the con ception and design of the study from Prof. Benjamin Fayomi and Marius Kedote,.

  13. Research Award: Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Applicants must possess strong research and analytical skills and proficiency in English is essential. The following are considered assets: • knowledge of research for development,. • field experience in an LMIC,. • demonstrated ability to work independently,. • strong written and oral communications skills, ...

  14. Conducting Nursing Research to Advance and Inform Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Edward, Jean

    2016-11-01

    The primary roles of nurse scientists in conducting health policy research are to increase knowledge in the discipline and provide evidence for informing and advancing health policies with the goal of improving the health outcomes of society. Health policy research informs, characterizes, explains, or tests hypotheses by employing a variety of research designs. Health policy research focuses on improving the access to care, the quality and cost of care, and the efficiency with which care is delivered. In this article, we explain how nurses might envision their research in a policy process framework, describe research designs that nurse researchers might use to inform and advance health policies, and provide examples of research conducted by nurse researchers to explicate key concepts in the policy process framework. Health policies are well informed and advanced when nurse researchers have a good understanding of the political process. The policy process framework provides a context for improving the focus and design of research and better explicating the connection between research evidence and policy. Nurses should focus their research on addressing problems of importance that are on the healthcare agenda, work with interdisciplinary teams of researchers, synthesize, and widely disseminate results.

  15. Residential mobility : Towards progress in mobility health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, T.; Manley, D.J.; Sabel, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Research into health disparities has long recognized the importance of residential mobility as a crucial factor in determining health outcomes. However, a lack of connectivity between the health and mobility literatures has led to a stagnation of theory and application on the health side, which

  16. Qualitative Research and its Uses in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q.

    2008-01-01

    Although relatively uncommon in health care research, qualitative research is now receiving recognition and is increasingly used in health care research with social and cultural dimensions. Unlike quantitative research, which is deductive and tends to analyze phenomena in terms of trends and frequencies, qualitative research seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon through description. It aims to develop concepts that aid in the understanding of natural phenomena with emphasis on the me...

  17. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research Matters in Governance, Equity and Health - Phase II. IDRC's Governance, Equity and Health program initiative, and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) jointly launched the Research Matters program in 2003 (101899), and renewed... View moreResearch Matters in Governance, Equity and ...

  18. Pacific Health Research Guidelines: The Cartography of an Ethical Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Schaaf, Karlo

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) published a set of "Guidelines on Pacific health research". The Guidelines were an attempt to articulate the features of ethical research relationships with Pacific peoples living in Aotearoa New Zealand. This article describes the process of developing these guidelines, using…

  19. Strengthening Research for Health System Development in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... research for health, and deliver the training course. The last will include funding, mentoring and supervising selected research projects. In addition, a research for health information management system will be constructed and implemented (with appropriate training and adaptation) in each of the four countries involved.

  20. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2016-05-17

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. A metal aerosol holding chamber devised for young children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1995-01-01

    The low tidal volume and flow in preschool children may reduce the efficiency of aerosol delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) through a traditional holding chamber. A prototype small-volume steel holding chamber with two one-way valves was devised to prolong aerosol availability...... children less than 8 yrs of age. In vitro, the half life of aerosol disappearance in the steel prototype and the plastic Nebuhaler was > 30 s and 9 s, respectively. In vivo, the prototype delivered an age-independent mean dose of 38% of the nominal dose, and the Nebuhaler delivered an age-dependent mean...... dose, ranging from 42% of the nominal dose in children > or = 4 yrs to 19% of the nominal dose in infants. We conclude that the use of plastic for holding chambers may influence dose-delivery, and single-valve control may cause age-dependent dose-delivery. Reproducible age-independent drug-delivery may...

  2. Mental health research priorities for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wykes, T.; Haro, J.M.; Belli, S.R.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.; Arango, C.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Bitter, I.; Brunn, M.; Chevreul, K.; Demotes-Mainard, J.; Elfeddali, I.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Fiorillo, A.; Forsman, A.K.; Hazo, J.-B.; Kuepper, R.; Knappe, S.; Leboyer, M.; McDaid, D.; Miret, M.; Papp, S.; Park, A. -L.; Schumann, G.; Thornicroft, G.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van Os, J.; Wahlbeck, K.; Walker-Tilley, T.; Wittchen, H.-U.

    2015-01-01

    Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe—not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity

  3. Mental health systems research is urgently needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraceno Benedetto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent developments, including experience related to the development of WHO's World Health Report 2001, the WHO Atlas and the DCP Project related to Mental, Neurological, Developmental and Substance Abuse Disorders, indicate why advancing the interests of mental health is now so compelling. In order to deliver a high standard of mental health treatment and care WHO emphasizes the adoption of an integrated system of service delivery to address comprehensively the psychosocial needs of people with mental disorders. Even though the burden is large and increasing, the capacity to reach those in need is poor. This gap cannot be filled just by seeking more funding for mental health, more human resources, or more training. Of course, these aspects are key ingredients but what is often neglected is the need to conceive service delivery rationally. Mental health professionals' attention should be channeled towards mental health systems and service organization which obviously has consequences in their training which should include more public health knowledge. We need to know how to plan and organize services and improve the use of scarce financial and human resources in order to reach out to the mental health needs of the general population and to provide effective and humane services to those who need care.

  4. Health | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Photo: Direct Relief. Health systems in developing countries face huge challenges in providing high-quality, affordable services. Among them are geographic barriers, a shortage of skilled personnel, and poor data. Read more about Innovations are bringing better health within reach. Language English. Les programmes de ...

  5. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, when staff at TARSC asked people in participatory sessions to form a human sculpture to illustrate their perception of how health systems operated in terms of patient care, the sculpture most commonly showed health workers, managers, and others turning away from the patient and looking up to the next level ...

  6. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  7. Increasing Health Research Literacy through Outreach and Networking: Why Translational Research Should Matter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…

  8. An Analysis of Canadian Institute for Health Research Funding for Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deonandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars, clinical research 27% (41%, health services 10% (7%, and population health research 8% (3%. The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response. Preference for biomedical research may be due to the detriment of clinical research.

  9. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Ethical challenges of conducting health research in UK school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah

    This paper offers guidance for novice nurse researchers on the ethical and methodological challenges of conducting health research in high school settings. Over the course of two studies in UK high schools with students aged 11-16 years, the authors encountered common ethical and methodological challenges. This article draws on these studies to build a critique of approaches to health research in school settings. Issues of consent and assent, confidentiality and participation can highlight tensions between the expectations of schools and health researchers. In this context, feasible research designs raise complex ethical and methodological questions. Ethical and methodological norms for health research may not be suitable for high school settings. Successful school-based health research designs may need to be flexible and responsive to the social environment of schools.

  11. Sharing Research Data to Improve Public Health: A Funder Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David; Littler, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Through the Public Health Research Data Forum, global health research funders are working together to increase the availability of public health and epidemiology research data in ways that are equitable, ethical, and efficient. The Wellcome Trust funded the research reported in this special edition as a first step toward building an evidence base on the perspectives of research stakeholders in low- and middle-income countries on the benefits and challenges of sharing health research data. We hope this work will make a key contribution to discussions aimed at creating policy frameworks for data access at local, national, and regional levels that are sensitive to different contexts and ensure the benefits to research and health are realized in an equitable manner. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. A national research agenda for public health services and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The field of public health services and systems research (PHSSR) has emerged over the past decade to produce the evidence needed to address critical uncertainties about how best to organize, finance, and deliver effective public health strategies to all Americans. To advance these efforts, a national PHSSR research agenda-setting process was used to identify a broad inventory of information needs and uncertainties that public health stakeholders face in the domains of public health workforce, public health system structure and performance, public health financing, and public health information and technology. This paper presents the results of an expert review process used to transform the identified information needs into a concise set of research questions that can be pursued through new scientific inquiry in PHSSR. Established research frameworks were used to specify the contexts, mechanisms of action, and outcomes within the public health system that require further study. A total of 72 research questions were developed from the 113 original items in the PHSSR inventory of information needs. The questions include both persistent problems and newly emerging needs in public health practice and policy. The resulting research agenda provides a starting point for mobilizing the public health scientific enterprise around contemporary, high-priority uncertainties identified by broad cross sections of public health stakeholders. Regular updates to this agenda will be required to achieve continuous improvements in both the science and practice of public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the research-policy divide for oral health inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica; Crocombe, Leonard; Campbell, Steven; Goldberg, Lynette R; Seidel, Bastian M

    2014-11-01

    No studies exist of the congruence of research in oral health to policy. This study aimed to examine the broad congruence of oral health research to policy, and implications for developing oral health research that is more policy relevant, particularly for the wider challenge of addressing unequal oral health outcomes, rather than specific policy translation issues. Bayesian-based software was used in a multi-layered method to compare the conceptual content of 127,193 oral health research abstracts published between 2000-2012 with eight current oral health policy documents from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Fifty-five concepts defined the research abstracts, of which only eight were policy-relevant, and six of which were minor research concepts. The degree of disconnection between clinical concepts and healthcare system and workforce development concepts was striking. This study shows that, far from being "lost in translation," oral health research and policy are so different as to raise doubts about the extent to which research is policy-relevant and policy is research-based. The notion of policy relevance encompasses the lack of willingness of policy makers to embrace research, and the need for researchers to develop research that is, and is seen to be, policy-relevant. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice Hm; Karliner, Leah S.; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic acces...

  15. Participatory Action Research, Mental Health Service User Research, and the Hearing (our Voices Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schneider

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss participatory action research as a framework for enabling people diagnosed with mental health problems to carry out research and in doing so to promote health equity, citizenship, and social justice for people with a mental health diagnosis. The participatory approach to research aims to involve ordinary community members in generating practical knowledge about issues and problems of concern to them and through this promoting personal and social change. The article traces the development of participatory action research and describes its application in the mental health service user research movement. The Hearing (our Voices projects, participatory research projects carried out in Calgary, Alberta by a group of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, are described to illustrate this approach to mental health research. Participation in research to promote health equity is about inclusion and about how marginalized people can claim full and equal citizenship as participants in and contributors to society.

  16. Integrating a Proposed Population Health Model with Nursing Informatics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Dawn; Arcia, Adriana; Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur Ingibjargardottir; Iribarren, Sarah; Yoon, Sunmoo

    2016-01-01

    In this panel we discuss how nursing informatics can provide a framework for carrying out population health nursing research, using a conceptual model for nursing and population health; the Conceptual Model of Nursing and Population Health (CMNPH). The panel will provide an overview of the CMNPH and then each presenter will present findings from ongoing informatics research that provides insights to different levels of the CNMPH model. The panel is targeted towards informatics researchers who wish to use novel informatics approaches to carry out population health research.

  17. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  18. Research capacity and training needs for non-communicable diseases in the public health arena in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bulent; Phillimore, Peter; Islek, Duygu; Oztoprak, Dilek; Korkmaz, Eren; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unal, Belgin

    2014-09-05

    The aim of this study is to define the research capacity and training needs for professionals working on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the public health arena in Turkey. This study was part of a comparative cross-national research capacity-building project taking place across Turkey and the Mediterranean Middle East (RESCAP-Med, funded by the EU). Identification of research capacity and training needs took place in three stages. The first stage involved mapping health institutions engaged in NCD research, based on a comprehensive literature review. The second stage entailed in-depth interviews with key informants (KIs) with an overview of research capacity in public health and the training needs of their staff. The third stage required interviewing junior researchers, identified by KIs in stage two, to evaluate their perceptions of their own training needs. The approach we have taken was based upon a method devised by Hennessy&Hicks. In total, 55 junior researchers identified by 10 KIs were invited to participate, of whom 46 researchers agreed to take part (84%). The specific disciplines in public health identified in advance by RESCAP-MED for training were: advanced epidemiology, health economics, environmental health, medical sociology-anthropology, and health policy. The initial literature review showed considerable research on NCDs, but concentrated in a few areas of NCD research. The main problems listed by KIs were inadequate opportunities for specialization due to heavy teaching workloads, the lack of incentives to pursue research, a lack of financial resources even when interest existed, and insufficient institutional mechanisms for dialogue between policy makers and researchers over national research priorities. Among junior researchers, there was widespread competence in basic epidemiological skills, but an awareness of gaps in knowledge of more advanced epidemiological skills, and the opportunities to acquire these skills were lacking. Self

  19. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  20. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  1. The lack of public health research output from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar VS Udaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic assessment of recent health research output from India, and its relation with the estimated disease burden, is not available. This information would help understand the areas in health research that need improvement in India to enhance the health of India's population. Methods The health research output from India during 2002, which was accessible in the public domain, was assessed by searching PubMed and other internet health literature databases, and was related to the disease burden suggested by the Global Burden of Disease Study. The main outcome measures were number of health papers with abstracts in basic, clinical and public health sciences; quality-adjusted research output based on the impact factors of journals in which the papers were published; classification of papers in disease/condition categories and comparison of research output with the estimated disease burden in each category. Comparison of the health papers from India during 2002 included in PubMed was done with those from Australia during one quarter of 2002. Results Of the 4876 health papers from India in 2002 in PubMed, 48.4%, 47.1% and 4.4% were in basic, clinical and public health sciences, respectively. Of the 4495 papers based on original research, only 3.3% were in public health. Quality-adjusted original research output was highest for non-communicable diseases (62% of total. Of the total quality-adjusted original research output, the proportions in injuries (0.7%, cardiovascular diseases (3.6%, respiratory infections (0.2%, diarrhoeal diseases (1.9%, perinatal conditions (0.4%, childhood cluster diseases (0.5%, unipolar major depression (0%, and HIV/AIDS (1.5% were substantially lower than their proportional contribution to the disease burden in India. Human resources, health policy, health economics, and impact assessment of interventions were particularly poorly represented in public health research. The Australia-India ratio for

  2. Equity of Access to Health Care: Theory & Aplication in Research

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Haerawati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Equity of access to health services is a major challenge faced by many countries in the world. The gap in health status between developed and developing countries often occur. Including health inequalities between groups within a country. This study aimed to describe theory and application of the equity of access to health services in research. Methods: The literature review with systematic mapping studies related to equity of access to health services in some countries. It is co...

  3. Storytelling to access social context and advance health equity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, JoAnne

    2012-11-01

    Increased understanding of individual and social determinants of health is crucial to moving toward health equity. This essay examines storytelling as a vehicle for advancing health equity research. Contemplative examination of storytelling as a research strategy. An overview of story theory is provided. This is followed by an examination of storytelling as a tool for increasing understanding about the contexts in which people negotiate health, strengthening participation of communities in addressing health issues, and building bridges between researchers and target populations. Storytelling can be a powerful tool for advancing health equity research. However, its effective use requires a renegotiation of relationships between researchers and target communities, as well as setting aside routine time to attend storytelling events and read a variety of stories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  5. The Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Méndez, Marta Rivero; Portillo, Carmen; Padilla, Geraldine; Cuca, Yvette; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the partnership between the schools of nursing at the University of California San Francisco and the University of Puerto Rico to address the need for nursing research on HIV/AIDS health disparities. The partnership led to the creation of the Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities with funding from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Nursing Research. We provide background information on the disproportionate impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on racial and ethnic minorities, describe the major predictors of health disparities in persons at risk for or diagnosed with HIV/AIDS using the Outcomes Model for Health Care Research, and outline the major components of the Nursing Research Center. The center's goal is to improve health outcomes for people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS by enhancing the knowledge base for HIV/AIDS care.

  6. The First Interlaced Continuum Robot, Devised to Intrinsically Follow the Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungjeon; Kojcev, Risto; Sinibaldi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flexible probes that are safely deployed to hard-to-reach targets while avoiding critical structures are strategic in several high-impact application fields, including the biomedical sector and the sector of inspections at large. A critical problem for these tools is the best approach for deploying an entire tool body, not only its tip, on a sought trajectory. A probe that achieves this deployment is considered to follow the leader (or to achieve follow-the-leader deployment) because its body sections follow the track traced by its tip. Follow-the-leader deployment through cavities is complicated due to a lack of external supports. Currently, no definitive implementation for a probe that is intrinsically able to follow the leader, i.e., without relying on external supports, has been achieved. In this paper, we present a completely new device, namely the first interlaced continuum robot, devised to intrinsically follow the leader. We developed the interlaced configuration by pursuing a conceptual approach irrespective of application-specific constraints and assuming two flexible tools with controllable stiffness. We questioned the possibility of solving the previously mentioned deployment problem by harnessing probe symmetry during the design process. This study examines the entire development of the novel interlaced probe: model-based conceptual design, detailed design and prototyping, and preliminary experimental assessment. Our probe can build a track with a radius of curvature that is as small as twice the probe diameter, which enables it to outperform state-of-the-art tools that are aimed at follow-the-leader deployment. Despite the limitations that are inherently associated with its original character, this study provides a prototypical approach to the design of interlaced continuum systems and demonstrates the first interlaced continuum probe, which is intrinsically able to follow the leader.

  7. Alberta's new health research paradigms: Are graduate students being prepared for interdisciplinary team research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Riddell, Meghan; Weller, Carol; Coltan, Lavinia I; Benzies, Karen; Olson, David M

    2010-06-01

    Strategic prioritization of research agendas to address health problems with a large social and economic burden has increased the demand for interdisciplinary research. Universities have addressed the need for interdisciplinary research in their strategic documents. However, research training to equip graduates for careers in interdisciplinary research teams has not kept pace. We offer recommendations to graduate students, universities, health services organizations, and health research funders designed to increase the capacity for interdisciplinary research team training, and provide an example of an existing training program.

  8. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR resear...

  9. Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled “Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?” The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area.

  10. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    administration and management of all MTFs, including budgetary matters, information technology, administrative policy and procedure, military medical...2013;7(12). 7. Kitchen LW, Vaughn DW, Skillman DR. Role of US military research programs in the development of US Food and Drug Administration ...that would optimally support military medical professionals who oversee and conduct DHP medical research. In response, the DHB assigned the Public

  11. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship ...

  12. Research Award: Food, Environment and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship ...

  13. Research award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... Deadline: September 6, 2017 Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh ...

  14. USDA research and honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA - Agricultural Research Service Bee Research Laboratory (BRL) is comprised of nine full-time federal employees and a team of 20+ students and collaborators from the U.S., England, Thailand, Spain, and China. The mission of the BRL is to provide innovative tools and insights for building and...

  15. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  16. Concepts and procedures for mapping food and health research infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijević, Lada; Geurts, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent initiatives in Europe have encouraged the formalisation of research infrastructure to unify fragmented facilities, resources and services; and to facilitate world-class research of complex public health challenges, such as those related to non-communicable disease. How this can....../nutrients; Status and functional markers of nutritional health; Health and disease risk of foods/nutrients. Key findings and conclusion There is no objective measure to identify or classify research infrastructure. It is therefore, difficult to operationalise this term. EuroDISH demonstrated specific challenges...... infrastructure. In addition, suggestions are made for the future direction of food and health research infrastructure in Europe. These views are informed by the EuroDISH project, which mapped research infrastructure in four areas of food and health research: Determinants of dietary behaviour; Intake of foods...

  17. [Challenges faced by public health research organization in the context of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Cao, Jia; Zhou, Laixin

    2015-07-01

    Translational research in public health (TRPH) increasingly attracted attention. Focus of TRPH is not only patients, it also emphasizes to promote health for all society and whole population. Therefore, TRPH is more complicated, involves multi-disciplines and multi-sectors. This paper analyzed the conception, features of TRPH, and challenges faced by research organization of public health.

  18. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé,Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...

  19. Establishing local priorities for a health research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whear, Rebecca; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Boddy, Kate; Papworth, Helen; Frier, Julie; Stein, Ken

    2015-02-01

    To describe the two-stage prioritization process being used by the UK National Institute for Health Research's Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for the South-West Peninsula (or PenCLAHRC) - a joint health service and university partnership and reflect on implications for the wider context of priority setting in health-care research. PenCLAHRC's process establishes the priorities of Stakeholders including service users across a regional health system for locally relevant health services research and implementation. Health research questions are collected from clinicians, academics and service users in Devon and Cornwall (UK) using a web-based question formulation tool. There is a two-stage prioritization process which uses explicit criteria and a wide Stakeholder group, including service users to identify important research questions relevant to the south-west peninsula locality. To date, a wide variety of health research topics have been prioritized by the PenCLAHRC Stakeholders. The research agenda reflects the interests of academics, clinicians and service users in the local area. Potential challenges to implementation of the process include time constraints, variable quality of questions (including the language of research) and initiating and maintaining engagement in the process. Shared prioritization of local health research needs can be achieved between Stakeholders from a wide range of perspectives. The processes developed have been successful and, with minor changes, will continue to be used during subsequent rounds of prioritization. Engagement of Stakeholders in establishing a research agenda encourages the most relevant health questions to be asked and may improve implementation of research findings and take up by service users. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  1. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  2. Defining Health Research for Development: The perspective of stakeholders from an international health research partnership in Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice

    2017-05-03

    The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Vaccine Developer) and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program (PATH/MVI, Funder-Development Partner), (RTS, S) (NCT00866619). The respondents included teams from four clinical research centres (two centres in Ghana and two in Tanzania) and various collaborating partners. This paper analyses responses to the question: What is Health Research for Development? Based on the stakeholders' experience the respondents offered many ways of defining Health Research for Development. The responses fell into four broad themes: i) Equitable Partnerships; ii) System Sustainability; iii) Addressing Local Health Targets, and iv) Regional Commitment to Benefit Sharing. Through defining Health Research for Development six key learning points were generated from the four result themes: 1) Ensure there is local research leadership working with the collaborative partnership, and local healthcare system, to align the project agenda and activities with local research and health priorities; 2) Know the country-specific context - map the social, health, legislative and political setting; 3) Define an explicit development component and plan of action in a research project; 4) Address the barriers and opportunities to sustain system capacity. 5) Support decentralised health system decision-making to facilitate the translation pathway; 6) Govern, monitor and evaluate the development components of health research partnerships. Overall, equity and unity between partners are required to deliver health research for development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Naval Health Research Center 1985 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    of occupational and environmental conditions, pharmacological agents, and certain clinical entities which may enhance or impair health and...environmental and genetic factors, which create an imbalance between secretion of acid and pepsin by the stomach end the resistance of the

  4. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA),. Consultant Psychiatrist at Mercy Mental Health,. Melbourne Area, Australia. Endocrinology. aakinbiyi@gmail.com. 29. Editorial Adviser. Professor Basden JC Onwubere, MBChB, FMCP, FWACP, FCAP. (Nigeria). Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of ...

  5. Call for Implementation Research Proposals: Health Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... situations and their consequences. In addition to adolescents' awareness and ability to exercise their sexual and reproductive health rights, the State and other service provision entities have obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights. In many countries in the MENA region, adolescents, particularly ...

  6. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events. ... This project aims to build ecohealth leadership at the municipal level in Colombia and Venezuela to address health priorities, including vector-borne diseases and food systems interventions for ...

  7. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M.P.; Fernández, M.F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A.M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C.E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A.-M.N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M.S.; Pierik, F.H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A.C.; Slama, R.; Sram, R.J.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a

  8. Annual health examination program, Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, L.; Ladou, J.

    1975-01-01

    A cost analysis of a low-volume multiphasic health testing program is presented. The results indicate that unit costs are similar to those of high-volume automated programs. The comparability in unit cost appears to result from the savings in personnel and space requirements of the smaller program as compared with the larger ones.

  9. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Expanding delivery system research in public health settings: lessons from practice-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Hogg, Rachel A

    2012-11-01

    Delivery system research to identify how best to organize, finance, and implement health improvement strategies has focused heavily on clinical practice settings, with relatively little attention paid to public health settings-where research is made more difficult by wide heterogeneity in settings and limited sources of existing data and measures. This study examines the approaches used by public health practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to expand delivery system research and evidence-based practice in public health settings. Practice-based research networks employ quasi-experimental research designs, natural experiments, and mixed-method analytic techniques to evaluate how community partnerships, economic shocks, and policy changes impact delivery processes in public health settings. In addition, network analysis methods are used to assess patterns of interaction between practitioners and researchers within PBRNs to produce and apply research findings. Findings from individual PBRN studies elucidate the roles of information exchange, community resources, and leadership and decision-making structures in shaping implementation outcomes in public health delivery. Network analysis of PBRNs reveals broad engagement of both practitioners and researchers in scientific inquiry, with practitioners in the periphery of these networks reporting particularly large benefits from research participation. Public health PBRNs provide effective mechanisms for implementing delivery system research and engaging practitioners in the process. These networks also hold promise for accelerating the translation and application of research findings into public health settings.

  11. Crowdsourced health research studies: an important emerging complement to clinical trials in the public health research ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2012-03-07

    Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns. The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies. Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites. Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive outcomes for a variety of health

  12. Development Innovation Fund for Global Health Research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Government of Canada has created a fund to support health research and innovation aimed at improving the lives of the world's poor. The Development Innovation Fund (DIF) will support scientists and scientific institutions engaged in health research through a series of peer-reviewed grant competitions. The fund will ...

  13. The 2016 CIOMS guidelines and public-health research ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In November 2016, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) published its revised International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans. In relation to earlier versions, the scope of the new guidelines has been expanded to include public-health research.

  14. Health Inequity in Asia : Strengthening Research Capacity to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equitap, a developing country-led research network, has systematically documented the performance of 15 national health systems in Asia since 2000, with a significant impact on both researchers and policymakers. The first phase of Equitap revealed stark disparities in access to health care and risk protection between rich ...

  15. Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As part of the lead up to the October 2000 International Conference on Health Research for Development in Bangkok, the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) called upon its associates around the world to reflect on achievements and setbacks in the 1990s. This book is the result of those reflections.

  16. Mental health research in Ghana: A literature review | Read | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...

  17. Opinions on a strategy to promote nurses\\' health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the second article in a series of three articles on a strategy to promote nurses' health research contribution in South Africa. This article describes a Delphi study that was conducted to explore the panel of experts' opinions on nurses' health research contribution and to develop a strategy to promote this contribution.

  18. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  19. Health research agenda for East AFrica in the new millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health research agenda for East AFrica in the new millennium: Looking ahead. A Y Kitua. Abstract. No Abstract. Tanzania Health Research Bulletin Vol. 9 (3) 2007: pp. 147-153. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  1. Research Award: Governance for Equity in Health Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... The successful candidate is required to have strong research, analytical, and writing skills, as well as familiarity with key institutions (including Canadian) active in global health research and policy. Proficiency in English and French is essential. An understanding of the health implications of urbanization, ...

  2. EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership. 10 mai 2011. Ecosystems and Human Health. Addressing critical population health and environment issues through an ecohealth approach is a common vision shared by four individuals from vastly different parts of the world. Yoseth ...

  3. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and benefit incidence analysis of the equity impact of health ... Project Leader. Chris Atim ...

  4. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    use, unhealthy diet, alcohol misuse, and physical inactivity. The challenge. Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and weaknesses in population health status and spreading inequalities among and within countries. Research for public health can contribute to the enhance- ment of people's ...

  5. Mapping research on health systems in Europe: a bibliometric assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco Garrido, M.; Hansen, J.; Busse, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Europe's health care decision-makers are facing an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. It is crucial that health care problems are addressed with evidence-informed policy and that evidence finding is aimed at those topics most urgent on policy agendas. Research on health

  6. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept…

  7. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  8. Integration of clinical research documentation in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Debra

    2015-04-01

    Clinical trials of investigational drugs and devices are often conducted within healthcare facilities concurrently with clinical care. With implementation of electronic health records, new communication methods are required to notify nonresearch clinicians of research participation. This article reviews clinical research source documentation, the electronic health record and the medical record, areas in which the research record and electronic health record overlap, and implications for the research nurse coordinator in documentation of the care of the patient/subject. Incorporation of clinical research documentation in the electronic health record will lead to a more complete patient/subject medical record in compliance with both research and medical records regulations. A literature search provided little information about the inclusion of clinical research documentation within the electronic health record. Although regulations and guidelines define both source documentation and the medical record, integration of research documentation in the electronic health record is not clearly defined. At minimum, the signed informed consent(s), investigational drug or device usage, and research team contact information should be documented within the electronic health record. Institutional policies should define a standardized process for this integration in the absence federal guidance. Nurses coordinating clinical trials are in an ideal position to define this integration.

  9. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  10. Research culture in a regional allied health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Research evidence is required to guide best practice, inform policy and improve the health of communities. Current indicators consider allied health research culture to be low. This study aimed to measure the allied health research culture and capacity in a Victorian regional health service. The Research Capacity and Culture tool was used to evaluate research capacity and culture across individual, team and organisation domains. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between allied health professions, whereas responses to open-ended questions were themed using open coding. One hundred thirty-six allied health professionals completed the survey. There were statistically significant differences in the organisation domain between social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions; in the team domain, between social work and all other professions. Motivators for conducting research included providing a high-quality service, developing skills and increasing job satisfaction. Barriers included other work roles taking priority, a lack of time and limited research skills. Multi-layered strategies including establishing conjoint research positions are recommended to increase allied health research culture in this regional area.

  11. Public Health Systems Research: Setting a National Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaway, Dennis; Halverson, Paul; Sotnikov, Sergey; Tilson, Hugh; Corso, Liza; Millington, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has recommended that policy decisions about improvement of national public health systems be guided by sound scientific evidence. However, to date there is no national research agenda to help guide public health systems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was called upon to lead a collaborative consensus-based process to define key research questions and establish a framework to create opportunities to better coordinate, leverage, and identify public health resources, which are increasingly scarce. The public health systems research agenda that emerged from this process has 14 overarching priority research themes. This national agenda should stimulate and guide research to meet the urgent need to improve the nation’s public health systems. PMID:16449601

  12. Text-mining analysis of mHealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Bunyamin; Zengul, Ferhat; Oner, Nurettin; Delen, Dursun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, because of the advancements in communication and networking technologies, mobile technologies have been developing at an unprecedented rate. mHealth, the use of mobile technologies in medicine, and the related research has also surged parallel to these technological advancements. Although there have been several attempts to review mHealth research through manual processes such as systematic reviews, the sheer magnitude of the number of studies published in recent years makes this task very challenging. The most recent developments in machine learning and text mining offer some potential solutions to address this challenge by allowing analyses of large volumes of texts through semi-automated processes. The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of mHealth research by utilizing text-mining and natural language processing (NLP) analyses. The study sample included abstracts of 5,644 mHealth research articles, which were gathered from five academic search engines by using search terms such as mobile health, and mHealth. The analysis used the Text Explorer module of JMP Pro 13 and an iterative semi-automated process involving tokenizing, phrasing, and terming. After developing the document term matrix (DTM) analyses such as single value decomposition (SVD), topic, and hierarchical document clustering were performed, along with the topic-informed document clustering approach. The results were presented in the form of word-clouds and trend analyses. There were several major findings regarding research clusters and trends. First, our results confirmed time-dependent nature of terminology use in mHealth research. For example, in earlier versus recent years the use of terminology changed from "mobile phone" to "smartphone" and from "applications" to "apps". Second, ten clusters for mHealth research were identified including (I) Clinical Research on Lifestyle Management, (II) Community Health, (III) Literature Review, (IV) Medical Interventions

  13. Methodological Aspects of Focus Groups in Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anja P. Tausch; Natalja Menold

    2016-01-01

    Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in this specific context. For this reason, we interviewed nine researchers who had conducted focus groups in the context of a project devoted to the development of an electronic personal health record. We performed qualitative content analysis on the interview data relating to recruitment, communication between the focus g...

  14. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    OpenAIRE

    McCourt, Christine A; Morgan, Philip A; Youll, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Me...

  15. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'racial' and ethnic groUps.l2.S--I In reality, 'racial' and ethnic differences in disease are more likely to be the consequence of racism and ethnic discrimination.9.1. 0 Indeed, South Africa provides the clearest example of how discrimination resutts in differential exposure to environmental risks and differential access to health ...

  16. National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Intramural Research to monitor adherence to NIH's inclusion policies, which ensure that women and ... Twitter feed is not available when Javascript is disabled. Please click on the 'More tweets' button below ...

  17. Assessing the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    This report assesses the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. This study: (1) Reviewed national strategies for electronic health records in Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand, through written materials available before January 2006. (2) Identified the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research through interviews with 96 experts in the U.S., Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand. (3) Delineated fundamental issues that must be confronted to maximize the contribution of national strategies for electronic health records to population health monitoring and research. National strategies for electronic health records reflect the political, healthcare, and market systems of individual countries. National strategies also reflect technical decisions and political judgments. National strategies are evolving, and passing through stages of conceptualization, design, pilot testing, and implementation. Only England has moved to implementation. Population health monitoring and research are secondary to the primary uses of clinical care and management in all national strategies for electronic health records. Only England has conceptualized, designed, and is implementing the use of electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. Canada's strategy includes communicable disease surveillance, but not broader population health monitoring for developing health statistics. This study identifies definitional, numerator, denominator, and overarching issues that must be evaluated in assessing the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. It delineates success factors that increase the potential for those national strategies to contribute to population health monitoring and research. Finally, this study assesses barriers that must be overcome if

  18. Social science and health research: growth at the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Christine A; Abeles, Ronald P

    2004-01-01

    Programs within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have recently taken steps to enhance social science contributions to health research. A June 2000 conference convened by the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research highlighted the role of the social sciences in health research and developed an agenda for advancing such research. The conference and agenda underscored the importance of research on basic social scientific concepts and constructs, basic social science research on the etiology of health and illness, and the application of basic social science constructs in health services, treatment, and prevention research. Recent activities at NIH suggest a growing commitment to social science research and its integration into interdisciplinary multilevel studies of health.

  19. Health promotion research literature in Europe 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A; Gatineau, M; Thorogood, M; Wyn-Roberts, N

    2007-01-01

    To undertake an overview of health promotion research in the EEA to inform the collaborative study-SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe). A 'filter' (search strategy) was used to search Medline and Embase for a 10-year period from 1995 to 2005. A 32% (6000) sample of the filter output was assessed for proportion constituting health promotion. Output was analysed by country, population, gross domestic product (GDP) and health need (disability-adjusted life years, DALYs). Disease prevention (screening and immunization) and health improvement papers were separately identified. The latter were classified by methodology, level of intervention and topic area. 18,862 papers were identified. One-third was identified as health promotion (2206/6000, 36.7%) equivalent to 6935 (CI 6651-7230). Production varied: Nordic countries were highest producers per million population; the UK the largest net producer. There was a weak relationship between health promotion publication and population size (r(2) = 0.38); a weak inverse relationship with relative health (DALYs per million population) (r(2) = 0.07) and a slightly stronger relationship with GDP (r(2) = 0.45). Twenty-eight percent (626/2206) of the papers identified were disease prevention (screening and immunization). The largest topic areas of the remainder (1580) were diet and exercise, smoking and tobacco, and cardiovascular disease reduction. Accidents and violence, alcohol and mental health each accounted for Health promotion research production varies across Europe. Research commissioning should stress interventional and policy level research.

  20. The need for more research on language barriers in health care: a proposed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth; Chen, Alice H M; Karliner, Leah S; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Mutha, Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. residents who speak little English may face language barriers when seeking health care. This article describes what is currently known about language barriers in health care and outlines a research agenda based on mismatches between the current state of knowledge of language barriers and what health care stakeholders need to know. Three broad areas needing more research are discussed: the ways in which language barriers affect health and health care, the efficacy of linguistic access service interventions, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. In each of these areas, we outline specific research questions and recommendations.

  1. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maximum length of manuscripts should be 6000 words (24 double-spaced typewritten pages) for review, 4000 words for research articles, 1,500 for technical notes, commentaries and short communications. Submission of Manuscript With effect from June 2006 all manuscripts (most be in English) and should be ...

  2. Health and social research in multiethnic societies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazroo, James Y

    2006-01-01

    ... in Multiethnic Societies provides essential and clear guidance on appropriate methods. Topics covered include: * * * * * * approaches to conceptualising ethnicity and understanding the context of ethnicity in modern societies ethical issues and the political context within which conducted how researchers could engage with communities and with service u...

  3. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Stem Cell Research and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

  5. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Integrative Cardiac Health Project, Windber Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss. Genomics Data 2015;4:50-53. 2...based patient empowering lifestyle solutions to prevent disease. Through this research, our objectives are to (1) identify genetic influences on CVD...and integrate information on dietary, behavioral, and lifestyle factors to provide important information on CVD risk reduction and (2) discover new

  7. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship. In the case of ... The use of trade names is unacceptable for medicinal products. 7. Manuscript .... Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights under this Public License.

  8. Research Needs and Priorities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Jytte; Nøhr, Christian; McNair, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi study was accomplished on the topic "what is needed to implement the information society within healthcare? and which research topics should be given higher priority than other topics to achieve the desired evolution?", involving 29 international experts. The study was comprised of four ...

  9. International Journal of Health Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Supporting research readiness in social enterprise health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nat M J; Hearty, Philippa; Harris, Linda; Burnell, Andrew; Pender, Sue; Oxnard, Chris; Charlesworth, George

    2017-09-13

    Health-based social enterprises are spun out of the NHS, yet continue to provide NHS-funded services. With the spin-out, however, formal processes for research governance were lost. Patients have a right to take part in research, regardless of where they access healthcare. This paper discusses the barriers to social enterprises undertaking applied health research and makes recommendations to address the need for equivalence of governance processes with NHS trusts.

  11. Action research--a necessary complement to traditional health science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mike; Grant, Gordon; Coleman, Zoë

    2008-06-01

    There is continuing interest in action research in health care. This is despite action researchers facing major problems getting support for their projects from mainstream sources of R&D funds partly because its validity is disputed and partly because it is difficult to predict or evaluate and is therefore seen as risky. In contrast traditional health science dominates and relies on compliance with strictly defined scientific method and rules of accountability. Critics of scientific health care have highlighted many problems including a perpetual quality gap between what is publicly expected and what is deliverable in the face of rising costs and the cultural variability of scientific medicine. Political demand to close the quality gap led to what can be seen as an elitist reform of policy on UK health research by concentrating more resources on better fewer centres and this may also have reduced support for action research. However, incompetent, unethical or criminal clinical practice in the UK has shifted policy towards greater patient and public involvement in health care and research. This highlights complementarity between health science and action research because action research can, as UK health policy requires, involve patients and public in priority setting, defining research outcomes, selecting research methodology, patient recruitment, and interpretation of findings and dissemination of results. However action research will remain marginalised unless either scientific research is transformed generally into a more reflective cycle or there is increased representation of action research enthusiasts within the establishment of health R&D or current peer review and public accountability arrangements are modified. None of these seem likely at this time. The case for complementarity is illustrated with two case studies.

  12. Supporting research readiness in social enterprise health services

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nat M. J.; Hearty, Philippa; Harris, Linda; Burnell, Andrew; Pender, Sue; Oxnard, Chris; Charlesworth, George

    2017-01-01

    Health-based social enterprises are spun out of the NHS, yet continue to provide NHS-funded services. With the spin-out, however, formal processes for research governance were lost. Patients have a right to take part in research, regardless of where they access healthcare. This paper discusses the barriers to social enterprises undertaking applied health research and makes recommendations to address the need for equivalence of governance processes with NHS trusts.

  13. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.; Blomstedt, Y.; Eriksson, M.; Becher, H.; Ramroth, H.; Kinsman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health equity is a global policy priority. To support this policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of

  14. Ten steps to conducting health professional education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-08-01

    The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others.

  16. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  17. Concepts of social epidemiology in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-09-02

    Social epidemiologists aim to identify social characteristics that affect the pattern of disease and health distribution in a society and to understand its mechanisms. Some important concepts of social epidemiology are: social inequalities, social relationships, social capital, and work stress. Concepts used in social epidemiology can make a useful contribution to health services research because the underlying social factors do not only influence health but are also related to health care. Social inequality indicators like education or income have an impact on access to health care as well as on utilization and quality of health care. Social relationships influence adherence to medical treatment, help-seeking behavior, utilization of health services, and outcomes. Social capital in health care organizations is an important factor for the delivery of high-quality coordinated care. Job stress is highly prevalent among health care providers and can not only affect their health but also their performance. The theoretical considerations behind factors like social inequalities, social relationships, social capital and work stress can enrich health services research because theory helps to specify the research question, to clarify methodological issues, to understand how social factors are related to health care, and to develop and implement interventions.

  18. IRB Problems and Solutions in Health Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carie S Tucker; Bivens, Kristin Marie; Pumroy, Erin; Rauch, Susan; Koerber, Amy

    2017-06-06

    In this article, we contribute to the current literature on the difficulties that social scientists encounter with IRBs, but with a focus on the distinct challenges that health communication scholars face in dealing with IRBs at their own institutions and elsewhere. Although health communication researchers, like other communication researchers, can expect to face many of the same challenges that their social science colleagues face during the IRB process, the researcher narratives we present in this article suggest that health communication research presents some distinct challenges because the communication interactions that we investigate occur in highly protected, private spaces, including the medical exam room, online patient forums, and electronic health records. To that end, we present a series of examples in which health communication researchers were able to find solutions or workarounds to the challenges they faced in gaining IRB approval for their research. In every case that we present, the researcher had to revise her initial study design to get around the constraints imposed by IRB requirements, and in every case, the researcher reports having experienced points of incommensurability similar to those reported by many other social scientists. In some situations, investigators even express frustration that the IRB's needs and demands superseded those of healthcare professionals and the patients whom they serve. Additionally, in some situations, investigators' understandings of human subjects' protection actually go further to protect patients' privacy and confidentiality than the IRB required. But, in all four cases that we present, the health communication research was ultimately successful.

  19. The University-Public Health Partnership for Public Health Research Training in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Gilles; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university-public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health.

  20. The NIEHS Superfund Research Program: 25 Years of Translational Research for Public Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites...

  1. The NIEHS Superfund Research Program: 25 Years of Translational Research for Public Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    .... SRP is coordinated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). It supports multi-project grants, undergraduate and postdoctoral training programs, individual research grants, and Small Business Innovation Research...

  2. Identifying research priorities for public health research to address health inequalities: use of Delphi-like survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ollerhead, E; Cook, A

    2017-10-09

    In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise. This study investigated the use of Delphi-like survey methods in identifying important research priorities relating to health inequalities and framing tractable research questions for topic areas identified. The study was conducted in two phases, both using Delphi-like survey methods. Firstly, public health professionals with an interest in health inequalities were asked to identify research priorities. Secondly academic researchers were asked to frame tractable research questions relating to the priorities identified. These research priorities identified using Delphi-like survey methods were subsequently compared to those identified using different methods. A total of 52 public health professionals and 21 academics across the United Kingdom agreed to take part. The response rates were high, from public health professionals across three survey rounds (69%, 50% and 40%) and from academics across one round (52%), indicating that participants were receptive to the method and motivated to respond. The themes identified as encompassing the most important research priorities were mental health, healthy environment and health behaviours. Within these themes, the topic areas that emerged most strongly included community interventions for prevention of mental health problems and the food and alcohol environment. Some responses received from academic researchers were (as requested) in the form of tractable research questions, whereas others

  3. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alaska Native (AN and American Indian (AI people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF, an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of health services for AN/AI people in south central Alaska and transformed the health system into a relationship-based model of care. This change reimagines how researchers interact with tribal communities and established community oversight of all health research conducted with AN/AI people in the region. We describe the SCF research review process, which requires tribal approval of the research concept, full proposal, and dissemination products, as well as local institutional review board approval, and a researcher-signed contract. This review evaluates research through the lens of tribal principles, practices, and priorities. The SCF example provides a framework for other tribes and organizations seeking to reshape the future of health research in AN/AI communities.

  4. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Beans, Julie A; Robinson, Renee F; Shaw, Jennifer L; Sylvester, Ileen; Dillard, Denise A

    2017-10-31

    Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of health services for AN/AI people in south central Alaska and transformed the health system into a relationship-based model of care. This change reimagines how researchers interact with tribal communities and established community oversight of all health research conducted with AN/AI people in the region. We describe the SCF research review process, which requires tribal approval of the research concept, full proposal, and dissemination products, as well as local institutional review board approval, and a researcher-signed contract. This review evaluates research through the lens of tribal principles, practices, and priorities. The SCF example provides a framework for other tribes and organizations seeking to reshape the future of health research in AN/AI communities.

  5. Prioritizing young people's emotional health support needs via participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, S E; Milnes, L; Welsby, H; Pryjmachuk, S

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: Young people's mental health is a concern to people around the world. Good emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness, but we need to know more about how to help young people look after their emotional health. We are learning that research is better if the public are involved in it, including children and young people. Therefore, we need to listen carefully to what young people have to say. In this paper, we describe some research that involved young people from start to finish. We were asking what kind of emotional health support would be useful to them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a useful way to involve young people in research so their voice can be heard. Young people like to use the Internet to find emotional health support and information, but need to know which web sites they can trust. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Our method of bringing young people together to tell us their views was successful. It is important to explore ways to help young people judge the quality of emotional health web sites. Introduction Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that concern them. Aim We aimed to develop a participatory approach for involving youth in research about their emotional health support preferences. Method Our team included a young expert-by-experience. We developed a qualitative, participatory research design. Eleven youth (16-18 years) participated in focus groups, followed immediately by a nominal group exercise in which they

  6. Conducting Scientific Research on Learning and Health Behavior Change with Computer-Based Health Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.; Lieberman, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a guide for researchers interested in assessing the effectiveness of serious computer-based games (or video games, digital games, or electronic games) intended to improve health and health care. It presents a definition of health games, a rationale for their use, an overview of the current state of research, and recommendations for…

  7. Making the Case for Laws That Improve Health: A Framework for Public Health Law Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Swanson, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Wood, Jennifer; Mello, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    Context: Public health law has received considerable attention in recent years and has become an essential field in public health. Public health law research, however, has received less attention. Methods: Expert commentary. Findings: This article explores public health law research, defined as the scientific study of the relation of law and legal practices to population health. The article offers a logic model of public health law research and a typology of approaches to studying the effects of law on public health. Research on the content and prevalence of public health laws, processes of adopting and implementing laws, and the extent to which and mechanisms through which law affects health outcomes can use methods drawn from epidemiology, economics, sociology, and other disciplines. The maturation of public health law research as a field depends on methodological rigor, adequate research funding, access to appropriate data sources, and policymakers’ use of research findings. Conclusions: Public health law research is a young field but holds great promise for supporting evidence-based policymaking that will improve population health. PMID:20579282

  8. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  9. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Our objective was to assess capacity and capacity strengthening needs for HPSR&A conduct and teaching in the University of Ghana School of Public ... build upon already existing contextual, institutional and individual capacity; and also attract and develop the next generation of researchers and teachers.

  10. Health services research and development in practice: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Cromwell, David; Owen, Alan; Senior, Kate; Gordon, Robert; Green, Janette

    2003-10-01

    While there is a growing literature on how health services research can inform health policy decisions, the practical challenge is for health services researchers to develop an effective interface with health policy-making processes and to produce outputs that lead to outcomes. The experience of the Centre for Health Service Development at the University of Wollongong, Australia, is used to illustrate the issues so commonly described in the literature and to reflect on our experience of trying to remain viable while producing relevant and valid research. A case study in a specific policy area - namely, the development of case-mix classifications and information systems to inform policy and funding in the subacute and non-acute hospital and community care sectors - is used as a practical example of the research-policy interface.

  11. Advancing Learning Health Systems Through Embedded Research: The 23rd Annual Conference of the Health Care Systems Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Luft

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 23rd annual conference of the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN, formerly the HMO Research Network was held in San Diego, California, March 21–23, 2017, attracting 387 attendees. As a consortium of 20 research organizations embedded in or affiliated with large health care delivery organizations, the HCSRN has held annual research conferences since 1994. The overall aim of the conferences is to bring researchers, project staff, research funders and other stakeholders together to share latest scientific findings and foster new research ideas and collaborations. The 2017 conference was hosted by the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute. Each host site takes responsibility for the content and structure of the conference, and the 2017 team introduced several new features. In particular, past conferences used concurrent sessions to present research results in different topical areas, such as chronic disease, cancer, health informatics, mental health or precision medicine. This year, concurrent sessions shifted to panel discussions about how research results were achieved, including the use of methods, partnerships and analytic approaches. The 35 panels were organized into tracks such as engagement, data and informatics, partnerships and research implementation. Scientific results from HCSRN projects were presented via 120 posters in two poster sessions. Plenary sessions included a town hall-style panel with different funding agency representatives, an opening presentation on the range of opportunities and benefits to studying health systems, and a concluding presentation on how researchers can apply design thinking in their work.

  12. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Anthropology in Agricultural Health and Safety Research and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dangerous industry, even as agricultural science and technology continue to advance. Research that goes beyond technological changes to address safety culture and policy are needed to improve health and safety in agriculture. In this commentary, I consider the potential for anthropology to contribute to agricultural health and safety research by addressing three aims: (1) I briefly consider what the articles in this issue of the Journal of Agromedicine say about anthropologists in agricultural health and safety; (2) I discuss what anthropologists can add to agricultural health and safety research; and (3) I examine ways in which anthropologists can participate in agricultural health and safety research. In using their traditions of rigorous field research to understand how those working in agriculture perceive and interpret factors affecting occupational health and safety (their "emic" perspective), and translating this perspective to improve the understanding of occupational health professionals and policy makers (an "etic" perspective), anthropologists can expose myths that limit improvements in agricultural health and safety. Addressing significant questions, working with the most vulnerable agricultural communities, and being outside establishment agriculture provide anthropologists with the opportunity to improve health and safety policy and regulation in agriculture.

  14. [Health care research: potential beneficiary of big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, Karl; Koch-Gromus, U

    2015-08-01

    Health care research focuses on the description and analysis of the health care system and its requirements. Research-derived innovations are the subject of trials and evaluation of the transfer to daily routine. For this purpose health care research has developed a broad theory-based spectrum of methods. On the other hand, the concept of big data is an new informatics-driven approach to large data sets independent of content. With its technical vocabulary the concept of big data does not easily fit into traditional health care research. Central tasks of health care research such as the generation of theories, norm-oriented evaluations or proof of causality can neither be supported nor replaced by big data. However, the concept of big data has the potential to support health care research, with traditional tasks such as data linkage, analysis of health care paths, quick access to up-to-date data on the distribution and acceptance of health care services, as well as prediction and the generation of hypotheses. The prerequisite for all this is a trust-based linkage of different medical and nonmedical data sources on the basis of the legal regulation of data access and data protection.

  15. Equity in international health research collaborations in Africa: Perceptions and expectations of African researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Mayosi, Bongani M; de Vries, Jantina

    2017-01-01

    Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of international genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa. All interviewees were of the view that externally funded genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa, have played a critical role in building capacity for genomics research and biobanking in Africa and in providing an opportunity for researchers in Africa to collaborate and network with other researchers. Whilst the opportunity to collaborate was seen as a benefit, some interviewees stressed the importance of recognizing that these collaborations carry mutual benefits for all partners, including their collaborators in HICs. They also voiced two major concerns of being part of these collaborative initiatives: the possibility of exploitation of African researchers and the non-sustainability of research capacity building efforts. As a way of minimising exploitation, researchers in Africa recommended that genuine efforts be made to create transparent and equitable international health research partnerships. They suggested that this could be achieved through,: having rules of engagement, enabling African researchers to contribute to the design and conduct of international health projects in Africa, and mutual and respectful exchange of experience and capacity between research collaborators. These were identified as hallmarks to equitable international health research collaborations in Africa. Genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa such as H3Africa have gone some way in

  16. ROAMER : Roadmap for mental health research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haro, J.M.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Bitter, I.; Demotes-Mainard, J.; Leboyer, M.; Lewis, S.W.; Linszen, D.; Maj, M.; McDaid, D.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Robbins, T.W.; Schumann, G.; Thornicroft, G.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van Os, J.; Wahlbeck, K.; Wittchen, H.-U.; Wykes, T.; Arango, C.; Bickenbach, J.; Brunn, M.; Cammarata, P.; Chevreul, K.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Finocchiaro, C.; Fiorillo, A.; Forsman, A.K.; Hazo, J.-B.; Knappe, S.; Kuepper, R.; Luciano, M.; Miret, M.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.; Pagano, G.; Papp, S.; Walker-Tilley, T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in

  17. Designing and conducting health system research projects, volume ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex to the modules: Guidelines for organising short HSR courses on proposal development and fieldwork ...... Identify criteria for selecting health-related problems to be given priority in research; Use a group consensus technique to set priorities for research, applying the selected criteria on a number of research topics ...

  18. A critical review of health research ethical guidelines regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available ethical guidelines for caregivers' consent in research involving minors are still not comprehensive or aligned with SA regulations governing research with minors. The recent revision and development of the National Health Research Ethics Guidelines (2015), regarding the role of caregivers in consent practice for ...

  19. Influence of qualitative research on women's health screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2014-01-01

    Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Why Health Care Needs Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today's pediatric health care lacks methods to tap into the emotional state of hospitalized pediatric patients (age 4-6 years). The most frequently used approaches were developed for adults and fail to acknowledge the importance of imaginary experiences and the notion of play that may appeal...... to children. The scope of this article is to introduce a new design-oriented method of gathering information about the emotional state of pediatric patients using an experimental computer game called the Child Patient game (CPgame). The CPgame was developed at a Danish hospital, and the results...... of the preliminary tests show that games could serve as a system in which children are willing to express their emotions through play. The results are based on two comparative analyses of the CPgame through which it is possible to identify three different types of players among the patients playing the game...

  1. One Health training and research activities in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Sikkema

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK, with a focus on infectious diseases. It can serve as a starting point for future initiatives and collaborations. Material and methods: A literature search for ‘One Health’ was performed using National Center for Biotechnology Information and Google. Moreover, information from global and European policy documents was collected and a questionnaire was designed to gather current One Health research and training activities in Western Europe. Results: This overview shows that there is considerable recognition for One Health in Europe, although most educational initiatives are recent. In Europe, the One Health approach is currently mainly advocated in relation to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Many countries have incorporated the One Health approach in their policy to fight AMR, and funding possibilities for AMR research increased significantly. The number of national and international multidisciplinary research networks in the area of zoonotic diseases and One Health is increasing. Discussion: Although One Health has gained recognition in Europe, often a One Health approach to research and education in the area of zoonotic diseases and AMR is not implemented. In many countries, collaboration between sectors is still lacking, and One Health activities are predominantly initiated by the veterinary

  2. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  3. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielke S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation

  4. Gender in population research: Confusing implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Alaka Malwade

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the health policy implications of an increasing trend in population research and in its interpretation and presentation - a trend to 'political correctness' - defined not in the popular, often derogatory, sense, but as an ideological commitment to certain principles. For one of these commitments, that to the notion of gender equality, greater strength and legitimacy is today commonly sought by tying it to other less controversial goals such as that of better health. But straining for connections between gender equality and positive health outcomes often unduly constrains the research question, the research methods, and the interpretation of the research. When health policy seeks guidance from this research, it can receive signals which are too often incomplete, silent on the many trade-offs of specific policy measures, and, ultimately, perhaps even detrimental to the very goals of gender equity and social justice from which they are derived. Examples of all these possibilities are discussed.

  5. Imagining roles for epigenetics in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Koehly, Laura M

    2017-04-01

    Discoveries from the Human Genome Project have invigorated discussions of epigenetic effects-modifiable chemical processes that influence DNA's ability to give instructions to turn gene expression on or off-on health outcomes. We suggest three domains in which new understandings of epigenetics could inform innovations in health promotion research: (1) increase the motivational potency of health communications (e.g., explaining individual differences in health outcomes to interrupt optimistic biases about health exposures); (2) illuminate new approaches to targeted and tailored health promotion interventions (e.g., relapse prevention targeted to epigenetic responses to intervention participation); and (3) inform more sensitive measures of intervention impact, (e.g., replace or augment self-reported adherence). We suggest a three-step process for using epigenetics in health promotion research that emphasizes integrating epigenetic mechanisms into conceptual model development that then informs selection of intervention approaches and outcomes. Lastly, we pose examples of relevant scientific questions worth exploring.

  6. European military mental health research: benefits of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Willmund, G D; Wesemann, U; Jones, N; Fear, N T

    2017-06-01

    Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel. This could include the study of resilience factors, the prevention of mental disorder, mental health awareness, stigma reduction and the treatment of mental disorder. Military mental health research topics, interests and the studies that have been conducted to date in the UK and Germany have considerable overlap and commonality of purpose. To undertake the investigation of the long-term consequences of operational deployment, the specific burdens placed on military families and to further the understanding of the role of factors such as biomarkers for use in military mental health research, it seems advisable to forge international research alliances across European nations, which would allow for researchers to draw transcultural and generalisable conclusions from their work. Such an enterprise is probably worthwhile given the shared research interests of Germany and the UK and the common perspectives on military mental health in particular. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Conceptualizing Quality in Participatory Health Research: A Phenomenographic Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Springett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to research are gaining popularity in health and wellness disciplines because of their potential to bridge gaps between research and practice and promote health equity. A number of guidelines have been developed to help research-practitioners gauge the quality of participatory health research (PHR. In light of the increasing popularization of this approach in the field of public health, there is a need to check in with current practitioners to see if their practices are still reflective of past guidelines. The aim of this study was to understand how research-practitioners currently conceptualize the quality of participatory health research in particular. Using phenomenographic inquiry, we interviewed 13 researchers who described their experience of PHR. We identified 15 categories of description and visually represented the relationship between the categories using an outcome space. Our findings suggest that conceptualizations of what is considered high quality PHR have remained consistent. This reliability bodes well for the development of quality criteria for participatory health research. We discuss implications for scaling up this study to compare quality criteria beyond a North American context. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602274

  8. Fulfillment of the brazilian agenda of priorities in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Moura, Erly Catarina; Barradas Barata, Rita de Cássia; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; da Motta, Marcia Luz; Silva Elias, Flávia Tavares; Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; de Paula, Ana Patricia; de Melo, Gilvania; Guimarães, Reinaldo; Grabois Gadelha, Carlos Augusto

    2011-08-31

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  9. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Reinaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR. In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good

  10. Social Indicators Research and Health-Related Quality of Life Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to build a bridge between two intersecting areas of research, social indicators research on the one hand and health-related quality of life research on the other. The first substantive section of the paper introduces key concepts and definitions in the social indicators research tradition, e.g., social indicators,…

  11. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mallampalli, Monica P.; Carter, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened ...

  12. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafkens, Joke; Blomstedt, Yulia; Eriksson, Malin; Becher, Heiko; Ramroth, Heribert; Kinsman, John

    2014-12-10

    To support equity focussed public health policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration will develop and provide training on the social determinants of health approach for health researchers from the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (INDEPTH) in Africa and Asia. To identify learning needs among the potential target group, this qualitative study explored what INDEPTH researchers from Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and Bangladesh feel that they want to learn to be able to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country. Using an inductive method, online concept-mapping, participants were asked to generate statements in response to the question what background knowledge they would need to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country, to sort those statements into thematic groups, and to rate them in terms of how important it would be for the INTREC program to offer instruction on each of the statements. Statistical techniques were used to structure statements into a thematic cluster map and average importance ratings of statements/clusters were calculated. Of the 150 invited researchers, 82 participated in the study: 54 from Africa; 28 from Asia. Participants generated 59 statements and sorted them into 6 broader thematic clusters: "assessing health inequalities"; "research design and methods"; "research and policy"; "demography and health inequalities"; "social determinants of health" and "interventions". African participants assigned the highest importance to further training on methods for assessing health inequalities. Asian participants assigned the highest importance to training on

  13. Twitter as a Tool for Health Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnenberg, Lauren; Buttenheim, Alison M; Padrez, Kevin; Mancheno, Christina; Ungar, Lyle; Merchant, Raina M

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have used traditional databases to study public health for decades. Less is known about the use of social media data sources, such as Twitter, for this purpose. To systematically review the use of Twitter in health research, define a taxonomy to describe Twitter use, and characterize the current state of Twitter in health research. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and CINAHL through September 2015. We searched for peer-reviewed original research studies that primarily used Twitter for health research. Two authors independently screened studies and abstracted data related to the approach to analysis of Twitter data, methodology used to study Twitter, and current state of Twitter research by evaluating time of publication, research topic, discussion of ethical concerns, and study funding source. Of 1110 unique health-related articles mentioning Twitter, 137 met eligibility criteria. The primary approaches for using Twitter in health research that constitute a new taxonomy were content analysis (56%; n = 77), surveillance (26%; n = 36), engagement (14%; n = 19), recruitment (7%; n = 9), intervention (7%; n = 9), and network analysis (4%; n = 5). These studies collectively analyzed more than 5 billion tweets primarily by using the Twitter application program interface. Of 38 potential data features describing tweets and Twitter users, 23 were reported in fewer than 4% of the articles. The Twitter-based studies in this review focused on a small subset of data elements including content analysis, geotags, and language. Most studies were published recently (33% in 2015). Public health (23%; n = 31) and infectious disease (20%; n = 28) were the research fields most commonly represented in the included studies. Approximately one third of the studies mentioned ethical board approval in their articles. Primary funding sources included federal (63%), university (13%), and foundation

  14. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  15. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  16. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  17. Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a concise but comprehensive review of research on religion/spirituality (R/S) and both mental health and physical health. It is based on a systematic review of original data-based quantitative research published in peer-reviewed journals between 1872 and 2010, including a few seminal articles published since 2010. First, I provide a brief historical background to set the stage. Then I review research on R/S and mental health, examining relationships with both positive and negative mental health outcomes, where positive outcomes include well-being, happiness, hope, optimism, and gratefulness, and negative outcomes involve depression, suicide, anxiety, psychosis, substance abuse, delinquency/crime, marital instability, and personality traits (positive and negative). I then explain how and why R/S might influence mental health. Next, I review research on R/S and health behaviors such as physical activity, cigarette smoking, diet, and sexual practices, followed by a review of relationships between R/S and heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, immune functions, endocrine functions, cancer, overall mortality, physical disability, pain, and somatic symptoms. I then present a theoretical model explaining how R/S might influence physical health. Finally, I discuss what health professionals should do in light of these research findings and make recommendations in this regard. PMID:23762764

  18. Using CBPR for Health Research in American Muslim Mosque Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele; Hamid, Hamada; Padela, Aasim I

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims are understudied in health research, and there are few studies documenting community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts among American Muslim mosque communities. We highlight lessons learned from a CBPR partnership that explored the health care beliefs, behaviors, and challenges of American Muslims. We established a collaboration between the University of Michigan and four Muslim-focused community organizations in Michigan. Our collaborative team designed and implemented a two-phase study involving interviews with community stakeholders and focus groups and surveys with mosque congregants. Although we were successful in meeting our research goals, maintaining community partner involvement and sustaining the project partnership proved challenging. CBPR initiatives within mosque communities have the potential for improving community health. Our experience suggests that successful research partnerships with American Muslims will utilize social networks and cultural insiders, culturally adapt research methods, and develop a research platform within the organizational infrastructures of the American Muslim community.

  19. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmeyer Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.

  20. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Stroud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC (www.onehealthcommission.org/ and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/ and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results: A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions: It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities.

  1. Evaluation of health information systems research in information systems research: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haried, Peter; Claybaugh, Craig; Dai, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of the health-care industry and the promise of health information systems, researchers are encouraged to build on the shoulders of giants as the saying goes. The health information systems field has a unique opportunity to learn from and extend the work that has already been done by the highly correlated information systems field. As a result, this research article presents a past, present and future meta-analysis of health information systems research in information systems journals over the 2000-2015 time period. Our analysis reviewed 126 articles on a variety of topics related to health information systems research published in the "Senior Scholars" list of the top eight ranked information systems academic journals. Across the selected information systems academic journals, our findings compare research methodologies applied, health information systems topic areas investigated and research trends. Interesting results emerge in the range and evolution of health information systems research and opportunities for health information systems researchers and practitioners to consider moving forward.

  2. Maori responsiveness in health and medical research: key issues for researchers (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporle, Andrew; Koea, Jonathan

    2004-08-06

    Application for contestable government-research funding and ethical approval requires researchers to outline how their intended research project contributes to Maori development or advancement. When formulating their research proposals, the key issues for researchers are research utility, defining Maori, informed consent, confidentiality, issues with human tissues and genetic material, participant remuneration and recognition (koha), intellectual property, and involvement of local Maori health or social services. The most common Maori responsiveness issues in research applications can be readily approached by researchers who address straightforward methodological concerns, by working through precedents established by peers and colleagues, as well as by working with end-users of their research.

  3. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  4. Engaging patients in health research: identifying research priorities through community town halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegary, Holly; Bishop, Lisa; Street, Catherine; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Humphries, Dale; Vat, Lidewij Eva; Barrett, Brendan

    2017-03-11

    The vision of Canada's Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research is that patients be actively engaged as partners in health research. Support units have been created across Canada to build capacity in patient-oriented research and facilitate its conduct. This study aimed to explore patients' health research priorities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Eight town halls were held with members of the general public in rural and urban settings across the province. Sessions were a hybrid information-consultation event, with key questions about health research priorities and outcomes guiding the discussion. Sixty eight members of the public attended town hall sessions. A broad range of health experiences in the healthcare system were recounted. Key priorities for the public included access and availability of providers and services, disease prevention and health promotion, and follow-up support and community care. In discussing their health research priorities, participants spontaneously raised a broad range of suggestions for improving the healthcare system in our jurisdiction. Public research priorities and suggestions for improving the provision of healthcare provide valuable information to guide Support Units' planning and priority-setting processes. A range of research areas were raised as priorities for patients that are likely comparable to other healthcare systems. These create a number of health research questions that would be in line with public priorities. Findings also provide lessons learned for others and add to the evidence base on patient engagement methods.

  5. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Scaling up health interventions in resource-poor countries: what role does research in stated-preference framework play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhrel Subhash

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite improved supply of health care services in low-income countries in the recent past, their uptake continues to be lower than anticipated. This has made it difficult to scale-up those interventions which are not only cost-effective from supply perspectives but that might have substantial impacts on improving the health status of these countries. Understanding demand-side barriers is therefore critically important. With the help of a case study from Nepal, this commentary argues that more research on demand-side barriers needs to be carried out and that the stated-preference (SP approach to such research might be helpful. Since SP techniques place service users' preferences at the centre of the analysis, and because preferences reflect individual or social welfare, SP techniques are likely to be helpful in devising policies to increase social welfare (e.g. improved service coverage. Moreover, the SP data are collected in a controlled environment which allows straightforward identification of effects (e.g. that of process attributes of care and large quantities of relevant data can be collected at moderate cost. In addition to providing insights into current preferences, SP data also provide insights into how preferences are likely to respond to a proposed change in resource allocation (e.g. changing service delivery strategy. Finally, the SP-based techniques have been used widely in resource-rich countries and their experience can be valuable in conducting scaling-up research in low-income countries.

  7. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  8. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  9. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobfoll Stevan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to

  10. [Hospital biomedical research through the satisfaction of a Health Research Institute professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R

    2015-01-01

    A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S

    2017-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.

  12. Highlight: Kenya selects first research chair on health systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    NACOSTI), in collaboration with IDRC, launched Kenya's first Research Chair on March 31, 2015 in Nairobi. Professor Fabian Omoding Esamai, the current Principal of Moi University's College of Health Sciences, has been selected ...

  13. Health | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    éventail des options mises à la disposition des segments socioéconomiques ... the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) called upon its associates around the world to reflect on achievements and setbacks in the 1990s.

  14. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy population is seen as an important precondition for economic growth and competitiveness. Research into environmental health is therefore concerned with understanding the exposure and magnitude of impact on humans from environmental hazards...

  16. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers ... interaction has always been important to me, but working with these patients in Zambia lit a fire ...

  17. Public health delivery systems: evidence, uncertainty, and emerging research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Smith, Sharla A; Ingram, Richard C; Racster, Laura J; Lamberth, Cynthia D; Lovely, Emma S

    2009-03-01

    The authors review empirical studies published between 1990 and 2007 on the topics of public health organization, financing, staffing, and service delivery. A summary is provided of what is currently known about the attributes of public health delivery systems that influence their performance and outcomes. This review also identifies unanswered questions, highlighting areas where new research is needed. Existing studies suggest that economies of scale and scope exist in the delivery of public health services, and that key organizational and governance characteristics of public health agencies may explain differences in service delivery across communities. Financial resources and staffing characteristics vary widely across public health systems and have expected associations with service delivery and outcomes. Numerous gaps and uncertainties are identified regarding the mechanisms through which organizational, financial, and workforce characteristics influence the effectiveness and efficiency of public health service delivery. This review suggests that new research is needed to evaluate the effects of ongoing changes in delivery system structure, financing, and staffing.

  18. Quantitative health research in an emerging information economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, A; Martin, D

    1998-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the changing information environment in the U.K. National Health Service and its implications for the quantitative analysis of health and health care. The traditionally available data series are contrasted with those sources that are being created or enhanced as a result of the post-1991 market-orientation of the health care system. The likely research implications of the commodification of health data are assessed and illustrated with reference to the specific example of the geography of asthma. The paper warns against a future in which large-scale quantitative health research is only possible in relation to projects which may yield direct financial or market benefits to the data providers.

  19. Enhancing women's health: A call for social work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Melissa; Wright, Rachel L; Frost, Caren J

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a critical synthesis of the social work empirical literature on women's health. In light of recent policy changes that directly affect women's health and social work, the authors conducted a literature review of recent publications (2010-2015) regarding social work and women's health nationally. Despite frequent accounts cited in the literature, there has been no comprehensive review of issues involving women's health and social work in the United States. The purpose of this review is to examine the current social work literature addressing women's health at the national (U.S.) level. This research presents a summary description of the status of the social work literature dealing with women's health, specifically 51 articles published between 2010 and 2015. Our search highlights the need for social work research to fill gaps and more fully address the needs of women across the lifespan.

  20. Appraising Quantitative Research in Health Education: Guidelines for Public Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sandra C.; Scharalda, Jeanfreau G.; Stetson, Barbara; Jones-Jack, Nkenge H.; Valliere, Matthew; Kirchain, William R.; Fagen, Michael; LeBlanc, Cris

    2010-01-01

    Many practicing health educators do not feel they possess the skills necessary to critically appraise quantitative research. This publication is designed to help provide practicing health educators with basic tools helpful to facilitate a better understanding of quantitative research. This article describes the major components—title, introduction, methods, analyses, results and discussion sections—of quantitative research. Readers will be introduced to information on the various types of study designs and seven key questions health educators can use to facilitate the appraisal process. Upon reading, health educators will be in a better position to determine whether research studies are well designed and executed. PMID:20400654

  1. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  2. Oral Health Research and Scholarship in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverini, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 6 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century" project provides an overview of five background articles that address the role of research and scholarship in dental education in the year 2040. Beginning with a historical account of research and discovery science in dentistry's evolution as a profession, the article then reviews the role of early thought leaders and organized dentistry in establishing research as a cornerstone of dental education and dental practice. The dental research workforce faces an uncertain future fueled by a volatile funding environment and inadequate mentoring and training of research faculty. Dental schools must forge stronger academic and scientific ties to their university and academic health centers and will be challenged to develop sustainable research and patient care collaborations with other health professions. The changing health care environment will create new opportunities for oral health care providers to expand their scope of practice and focus on prevention and screening for non-communicable chronic diseases. Dental practitioners in the future are likely to place greater emphasis on managing the overall health of their patients while promoting closer integration with other health professionals. All dental schools must develop a sustainable research mission if they hope to graduate dentists who function effectively in a collaborative health care environment. The changing scientific and health care landscape will dramatically alter dental education and dental practice. Dental schools need to reconsider their research and educational priorities and clinical practice objectives. Until dental schools and the practicing community come to grips with these challenges, a persistent attitude of complacency will likely be at the dental profession's peril.

  3. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  4. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    2000-01-01

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  5. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    use, unhealthy diet, alcohol misuse, and physical inactivity. The challenge. Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and weaknesses in ... based on three collaborating academic Centers.. The existing. Center for Research on Population and Health will become a hub of regional networks on ...

  6. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Scoping SDG ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Scoping SDG governance arrangements across Latin America. This project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development ...

  7. 1 Challenges and opportunities in building health research capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Capacity building is considered a priority for health research institutions in developing countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. However, in many countries including Tanzania, much emphasis has been directed towards human resources for health with the total exclusion of human.

  8. Health | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. The research presented in this book demonstrates how GIS data is being used to show cause effect relationships between environmental conditions and health. Case studies demonstrate how GIS can be used to monitor tropical diseases, water quality, environmental toxicology, and overall rural health.

  9. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Thomas T.H.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  10. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  11. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  12. Public health research literatures their coverage and gaps in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, A.; Gatineau, M.; Grimaud, O.; Lebis, I.; Devaux, S.; Thorogood, M.; Durando, P.; Tarkowski, S.; Adany, R.; Hunter, D.; Delnoij, D.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To review Public Health (PH) literature from Europe over 10 years, 1995–2005; to make recommendations for future research policy and funding. Background: Two PH overviews and six topic area reviews were undertaken. Areas, identified through EUPHA, included health promotion, infectious disease,

  13. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The

  14. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2015 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  15. From genes to community: exploring translational science in adolescent health research: proceedings from a research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Health services research in radiology: opportunities and imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, H P; McClennan, B L

    1994-08-01

    "Health services research is a field of inquiry that examines the impact of the organization, financing, and management of health care services on the delivery, quality, cost, access to, and outcomes of such services." This organizational definition, from the Association for Health Services Research (AHSR; membership services, personal communication), is a new buzz word in the current era of health care reform. Radiologists will be asked or expected to become active participants in this field. If they do not take part, they will be shut out of important policy making. The process and outcome of this research often determine whether examinations and procedures will be reimbursed in the future and at what level. This article addresses the particular need for trained health service researchers in radiology, opportunities for formal research training, and available sources of funding for health services training and research. It is not intended to be a definitive resource for those wishing to enter this field; rather, it provides a foundation for beginning pursuit of this evolving academic discipline.

  18. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2009-01-01

    ', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited. SUMMARY: As a consequence of the growth in qualitative research in the health sciences, researchers sometimes feel obliged to designate their work......BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples...... of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...

  19. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  20. The interplay of management accounting research and NPM health initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    This paper investigates the development of management accounting research in the context of New Public Management (NPM) initiatives in health care. Drawing on concepts from diffusion theory and earlier literature reviews, the paper examines the interplay between management accounting research...... and health care reforms in relation to country of origin, development, theoretical approach, research method and topic. The study thus establishes a different focus; namely the interrelationship between the development of management accounting research and practical socio-political NPM innovations. The study...... shows that management accounting techniques are increasingly adopted in governmental health reforms and diffused across nations, themes and initiatives through time with the result that wider social practices become more and more integrated in management accounting research themes...

  1. Development of the Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Chesley, Francis D; Tregear, Michelle L; Mistry, Kamila B

    2017-08-04

    To develop core competencies for learning health system (LHS) researchers to guide the development of training programs. Data were obtained from literature review, expert interviews, a modified Delphi process, and consensus development meetings. The competencies were developed from August to December 2016 using qualitative methods. The literature review formed the basis for the initial draft of a competency domain framework. Key informant semi-structured interviews, a modified Delphi survey, and three expert panel (n = 19 members) consensus development meetings produced the final set of competencies. The iterative development process yielded seven competency domains: (1) systems science; (2) research questions and standards of scientific evidence; (3) research methods; (4) informatics; (5) ethics of research and implementation in health systems; (6) improvement and implementation science; and (7) engagement, leadership, and research management. A total of 33 core competencies were prioritized across these seven domains. The real-world milieu of LHS research, the embeddedness of the researcher within the health system, and engagement of stakeholders are distinguishing characteristics of this emerging field. The LHS researcher core competencies can be used to guide the development of learning objectives, evaluation methods, and curricula for training programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Ethical approaches to adolescent participation in sexual health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Guta, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we make the case for the importance of adolescent sexual health research, and argue that requiring parental consent for adolescent participation may (a) be unwarranted, (b) be inconsistent with the principles of justice and inclusiveness, (c) be confusing, and (d) serve to silence young people who most need to have a voice in sexual health research. Through a case study of the Toronto Teen Survey, we offer concrete suggestions and alternatives for protecting adolescent health research participants in community-based settings and promoting ethical research approaches. Strategies suggested include: (1) adopting a community-based participatory research approach, (2) careful attention to youth-friendly protocols and consent procedures, (3) proper training of all research staff and peer researchers, (4) partnering with experienced community based youth-serving agencies, (5) paying maximum attention to issues of confidentiality and anonymity, and (6) valuing participation appropriately. Institutional review boards and researchers should be encouraged to adopt localized context-dependent strategies that attend to the unique vulnerabilities of their particular study populations. Attention to flexibility, vulnerability, and community-specific needs is necessary to ensure appropriate ethical research practices that attend to the health and well-being of young people.

  3. Using the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    The article gives an introductory overview of the use of the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research. It explains the rationale for using the method, examines the range of uses to which it has been put in mental health research, and describes the stages of carrying out a Delphi study using examples from the literature. To ascertain the range of uses, a systematic search was carried out in PubMed. The article also examines the implications of 'wisdom of crowds' research for how to conduct Delphi studies. The Delphi method is a systematic way of determining expert consensus that is useful for answering questions that are not amenable to experimental and epidemiological methods. The validity of the approach is supported by 'wisdom of crowds' research showing that groups can make good judgements under certain conditions. In mental health research, the Delphi method has been used for making estimations where there is incomplete evidence (e.g. What is the global prevalence of dementia?), making predictions (e.g. What types of interactions with a person who is suicidal will reduce their chance of suicide?), determining collective values (e.g. What areas of research should be given greatest priority?) and defining foundational concepts (e.g. How should we define 'relapse'?). A range of experts have been used in Delphi research, including clinicians, researchers, consumers and caregivers. The Delphi method has a wide range of potential uses in mental health research. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  5. A healthy nation: strengthening child health research in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Neena; Clark, Howard; Wolfe, Ingrid; Costello, Anthony; Budge, Helen; Goodier, R; Hyde, M J; Lumsden, D; Prayle, A; Roland, D

    2013-01-05

    Despite a general acknowledgment that research in children is necessary and ethical, the evidence base for child-specific treatments is still sparse. We investigated children's biomedical and health services research in the UK in relation to training, infrastructure and activity, research evidence, and visibility. We show that excellent opportunities for career researchers exist through a competitive, national integrated academic training programme, but that the number of academic paediatricians has decreased by 18% between 2000 and 2011, falling from 11·3% to 5·9% of the consultant workforce. The potential for rapid delivery of studies in children through the National Health Service (NHS) is not being realised: clinical trainees are poorly equipped with core research skills; most newly appointed consultant paediatricians have little or no research experience; less than 5% of contracted consultant time supports research; less than 2·5% of the 2 million children seen in the NHS every year are recruited to studies; and ten of the 20 UK children's hospitals do not have a clinical research facility. Support through National Institute for Health Research networks is good for studies into drugs, but inconsistent for non-drug research; less than 5% of registered studies involve children and only one children's biomedical research centre has been allocated funding from 2012. Of the UK annual public and charitable biomedical research expenditure of roughly £2·2 billion, about 5% is directed at child health research. The scant evidence base is impeding the development of clinical guidance and policy-less than 20% of the outputs of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are applicable to children. Paediatric representation on major research boards is weak. Parent and young people's advocacy is fragmented, and their views are insufficiently heeded by regulatory bodies. The strong UK Government commitment to biomedical research has not been translated

  6. Interdisciplinary research career development: building interdisciplinary research careers in women's health program best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Bodurtha, Joann; Nagel, Joan D

    2011-11-01

    The Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Centers and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) have sponsored an interdisciplinary research career development program in five funding cycles since 2000 through a K12 mechanism titled "Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH)." As of 2010, 407 scholars have been supported in interdisciplinary women's health research and a total of 63 BIRCWH program awards have been made to 41 institutions across the U.S. In an effort to share practical approaches to interdisciplinary research training, currently funded BIRCWH sites were invited to submit 300-word bullet-point style summaries describing their best practices in interdisciplinary research training following a common format with an emphasis on practices that are innovative, can be reproduced in other places, and advance women's health research. Twenty-six program narratives provide unique perspectives along with common elements and themes in interdisciplinary research training best practices.

  7. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR): Big Data Opportunities for Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA.

  8. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  9. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig; Daibes, Ibrahim

    2010-07-09

    This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR) by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and investing to support the underlying GHR elements and

  10. Key factors influencing allied health research capacity in a large Australian metropolitan health district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison JA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer A Alison,1,2 Bill Zafiropoulos,1,2 Robert Heard3 1Faculty of Health Sciences Discipline of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, 2Allied Health Professorial Unit, Sydney Local Health District, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Behavioral and Social Sciences in Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to identify key factors affecting research capacity and engagement of allied health professionals working in a large metropolitan health service. Identifying such factors will assist in determining strategies for building research capacity in allied health. Materials and methods: A total of 276 allied health professionals working within the Sydney Local Health District (SLHD completed the Research Capacity in Context Tool (RCCT that measures research capacity and culture across three domains: organization, team, and individual. An exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to identify common themes within each of these domains. Correlations were performed between demographic variables and the identified factors to determine possible relationships. Results: Research capacity and culture success/skill levels were reported to be higher within the organization and team domains compared to the individual domain (median [interquartile range, IQR] 6 [5–8], 6 [5–8], 5 [3–7], respectively; Friedman χ2(2=42.04, p<0.001. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to identify factors that were perceived by allied health respondents to affect research capacity. Factors identified within the organization domain were infrastructure for research (eg, funds and equipment and research culture (eg, senior manager’s support for research; within the team domain the factors were research orientation (eg, dissemination of results at research seminars and research support (eg, providing staff research training. Within the individual domain, only one factor was identified which was the research skill

  11. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    Full Text Available Abstract: This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives.

  12. [Health services research in Germany--status quo in the field of oral health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Ursula; Kirch, Wilhelm; Walter, Michael

    2005-09-15

    Within the last years, health services research has gained increasing attention in Germany. This trend could also be observed in dentistry although this research field must be considered rather young. The methodical approach of health services research is complementary to the traditional clinical research paradigm. The latter focuses on the comprehension of causal mechanisms and the efficacy of interventions under ideal and standardized study conditions. In contrast to that, health services research focuses on the effectiveness under everyday conditions and the efficacy in the normal course of medical care. In the field of dentistry, various investigations exist that belong to that area of research in a broader sense. Articles in professional dental journals deal increasingly with topics related to health services research. Political discussions look in that subject more frequently. Concrete results, however, are rare and limited to selected aspects. At the beginning of 2005, the reimbursement policy of the German health insurance funds relative to prosthetic treatment changed completely. The resulting consequences are unknown and unexplored. Dramatic changes are to be expected. This clearly exemplifies the significance of scientific evaluations when changing key aspects of daily health care. Hence it can be said that dental health services research in Germany is not sufficiently established yet. It can be assumed that the cumulating problems to be expected within the health care system will lead to an increasing demand for the respective research.

  13. Decolonizing Health Research: Community-Based Participatory Research and Postcolonial Feminist Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…

  14. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  15. Panzootics and the poor: devising a global livestock disease prioritisation framework for poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, C

    2009-12-01

    Panzootics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and Rift Valley fever have originated from the South, largely among poor communities. On a global level, approximately two-thirds of those individuals living on less than US$2 per day keep livestock. Consequently, there is a need to better target animal health interventions for poverty reduction using an evidence-based approach. Therefore, the paper offers a three-step prioritisation framework using calculations derived from standard poverty measures: the poverty gap and the head count ratio. Data from 265 poor livestock-keeping households in Kenya informed the study. The results demonstrate that, across a spectrum of producers, the dependence upon particular species varies. Furthermore, the same livestock disease has differing impacts on the depth and severity of poverty. Consequently, animal health interventions need to account for variability in income effects at the species and disease levels.

  16. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of

  17. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  18. Boosting capacity for health research in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Africa's progress is linked to its capacity to generate, adapt, and use scientific knowledge to meet regional health and development needs. ... opportunity for timely completion of their doctoral training; and; strengthen Fellows' research skills by providing research methodology and scientific writing training.

  19. Research Matters in Governance, Equity and Health - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Governance, Equity and Health program initiative, and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) jointly launched the Research Matters program in 2003 (101899), and renewed support in 2004 (102283). By working directly with both producers (researchers) and consumers (policymakers) of ...

  20. Research Award: Governance for Equity in Health Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2014-08-06

    Research Award: Governance for Equity in Health. Systems. Deadline: August 6, 2014. Please note that all applications must be submitted online. IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance ...

  1. Mapping Rwanda public health research(1975-2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research laboratories were the United States of America, Rwanda, England and Belgium and represented the main network collaboration. The relevant keywords were: HIV, woman, child, program, rural and violence. Conclusions: Public health research on Rwanda appeared 14 years after the genocide. A main field was ...

  2. Attachment, intellectual disabilities and mental health: research, assessment and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; de Schipper, J.C.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Kef, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory is highly influential in child and adult mental health research and practice. Research and practice have started now to explore the potential value of an attachment perspective for understanding and alleviating the challenges that persons with intellectual disabilities

  3. Challenges facing National Health Research Systems in the WHO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    library of knowledge, ideas, innovations and inventions. The WHO African Advisory Committee on Health Research and Development (AACHRD) has attributed the fragility of NHRS in the Region to poor environment for research, inadequate manpower, inadequate infrastructures and facilities, inaccessibility to modern ...

  4. Expenditure on health research in South Africa, 1991/1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immunology, virology, mycology, medical ethics, forensic medicine, biomechanics and radiology. Of health research, 29% was classified as 'basic research', 58,8% as 'applied .... in Table III is in some cases too highly aggregated to be of much use. Expenditure on comprehensive medicine (which includes community ...

  5. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... medicines and related substances. • the development of new applications of human technology.[1]. Second, the research activity must aim at knowledge production. While the NHA does not define 'research which contributes to knowledge', the national ethical guidelines issued by the Department of Health ...

  6. [German Research Foundation (DFG) Early Career Investigators Workshop in Health Services Research: concept - progress - feedback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Martin; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the Institutes for Social Medicine and Cancer Epidemiology of the University of Lübeck hosted the first Workshop for Early Career Investigators in the area of Health Services Research. This workshop was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) with the aim to promote young scientists and researchers that wish to pursue research in the field of Health Services Research in an early phase of their career. The following report addresses the background, concept and progress of the initiative. All applicants had to submit a detailed project proposal and underwent a rigorous selection process. The projects presented at the workshop covered a wide range of topics, such as, for example, access to health care, common elements of mental illnesses and psychosomatic disorders, quality assurance in medical practices (i.e., evaluation of disease management programmes) and targets in rehabilitation. A major subject was migration as a challenge to Health Services Research. The 20 best applicants out of 121 were invited to attend the programme. During five days the participants had the opportunity to present their projects and discuss current issues as well as fundamental themes in study design. At the same time, national and international leading experts gave a series of lectures on current topics of Health Services Research. In numerous discussion groups and topical workshops participants and speakers explored and sought solutions to specific research issues. Following the programme participants are expected to finalise their research proposals and apply for funding to the DFG. To foster networking among early-career researchers, an alumni meeting is scheduled after 12 months. The DFG Workshop for Early Career Investigators was the first of its kind in the field of Health Services Research in Germany. However, evidence of its sustainability will have to be obtained from the future development of the German Health Services

  7. Impediments to Comprehensive Research on Climate Change and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. McMichael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During every climatic era Life on Earth is constrained by a limited range of climatic conditions, outside which thriving and then surviving becomes difficult. This applies at both planetary and organism (species levels. Further, many causal influences of climate change on human health entail changes—often disruptive, sometimes irreversible—in complex system functioning. Understanding the diverse health risks from climate change, and their influence pathways, presents a challenge to environmental health researchers whose prior work has been in a more definable, specific and quantitative milieu. Extension of the research agenda and conceptual framework to assess present and future health risks from climate change may be constrained by three factors: (i lack of historically-informed understanding of population-health sensitivity to climatic changes; (ii an instinctual ‘epidemiologising’ tendency to choose research topics amenable to conventional epidemiological analysis and risk estimation; and (iii under-confidence in relation to interdisciplinary collaborative scenario-based modeling of future health risks. These constraints must be recognized and remedied. And environmental researchers must argue for heightened public attention to today’s macro-environmental threats to present and future population health—emphasising the ecological dimension of these determinants of long-term health that apply to whole populations and communities, not just to individuals and social groupings.

  8. Ethical issues in qualitative health research with homeless youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Josephine

    2003-07-01

    There is a need for increased guidance for the ethical conduct of qualitative research with vulnerable populations such as homeless youths. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the main ethical challenges of conducting qualitative research with homeless youths and to propose possible solutions to these challenges. This paper was informed by a review of professional guidelines for the ethical conduct of adolescent health research, national (US) and international bioethics bibliographical searches, and personal experience with qualitative research with homeless youths. The main ethical challenges of conducting qualitative research with homeless youths include establishing and maintaining healthy researcher roles and boundaries, addressing the risks of researcher burn-out and safety issues, assuring optimal confidentiality, and avoiding sensationalism and voyeurism. It is important for qualitative researchers who work with vulnerable populations to ensure that research is conducted in the most ethical way possible.

  9. The public health critical race methodology: praxis for antiracism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2010-10-01

    The number of studies targeting racial health inequities and the capabilities for measuring racism effects have grown substantially in recent years. Still, the need remains for a public health framework that moves beyond merely documenting disparities toward eliminating them. Critical Race Theory (CRT) has been the dominant influence on racial scholarship since the 1980s; however, its jurisprudential origins have, until now, limited its application to public health research. To improve the ease and fidelity with which health equity research applies CRT, this paper introduces the Public Health Critical Race praxis (PHCR). PHCR aids the study of contemporary racial phenomena, illuminates disciplinary conventions that may inadvertently reinforce social hierarchies and offers tools for racial equity approaches to knowledge production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health promotion and industry. Where interdisciplinary research meets reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, T C; Kaluzny, A D

    1987-09-01

    Health promotion and disease prevention programs are now a common part of worksite life. Their acceptance has been based more on faith than scientific evidence of their effectiveness or benefit to either the companies or the participants. Evaluation research in worksite health promotion offers an opportunity to test the effectiveness of the programs and should be done using the methods of several disciplines: organizational psychology, industrial hygiene, and health education. Because of the inherent difficulties in planning, developing goals and objectives, and measuring outputs in worksite health promotion programs, any effective evaluation will have to combine methods and approaches from each of these perspectives.

  11. A novel performance monitoring framework for health research systems: experiences of the National Institute for Health Research in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Turabi, Anas; Hallsworth, Michael; Ling, Tom; Grant, Jonathan

    2011-03-24

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) was established in 2006 with the aim of creating an applied health research system embedded within the English National Health Service (NHS). NIHR sought to implement an approach for monitoring its performance that effectively linked early indicators of performance with longer-term research impacts. We attempted to develop and apply a conceptual framework for defining appropriate key performance indicators for NIHR. Following a review of relevant literature, a conceptual framework for defining performance indicators for NIHR was developed, based on a hybridisation of the logic model and balanced scorecard approaches. This framework was validated through interviews with key NIHR stakeholders and a pilot in one division of NIHR, before being refined and applied more widely. Indicators were then selected and aggregated to create a basket of indicators aligned to NIHR's strategic goals, which could be reported to NIHR's leadership team on a quarterly basis via an oversight dashboard. Senior health research system managers and practitioners endorsed the conceptual framework developed and reported satisfaction with the breadth and balance of indicators selected for reporting. The use of the hybrid conceptual framework provides a pragmatic approach to defining performance indicators that are aligned to the strategic aims of a health research system. The particular strength of this framework is its capacity to provide an empirical link, over time, between upstream activities of a health research system and its long-term strategic objectives.

  12. Research in lower middle income countries - recommendations for a national mental health research agenda in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, J; Ramlall, S

    2012-11-01

    In the current mental health environment in South Africa, the development of a relevant mental health research agenda poses several challenges. This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of published research in mental health and, using a translation research framework, makes recommendations for five strategic directions to be considered in the development of a national mental health research agenda.

  13. Mapping mHealth research: a decade of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordelli, Maddalena; Diviani, Nicola; Schulz, Peter J

    2013-05-21

    For the last decade, mHealth has constantly expanded as a part of eHealth. Mobile applications for health have the potential to target heterogeneous audiences and address specific needs in different situations, with diverse outcomes, and to complement highly developed health care technologies. The market is rapidly evolving, making countless new mobile technologies potentially available to the health care system; however, systematic research on the impact of these technologies on health outcomes remains scarce. To provide a comprehensive view of the field of mHealth research to date and to understand whether and how the new generation of smartphones has triggered research, since their introduction 5 years ago. Specifically, we focused on studies aiming to evaluate the impact of mobile phones on health, and we sought to identify the main areas of health care delivery where mobile technologies can have an impact. A systematic literature review was conducted on the impact of mobile phones and smartphones in health care. Abstracts and articles were categorized using typologies that were partly adapted from existing literature and partly created inductively from publications included in the review. The final sample consisted of 117 articles published between 2002 and 2012. The majority of them were published in the second half of our observation period, with a clear upsurge between 2007 and 2008, when the number of articles almost doubled. The articles were published in 77 different journals, mostly from the field of medicine or technology and medicine. Although the range of health conditions addressed was very wide, a clear focus on chronic conditions was noted. The research methodology of these studies was mostly clinical trials and pilot studies, but new designs were introduced in the second half of our observation period. The size of the samples drawn to test mobile health applications also increased over time. The majority of the studies tested basic mobile phone

  14. Embedding research in health systems: lessons from complexity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wolfe, Charles; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-07-22

    Internationally, there has been increasing focus on creating health research systems. This article aims to investigate the challenges of implementing apparently simple strategies to support the development of a health research system. We focus on a case study of an English National Health Service Hospital Trust that sought to implement the national recommendation that health organisations should introduce a statement about research on all patient admission letters. We apply core concepts from complexity theory to the case study and undertake a documentary analysis of the email dialogue between staff involved in implementing this initiative. The process of implementing a research statement in patient admission letters in one clinical service took 1 year and 21 days. The length of time needed was influenced firstly by adaptive self-organisation, underpinned by competing interests. Secondly, it was influenced by the relationship between systems, rather than simply being a product of issues within those systems. The relationship between the health system and the research system was weaker than might have been expected. Responsibilities were unclear, leading to confusion and delayed action. Conventional ways of thinking about organisations suggest that change happens when leaders and managers change the strategic vision, structure or procedures in an organisation and then persuade others to rationally implement the strategy. However, health research systems are complex adaptive systems characterised by high levels of unpredictability due to self-organisation and systemic interactions, which give rise to 'emergent' properties. We argue for the need to study how micro-processes of organisational dynamics may give rise to macro patterns of behaviour and strategic organisational direction and for the use of systems approaches to investigate the emergent properties of health research systems.

  15. Strategic approach to information security and assurance in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shunichi; Igarashi, Manabu; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2005-09-01

    Information security and assurance are an increasingly critical issue in health research. Whether health research be in genetics, new drugs, disease outbreaks, biochemistry, or effects of radiation, it deals with information that is highly sensitive and which could be targeted by rogue individuals or groups, corporations, national intelligence agencies, or terrorists, looking for financial, social, or political gains. The advents of the Internet and advances in recent information technologies have also dramatically increased opportunities for attackers to exploit sensitive and valuable information.Government agencies have deployed legislative measures to protect the privacy of health information and developed information security guidelines for epidemiological studies. However, risks are grossly underestimated and little effort has been made to strategically and comprehensively protect health research information by institutions, governments and international communities.There is a need to enforce a set of proactive measures to protect health research information locally and globally. Such measures should be deployed at all levels but will be successful only if research communities collaborate actively, governments enforce appropriate legislative measures at national level, and the international community develops quality standards, concluding treaties if necessary, at the global level.Proactive measures for the best information security and assurance would be achieved through rigorous management process with a cycle of "plan, do, check, and act". Each health research entity, such as hospitals, universities, institutions, or laboratories, should implement this cycle and establish an authoritative security and assurance organization, program and plan coordinated by a designatedChief Security Officer who will ensure implementation of the above process, putting appropriate security controls in place, with key focus areas such aspolicies and best practices, enforcement

  16. Photovoice Ethics: Critical Reflections From Men's Mental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John L; Ferlatte, Olivier; Bottorff, Joan; Broom, Alex; Jenkins, Emily K

    2017-09-01

    As photovoice continues to grow as a method for researching health and illness, there is a need for rigorous discussions about ethical considerations. In this article, we discuss three key ethical issues arising from a recent photovoice study investigating men's depression and suicide. The first issue, indelible images, details the complexity of consent and copyright when participant-produced photographs are shown at exhibitions and online where they can be copied and disseminated beyond the original scope of the research. The second issue, representation, explores the ethical implications that can arise when participants and others have discordant views about the deceased. The third, vicarious trauma, offers insights into the potenial for triggering mental health issues among researchers and viewers of the participant-produced photographs. Through a discussion of these ethical issues, we offer suggestions to guide the work of health researchers who use, or are considering the use of, photovoice.

  17. Development of a Research Agenda Focused on Academic Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C; Livingood, William C; Keck, C William; Amos, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    An academic health department (AHD) is a formal partnership between an academic institution and a governmental public health agency. Case studies have described the value of individual AHDs in the areas of student engagement, practice-based research, workforce development, and service. With growing interest in AHDs and the increasing importance of academic-practice linkages in both academic programs' and public health agencies' accreditation processes, articulating a research agenda focused on the AHD model can be useful for stimulating the research and practice fields to further develop the evidence base for AHDs. We provide a research agenda, developed through an iterative process involving academicians, practitioners, and others interested in academic-practice linkages.

  18. Translating Research for Health Policy Decisions: Is It Time for Researchers to Join Social Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F; Gollust, Sarah E; Grande, David

    2016-10-01

    Identifying effective strategies to translate research evidence to policy is a national priority and a priority of the health policy research community. Multiple channels exist to disseminate, translate, and communicate research evidence. Some thought leaders have specifically advocated for researchers to play a direct role in research dissemination, particularly through social media. However, this view remains controversial. This Commentary explores the current state of and future opportunities and barriers for alternative avenues of policy-relevant research dissemination. The authors identify four intersecting realities influencing the manner in which the health research community views and adopts various approaches to research translation: (1) persistent gaps in evidence translation and knowledge transfer, particularly in the realm of health policy; (2) public demand for scholars to embrace new modes of research dissemination; (3) the rapid growth and reach of social media to disseminate information; and (4) skepticism and confusion within the academic community about how best to use social media to disseminate policy-relevant research. They conclude that while scholars will need to be engaged in evidence translation to inform health policy, they may be best served by connecting with trusted intermediaries and knowledge brokers to promote efficient use of the best available evidence to answer the most timely policy questions. Journals and universities may be well positioned to invest in this capacity to curate research evidence and disseminate it using social media and other technologies.

  19. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers’ Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved. PMID:27737006

  20. Understanding relevance of health research: considerations in the context of research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrow, Mark J; Miller, Fiona A; Frank, Cy; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2017-04-17

    With massive investment in health-related research, above and beyond investments in the management and delivery of healthcare and public health services, there has been increasing focus on the impact of health research to explore and explain the consequences of these investments and inform strategic planning. Relevance is reflected by increased attention to the usability and impact of health research, with research funders increasingly engaging in relevance assessment as an input to decision processes. Yet, it is unclear whether relevance is a synonym for or predictor of impact, a necessary condition or stage in achieving it, or a distinct aim of the research enterprise. The main aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of research relevance, with specific objectives to (1) unpack research relevance from both theoretical and practical perspectives, and (2) outline key considerations for its assessment. Our approach involved the scholarly strategy of review and reflection. We prepared a draft paper based on an exploratory review of literature from various fields, and gained from detailed and insightful analysis and critique at a roundtable discussion with a group of key health research stakeholders. We also solicited review and feedback from a small sample of expert reviewers. Research relevance seems increasingly important in justifying research investments and guiding strategic research planning. However, consideration of relevance has been largely tacit in the health research community, often depending on unexplained interpretations of value, fit and potential for impact. While research relevance seems a necessary condition for impact - a process or component of efforts to make rigorous research usable - ultimately, relevance stands apart from research impact. Careful and explicit consideration of research relevance is vital to gauge the overall value and impact of a wide range of individual and collective research efforts and investments. To improve

  1. Our Campus, Our Health: A Model for Undergraduate Health Education Research Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Johnson, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research experience prepares undergraduate students for graduate school, a competitive job market, and their future as the next generation of leaders in public health education. This article describes a model, Our Campus, Our Health, to engage undergraduate students in the delivery of a college health behavior assessment. Through this project,…

  2. Getting personal: ethics and identity in global health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2011-08-01

    'Researcher identity' affects global health research in profound and complex ways. Anthropologists in particular have led the way in portraying the multiple, and sometimes tension-generating, identities that researchers ascribe to themselves, or have ascribed to them, in their places of research. However, the central importance of researcher identity in the ethical conduct of global health research has yet to be fully appreciated. The capacity of researchers to respond effectively to the ethical tensions surrounding their identities is hampered by lack of conceptual clarity, as to the nature and scope of the issues involved. This paper strives to provide some clarification of these ethical tensions by considering researcher identity from the perspective of (1) Guillemin and Heggen's (2009) key distinction between procedural ethics and ethics in practice, and (2) our own distinction between perceptions of identity that are either symmetrical or asymmetrical, with the potential to shift research relationships toward greater or lesser ethical harmony. Discussion of these concepts is supported with ethnographic examples from relevant literature and from our own (United States (US) Government-funded) research in South Africa. A preliminary set of recommendations is provided in an effort to equip researchers with a greater sense of organization and control over the ethics of researcher identity. The paper concludes that the complex construction of researcher identity needs to be central among the ethical concerns of global health researchers, and that the conceptual tools discussed in the paper are a useful starting point for better organizing and acting on these ethical concerns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The use of phenomenology in mental health nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Caroline Jane; Moxham, Lorna; Patterson, Christopher

    2017-12-18

    Historically, mental health research has been strongly influenced by the underlying positivism of the quantitative paradigm. Quantitative research dominates scientific enquiry and contributes significantly to understanding our natural world. It has also greatly benefitted the medical model of healthcare. However, the more literary, silent, qualitative approach is gaining prominence in human sciences research, particularly mental healthcare research. To examine the qualitative methodological assumptions of phenomenology to illustrate the benefits to mental health research of studying the experiences of people with mental illness. Phenomenology is well positioned to ask how people with mental illness reflect on their experiences. Phenomenological research is congruent with the principles of contemporary mental healthcare, as person-centred care is favoured at all levels of mental healthcare, treatment, service and research. Phenomenology is a highly appropriate and suitable methodology for mental health research, given it includes people's experiences and enables silent voices to be heard. This overview of the development of phenomenology informs researchers new to phenomenological enquiry. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  5. Course enhancement: a road map for devising active-learning and inquiry-based science courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William S

    2003-01-01

    Many college science faculties are frustrated at the performance of students in their courses. While faculty may not have much control over the nature of the students, we do have a great deal of control regarding what and how we teach. Lately, research and policy experts have been calling for college faculty to use new ways of teaching that are "inquiry-based"or use "active-learning techniques. "These calls, however, do not provide a clear pathway for making changes that are likely to succeed and that are relevant to specific disciplines. Course development can be approached in much the same way as our research. This paper develops a strategy for "course development" in terms that are familiar to developmental biologists. Just as research on gastrulation movements benefited from the use of a variety of activities (e.g., vital dye tracking, scanning electron microscopy), course development needs to consider multiple techniques and to make changes in straightforward and purposive ways. Examples from the literature and questions to consider will help the reader find their way to a new style of teaching.

  6. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  7. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Upadhyaya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have often been conducted to answer the question “why” rather than “what”. A purpose of qualitative research is the construction of new understanding. Here, we present an overview of application of qualitative methods in health research. We have discussed here the different types of qualitative methods and how we and others have used them in different settings/scenarios; sample size and sampling techniques; analysis of qualitative data; validity in qualitative research; and ethical issues.

  8. Exploring perceptions and experiences of Bolivian health researchers with research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S

    2015-04-01

    In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Developing strategies to enhance health services research capacity in a predominantly rural Canadian health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer; Bryant Maclean, Leslie; Coward, Patricia; Broemeling, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the planning, implementation and preliminary evaluation of a research capacity building (RCB) initiative within a predominantly rural Canadian health authority, Interior Health (IH), including initiative characteristics and key activities designed to initiate and enhance health services research capacity within the organization. Interior Health is one of 5 geographic health authorities in British Columbia. Over half of the population IH serves is considered to be rural/remote (approximately 3 people/km2), contributing to difficulties in sharing research information (ie geographical distance to meet in-person and a diverse set of needs and/or priority topics that warrant research support). An initial assessment of IH research capacity in 2006, using an organizational self-assessment tool and discussions with key stakeholders, revealed a need for enhanced communication of health research results, research education and networking opportunities for staff at all levels of the organization. Staff noted barriers to using and sharing research such as lack of time, resources and skills for, and value placed on, participating in research, as well as lack of awareness of linkages with local academic health researchers, including faculty located at two universities within the region. In response to this baseline assessment and stakeholder feedback, short-term funding has allowed for the initial development of RCB strategies in both urban and rural/remote areas of the region, including: IH Research Brown Bag Lunch Seminars; IH Research Skills Workshop Series; literature syntheses/summaries on priority topic areas; research collaboration/partnerships with health authorities, research networks and academic researchers; and an annual IH Research Conference. Although currently a poorly defined term, RCB is a concept that speaks to the need for improvement in the skills and assets that can facilitate the production and application research. It is difficult to

  10. Opening Health Data: What Do Researchers Want? Early Experiences With New York's Open Health Data Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erika G; Helbig, Natalie; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2015-01-01

    Governments are rapidly developing open data platforms to improve transparency and make information more accessible. New York is a leader, with currently the only state platform devoted to health. Although these platforms could build public health departments' capabilities to serve more researchers, agencies have little guidance on releasing meaningful and usable data. Structured focus groups with researchers and practitioners collected stakeholder feedback on potential uses of open health data and New York's open data strategy. Researchers and practitioners attended a 1-day November 2013 workshop on New York State's open health data resources. After learning about the state's open data platform and vision for open health data, participants were organized into 7 focus groups to discuss the essential elements of open data sets, practical challenges to obtaining and using health data, and potential uses of open data. Participants included 33 quantitative health researchers from State University of New York campuses and private partners and 10 practitioners from the New York State Department of Health. There was low awareness of open data, with 67% of researchers reporting never using open data portals prior to the workshop. Participants were interested in data sets that were geocoded, longitudinal, or aggregated to small area granularity and capabilities to link multiple data sets. Multiple environmental conditions and barriers hinder their capacity to use health data for research. Although open data platforms cannot address all barriers, they provide multiple opportunities for public health research and practice, and participants were overall positive about the state's efforts to release open data. Open data are not ideal for some researchers because they do not contain individually identifiable data, indicating a need for tiered data release strategies. However, they do provide important new opportunities to facilitate research and foster collaborations among

  11. Equity in international health research collaborations in Africa: Perceptions and expectations of African researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nchangwi Syntia Munung

    Full Text Available Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of international genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa.All interviewees were of the view that externally funded genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa, have played a critical role in building capacity for genomics research and biobanking in Africa and in providing an opportunity for researchers in Africa to collaborate and network with other researchers. Whilst the opportunity to collaborate was seen as a benefit, some interviewees stressed the importance of recognizing that these collaborations carry mutual benefits for all partners, including their collaborators in HICs. They also voiced two major concerns of being part of these collaborative initiatives: the possibility of exploitation of African researchers and the non-sustainability of research capacity building efforts. As a way of minimising exploitation, researchers in Africa recommended that genuine efforts be made to create transparent and equitable international health research partnerships. They suggested that this could be achieved through,: having rules of engagement, enabling African researchers to contribute to the design and conduct of international health projects in Africa, and mutual and respectful exchange of experience and capacity between research collaborators. These were identified as hallmarks to equitable international health research collaborations in Africa.Genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa such as H3Africa have

  12. Ethical Issues in Social Media Research for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Gough, Aisling; O'Kane, Niamh; McKeown, Gary; Fitzpatrick, Aine; Walker, Tom; McKinley, Michelle; Lee, Mandy; Kee, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Social media (SM) offer huge potential for public health research, serving as a vehicle for surveillance, delivery of health interventions, recruitment to trials, collection of data, and dissemination. However, the networked nature of the data means they are riddled with ethical challenges, and no clear consensus has emerged as to the ethical handling of such data. This article outlines the key ethical concerns for public health researchers using SM and discusses how these concerns might best be addressed. Key issues discussed include privacy; anonymity and confidentiality; authenticity; the rapidly changing SM environment; informed consent; recruitment, voluntary participation, and sampling; minimizing harm; and data security and management. Despite the obvious need, producing a set of prescriptive guidelines for researchers using SM is difficult because the field is evolving quickly. What is clear, however, is that the ethical issues connected to SM-related public health research are also growing. Most importantly, public health researchers must work within the ethical principles set out by the Declaration of Helsinki that protect individual users first and foremost.

  13. A proposed strategy for research misconduct policy: A review on misconduct management in health research system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Considering the proposed strategy, regarding the strengths and weaknesses, utilization of evaluation tool can be one of the best strategies to achieving the prospective of health research papers by 2025.

  14. Health fee exemptions: controversies and misunderstandings around a research programme. Researchers and the public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Our research programme on fee exemption policies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger involved sensitive topics with strong ideological and political connotations for the decision-makers, for health-workers, and for users. Thus we were confronted with reluctance, criticism, pressures and accusations. Our frank description of the shortcomings of these policies, based on rigorous research, and never polemical or accusatory, surprises political leaders and health managers, who are accustomed to official data, censored evaluations and discourse of justification.

  15. Immigration, employment relations, and health: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benavides, Fernando G

    2010-04-01

    International migration has emerged as a global issue that has transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of persons. Migrant workers contribute to the economic growth of high-income countries often serving as the labour force performing dangerous, dirty and degrading work that nationals are reluctant to perform. Critical examination of the scientific and "grey" literatures on immigration, employment relations and health. Both lay and scientific literatures indicate that public health researchers should be concerned about the health consequences of migration processes. Migrant workers are more represented in dangerous industries and in hazardous jobs, occupations and tasks. They are often hired as labourers in precarious jobs with poverty wages and experience more serious abuse and exploitation at the workplace. Also, analyses document migrant workers' problems of social exclusion, lack of health and safety training, fear of reprisals for demanding better working conditions, linguistic and cultural barriers that minimize the effectiveness of training, incomplete OHS surveillance of foreign workers and difficulty accessing care and compensation when injured. Therefore migrant status can be an important source of occupational health inequalities. Available evidence shows that the employment conditions and associated work organization of most migrant workers are dangerous to their health. The overall impact of immigration on population health, however, still is poorly understood and many mechanisms, pathways and overall health impact are poorly documented. Current limitations highlight the need to engage in explicit analytical, intervention and policy research. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  17. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Research on health inequalities: A bibliometric analysis (1966-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise; Albertini, Marcelo; Batista, Ricardo; de Montigny, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to report on research production and publications on health inequalities through a bibliometric analysis covering publications from 1966 to 2014 and a content analysis of the 25 most-cited papers. A database of 49,294 references was compiled from the search engine Web of Science. The first article appears in 1966 and deals with equality and civil rights in the United States and the elimination of racial discrimination in access to medical care. By 2003, the term disparity has gained in prominence relative to the term inequality which was initially elected by the researchers. Marmot's 1991 article is one of the five papers with the largest number of citations and contributes to the central perspective of social determinants of health and the British influence on the international status of research on social inequalities of health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    field. METHODS: Experts were invited to compile and discuss research priorities in a series of topic-based scientific workshops. In addition, a Delphi process was carried out to reach consensus on the list of research priorities and their rank order. Three web-based surveys were conducted. Nearly 60...... in Europe-and thematic research priorities, including area-specific top priorities on research topics and methods. The priorities represent three overarching goals mirroring societal challenges, that is, to identify causes, risk and protective factors for mental health across the lifespan; to advance...

  20. Global Health Systems and Policy Development: Implications for Health Literacy Research, Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Dodson, Sarity; Leung, Angela; Levin-Zamir, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and responsive health systems are critical to population health and human development. While progress has been made toward global health and development targets, significant inequities remain within and between countries. Expanding health inequities suggest a widespread and systemic neglect of vulnerable citizens, and a failure to enshrine within policies a responsibility to tailor care to the variable capabilities of citizens. Implementation of health and social policies that drive the design of accessible health systems, services, products and infrastructure represents the next frontier for health reform. Within this chapter we argue the need to consider health and health literacy across policy domains, to operationalize the intent to address inequities in health in meaningful and pragmatic ways, and to actively monitor progress and impact within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We contend that viewing and developing policies and systems within a health literacy framework will assist in placing citizens and equity considerations at the center of development efforts. In this chapter, we explore the relationship between health literacy and equitable access to health care, and the role of health system and policy reform. We first explore international policies, health literacy, and the SDGs. We then explore national policies and the role that national and local services and systems play in building health literacy, and responding to the health literacy challenges of citizens. We discuss the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework for Integrated People-Centered Health Services and the way in which health services are being encouraged to understand and respond to citizen health literacy needs. Each section of the chapter ends with a summary and a review of health literacy research and practice. Throughout, we illustrate our points through 'vignettes' from around the world.

  1. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  2. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-08-05

    BACKGROUND: Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. METHODS: HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. RESULTS: The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed

  3. An assessment of health research impact in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Janani, Leila; Mohtasham, Farideh; Nikooee, Sima; Mousavi, Abdmohammad; Najafi, Farid; Atabakzadeh, Maryam; Bazrafshan, Azam; Zare, Morteza; Karami, Manoochehr

    2016-07-26

    In recent years, Iran has made significant developments in the field of health sciences. However, the question is whether this considerable increase has affected public health. The research budget has always been negligible and unsustainable in developing countries. Hence, using the Payback Framework, we conducted this study to evaluate the impact of health research in Iran. By using a cross-sectional method and two-stage stratified cluster sampling, the projects were randomly selected from six medical universities. A questionnaire was designed according to the Payback Framework and completed by the principle investigators of the randomly selected projects. The response rate was 70.4%. Ten point twenty-four percent (10.24%) of the studies had been ordered by a knowledge user organization. The average number of articles published in journals per project was 0.96, and half of the studies had no articles published in Scopus. The results of 12% of the studies had been used in systematic review articles and the same proportion had been utilized in clinical or public health guidelines. The results of 5.3% of the studies had been implemented in the Health Ministry's policymaking. 62% of the studies were expected to affect health directly, 38% of them had been implemented, and among the latter 60% had achieved the expected results. Concerning the economic impacts, the most common expected impact was the reduction of 'days of work missed because of illness or disability' and impact on personal and health system costs. About 36% of these studies had been implemented, and 61% had achieved the expected impact. In most aspects, the status of research impact needs improvement. A comparison of Iran's ranking of knowledge creation and knowledge impact in the Global Innovation Index confirms these findings. The most important problems identified were, not conducting research based on national needs, and the lack of implementation of research results.

  4. A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Doris SY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF is dedicated to support research related to all aspects of health and health services in Hong Kong. We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour. Methods A locally suitable questionnaire was developed based on the "payback" evaluation framework and was sent to principal investigators of the completed research projects supported by the fund since 1993. Research "payback" in six outcome areas was surveyed, namely knowledge production, use of research in the research system, use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making, application of the research findings through changed behaviour, factors influencing the utilization of research, and health/health service/economic benefits. Results Principal investigators of 178 of 205 (87% completed research projects returned the questionnaire. Investigators reported research publications in 86.5% (mean = 5.4 publications per project, career advancement 34.3%, acquisition of higher qualifications 38.2%, use of results in policy making 35.4%, changed behaviour in light of findings 49.4%, evidence of health service benefit 42.1% and generated subsequent research in 44.9% of the projects. Payback outcomes were positively associated with the amount of funding awarded. Multivariate analysis found participation of investigators in policy committees and liaison with potential users were significantly associated with reported health service benefit (odds ratio [OR]participation = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–6.40; ORliaison = 2.03, 95% CI 1.05–3.91, policy and decision-making (ORparticipation = 10.53, 95% CI 4.13–26.81; ORliaison = 2.52, 95% CI 1.20–5.28, and change in behavior (ORparticipation = 3.67, 95% CI 1.53–8.81. Conclusion The HHSRF has produced substantial outcomes and compared

  5. Devising Enabling Spaces and Affordances for Personal Knowledge Management System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Personal Knowledge Management (PKM has been envisaged as a crucial tool for the growing creative class of knowledge workers, but adequate technological solutions have not been forthcoming. Background: Based on former affordance-related publications (primarily concerned with communication, community-building, collaboration, and social knowledge sharing, the common and differing narratives in relation to PKM are investigated in order to suggest further PKM capabilities and affordances in need to be conferred. Methodology: The paper follows up on a series of the author’s PKM-related publications, firmly rooted in design science research (DSR methods and aimed at creating an innovative PKM concept and prototype system. Contribution: The affordances presented offer PKM system users the means to retain and build upon knowledge acquired in order to sustain personal growth and facilitate productive collaborations between fellow learners and/or professional acquaintances. Findings: The results call for an extension of Nonaka’s SECI model and ‘ba’ concept and provide arguments for and evidence supporting the claims that the PKM concept and system is able to facilitate better knowledge traceability and KM practices. Recommendations and Impact on Society: Together with the prior publications, the paper points to current KM shortcomings and presents a novel trans-disciplinary approach offering appealing opportunities for stakeholders engaged in the context of curation, education, research, development, business, and entrepreneurship. Its potential to tackle opportunity divides has been addressed via a PKM for Development (PKM4D Framework. Future DSR Activities: After completing the test phase of the prototype, its transformation into a viable PKM system and cloud-based server based on a rapid development platform and a noSQL-database is estimated to take 12 months.

  6. Information bias in health research: definition, pitfalls, and adjustment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Althubaiti A

    2016-01-01

    Alaa Althubaiti Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: As with other fields, medical sciences are subject to different sources of bias. While understanding sources of bias is a key element for drawing valid conclusions, bias in health research continues to be a very sensitive issue that can affect the focus and outcome of investigations. Information bias, otherwise known as misclassific...

  7. Recent researches on prebiotics for gut health in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Santad Wichienchot; Wirote Youravong; Suwattana Prueksasri; Budsaraporn Ngampanya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This i...

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH RISKS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.

  9. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Townes, Ashley; Bengtson, Angela M

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans. Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9) was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10). Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  10. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abra?do-Lanza, Ana F.; Echeverr?a, Sandra E.; Fl?rez, Karen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes tha...

  11. Incorporating translational research with clinical research to increase effectiveness in healthcare for better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estape, Estela S; Mays, Mary Helen; Harrigan, Rosanne; Mayberry, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of new scientific discoveries into healthcare interventions requires that basic and clinical researchers work together with health care providers to generate team science. These innovative models require translational teams, and need to extend beyond the academic environment. The future of translational science requires partnerships with the healthcare community as well as the broader, general community. This new integrated model of effective translational teams holds promise for addressing thorny and persistent health disparities, is consistent with the nation's strategic priority of eliminating health disparities, and bodes well for increasing healthcare effectiveness aimed at better health for all. As part of the 13th Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) International Symposium on Health Disparities, several senior academic leaders joined efforts to hold a workshop to discuss a model that considers the incorporation of two translational research strategies in research career development programs: Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) for increasing healthcare effectiveness and eliminating healthcare disparities. Discussion included what issues may be most germane to the concept of a unified model for research workforce development through formal training and career development leading to increased effectiveness in healthcare for better health. We believe that there is a gap in knowledge and skills in formal research career development programs that will enable physicians, other clinicians, and basic scientists to actively participate in these two translational research strategies. The purpose of this paper is to share the outcomes of these discussions, and encourage further discussion and possible innovation in the formulation of a new model for translational research workforce development.

  12. Yoga Research and Public Health: Is Research Aligned With The Stakeholders' Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash R

    2016-08-11

    Research on yoga is witnessing an unprecedented proliferation currently, partly because of great interest in yoga's health utility. However, yoga research does not seem to be sufficiently public health oriented, or its quality corresponding to its quantity. Yoga research is falling short to enable key stakeholders like end users, prescribers, and payers to meaningfully, confidently, and fruitfully answer the questions like: Is it generalizable? Is it standardizable? Which yoga style should be used/recommended/paid for? Or will it be worth the money? Therefore, it is important to examine the alignment to purpose or value of yoga research from a public health point of view so as to make it more practical. The issues such as lack of clear definition of yoga, wide variation in its dosage, cacophony of lineage-based styles, no data about comparative effectiveness between the yoga components, confounders and biases clouding the evidence regarding its benefits, too little data on long-term adherence, equivocal results about its cost effectiveness, discussions lacking embrace of better methods in research, and absence of a theory of yoga are examined. This is not a detailed discussion of every issue yoga research faces, but a high-level overview of those that have direct practical bearing. In the end, a few pragmatic approaches are offered. The article suggests that yoga-component analysis, development of a theory of yoga, adoption of a health-aligned functional typology of yoga, development and testing of a simple universal basic prototype of yoga intervention, emphasis on research about long-term adherence, and discouragement for mere proof of concept research might make yoga research serve the stakeholders better. It urges the research community to practice "context cognizant scholarship" to disentangle health compatible yoga from its historical-cultural-social body before examining it for health or medical application. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  14. Understanding informed consent for participation in international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-08-01

    To participate in health research, there is a need for well-administered informed consent. Understanding of informed consent, especially in international health research, is influenced by the participants' understanding of information and the meaning attached to the information communicated to them regarding the purpose and procedure of the research. Incorrect information and the power differential between researcher and participants may lead to participants becoming victims of harmful research procedures. Meningitis epidemics in Kano in early 1996 led to a response from drug companies, especially Pfizer, as well as humanitarian workers from Médecins Sans Frontiers, which resulted in an unethical trial. Pfizer's drug trial during the epidemics has left a lasting controversy, which has yet to be resolved. This paper examines the key issues surrounding the controversy, discusses the context of informed decision-making, the ethical issues and implications of the incident, and concludes with some recommendations. Relevant texts, journals, Internet materials, newspaper articles and documentary materials on the conduct of the Pfizer's Trovan trial have been consulted. Four types of action (act intuitively, act rationally, act ignorantly, and act contextually - based on information provided) are identified as possible options for decision making. Participants most likely acted in ignorance due to poor understanding of the information contained in the verbal informed consent administered, thereby raising ethical issues. It is concluded that health research ethics committees have an important role to play nationally and locally in overseeing research, and in avoiding future occurrences.

  15. Social marketing : a new approach in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S C

    1998-10-01

    Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifying behaviours such as civil administration, public establishments etc. In health sector social marketing has not found appropriate application whereas it could be utilized in an effective way for creating awareness, formulating health related policies, their implementation and for preventing a variety of illnesses/abnormal behaviours etc.With this background knowledge about social marketing, the author hypothesized that abnormal behaviours could be modified, health education packages could be developed to make more acceptable and effective and desired behaviours could be induced if perceptions and expectations of the community (consumers) are known a prioriori and their expectations are incorporated in programmes and policies. Thus, the author utilizing the concepts of social marketing for understanding community's perceptions and expectations regarding issues of health, and for incorporating the same in health related programmes and policies, introduced this research concept in medical field in this country.The important findings of three research projects based on the concepts of social marketing research and their implications have been discussed.

  16. Shaping a new generation of Hispanic clinical and translational researchers addressing minority health and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapé, Estela S; Segarra, Barbara; Báez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Díaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter R

    2011-12-01

    In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities.

  17. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; MacLaren, David J; Harrington, Humpress; Asugeni, Rowena; Timothy-Harrington, Relmah; Kekeubata, Esau; Speare, Richard

    2012-12-18

    Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of 'experts' from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on 'expert' knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, "Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?" In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and inequities and is helping to sustain the initial steps

  18. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  19. Leadership and globalization: research in health management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo; Filerman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The impact of globalization on graduate health care management education is evident, yet challenging to quantify. The Commission on Healthcare Management Education (CAHME) recently authorized two research studies to gather specific information and answer important questions about accredited graduate programs in the USA and Canada. Two surveys provided the most comprehensive data impacting international health management education efforts by 70 programs. An inventory was made of 22 countries; information was compiled on 21 accrediting or quality improvement organizations. Observations on leadership and the demand for qualified health care professionals is discussed in terms of accreditation, certification, competency models, outcome assessment, improving quality, and the impact of globalization on higher education.

  20. Teaching information technology and research skills for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, C W; Lee, M K

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition of information technology and research skills is fundamental for all students in Public Health because of its fundamental emphasis on population studies. In the Curtin University, Division of Health Sciences the School of Public Health has the responsibility of introducing communication and IT skills to all students, both undergraduate and postgraduate. A special program of information technology skills is offered. The age of the Internet has meant added temptation for students in terms of plagiarism and all students and staff must be aware of their ethical obligations in this area. The advent of flexible learning strategies will provide many opportunities for Schools of Public Health, both in the education of their students and in the continuing education of public health practitioners. APACPH member institutions could usefully pool their resources to develop flexible learning resources.