WorldWideScience

Sample records for health research output

  1. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  2. Trends of public health research output from India during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of how public health research output from India is changing in relation to the disease burden and public health priorities is required in order to inform relevant research development. We therefore studied the trends in the public health research output from India during 2001-2008 that was readily available in the public domain. Methods The scope and type of the published research from India in 2007 that was included in the PubMed database was assessed and compared with a previous similar assessment for 2002. Papers were classified based on the review of abstracts and original public health research papers were assessed in detail. Impact factors for the journals were used to compute quality-adjusted research output. The websites of governmental organizations, academic and research institutions and international organizations were searched in order to identify and review reports on original public health research produced in India from 2001 to 2008. The reports were classified based on the topics covered and quality and their trends over time were assessed. Results The number of original health research papers from India in PubMed doubled from 4494 in 2002 to 9066 in 2007. This included a 3.1-fold increase in public health research papers, but these comprised only 5% of the total papers in 2007. Within public health, the increase was lowest for the health system and policy category. Several major causes of disease burden in India continued to be underrepresented in the quality-adjusted public health research output in 2007. The number of papers evaluating population health interventions increased from 2002 to 2007, but there were none on the leading non-communicable causes of disease burden or on road traffic injuries. The number of identified original public health research reports increased by 64.7% from 204 in 2001-2004 to 336 in 2005-2008. The proportion of reports on reproductive and child health was very

  3. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wolfenden

    2016-12-01

    Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output.

  4. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output.

  5. An output evaluation of a health research foundation's enhanced grant review process for new investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gregory W; Lê, Mê-Linh; Novotny, Tannis; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Pierce, Grant N; Wade, John

    2017-06-19

    We assessed the ability of the Manitoba Medical Service Foundation (MMSF, a small not-for-profit foundation affiliated with Manitoba Blue Cross) to determine the best candidates for selection to receive research funding support among new researchers applying to the Research Operating Grants Programme (ROGP). Using bibliometric and grants funding analyses, we retrospectively compared indices of academic outputs from five cohorts of MMSF-funded and not MMSF-funded applicants to the annual MMSF ROGP over 2008 to 2012, from 1 to 5 years after having received evaluation decisions from the MMSF enhanced grant review process. Those researchers funded by the MMSF competition (MMSF-funded) had a statistically significant greater number of publications, a higher h-index and greater national Tri-Council (TC) funding, versus those not selected for funding (not MMSF-funded). MMSF-funded applicants and the Manitoba research community have created a strong and rapid (within 1 to 5 years of receiving the MMSF grant) local economic return on investment associated with the MMSF ROGP that supports new investigators, of approximately nine-fold for TC grants by the principal investigator, and of 34-fold for the principal investigator on collaborative (total) TC grants. The use of small amounts of seed money for competitive research grants at early stages of an MMSF-funded applicant's career correlates with future short-term success of that applicant. The ability to correctly select promising candidates who subsequently demonstrate greater academic performance after the MMSF funding shows the selection process and the ROGP to be of merit. Multiple components may have contributed to this outcome, including a direct presentation and interview process of the candidate with five-person selection subcommittees, plus an assessment by an external reviewer (the enhanced grant review process). The selection methods used here may add value to the research grant selection processes of new

  6. Maternal health research outputs and gaps in Latin America: reflections from the mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Riaño, Emily; Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Tristán, Mario

    2017-09-18

    As part of the MASCOT/WOTRO multinational team conducting the maternal health literature mapping, four Latin American researchers were particularly interested in analysing information specific to their region. The mapping started with 45,959 papers uploaded from MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, LILACAS, PopLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. From these, 4175 full texts were reviewed and 2295 papers were subsequently included. Latin America experienced an average maternal mortality decline of 40% between 1990 and 2013. Nevertheless, the region's performance was below the global average and short of the 75% reduction set in Millennium Development Goal 5 for 2015. The main outcomes show that research on maternal health in the countries where the most impoverished populations of the world are living is not always aligned with their compelling needs. From another perspective, the review made it possible to recognize that research funding as well as the amount of scientific literature produced concentrate on issues that are not necessarily among the main causes of maternal deaths. Even though research on maternal health in Latin America has grown from an average of 92.5 publications per year in 2000-2003 to 236.7 between 2008 and 2012, it's not satisfactorily keeping pace with other regions. In conclusion, it is critical to effectively orient research funding and production to respond to the health needs of the population. At the same time, there is a need for innovative mechanisms to strengthen the production and uptake of scientific evidence that can properly inform public health decision making.

  7. Social networks and research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ductor, L.; Fafchamps, M.; Goyal, S.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study how knowledge about the social network of an individual researcher - as embodied in his coauthor relations - helps us in developing a more accurate prediction of his future productivity. We find that incorporating information about coauthor networks leads to a modest improvement in the

  8. The impact of Cochrane Reviews: a mixed-methods evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the National Institute for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha; Alderson, Phil; Hamilton, Laura; Martin, Alice; Pinkney, Emma; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The last few decades have seen a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by Cochrane, have been a key component of this movement. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) in the UK and it is important that this funding represents value for money. The overall aim was to identify the impacts and likely impacts on health care, patient outcomes and value for money of Cochrane Reviews published by 20 NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007-11. We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, undertook interviews with guideline developers (GDs) and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane Reviews. The evaluation was guided by a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). A total of 3187 new and updated reviews were published on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews between 2007 and 2011, 1502 (47%) of which were produced by the 20 CRGs funded by the NIHR. We found 40 examples where reviews appeared to have influenced primary research and reviews had contributed to the creation of new knowledge and stimulated debate. Twenty-seven of the 60 reviews had 100 or more citations in Google Scholar™ (Google, CA, USA). Overall, 483 systematic reviews had been cited in 247 sets of guidance. This included 62 sets of international guidance, 175 sets of national guidance (87 from the UK) and 10 examples of local guidance. Evidence from the interviews suggested that Cochrane Reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although reviews being a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and GDs were barriers to their use. Cochrane Reviews appeared to have led

  9. A Strategy-Based Approach towards Optimising Research Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lues, L.

    2013-01-01

    The South African higher education fraternity has experienced an outflow of senior research capacity during the past decade, resulting in a large influx of younger and less-published academics. More emphasis is therefore placed on the role of the central institution in ensuring research output. The Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences at a…

  10. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...... of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both...... in crusade studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article proposes further discussion on the “why” and “how” of this somewhat surprising result....

  11. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L.; Liu, Jing; Omary, M. Bishr

    2017-01-01

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research. PMID:28614799

  12. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L; Liu, Jing; Schnell, Santiago; Omary, M Bishr

    2017-06-15

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research.

  13. Does Gender Affect a Scientist's Research Output in Evolutionary Ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    To examine how an author's gender influences his or her research output, the authors analyzed (not simply scored) more than 900 published articles in nine leading scientific journals in the field of evolutionary ecology. Women were strongly underrepresented in all countries, but this bias is decreasing. Men and women differed significantly in their fields of research, with women preferentially conducting projects on behavior rather than evolution or ecology. Most aspects of the structure of published articles and the level of conceptual generality were unaffected by an author's gender. Because discriminatory practices by reviewers and editors can be manifested in attributes of the articles that survive the review process, the latter result suggests a lack of gender-based discrimination during the review process. Gender differences in research output presumably reflect a complex array of genetic and social influences; a clearer understanding of these causal factors may help identify (and thus reduce) gender-based discrimination.

  14. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  15. [h Index and scientific output of researchers in medicine from the University of Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, Arturo; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Rivera, Horacio; Roman, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate by the h index the scientific output of researchers from the University of Guadalajara who belong to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores in the field of Medicine and Health Sciences. Researchers from the University of Guadalajara were selected from the Active SNI Researchers 2013 file. The scientific output of researchers in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry was evaluated using the h index estimated by the Scopus website. A sample of capital researchers and Emeritus scientists was taken to perform the same procedure and compare data. The total number of researchers in the University of Guadalajara who are members of the SNI was 711, of which 67.2 % were level I and in less proportion were level II and III. Only 24.2 % of them were classified in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry. The average h index value of researchers level I, II and III in Medicine/Health Sciences field was 5.4, 10.5 and 14.5, respectively. Capital and Emeritus scientists had an average h index of 23.4 and 19.8, respectively. The h index measures the quantity and quality of the scientific output and it also avoids bias in the evaluation process. It should be useful for future evaluations of the SNI members and for medical doctors who sign up for the National Academy of Medicine.

  16. Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

  17. Global cardiovascular research output, citations, and collaborations: a time-trend, bibliometric analysis (1999-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D; Baldridge, Abigail; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Suh, Sarah; Lewison, Grant; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-01-01

    Health research is one mechanism to improve population-level health and should generally match the health needs of populations. However, there have been limited data to assess the trends in national-level cardiovascular research output, even as cardiovascular disease [CVD] has become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We performed a time trends analysis of cardiovascular research publications (1999-2008) downloaded from Web of Knowledge using a iteratively-tested cardiovascular bibliometric filter with >90% precision and recall. We evaluated cardiovascular research publications, five-year running actual citation indices [ACIs], and degree of international collaboration measured through the ratio of the fractional count of addresses from one country against all addresses for each publication. Global cardiovascular publication volume increased from 40 661 publications in 1999 to 55 284 publications in 2008, which represents a 36% increase. The proportion of cardiovascular publications from high-income, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] countries declined from 93% to 84% of the total share over the study period. High-income, OECD countries generally had higher fractional counts, which suggest less international collaboration, than lower income countries from 1999-2008. There was an inverse relationship between cardiovascular publications and age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality rates, but a direct, curvilinear relationship between cardiovascular publications and Human Development Index from 1999-2008. Cardiovascular health research output has increased substantially in the past decade, with a greater share of citations being published from low- and middle-income countries. However, low- and middle-income countries with the higher burdens of cardiovascular disease continue to have lower research output than high-income countries, and thus require targeted research investments to improve cardiovascular health.

  18. Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists are helping communities and policymakers develop and implement policies and practices designed to improve public health, especially for groups such as children, the elderly or the socioeconomically disadvantaged.

  19. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discoura...

  20. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  1. Global myeloma research clusters, output, and citations: a bibliometric mapping and clustering analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Andersen

    Full Text Available International collaborative research is a mechanism for improving the development of disease-specific therapies and for improving health at the population level. However, limited data are available to assess the trends in research output related to orphan diseases.We used bibliometric mapping and clustering methods to illustrate the level of fragmentation in myeloma research and the development of collaborative efforts. Publication data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science were retrieved for 2005-2009 and followed until 2013. We created a database of multiple myeloma publications, and we analysed impact and co-authorship density to identify scientific collaborations, developments, and international key players over time. The global annual publication volume for studies on multiple myeloma increased from 1,144 in 2005 to 1,628 in 2009, which represents a 43% increase. This increase is high compared to the 24% and 14% increases observed for lymphoma and leukaemia. The major proportion (>90% of publications was from the US and EU over the study period. The output and impact in terms of citations, identified several successful groups with a large number of intra-cluster collaborations in the US and EU. The US-based myeloma clusters clearly stand out as the most productive and highly cited, and the European Myeloma Network members exhibited a doubling of collaborative publications from 2005 to 2009, still increasing up to 2013.Multiple myeloma research output has increased substantially in the past decade. The fragmented European myeloma research activities based on national or regional groups are progressing, but they require a broad range of targeted research investments to improve multiple myeloma health care.

  2. Experiences of packaging research outputs into extension materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Research dissemination is one component of research that still faces many hindrances, ... time-frames for dissemination activities going beyond project phase-out in order to maximise ..... Available or upcoming extension materials, with cost and availability ..... Renewable Natural Resources Research Strategy, Annual.

  3. Orthodontic Research Output from Iran in International and National Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Samareh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad; Fard, Mohammad JavadKharrazi; Momeni, Nafiseh; Hedayati, Zohreh; Vakili, Vajihe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The number of scientific papers is a conventional metric to measure a country’s research performance in a particular area. The aim of this survey was to demonstrate statistical information about orthodontic research published in international and national journals. Materials and Methods: Pubmed as an international and IranMedex and SID as national databases were searched between1997 and 2012. The keyword searching method was used in English and Persian. Abstracts were reviewed and unrelated articles were omitted. Data were obtained and transferred to Microsoft Excel to survey the scintometric indicators. Results: According to the defined criteria, a total of 733 papers were found showing a considerable increase. Five hundred papers (68.2%) were published in domestic journals, and 233 (31.8%) were published in PubMed indexed journals. Most of the orthodontic articles originated from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (22.9%). The Journal of Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences published most of the national papers (27.8%) and the Australian Orthodontic Journal published the majority of international papers (9.9%) In terms of study design, 52.5% of the articles were observational and 39.4% were interventional. Conclusion: Orthodontic research production in Iran has made significant strides in the recent years and researchers should focus on the quality of the study in this field in order to apply research production in evidence base dentistry. PMID:24910678

  4. Mapping of drinking water research: A bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science and Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research. - Highlights: ► Drinking water research was characterized based on SCI-Expanded during 1992–2011. ► Research emphases were obtained from title, author keywords and KeyWords Plus. ► Ozonation, chlorination and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. ► Emerging contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium

  5. Mapping of drinking water research: A bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan, E-mail: ysho@asia.edu.tw

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science and Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research. - Highlights: ► Drinking water research was characterized based on SCI-Expanded during 1992–2011. ► Research emphases were obtained from title, author keywords and KeyWords Plus. ► Ozonation, chlorination and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. ► Emerging contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium.

  6. Z factor: a new index for measuring academic research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With rapid progress in scientific research activities and growing competition for funding resources, it becomes critical to effectively evaluate an individual researcher's annual academic performance, or their cumulative performance within the last 3–5 years. It is particularly important for young independent investigators, and is also useful for funding agencies when determining the productivity and quality of grant awardees. As the funding becomes increasingly limited, having an unbiased method of measuring recent performance of an individual scientist is clearly needed. Here I propose the Z factor, a new and useful way to measure recent academic performance.

  7. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

  8. Application Of Input-Output Analysis In The Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewczak Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage of the economic analysis in the study of the performance of health care system does not surprise anyone nowadays. Trends that are drawn over the years fluctuate from the technology assessment of health programs - in terms of efficiency, costs or utility for patients, through methods to establishing copayment for health services and the demand for medical services. Much of the interest is devoted to analysis of the shape of the health care system: the amount of contributions to the National Health Fund, the managing the system, both at the micro and macro level, or restructuring. Any method that allows to show dependencies, identify weaknesses/strengths of the health care system is appreciated by health policy makers.

  9. Does the DHET research output subsidy model penalise high-citation publication? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande X. Harley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available South African universities are awarded annual subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET based on their research publication output. Journal article subsidy is based on the number of research publications in DHET-approved journals as well as the proportional contribution of authors from the university. Co-authorship with other institutions reduces the subsidy received by a university, which may be a disincentive to collaboration. Inter-institutional collaboration may affect the scientific impact of resulting publications, as indicated by the number of citations received. We analysed 812 journal articles published in 2011 by authors from the University of Cape Town’s Faculty of Health Sciences to determine if there was a significant relationship between subsidy units received and (1 citation count and (2 field-weighted citation impact. We found that subsidy units had a significant inverse relationship with both citation count (r= -0.247; CI = -0.311 – -0.182; p"less than"0.0001 and field-weighted citation impact (r= -0.192; CI= -0.258 – -0.125; p"less than"0.0001. These findings suggest that the annual subsidy awarded to universities for research output may inadvertently penalise high-citation publication. Revision of the funding model to address this possibility would better align DHET funding allocation with the strategic plans of the South African Department of Science and Technology, the National Research Foundation and the South African Medical Research Council, and may better support publication of greater impact research.

  10. Interfield dysbalances in research input and output benchmarking: Visualisation by density equalizing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical, social and economic reasons can lead to major differences in the allocation of health system resources and research funding. These differences might endanger the progress in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of socio-economic important diseases. The present study aimed to assess different benchmarking approaches that might be used to analyse these disproportions. Research in two categories was analysed for various output parameters and compared to input parameters. Germany was used as a high income model country. For the areas of cardiovascular and respiratory medicine density equalizing mapping procedures visualized major geographical differences in both input and output markers. Results An imbalance in the state financial input was present with 36 cardiovascular versus 8 respiratory medicine state-financed full clinical university departments at the C4/W3 salary level. The imbalance in financial input is paralleled by an imbalance in overall quantitative output figures: The 36 cardiology chairs published 2708 articles in comparison to 453 articles published by the 8 respiratory medicine chairs in the period between 2002 and 2006. This is a ratio of 75.2 articles per cardiology chair and 56.63 articles per respiratory medicine chair. A similar trend is also present in the qualitative measures. Here, the 2708 cardiology publications were cited 48337 times (7290 times for respiratory medicine which is an average citation of 17.85 per publication vs. 16.09 for respiratory medicine. The average number of citations per cardiology chair was 1342.69 in contrast to 911.25 citations per respiratory medicine chair. Further comparison of the contribution of the 16 different German states revealed major geographical differences concerning numbers of chairs, published items, total number of citations and average citations. Conclusion Despite similar significances of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for the global

  11. Research Outputs of England's Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Database: Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zain; Mannan, Fahmida; Gibson-White, Angela; Syed, Usama; Ahmed, Shirin; Majeed, Azeem

    2017-12-06

    Hospital administrative data, such as those provided by the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database in England, are increasingly being used for research and quality improvement. To date, no study has tried to quantify and examine trends in the use of HES for research purposes. To examine trends in the use of HES data for research. Publications generated from the use of HES data were extracted from PubMed and analysed. Publications from 1996 to 2014 were then examined further in the Science Citation Index (SCI) of the Thompson Scientific Institute for Science Information (Web of Science) for details of research specialty area. 520 studies, categorised into 44 specialty areas, were extracted from PubMed. The review showed an increase in publications over the 18-year period with an average of 27 publications per year, however with the majority of output observed in the latter part of the study period. The highest number of publications was in the Health Statistics specialty area. The use of HES data for research is becoming more common. Increase in publications over time shows that researchers are beginning to take advantage of the potential of HES data. Although HES is a valuable database, concerns exist over the accuracy and completeness of the data entered. Clinicians need to be more engaged with HES for the full potential of this database to be harnessed.

  12. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  13. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  14. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  15. [Output standard in the mental health services of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Methodological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G

    2000-01-01

    The project Output Standards of the Mental Health Department (MHD) of Reggio Emilia is set out to define outputs and quality standards and to guarantee transparency and to facilitate organizational improvement. The MHD started an interprofessional working group that defined the MHD outputs as long as process, quality peculiarities, indicators and standards for each output. The MHD Director validated the group results. The MHD defined 9 outputs and its indicators and standards and consequently modified its data registration system, the way to supply free and partially charged services and budget indicators. As a result, a new instrument for management and quality control has been provided. The A. maintains that to define outputs, indicators and standards will allow to compare several services of the Department, get them omogeneous and guarantee and improve quality.

  16. Evolution of primary care databases in UK: a scientometric analysis of research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezyridis, Paraskevas; Timmons, Stephen

    2016-10-11

    To identify publication and citation trends, most productive institutions and countries, top journals, most cited articles and authorship networks from articles that used and analysed data from primary care databases (CPRD, THIN, QResearch) of pseudonymised electronic health records (EHRs) in UK. Descriptive statistics and scientometric tools were used to analyse a SCOPUS data set of 1891 articles. Open access software was used to extract networks from the data set (Table2Net), visualise and analyse coauthorship networks of scholars and countries (Gephi) and density maps (VOSviewer) of research topics co-occurrence and journal cocitation. Research output increased overall at a yearly rate of 18.65%. While medicine is the main field of research, studies in more specialised areas include biochemistry and pharmacology. Researchers from UK, USA and Spanish institutions have published the most papers. Most of the journals that publish this type of research and most cited papers come from UK and USA. Authorship varied between 3 and 6 authors. Keyword analyses show that smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental illnesses, as well as medication that can treat such medical conditions, such as non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents, insulin and antidepressants constitute the main topics of research. Coauthorship network analyses show that lead scientists, directors or founders of these databases are, to various degrees, at the centre of clusters in this scientific community. There is a considerable increase of publications in primary care research from EHRs. The UK has been well placed at the centre of an expanding global scientific community, facilitating international collaborations and bringing together international expertise in medicine, biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Research Output of Australian Universities: Are the Newer Institutions Catching up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Two decades on from the abolition of the binary divide in higher education in Australia, what has happened to the relative research performance of institutions that started from quite diverse positions? We use two databases, Thomson Reuters ISI and Scopus, to measure growth rates in research output. We find that there has been some convergence in…

  18. Perspectives to Performance of Environment and Health Assessments and Models—From Outputs to Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni T. Tuomisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1 quality assurance/control, (2 uncertainty analysis, (3 technical assessment of models, (4 effectiveness and (5 other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge.

  19. Epilepsy Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output During 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Rasouli-Ghahfarkhi, Seyedeh Moloud; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Seidi, Jamal; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the epilepsy research output of Iran in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publication output indexed in Scopus citation database during 2000-2014. This study was based on the publications of epilepsy research from Iranian authors retrieved Feb. 2015 from Scopus Citation database [www.scopus.com]. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using "epilepsy OR epilepsies" keywords in title, abstract and keywords and Iran in affiliation field was our main string. Cumulative publication output of Iran in epilepsy research consisted of 702 papers from 2000 to 2014, with an average number of 46.53 papers per year. The total publication output of Iran in epilepsy research increased from 2 papers in 2000 to 88 papers in 2014. Hence, with 702 paper, Iran ranked 25(th) among the top 25 countries with a global share of 0.82 %. Iranian publication average citation per paper increased from 0 in 2000 to 7.88 in 2014. Overall, the received citations were 3184 citations during those years. Iran is collaborating with 36 countries with no more than 244 of its papers (35% of its total papers). It is necessary to prepare conditions for epilepsy researchers to collaborate more with international scientific societies in order to produce more and high quality papers.

  20. Modelling health and output at business cycle horizons for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we employ a theoretical framework - a simple macro model augmented with health - that draws guidance from the Keynesian view of business cycles to examine the relative importance of permanent and transitory shocks in explaining variations in health expenditure and output at business cycle horizons for the USA. The variance decomposition analysis of shocks reveals that at business cycle horizons permanent shocks explain the bulk of the variations in output, while transitory shocks explain the bulk of the variations in health expenditures. We undertake a shock decomposition analysis for private health expenditures versus public health expenditures and interestingly find that while transitory shocks are more important for private sector expenditures, permanent shocks dominate public health expenditures. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cannabis publication analysis using density-equalising mapping and research output benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Vogelzang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cannabis has been a topic of political and medical controversy in many countries over the past century. Although many publications on this topic are available, there is currently no comprehensive evaluation of global research activities in the field. Objective. This study was conducted in order to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the worldwide research output on cannabis. Methods. In a quantitative approach, items concerning cannabis published between 1900 and 2008 were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science databases developed by the Thompson Institute of Scientific Information and analysed using scientometric methods. In a second step, research fields of growing interest were identified. Results. We found that publications on this topic increased during the late 1960s, as well as during the period 1990 - 2008. We noted that South Africa was one of the countries with a high research output, having published numerous articles on cannabis. A comparison of cannabis with other drugs (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and heroin showed that in relation to the proportion of respective drug users, cocaine and heroin are overly represented in terms of research output. When analysing the main subjects of the publications, psychiatry was prominent, especially with regard to research on psychosis. Conclusion. There is increasing interest in research on cannabis. The research only partially reflects the drug’s importance with regard to number of users.

  2. Metric-based vs peer-reviewed evaluation of a research output: Lesson learnt from UK's national research assessment exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwanth Koya

    Full Text Available There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies.To examine both the questions, we applied the United Kingdom's recently concluded national research assessment exercise known as the Research Excellence Framework (REF 2014 as a case study. All the data for this study is sourced from the openly available publications which arose from the digital repositories of REF's results and HEFCE's funding allocations.A world leading output earns between £7504 and £14,639 per year within the REF cycle, whereas an internationally excellent output earns between £1876 and £3659, varying according to their area of research. Secondly, an investigation into the impact rating of 25315 journal articles submitted in five areas of research by UK HEIs and their awarded funding revealed a linear relationship between the percentage of quartile-one journal publications and percentage of 4* outputs in Clinical Medicine, Physics and Psychology/Psychiatry/Neuroscience UoAs, and no relationship was found in the Classics and Anthropology/Development Studies UoAs, due to the fact that most publications in the latter two disciplines are not journal articles.The findings provide an indication of the monetary value of a research output, from the perspectives of government funding for research, and also what makes a good output, i.e. whether a relationship exists between good quality output and the source of its publication. The

  3. Metric-based vs peer-reviewed evaluation of a research output: Lesson learnt from UK's national research assessment exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Kushwanth; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2017-01-01

    There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies. To examine both the questions, we applied the United Kingdom's recently concluded national research assessment exercise known as the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 as a case study. All the data for this study is sourced from the openly available publications which arose from the digital repositories of REF's results and HEFCE's funding allocations. A world leading output earns between £7504 and £14,639 per year within the REF cycle, whereas an internationally excellent output earns between £1876 and £3659, varying according to their area of research. Secondly, an investigation into the impact rating of 25315 journal articles submitted in five areas of research by UK HEIs and their awarded funding revealed a linear relationship between the percentage of quartile-one journal publications and percentage of 4* outputs in Clinical Medicine, Physics and Psychology/Psychiatry/Neuroscience UoAs, and no relationship was found in the Classics and Anthropology/Development Studies UoAs, due to the fact that most publications in the latter two disciplines are not journal articles. The findings provide an indication of the monetary value of a research output, from the perspectives of government funding for research, and also what makes a good output, i.e. whether a relationship exists between good quality output and the source of its publication. The findings may also

  4. Does the DHET research output subsidy model penalise high-citation publication? A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Yolande X. Harley; Esmari Huysamen; Carlette Hlungwani; Tania S. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    South African universities are awarded annual subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) based on their research publication output. Journal article subsidy is based on the number of research publications in DHET-approved journals as well as the proportional contribution of authors from the university. Co-authorship with other institutions reduces the subsidy received by a university, which may be a disincentive to collaboration. Inter-institutional collaboration may ...

  5. Algerian medical teachers' research output and its determinants during the 2000-2009 decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A; Atif, M L; Bouamra, A; El Kebboub, A; Benzerga, M; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Soulimane, A; Ladner, J; Borgès Da Silva, G; Meguenni, K; Quessar, A; Heroual, N; Bouguizi, A; Boussouf, N; Makhlouf, F; Lamdjadani, N; Tibiche, A; Abbassene, S; Regagba, D; Benameur, M

    2014-02-01

    Publications are the primary output of scientific research. We conducted a national study to quantify Algerian medical teachers' research output and identify its determinants during the 2000-2009 decade. The American Medline database and the French Pascal database were used. A publication was eligible only if the lead author was an Algerian medical teacher (in medicine, pharmacy, or dentistry) working in Algeria. The same questionnaire was completed by cases (teachers who were first authors of an original article during the study period) and randomly selected controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to research output. A total of 79 original articles (42.2% of publications) were retrieved, a quarter of which were listed in Pascal alone. The publication rate was 2.6 original articles per 1000 teachers per year. The journals that published these original articles had a median impact factor of 0.83. The ability to publish an original article was 4.3 times higher if the teacher had undergone training in biostatistics and/or epidemiology (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-10.38). A promotion evaluation grid that did not encourage writing (aOR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.42-8.33), a doctoral thesis, seniority, foreign collaboration, and English language proficiency were found to be associated with publication output. Algerian medical teachers' research output was particularly low. Replacing the current promotion grid with a grid that promotes writing, developing abilities to read and write articles and developing English language proficiency are likely to improve this situation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Yellow fever disease: density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Matthias; Groneberg, David A; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander

    2013-11-18

    A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported.The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then data were extracted from each file, transferred to databases and visualized as diagrams. Partially by means of density-equalizing mapping makes the findings clear and emphasizes the output of the analysis. In the study period from 1900 to 2012 a total of 5,053 yellow fever-associated items were published by 79 countries. The United States (USA) having the highest publication rate at 42% (n = 751) followed by far from Brazil (n = 203), France (n = 149) and the United Kingdom (n = 113). The most productive journals are the "Public Health Reports", the "American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene" and the "Journal of Virology". The gender analysis showed an overall steady increase of female authorship from 1950 to 2011. Brazil is the only country of the five most productive countries with a higher proportion of female scientists. The present data shows an increase in research productivity over the entire study period, in particular an increase of female scientists. Brazil shows a majority of female authors, a fact that is confirmed by other studies.

  7. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  8. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research.

  9. Accessing National Water Model Output for Research and Application: An R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Coll, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the National Water Model becoming operational in August of 2016, the need for a open source way to translate a huge amount of data into actionable intelligence and innovative research is apparent. The first step in doing this is to provide a package for accessing, managing, and writing data in a way that is both interpretable, portable, and useful to the end user in both the R environment, and other applications. This can be as simple as subsetting the outputs and writing to a CSV, but can also include converting discharge output to more meaningful statistics and measurements, and methods to visualize data in ways that are meaningful to a wider audience. The NWM R package presented here aims to serve this need through a suite of functions fit for researchers, first responders, and average citizens. A vignette of how this package can be applied to real-time flood mapping will be demonstrated.

  10. Views on equine-related research in Australia from the Australian equestrian community: perceived outputs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Clarkson, L

    2016-04-01

    The extension of research into public practice is enhanced by communication and behaviour change strategies that are consistent with consumer needs and perspectives. To gain support for equine research (or to appreciate the perspectives contributing to disagreement), it is necessary to determine how aware consumers are of research, what research means to them, how they perceive its benefits (if at all) and how they engage with (or resist) it. Because of a surprising dearth of research evaluating consumer perceptions of research in any sector, our aim was to identify the perceived outputs and benefits of research from the perspective of the Australian horse owner. We analysed the data for 930 participants in an online survey. Participants' understanding of research was associated with a broad terminology. Slightly more than half were aware of equine research that had taken place in Australia, with almost half reporting gaining some benefit, notably in relation to equine health. Although comments demonstrated an awareness of the collective benefit of research, research was made meaningful in relation to local conditions and participants' own equestrian disciplines. There is a significant opportunity for increasing awareness of Australia-based equine research and its value to owners of horses. The critical engagement with research by some owners suggests the need for communicators to present research in terms suitable for an intelligent lay audience, with clear identification of the personal and collective benefits for owners, horses and the equestrian community. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...

  12. An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.

  13. Scientific output quality of 40 globally top-ranked medical researchers in the field of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskiewicz, W; Drozdzowska, B; Adamczyk, P; Noga, K

    2018-03-26

    The study presents the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors, publishing in the field of osteoporosis. Their h-index is compared with the Scientific Quality Index (SQI), a novel indicator. Using SQI, 92.5% of the authors changed their initial positions in the general ranking. SQI partially depends on bibliometric measures different from those influencing h-index and may be considered as an assessment tool, reflecting more objective, qualitative, rather than quantitative, features of individual scientific output. The study approaches the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors in the field of osteoporosis. The assessed authors were identified in the Scopus database, using the key word "osteoporosis" and the h-index data, collected during the last decade (2008-2017). The data, concerning the scientific output, expressed by the h-index, were compared with a novel indicator of scientific quality-called the Scientific Quality Index (SQI). SQI is calculated according to the following formula: Parameter No. 1 + Parameter No. 2, where: Parameter No. 1 (the percent of papers cited ≥ 10 times) the number of papers cited ≥ 10 times (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) is divided by the number of all the published papers (including the papers with no citation) × 100%, Parameter No. 2 (the mean number of citations per paper) the total number of citations (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) divided by the number of all published papers (including papers with no citation). The following research output values were obtained: the citation index, 2483.6 ± 1348.7; the total number of papers, 75.1 ± 23.2; the total number of cited papers, 69.3 ± 22.0; the number of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 45.4 ± 17.2; the percent of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 59.9 ± 10.0; and the mean citations per paper, 32.8 ± 15.0. The mean value of Hirsch index was 24.2 ± 6.2 and SQI

  14. Hematology research output from Chinese authors and other countries: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ye, Xin; Sun, Yi; Deng, An-mei; Qian, Bao-hua

    2015-02-06

    Hematologic disease affects people of all ages worldwide. In the past decade, researchers have made great progress in the field of hematology. In the present study we compared the hematology research output from China and other countries (USA, Germany, UK, Japan and South Korea) over the past 10 years and 5 years. The related articles were extracted based on the PubMed database. We recorded the number of publications, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, case reports, reviews, citations, impact factors, articles in the top 10 journals and most published journals to assess the quantity and quality of research output in each region. A total of 120,641 hematology-related articles were published from 2004 to 2013. The USA accounted for 27.13% (32,732/120,641) of the publications, followed by Germany (7,479/120,641; 6.20%), Japan (6,347/120,641; 5.26%), the UK (5,453/120,641; 4.52%), China (2,924/120,641; 2.42%) and South Korea (1,413/120,641; 1.17%). The ranking for cumulative impact factors was as follows: USA; Germany; UK; Japan; China and South Korea. The median impact factors in the UK, USA, and Germany were higher than Japan, South Korea, and China. Interestingly, the median impact factors in the three Asia countries were similar both in 2004-2013 and 2009-2013. The UK had the highest percentage of publications in the top 25% of journals, while China lagged behind and ranked last. When comparing the number of articles in the top 10 journals, the results were similar to the IF findings. Germany had the highest number of average citations, while China had the lowest number of average citation. The status of hematology research output from the 6 countries in 2009-2013 had little difference from 2004-2013. Thus, the USA has had a dominant role in hematologic research in the past 10 years. Overall, the quality of publications in European countries was better than Asia countries. Although China has made considerable progress in hematology

  15. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1: measuring inputs and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2003-12-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. In this first part, some approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services are examined for their suitability to provide models for the health sector. The paper summarizes some major national and collaborative initiatives to develop measures for digital libraries, and analyses these approaches in terms of their relationship to traditional measures of library performance, which are focused on inputs and outputs, and their relevance to current debates among health information specialists. The second part* looks more specifically at evaluative models based on outcomes, and models being developed in the health sector.

  16. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ronan W; Scutaru, Cristian; Kerin, Michael J; Sweeney, Karl J

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, 'OR', with different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. Mapping was performed as described by Groneberg-Kloft et al. in 2008. A total of 180,126 breast cancer-associated items were produced over the study period; these had been cited 4,136,224 times. The United States returned the greatest level of output (n = 77,101), followed by the UK (n = 18,357) and Germany (n = 12,529). International cooperation peaked in 2008, with 3,127 entries produced as a result; relationships between the United States and other countries formed the basis for the 10 most common forms of bilateral cooperation. Publications from nations with high levels of international cooperation were associated with greater average citation rates. A total of 4,096 journals published at least one item on breast cancer, although the top 50 most prolific titles together accounted for over 43% (77,517/180,126) of the total output. Breast cancer-associated research output continues to increase annually. In an era when bibliometric indicators are increasingly being employed in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with improving that performance.

  17. Research into the Energy Output of Asymmetric Cylindrical Structure under Internal Explosion Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy output characteristic of an asymmetric cylindrical structure under internal explosion loading has significant research value in the field of the national defense industry. This paper took the D-shaped structure as the research object. Three groups of experiments (D-90°, D-120°, D-150° were carried out. The D-shaped structure showed that fragments are concentrated in the middle and are sparse on both sides. Moreover, the fragment density decreased with the increase of the azimuth angle. The fragment velocities, which were measured from high-speed photography and an oscilloscope, coincided well with each other, and decreased with an increase in the central angle. Compared with the cylindrical structure, the fragment energy gain of the D-shaped structure is significant; the total energy and energy density of the three D-shaped structures were very close to each other. This indicates that D-120° is the optimal solution among the three D-shaped structures and it can provide guidance for the future design of D-shaped structures to achieve higher energy output.

  18. Sectoral risk research about input-output structure of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao

    2018-02-01

    There exist rare researches about economic risk in sectoral level, which is significantly important for risk prewarning. This paper employed status coefficient to measure the symmetry of economic subnetwork, which is negatively correlated with sectoral risk. Then, we do empirical research in both cross section and time series dimensions. In cross section dimension, we study the correlation between sectoral status coefficient and sectoral volatility, earning rate and Sharpe ratio respectively in the year 2015. Next, in the perspective of time series, we first investigate the correlation change between sectoral status coefficient and annual total output from 1997 to 2015. Then, we divide the 71 sectors in America into agriculture, manufacturing, services and government, compare the trend terms of average sectoral status coefficients of the four industries and illustrate the causes behind it. We also find obvious abnormality in the sector of housing. At last, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the federal government.

  19. Mapping pneumonia research: A systematic analysis of UK investments and published outputs 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Harris, Jennifer N.; Clarke, Stuart C.; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of pneumonia continues to be substantial, particularly among the poorest in global society. We describe here the trends for UK pneumonia R&D investment and published outputs, and correlate with 2013 global mortality. Methods Data related to awards to UK institutions for pneumonia research from 1997 to 2013 were systematically sourced and categorised by disease area and type of science. Investment was compared to mortality figures in 2010 and 2013 for pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza. Investment was also compared to publication data. Results Of all infectious disease research between 2011 and 2013 (£917.0 million), £28.8 million (3.1%) was for pneumonia. This was an absolute and proportionate increase from previous time periods. Translational pneumonia research (33.3%) received increased funding compared with 1997–2010 where funding was almost entirely preclinical (87.5%, here 30.9%), but high-burden areas such as paediatrics, elderly care and antimicrobial resistance received little investment. Annual investment remains volatile; publication temporal trends show a consistent increase. When comparing investment to global burden with a novel ‘investment by mortality observed’ metric, tuberculosis (£48.36) and influenza (£484.21) receive relatively more funding than pneumonia (£43.08), despite investment for pneumonia greatly increasing in 2013 compared to 2010 (£7.39). Limitations include a lack of private sector data and the need for careful interpretation of the comparisons with burden, plus categorisation is subjective. Conclusions There has been a welcome increase for pneumonia funding awarded to UK institutions in 2011–2013 compared with 1997–2010, along with increases for more translational research. Published outputs relating to pneumonia rose steadily from 1997 to 2013. Investment relative to mortality for pneumonia has increased, but it remains low compared to other respiratory infections and clear inequities remain

  20. Cancer Nursing Research Output in Africa 2005 to 2014: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; Herbert, Vivien; Huiskamp, Agnes Alice

    This study is the first review of African cancer nursing research as only 1 review focusing on South Africa was conducted in the past decade. The aim of this study was to identify, summarize, and synthesize the findings from previous independent studies conducted by nurses in Africa. The terms cancer nursing and oncology nursing and Africa were used to search PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SA e-publications, and Scopus. Studies reporting research conducted in an African setting, coauthored by a nurse affiliated with an African institution and published between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, in English were included. A data extraction sheet captured the data. A potential 536 articles for possible inclusion were identified. Fifty met the inclusion requirements. Cancer in women (78%; n = 39) and prevention and early detection (62%; n = 31) were most commonly investigated. The work was primarily quantitative and collected data on some knowledge aspect from women in the community. Most of the studies (96%; n = 48) did not meet the criteria of high-quality work. Africa's nurses have improved their research output in the field of cancer nursing considerably. Research focusing on the most prevalent cancers, the treatment, the patient living with cancer, the family, extended family, and community is lacking, as is work focusing on pain and other symptoms. Nurses in practice should assist nurse researchers to address the identified knowledge gaps to develop cancer nursing science and practice tailored to meet the unique needs of Africa.

  1. Research Output of the Pakistani Library and Information Science Authors: A Bibliometric Evaluation of Their Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Mumtaz Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 601 cited papers of Pakistani LIS researchers with the purpose to examine the individual performance of these Library and Information Science (LIS researchers in terms of their research output and its impact on the LIS (national/international literature by using various bibliometric indicators. A list of 139 authors was compiled with the help of the Library, Information Science, and Technology Abstracts (LISTA and some other sources. Data were collected from Google Scholar and SPSS version 20 was utilized in order to identify the relationship between self-citations and various performance indices of the authors. The average citations received per paper vary from 1.80 to 10.08. About half of the papers were single-authored whereas less than one-fifth were by three or more authors. The authors who worked in collaboration produced more papers and received more citations. The h-index, g-index, hI-index, hI-norm, and e-index were used to determine the rank for each author. The intra-group citations grid revealed the volume of self-citations and a small group who cite each other more due to close academic and social relationships. The correlations between self-citations and the impact indices used revealed significant differences. Findings are useful for concerned institutions regarding award, promotions, etc. Further, future research should seriously consider the self-citations and social networking of authors while examining their citations-based research performance.

  2. Mapping pneumonia research: A systematic analysis of UK investments and published outputs 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Newell, Marie-Louise; Scott, J Anthony G; Harris, Jennifer N; Clarke, Stuart C; Atun, Rifat

    2015-09-01

    The burden of pneumonia continues to be substantial, particularly among the poorest in global society. We describe here the trends for UK pneumonia R&D investment and published outputs, and correlate with 2013 global mortality. Data related to awards to UK institutions for pneumonia research from 1997 to 2013 were systematically sourced and categorised by disease area and type of science. Investment was compared to mortality figures in 2010 and 2013 for pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza. Investment was also compared to publication data. Of all infectious disease research between 2011 and 2013 (£917.0 million), £28.8 million (3.1%) was for pneumonia. This was an absolute and proportionate increase from previous time periods. Translational pneumonia research (33.3%) received increased funding compared with 1997-2010 where funding was almost entirely preclinical (87.5%, here 30.9%), but high-burden areas such as paediatrics, elderly care and antimicrobial resistance received little investment. Annual investment remains volatile; publication temporal trends show a consistent increase. When comparing investment to global burden with a novel 'investment by mortality observed' metric, tuberculosis (£48.36) and influenza (£484.21) receive relatively more funding than pneumonia (£43.08), despite investment for pneumonia greatly increasing in 2013 compared to 2010 (£7.39). Limitations include a lack of private sector data and the need for careful interpretation of the comparisons with burden, plus categorisation is subjective. There has been a welcome increase for pneumonia funding awarded to UK institutions in 2011-2013 compared with 1997-2010, along with increases for more translational research. Published outputs relating to pneumonia rose steadily from 1997 to 2013. Investment relative to mortality for pneumonia has increased, but it remains low compared to other respiratory infections and clear inequities remain. Analyses that measure investments in pneumonia

  3. Tracing the scientific outputs in the field of Ebola research based on publications in the Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fengyun; Yang, Pin; Sheng, Huifeng

    2016-04-15

    Ebola virus disease (hereafter EVD or Ebola) has a high fatality rate. The devastating effects of the current epidemic of Ebola in West Africa have put the global health response in acute focus. In response, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". A small proportion of scientific literature is dedicated to Ebola research. To identify global research trends in Ebola research, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science™ database was used to search for data, which encompassed original articles published from 1900 to 2013. The keyword "Ebola" was used to identify articles for the purposes of this review. In order to include all published items, the database was searched using the Basic Search method. The earliest record of literature about Ebola indexed in the Web of Science is from 1977. A total of 2477 publications on Ebola, published between 1977 and 2014 (with the number of publications increasing annually), were retrieved from the database. Original research articles (n = 1623, 65.5%) were the most common type of publication. Almost all (96.5%) of the literature in this field was in English. The USA had the highest scientific output and greatest number of funding agencies. Journal of Virology published 239 papers on Ebola, followed by Journal of Infectious Diseases and Virology, which published 113 and 99 papers, respectively. A total of 1911 papers on Ebola were cited 61,477 times. This analysis identified the current state of research and trends in studies about Ebola between 1977 and 2014. Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress in Ebola research.

  4. Research on Digital Output Verification Technology of Electronic DC Current Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Hu, Haoliang; Xiong, Qianzhu; Yang, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the error of calibration system when conducting field calibration by electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system, an electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system based on protocol conversion is proposed and researched. Data frames outputted from merging unit are collected and converted by the system, the digital synchronization is realized by using the synchronous clock device to trigger the second pulse, and it is verified by the virtual instrument design software. The field calibration is conducted to some converter station digital dc current transformer under the rated current of 500A by using the calibration system. By calibrating and analyzing errors, the error is less than 0.075% when tested current is more than 40% of the rated current. According the standard in literature[1], performance of the calibration system is perfect, measured results perfectly meet the requirements of design, and the calibration system has great practical application value.

  5. Predicting scientific research output at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Murray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic members of staff at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN are expected to publish in research journals that have been accredited by the South African based Department of Higher Education and Training. However, some members of staff have chosen to focus solely on the teaching aspect of their careers and as a result they have no publication record. In this study, a set of per annum productivity unit counts was calculated for every academic at UKZN. Because it is possible for a publishing academic to also record a zero count for a given year, it is necessary to develop an appropriate methodology that can distinguish this zero count from one that will always be recorded by a non-publishing academic. By fitting a zero-inflated Poisson model to the data, specific factors can be identified that separately drive the non-publishing and publishing processes at UKZN. In particular, having a PhD and working in a large school has a significant impact on improving the research output of a publishing academic. If UKZN wants to become a research-focused university, non-publishing academics should be encouraged to undertake a PhD degree.

  6. Research Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The Research Journal of Health Sciences is dedicated to promoting high quality research work in the field of health and related biological sciences. It aligns ...

  7. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  8. Leadership research in business and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Connie; Larson, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    To summarize research on leadership in the health care and business literature and to identify the outcomes of leadership on individuals, groups, and organizations. A computerized search and review of research studies was conducted in the health care and business literature from 1970-1999. Studies were categorized and analyzed according to participants, design, primary topic area, and effects or outcomes of leadership. Most of the health care and business literature on leadership consisted of anecdotal or theoretical discussion. Only 4.4% (n = 290) of 6,628 articles reviewed were data-based. Further, the largest proportion of the research (120/290, 41.4%) was purely descriptive of the demographic characteristics or personality traits of leaders. Other studies showed the influence of leadership on subordinates (27.9%). Only 15 (5.2%) of 290 research articles include correlations of qualities or styles of leadership with measurable outcomes on the recipients of services or positive changes in organizations. Research on leadership in the health care and business literature to date has been primarily descriptive. Although work in the social sciences indicates that leadership styles can have a major influence on performance and outcomes, minimal transfer of this work to the health care system is evident. Limited research on leadership and health care outcomes exists, such as changes in patient care or improvements in organizational outputs. In this era of evidence-based practice, such research, although difficult to conduct, is urgently needed.

  9. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  10. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture

  11. Online Research Output Submission System as a mechanism to influence publication citations: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetha Nundulall

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs need to ensure that the education provided meets the student’s and employer’s requirements, for today and the future. However, in addition to the challenges of teaching and learning, internationalisation, globalisation and world university rankings are rearing their heads thus increasing the demands made on many HEIs. Objective: One of the ways in which HEIs can make their mark is through world university rankings. This may be achieved by exposing more information on new and innovative research knowledge to the broader community in the global market via research publications that attract citations on open access platforms, hence influencing the university’s ranking. For this purpose and intent, a ‘simple’ and ‘easy-to-use’ online web tool was developed at a HEI. The aim was to have research publications submitted via the Online Research Output Submission System (OROSS tool, screened and deposited in the institution’s open access database. Method: Training was provided to the relevant participants and a survey was conducted to ascertain the participants’ perceptions about the utilisation of the OROSS tool and the training provided. Conclusion: This article reflects on the pilot phase of a longitudinal study. Results of an evaluation conducted by the researcher of the OROSS application from a user perspective (process are highlighted. In general, users rated OROSS favourably in terms of it being a useful, simple and easy-to-use web-based tool. The findings of this study may assist University of Johannesburg’s executive management in deciding the fate of the OROSS tool for future use.

  12. Research, development and pilot production of high output thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Work was performed to define and apply processes which could lead to high output from thin (2-8 mils) silicon solar cells. The overall problems are outlined, and two satisfactory process sequences were developed. These sequences led to good output cells in the thickness range to just below 4 mils; although the initial contract scope was reduced, one of these sequences proved capable of operating beyond a pilot line level, to yield good quality 4-6 mil cells of high output.

  13. A scientific forecast on dental research output within the next 20 years using exponential smoothing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report a scientific forecast of the number of published dental articles in the next 20 years. Materials and Methods: On October 12, 2016, to find all dental articles, PubMed was searched via the query “1800/1/1”[PDAT]: “2015/12/31”[PDAT] AND jsubsetd [text]. Relevant limitations were applied to find dental clinical trials, review articles, and free full-text dental articles. Consequently, all PubMed records were exported to a CSV file. To forecast the future dental research output using existing time-based data, the Exponential Triple Smoothing algorithm was used, which is an advanced machine learning algorithm. Data were analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2016. Results: Seventy-five (1940–2015 years of human attempts to publish dental articles were explored and 572490 records were found, from which 27244 (4.75% articles were free full-text, 19238 (3.36% were clinical trials, and 31853 (5.56% were reviews. Researchers will publish 19195 dental articles in 2036, among which 917 (4.77% articles will be clinical trials, 1474 (7.67% will be review articles, and 5482 (28.55% will be free full-text articles. Conclusion: Changes may be because of the quantity of research funds. The number of all types of dental articles will increase with an acceptable rate over the next 20 years. Of more interest, the number of free full-text articles will grow more rapidly than other article types.

  14. How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Kathrin; Kübler, Daniel

    2011-09-27

    Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was "normalized" and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into account research dynamics and motivations in the

  15. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentinuzzi, M E [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biologicas (INSIBIO), Universidad Nacional de Tucuman and CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan and CONICET, San Juan (Argentina); Atrio, J L [Gerencia de Evaluaciones, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 {+-} 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  16. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, M E; Laciar, E; Atrio, J L

    2007-01-01

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 ± 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate

  17. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, M. E.; Laciar, E.; Atrio, J. L.

    2007-11-01

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 ± 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  18. Delivering research output to the user using ICT services: Marine contamination database web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Burhanuddin Ahmad; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Md Suhaimi Elias

    2010-01-01

    This project is about developing a web-based interface for accessing the Marine Contamination database records. The system contains of information pertaining to the occurrence of contaminants and natural elements in the marine eco-system based on samples taken at various locations within the shores of Malaysia in the form of sediment, seawater and marine biota. It represents a systematic approach for recording, storing and managing the vast amount of marine environmental data collected as output of the Marine Contamination and Transport Phenomena Research Project since 1990. The resultant collection of data is to form the background information (or baseline data) which could later be used to monitor the level of marine environmental pollutions around the country. Data collected from the various sampling and related laboratory activities are previously kept in conventional forms such as Excel worksheets and other documents, both in digital and/or paper form. With the help of modern database storage and retrieval techniques, the task of storage and retrieval of data has been made easier and manageable. It can also provide easy access to other parties who are interested in the data. (author)

  19. Health physics research abstracts no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The present issue No. 11 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of Bulletins published by the Agency since 1967. They collect reports from Member States on Health Physics research in progress or just completed. The main aim in issuing such reports is to draw attention to work that is about to be published and to enable interested scientists to obtain further information through direct correspondence with the investigators. The attention of users of this publication is drawn to the fact that abstracts of published documents on Health Physics are published eventually in INIS Atomindex, which is one of the output products of the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. The present issue contains 235 reports received up to December 1983 from the following Member States. In parentheses the country's ISO code and number of reports are given

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular ...

  1. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals.

  2. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on ..... mediator generated by endothelial cells, ... Springer Science and Business Media,.

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... formulated as Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System ...... In vivo gastric studies were run.

  5. Health, safety and environmental research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinner, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This report outlines the Health, Safety and Environmental Research Program being undertaken by the CFFTP. The Program objectives, relationship to other CFFTP programs, implementation plans and expected outputs are stated. Opportunities to build upon the knowledge and experience gained in safely managing tritium in the CANDU program, by addressing generic questions pertinent to tritium safety for fusion facilities, are identified. These opportunities exist across a broad spectrum of issues covering the anticipated behaviour of tritium in fusion facilities, the surrounding environment and in man

  6. Analysis of the distribution and scholarly output from National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia (NIAA) research grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boghdadly, K; Docherty, A B; Klein, A A

    2018-06-01

    significant difference in productivity in terms of publications and citations from grants awarded to each city. The 150 grants were awarded to 107 recipients (identified as the most senior applicant for each grant), 27 of whom received ≥ two grants. Recipients had a median career total of 21 (8-76 [0-254]) publications and 302 (44-1320 [0-8167]) citations, with an h-index of 8 (3-22 [0-54]). We conclude that a key determinant of grant success is simply applying. This is the first study to report the distribution and scholarly output of individual anaesthesia research grants, particularly from a collaborative body such as the NIAA, and can be used as a benchmark to further develop academic anaesthesia in the UK and beyond. © 2018 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors ... access to medicine, infrastructural decay, quality of health professional, poor adherence to ...

  8. Paper-Based Theses as the Silver Bullet for Increased Research Outputs: First Hear My Story as a Supervisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marius

    2017-01-01

    With increased pressure to publish, academics are pursuing creative ways to achieve enhanced research outputs. One such process is the publication-based thesis (PBT) for both masters and PhD candidates, rather than monographs. While this process is not novel in the sciences, it has not been widely applied by economic and management schools,…

  9. Politicians, output-budgets and performance evaluation : case research in three Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, H.J. ter

    2000-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties many Dutch municipalities have divided their organizations into decentralized units. In addition, most municipalities have introduced management instruments derived from the private sector, and have been paying more attention to the outputs of the organizations. Nowadays, the

  10. The Evaluation of Scholarly Books as Research Output. Current Developments in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giminez-Toledo, Elea; Mañana-Rodriguez, Jorge; Engels, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and value of books in scholarly communication from both sides, the scholars who chose this format as a communication channel and the instances assessing the scholarly and scientific output is undisputed. Nevertheless, the absence of worldwide comprehensive databases covering the ite...

  11. Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the ConQual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan

    2014-09-20

    The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.

  12. Global research output in antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens: A bibliometric analysis (2002-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sawalha, Ansam F; Abu-Taha, Adham S

    2017-12-07

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among uropathogens contributes to treatment failure. Research in AMR among uropathogens is important to establish treatment options. This study assessed global research trends in AMR among uropathogens. SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve relevant documents for the period 2002-2016. Only journal articles were included in the analysis. Analysis of author keywords was carried out using VOSviewer. A total of 1087 journal articles were retrieved with an h-index of 50. The number of publications increased noticeably in the past decade. Analysis of subject areas of retrieved documents showed that 275 (25.3%) articles were in molecular biology/genetics/microbiology/immunology, 197 (18.1%) were in pharmacological/therapeutic approaches for treatment of urinary tract infections and 615 (56.6%) were in epidemiology/public health. Terms such as multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) appeared more frequently in documents published in the period 2012-2016. The mean number of authors per article was 5.3. Most active authors in this field were from Japan. The USA ranked first with 148 documents (13.6%), followed by India (97; 8.9%) and Iran (84; 7.7%). The top productive institution was Tehran University of Medical Sciences (21 publications), followed by Kobe University in Japan (20 publications). The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy ranked first with 33 publications. Research in AMR among uropathogens showed a noticeable increase in the past decade. Reports of increasing incidence of resistance among uropathogens were published from different parts of the world. Empirical therapy should be based on updated research in AMR. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and

  14. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: takechi@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-21

    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  15. Research on Power Output Characteristics of Magnetic Core in Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ping GUO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic core is the dominant factor in the performance of current transformer energy harvesting devices. The power output model of the magnetic core is established and verified through experiments. According to the actual application requirements, the concept of power density is proposed. The relationships of power density to air gap, material and dimension of the magnetic core are analyzed and verified through experiments.

  16. Health research over 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    CONCAWE has been working on health issues since its formation in 1963. In the early years, the focus of this work was on occupational health hazards and risks in the refining industry. Over the years, especially in the past decade, broader human health issues have been at the centre of environmental and regulatory debate, with 'health effects' increasingly being the driver behind environmental improvement and occupational health initiatives. Against this background, CONCAWE's health research has expanded to deal with these new and emerging issues. Health issues are complex and need to be addressed by experts in several different areas. Through its member companies, CONCAWE has been able to maintain, as its 'Health Management Group', a strong team of occupational physicians, toxicologists, industrial hygienists, exposure and risk assessors, and product stewards with particular expertise in oil industry-related issues. Academic researchers are also called upon to undertake specialised research, as appropriate. In the 40th anniversary Review (October 2003), we reviewed CONCAWE's involvement in three initiatives: (1) the Clean Air for Europe Programme (CAFE), an EU strategy for air quality management; (2) chemicals legislation and the increasing demand to inform the public about health and environmental hazards of chemicals; and (3) a global environment and health strategy with a special focus on children (EU SCALE initiative). Interestingly, these initiatives from 10 years ago continue to influence CONCAWE's work on health research, its objectives being to identify key healthrelated issues and gaps, develop cost-effective, leveraged research programmes to address these gaps, and provide CONCAWE members with advice, guidance and support on the significance of these issues based on scientific and professional evaluations. In this 50th anniversary article, we summarise CONCAWE's involvement in three new or expanded areas: chemicals legislation and its requirements under

  17. [Work and education in health in Brazil: trends in scientific output between 1990-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Esperidião, Monique Azevedo; Silva, Iracema Viterbo; Soares, Catharina Matos; Santos, Liliana; Fagundes, Terezinha de Lisieux Quesado; Viana, Solange; da Silva, Vinício Oliveira; dos Anjos, Davllyn Santos Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the characteristics of scientific literature on work and education in health in Brazil from 1990 to 2010. A synthetic study was conducted from abstracts published in Brazilian journal articles selected from the SCIELO and LILACS databases. Five hundred and thirty-two articles were selected, categorized according to their origin, year of publication, theme, and type of study. The publication of these scientific articles increased during the period analyzed, particularly from 2007 onwards. The main areas researched were education and training of health professionals, and the majority of works in these areas examine curriculum reform, methods of learning and teaching, and teaching in-service experiences. Besides these issues, others questions were addressed such as the labor market configuration and trends in health, and characteristics of the work process in several areas, like primary healthcare units. It was also observed that there are only a small number of studies related to policy, planning and management of work in public and private health institutions, as well as a scarcity of studies presenting reflections on theoretical and conceptual aspects of this theme.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Reference Ranges for Fasting Profiles and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow .... medical textbooks [4, 5] and internet. In the.

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and ...

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-11-03

    Nov 3, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings ... Introduction ... worms are pathogenic for human beings. .... McGraw Hill Co., New York,.

  1. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bojun; Tang Zhangkui; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Peng Taiping

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators, we deduced equivalent length to deal with experimental data, according to the different layout and weighting of multiple pulse generators. The deposited energy in scintillation crystal and the integral flux which drilling through crystal interface was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows the simulated proportion of different distributed pulse generators is approximately agreed with experimental data. The validity of the equivalent length model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experimental data. (authors)

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... Conclusion: Permeation rate of drugs across the ..... New Delhi, McGraw Hill Medical Publishing ... Human skin permeation of.

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Research on this matter should also be encouraged to inform future practice. Keywords: Volunteering; Health research; Nonprofit organization. Mohammad A Al- ... “organizations”. According to Porter and Kramer. [3], the number of volunteer organizations in the. USA is increasing which might help address the society's high ...

  5. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guid......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research...... and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily? The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect we demonstrate...

  6. Health communication: lessons from research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, A V

    1981-01-01

    In discussing the lessons learned from research in the area of health communication, focus is on basic strategic issues; the scope of health communications in terms of audience, information, education and motivation approaces and India's satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE). Health communication is the process by which a health idea is transferred from a source, such as a primary health center, to a receiver, community, with the intention of changing the community's behavior. This involves the formulation of specific strategies for the conduct of health and family welfare communication. In the processs of health communication, it has been a common practice in India as well as in other developing countries to depend upon a plethora of communication media. Yet, despite maximum utilization of the mass media and interpersonal channels of communication, questions remain about the efficacy of the system in bringing about change. Thus, the need to draw upon lessons from research becomes obvious. Communication effectiveness researches have concentrated on 3 basic strategic issues: the question of physical reception of messages by the audience; interpretation or understanding of messages on the part of the audience in accordance with the intention of the communicator; and effectiveness of communication on the cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions of the audience. Innumberable researches in communication have provided several lessons which have expanded the scope of health communication. This expansion can be observed in terms of audiences reached, information disseminated, education undertaken, and motivation provided. Research has identified several distinct groups to whom specific health messages have to be addressed. These include government and political elites, health and family welfare program administrators, and the medical profession and clinical staff. Information on health needs to include both the concept of health and the pertinent ideas

  7. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  8. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass...

  9. Analysis of the innovation outputs in mHealth for patient monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Pomares, Hector; Banos Legran, Oresti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—In the last decade, mobile health (mHealth) has developed as a natural consequence of the advances in mobile technologies, the growing spread of mobile devices, and their application in the provision of novel health services. mHealth has demonstrated the potential to make the health care

  10. Health services research in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua-Yin; Ulmer, William; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Hu, Jim C

    2011-06-01

    Health services research (HSR) is increasingly important given the focus on patient-centered, cost-effective, high-quality health care. We examine how HSR affects contemporary evidence-based urologic practice and its role in shaping future urologic research and care. PubMed, urologic texts, and lay literature were reviewed for terms pertaining to HSR/outcomes research and urologic disease processes. HSR is a broad discipline that focuses on access, cost, and outcomes of Health care. Its use has been applied to a myriad of urologic conditions to identify deficiencies in access, to evaluate cost-effectiveness of therapies, and to evaluate structural, process, and outcome quality measures. HSR utilizes an evidence-based approach to identify the most effective ways to organize/manage, finance, and deliver high-quality urologic care and to tailor care optimized to individuals.

  11. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.

  12. Mapping pneumonia research: A systematic analysis of UK investments and published outputs 1997–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Head

    2015-09-01

    Research in context: Pneumonia continues to be a high-burden illness around the globe. This paper shows that although research funding is increasing in the UK (between 1997 and 2013, it remains poorly funded compared to other important respiratory infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and influenza. Publications about pneumonia have been steadily increasing over time, indicating continuing academic and clinical interest in the topic. Though global mortality of pneumonia is declining, it should still be an area of high priority for funders, policymakers and researchers.

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-06-06

    Jun 6, 2009 ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering fields). ... International Journal of Health Research, June 2009; 2(2): 195-199 (e2213p91-95) ... were measured in the diabetic and non-diabetic rats. .... People with Type 2 diabetes are at.

  14. Forging Links for Health Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The central objective of GFHR is "to help correct the 10/90 gap" (GFHR 1999, p. ...... reports on health inequities as mediated by gender, ethnic group, and geography, ...... Yet, research with strong elements of community participation may be ...

  15. Growth of Global Publishing Output of Health Economics in the Twenty-First Century: A Bibliographic Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Pejcic, Ana V

    2017-01-01

    Strong growth of interdisciplinary sciences might find exceptional example in academic health economics. We decided to observe the quantitative output in this science since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Electronic search of the published literature was conducted in four different databases: one medical database-MEDLINE/PubMed, two general databases-Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), and one specialized health economic database-NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED). The applied combination of key words was carefully chosen to cover the most commonly used terms in titles of publications dealing with conceptual areas of health economics. All bibliographic units were taken into account. Within the time horizon from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016, without language or limitations on bibliographic unit types, we identified an output ranging approximately from 60,345 to 88,246 records with applied search strategy in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus/Elsevier, and WoS. In NHS EED, we detected 14,761 records of economic evaluations of health interventions during the period in which database was maintained and regularly updated. With slightly more than one-third of the identified records, USA clearly dominates in this field. United Kingdom takes a strong second place with about 12% of identified records. Consistently, USA and UK universities are the most frequent among the top 15 affiliations/organizations of the authors of the identified records. Authors from Harvard University contributed to the largest number of the identified records. There is a clear evidence of both the upward stream of blossoming in health economics publications and its acceleration. Based on this bibliographic data set, it is difficult to distinguish the actual impact growth of this output provided dominantly by academia with modest contribution by pharmaceutical/medicinal device industry and diverse national government-based agencies. Further insight into the citation track record of

  16. Contribution of Arab countries to pharmaceutical wastewater literature: a bibliometric and comparative analysis of research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry has been growing rapidly in many countries in the world, including in Arab countries. Pharmaceuticals reach aquatic environments and are prevalent at small concentrations in wastewater from the drug manufacturing industry and hospitals. Such presence also occurs in domestic wastewater and results from the disposal of unused and expired medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze and compare the quantity and quality of publications made by researchers in Arab countries on pharmaceutical wastewater. To retrieve documents related to pharmaceutical wastewater, we used the Scopus database on November 21, 2015. All documents with terms related to pharmaceutical wastewater in the title or abstract were analysed. Results obtained from Arab countries were compared with those obtained from Turkey, Iran and Israel. Globally, a total of 6360 publications were retrieved while those from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Israel, were 179, 113, 96 and 54 publications respectively. The highest share of publications belonged to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with a total of 47 (26.2 %) publications, followed by Egypt (38; 21.2 %), Tunisia (17; 9.5 %) and Morocco (16; 8.9 %). The total number of citations was 1635, with a mean of 9.13 and a median (inter quartile range) of 3 (1.0-10.0). The study identified 87 (48.6 %) documents with 32 countries of international collaboration with Arab countries. It was noted that Arab researchers collaborated mainly with authors in Western Europe (54; 30.2 %), followed by authors from the Asiatic region (29; 16.2 %) and Northern America (15; 8.4 %). The most productive institution was King Saud University, KSA (13; 7.3 %), followed by the National Research Centre, Egypt (10; 7.3 %). This study showed that KSA has the largest share of productivity on pharmaceutical wastewater research. Bibliometric analysis demonstrated that research productivity, mainly from Arab

  17. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2015-08-23

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output.

  18. Work engagement and research output among female and male scientists : A diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Women have a minority position within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and, consequently, are likely to face more adversities at work. This diary study takes a look at a facilitating factor for women's research performance within academia: daily work engagement. We examined the

  19. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.

  20. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for Calendar Year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1985 is presented. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

  1. Scientific and technical information output of the Langley Research Center for calendar year 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.

  2. The European Repository Landscape 2008 : Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. The DRIVER project aims towards this. European practices may be harmonised and the development of stateof-the-art technology facilitated. As a first step, a clear picture of the state-of-the-art of the

  3. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, \\'OR\\

  4. [Scientific output on nutrition in the scope of Primary Health Care in Brazil: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Silva, Ana Carolina Feldenheimer da; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2013-02-01

    Nutrition campaigns in Primary Health Care (PHC) play an important role in health promotion and the prevention and treatment of injuries. The scope of this paper is to chart and evaluate the scientific output of nutrition in Brazilian PHC. A search and review of the literature and papers was conducted on the PubMed and Lilacs databases, using key words related to PHC and nutrition. The studies were restricted to Brazil with the professionals or population assisted by PHC in the Brazilian Unified Health System and published prior to March 2011. The references in the selected articles were also consulted in order to identify additional studies. From the total of papers located, 68 were eligible and a further 49 were identified in the references lists, such that a total of 117 papers were analyzed. The studies reviewed were mostly original articles, using quantitative methodology, carried out by São Paulo University in that state and published from 2002 to 2011. The main issues were diagnosis seeking the evaluation of nutritional status involving children. The output in this field is growing, although there is a need to redirect the scope of future studies to a focus on intervention models and program evaluation.

  5. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Fan; Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China's scientific research ability.

  6. Pharmaceutical services and health promotion: how far have we gone and how are we faring? Scientific output in pharmaceutical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Akemi Nakamura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the scientific output on health promotion within the pharmaceutical field and its relation with the development of pharmaceutical services within health systems. A comprehensive review of published scientific articles from the Medline and Lilacs databases was carried out. The review comprised articles published until December 2011, and used combinations of the terms 'health promotion' or 'health education' and 'pharmacy', 'pharmacist' or 'pharmaceutical'. The articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 170 full texts and 87 indexed abstracts were analyzed, evidencing that most described actions of health promotion in community pharmacies and other services. Following the Ottawa Charter, most of the studies dealt with new guidance of the service and the supply of pharmaceutical information and services. It was concluded that there is a lack of theoretical background on health promotion in the pharmaceutical field to sustain the professional education and practice required by the health system and the population.

  7. Deepening Our Understanding of Academic Inbreeding Effects on Research Information Exchange and Scientific Output: New Insights for Academic Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…

  8. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  9. [Progress in research of mobile health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Ning, P S; Cheng, P X; Hu, G Q

    2016-10-10

    With the rapid development of mobile communication technology and the growing popularity of smartphones worldwide, mobile health has become an extension of e-Health and Tele-Health, and is of value in the research and practice of public health. In this paper, we systematically assessed research literature of mobile health' s application on disease prevention and control as well as health promotion. Based on the characteristics of current literature, this paper focused on the application of mobile health in maternal health promotion, chronic disease management, and communicable disease prevention and control to provide reference for the mobile health intervention research in China.

  10. Research Award: Global Health Research Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  11. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health ... Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and dysfunctional ...

  12. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  14. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED). This grant will allow the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) to create, host and maintain a web-based resource on national health research in low- and middle-income countries in partnership with institutions in the South. Called ...

  15. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  16. Tracking Success: Outputs Versus Outcomes-A Comparison of Accredited and Non-Accredited Public Health Agencies' Community Health Improvement Plan objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K; Inderstrodt-Stephens, Jill; Hintz, Elizabeth A

    2018-06-01

    With funding for public health initiatives declining, creating measurable objectives that are focused on tracking and changing population outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors), instead of those that are focused on health agencies' own outputs (e.g., promoting services, developing communication messages) have seen a renewed focus. This study analyzed 4094 objectives from the Community Health Improvement Plans (CHIPs) of 280 local PHAB-accredited and non-accredited public health agencies across the United States. Results revealed that accredited agencies were no more successful at creating outcomes-focused objectives (35% of those coded) compared to non-accredited agencies (33% of those coded; Z = 1.35, p = .18). The majority of objectives were focused on outputs (accredited: 61.2%; non-accredited: 63.3%; Z = 0.72, p = .47). Outcomes-focused objectives primarily sought to change behaviors (accredited: 85.43%; non-accredited: 80.6%), followed by changes in knowledge (accredited: 9.75%; non-accredited: 10.8%) and attitudes (accredited: 1.6%; non-accredited: 5.1%). Non-accredited agencies had more double-barreled objectives (49.9%) compared to accredited agencies (32%; Z = 11.43, p < .001). The authors recommend that accreditation procedures place a renewed focus on ensuring that public health agencies strive to achieve outcomes. It is also advocated that public health agencies work with interdisciplinary teams of Health Communicators who can help them develop procedures to effectively and efficiently measure outcomes of knowledge and attitudes that are influential drivers of behavioral changes.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... women of African and Asian ancestry were also transported from their home countries to. America to work. Movement from ... barriers to health care utilization.

  18. Using mixed methods in health research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Woodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed method...

  19. Burden of disease, research funding and innovation in the UK: Do new health technologies reflect research inputs and need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Derek; Martino, Orsolina; Packer, Claire; Simpson, Sue; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    New and emerging health technologies (innovation outputs) do not always reflect conditions representing the greatest disease burden. We examine the role of research and development (R&D) funding in this relationship, considering whether areas with fewer innovative outputs receive an appropriate share of funding relative to their disease burden. We report a retrospective observational study, comparing burden of disease with R&D funding and innovation output. UK disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths came from the World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 Global Burden of Disease estimates; funding estimates from the UK Clinical Research Collaboration's 2006 Health Research Analysis; and innovation output was estimated by the number of new and emerging technologies reported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Horizon Scanning Centre between 2000 and 2009. Disease areas representing the biggest burden were generally associated with the most funding and innovation output; cancer, neuropsychiatric conditions and cardiovascular disease together comprised approximately two-thirds of DALYs, funding and reported technologies. Compared with DALYs, funding and technologies were disproportionately high for cancer, and technologies alone were disproportionately high for musculoskeletal conditions and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Neuropsychiatric conditions had comparatively few technologies compared to both DALYs and funding. The relationship between DALYs and innovation output appeared to be mediated by R&D funding. The relationship between burden of disease and new and emerging health technologies for different disease areas is partly dependent on the associated level of R&D funding (input). Discrepancies among key groups may reflect differential focus of research funding across disease areas. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  1. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    research , including a Business Cell; 87 Research Development, 88 Research Oversight, 89 and Research Compliance offices;90 and the Center...needed for DHP medical research , such as the Army’s Clinical and Translational Research Program Office, 38 the Navy’s Research Methods Training Program... research stated, “key infrastructure for a learning health system will encompass three core elements: data networks, methods , and workforce.” 221

  2. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  3. Improving health research governance and management in the Western Pacific: a WHO expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bekedam, Hendrik; Buckley, Brian S

    2011-11-01

    Repeated calls have been made in recent decades to increase investments in health research, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the perceived low relevance and quality of health research, poor visibility of outputs, and difficulties in tracking current levels of and returns on investments have undermined efforts to advocate for additional investments in these countries. Some of these issues emanate from inadequate governance and management systems for health research at the national level, which are ineffective in tracking and steering the research portfolio and investments, ensuring quality, and facilitating access to research outputs. In spite of this, the value, necessity, and cost of performing health research management and governance functions are not well appreciated, especially in LMIC. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Western Pacific organized an expert consultation in August 2011, involving experts from 14 of its developed and developing member states and from leading research organizations such as the Wellcome Trust. The consultation identified essential health research governance and management functions that must be performed by appropriate organizational entities to maximize returns on health research investments. In addition, three specific areas for intervention were considered: (1) prospective research registration in publicly accessible national health research registries; (2) systematic health research data archiving and wider access; and (3) national research ethics systems. A consensus was reached on the need to invest more in essential health research and management functions, including establishing publicly accessible web-based national health research registries for prospective registration of health research, setting up systems to archive and share health research data, and improving the governance of research ethics committees. The consultation also concluded that the

  4. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    (27.9%) and 17.0% for general/teaching hospitals and only. 12.3% for primary ... and that within the public sector, the higher levels of health facilities are ... health facilities attributed mostly to issues of easy access ..... and tertiary education.

  6. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... A new publication, Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: a methods ... organizations, most African countries adopted direct payment for health services as the primary means.

  7. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Allied health research positions: a qualitative evaluation of their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health

  9. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    . The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international......The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  10. Comparing research investment to United Kingdom institutions and published outputs for tuberculosis, HIV and malaria: a systematic analysis across 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Derrick, Gemma; Wurie, Fatima B; Meldrum, Jonathan; Kumari, Nina; Beattie, Benjamin; Counts, Christopher J; Atun, Rifat

    2015-11-04

    most productive area for investment, compared to HIV (£2,265) and malaria (£2,834). Public health research was the most productive type of science for HIV (£2,265) and tuberculosis (£1,797), whereas phase I-III trials were most productive for malaria (£1,713). When comparing total publications and citations with research investment to United Kingdom institutions, tuberculosis research appears to perform best in terms of efficiency. There were more public health-related publications and citations for HIV and tuberculosis than other types of science. These findings demonstrate the diversity of research funding and outputs, and provide new evidence to inform research investment strategies for policymakers, funders, academic institutions, and healthcare organizations.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) ... pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields. ... Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated Pawpaw (Carica papaya L) on ...

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-28

    Dec 28, 2009 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... al [8] for the detection of schistosome DNA in faeces. ..... save the inhabitants from the socio- economic ...

  13. [Bibliometric study of scientific output published by the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health from 1997-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, Javier; Casterá, Vicente Tomás; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To characterize the scientific output of the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health (RPSP) as a scientific publication of reference in the public health sector in the Americas. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on the articles published in the RPSP from 1997-2012. Bibliometric indicators of productivity (documents published, languages, authorship, and indices of productivity and collaboration); impact (impact factor according to the SciELO Network, Journal Citation Report and SCImago); key words; and bibliographic references, their structure (document type and main nucleus of Bradford) and degree of obsolescence (Burton and Kebler half-life, and Price index), were analyzed. A total of 2 815 articles with a median of 3 authors and 2 institutions per article were published. The percentage of original research articles increased in 2008-2012 compared to 2003-2007 and 1997-2002 (P < 0.001). The predominant language was Spanish, displaced by English in the last 5 years. A total of 88.76% of the key words referred to the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and had a public health and community orientation related to the Americas. The Burton and Kebler half-life of bibliographic references was 8 years, although it decreased to 5 years in 2012. The Price index was 20.47% and the nucleus of Bradford was made up of 20 mainstream journals. The percentage of self-citation was low (2.07%). The RPSP is an international publication with bibliometric indicators similar to those of the most representative Latin American health science journals, with improvements in the recent years studied that lead it to fully meet international publishing criteria.

  14. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  15. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  16. Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D

    2004-01-01

    National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.

  17. [Marketing research in health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Marketing research is the systematic and objective search for, and analysis of, information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing. The key words in this definition are: systematic, objective and analysis. Marketing research seeks to set about its task in a systematic and objective fashion. This means that a detailed and carefully designed research plan is developed in which each stage of the research is specified. Such a research plan is only considered adequate if it specifies: the research problem in concise and precise terms, the information necessary to address the problem, the methods to be employed in gathering the information and the analytical techniques to be used to interpret it. Maintaining objectivity in marketing research is essential if marketing management is to have sufficient confidence in its results to be prepared to take risky decisions based upon those results. To this end, as far as possible, marketing researchers employ the scientific method. The characteristics of the scientific method are that it translates personal prejudices, notions and opinions into explicit propositions (or hypotheses). These are tested empirically. At the same time alternative explanations of the event or phenomena of interest are given equal consideration.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    engineering fields). It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special .... software package version 6.1 (CDC, Atlanta,.

  19. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  20. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 2: Qualitative research in health services research in Germany - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2012-08-01

    This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the

  1. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilse, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions-some in real time-while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions.

  2. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. ... school students in Benin City is still poor and the adolescents still engage in ... people often have to overcome the stigma and discrimination, and address some of the most ...

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    in relation to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as car fuel. Methods: ... Public health and environmental impact of. LPG were not .... and valid insurance was reported for 78.7%. (N=181) ... economical point of view for advertising and.

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... Table: Effect of hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Coccinia grandis against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Bilurubin. Treatment. SGOT ... and loss of functional integrity of the cell.

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance. ... Lipid solubility and molecular size are the major limiting factors for ... as natural digestive aids and as carriers for.

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration ... teaching of the subject and their self-rated unseriousness about the subject. ..... ac.nz/~iase/publications/5/stan0219.pdf. 4. Wakeford RE.

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration among ... in the medical wards of a teaching hospital and to generate discussions .... Manual data entry which is the current practice in most ...

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current ..... Asian J. Pharm. 2008; 2:73-76. 5. Rasenack N, Muller BW. Dissolution rate.

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-12

    Jun 12, 2008 ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current ... serpentine, reserpine, narcotine, caffeine, ... were fed on healthy diet and maintained in ... (i) Effect of methanolic extract of Plumeria.

  11. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [4] Those who contribute to scientific research ought to share in its benefits. .... women to form new relationships, social networks and develop a sense of ... or discoveries about the indigenous biological resources before.

  12. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health resea...

  13. Computer and telephone delivered interventions to support caregivers of people with dementia: a systematic review of research output and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Waller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the scope, volume and quality of research on the acceptability, utilisation and effectiveness of telephone- and computer-delivered interventions for caregivers of people living with dementia. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched (Jan 1990 – Dec 2016. Eligible papers were classified as data-based descriptive, measurement or intervention studies. Intervention studies were first categorised according to mode of delivery (e.g. telephone, computer; then assessed against the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC methodological criteria for research design. Impact on health-related outcomes; and the acceptability, feasibility and utilisation of interventions were also assessed. Results The number of publications increased by 13% each year (p < 0.001. Half were descriptive studies (n = 92, 50% describing caregiver views on acceptability, access or utilization of technology. The remainder (n = 89, 48% reported on interventions designed to improve caregiver outcomes. Only 34 met EPOC design criteria. Interventions were delivered via computer (n = 10, multiple modalities (n = 9 or telephone (n = 15. Interventions that incorporated various elements of psycho-education, peer support, skills training and health assessments led to improvements in caregiver wellbeing. While largely acceptable, utilisation of computer-based interventions was variable, with use often decreasing over time. Conclusion Interventions delivered via telephone and computer have the potential to augment existing dementia care. High-quality trials are required to make clear recommendations about the types of interventions that are most effective. Those that provide caregivers with: access to practical strategies to manage care of the person with dementia and their own wellbeing, advice and support from peers and/or clinicians; and that target the dyad should be explored.

  14. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  15. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... demand in the market. .... Phase solubility studies showed the effect of three CD .... can be easily scaled up to the industrial level ... the drug caused by kneading process and ... Influence of cyclodextrins and chitosan on.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. All manuscripts must ... and Drug Development, University .... Table 2: Knowledge of emergency contraception methods among the study group.

  19. Enabling Open Science for Health Research: Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip; Lele, Omkar; Johnson, Beth; Holve, Erin

    2017-07-31

    There is an emergent and intensive dialogue in the United States with regard to the accessibility, reproducibility, and rigor of health research. This discussion is also closely aligned with the need to identify sustainable ways to expand the national research enterprise and to generate actionable results that can be applied to improve the nation's health. The principles and practices of Open Science offer a promising path to address both goals by facilitating (1) increased transparency of data and methods, which promotes research reproducibility and rigor; and (2) cumulative efficiencies wherein research tools and the output of research are combined to accelerate the delivery of new knowledge in proximal domains, thereby resulting in greater productivity and a reduction in redundant research investments. AcademyHealth's Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum implemented a proof-of-concept open science platform for health research called the Collaborative Informatics Environment for Learning on Health Outcomes (CIELO). The EDM Forum conducted a user-centered design process to elucidate important and high-level requirements for creating and sustaining an open science paradigm. By implementing CIELO and engaging a variety of potential users in its public beta testing, the EDM Forum has been able to elucidate a broad range of stakeholder needs and requirements related to the use of an open science platform focused on health research in a variety of "real world" settings. Our initial design and development experience over the course of the CIELO project has provided the basis for a vigorous dialogue between stakeholder community members regarding the capabilities that will add the greatest value to an open science platform for the health research community. A number of important questions around user incentives, sustainability, and scalability will require further community dialogue and agreement. ©Philip Payne, Omkar Lele, Beth Johnson, Erin Holve. Originally published

  20. Emerging uses of patient generated health data in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A; Bennett, Antonia V; Basch, Ethan

    2015-05-01

    Recent advancements in consumer directed personal computing technology have led to the generation of biomedically-relevant data streams with potential health applications. This has catalyzed international interest in Patient Generated Health Data (PGHD), defined as "health-related data - including health history, symptoms, biometric data, treatment history, lifestyle choices, and other information-created, recorded, gathered, or inferred by or from patients or their designees (i.e. care partners or those who assist them) to help address a health concern."(Shapiro et al., 2012) PGHD offers several opportunities to improve the efficiency and output of clinical trials, particularly within oncology. These range from using PGHD to understand mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies, to understanding and predicting treatment-related toxicity, to designing interventions to improve adherence and clinical outcomes. To facilitate the optimal use of PGHD, methodological research around considerations related to feasibility, validation, measure selection, and modeling of PGHD streams is needed. With successful integration, PGHD can catalyze the application of "big data" to cancer clinical research, creating both "n of 1" and population-level observations, and generating new insights into the nature of health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of health researches in national knowledge production: A scientometrics study on 15-year research products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers call for updated valid evidence to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of health problems. To respond to these needs, health researches provide the vast multidisciplinary scientific fields. We quantify the national trends of health research outputs and its contribution in total science products. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database with the most coverage in health and biomedicine discipline as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, for all total and health-related publications, from 2000 to 2014. These scientometrics analyses covered the trends of main index of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers. We also provided information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the fields of health researches. Results: In Iran, over a 15-year period, 237,056 scientific papers have been published, of which 81,867 (34.53% were assigned to health-related fields. Pearson's Chi-square test showed significant time trends between published papers and their citations. Tehran University of Medical Sciences was responsible for 21.87% of knowledge productions share. The second and the third ranks with 11.15% and 7.28% belonged to Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, respectively. In total fields, Iran had the most collaborative papers with the USA (4.17%, the UK (2.41%, and Canada (0.02%. In health-related papers, similar patterns of collaboration followed by 4.75%, 2.77%, and 1.93% of papers. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in health research outputs, more efforts required for the promotion of collaborative outputs that cause synergy of resources and the use of practical results. These analyses also could be useful for better planning and management of planning and conducting studies in these fields.

  2. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  3. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital ... to structure and manage Canada-South research partnerships more effectively. ... Africa, Latin America and Canada leading to region-specific working papers on ... for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition.

  4. In how many ways may a health research go wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Lakshminarayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research, in the broadest sense, includes gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. It is a systematic investigation done in order to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A good research is an offshoot of a good design. Research (study or experimental design is the backbone of good research. It is the framework that has been created to seek answers to research questions. Designing a research project takes time, skill and knowledge. If designing is not done scrupulously, errors may creep into the research at various stages of planning, designing, conducting, analyzing, reporting, and publishing of research output. These errors may distort the results leading to invalid conclusions. The only way to not let these errors occur is to avoid them to the maximum possible extent by gaining comprehensive knowledge about each error and applying measures to control and minimize them. Perfect health research does not exist but a high quality research certainly exists.

  5. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short.

  6. Mental health research and philanthropy: possible partnerships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Mental health research has received relatively little philanthropic support in Australia compared with other areas of health research. Philanthropic trusts do not generally provide recurrent funding or make grants for that perceived to be the responsibility of the state or the market. The emergence of 'strategic philanthropy' however, provides potential for mental health researchers to form partnerships with philanthropic foundations, particularly on initiatives that are focused on prevention and innovative and sustainable models with the capacity to 'go to scale' across the service system.

  7. The Health Information Literacy Research Project*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. Methods: A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. Results: A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. Conclusions: It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources. PMID:19851494

  8. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  9. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  10. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    Each year in Canada, the costs of disability arising from work-related causes – including workers’ compensation and health-care costs – exceed $6.7 billion. Despite the significant financial and social impacts of worker injury and illness, only a small fraction of Canadian researchers are dedicated...... to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  11. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) ... Your proposal should demonstrate an understanding of the ... demonstrated ability to work independently, and strong written and oral communications skills are ...

  12. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded

  13. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research: Submissions ... The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines ... adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields).

  14. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Giving girls and women the power to decide. Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research. View moreGiving girls and women the power to decide ...

  15. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Hussey, Louise; Money, Annemarie; Gittins, Matthew; McNamee, Roseanne; Stocks, Susan Jill; Sen, Dil; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-09-01

    Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH) is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  16. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Carder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  17. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...

  18. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Makanga, Michael M; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia V; Mathewson, Sophie B; Sheridan-Jones, Bethan R; Gurney, Karen A; Mgone, Charles S

    2015-08-01

    The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs). A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1) measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2) describe collaboration patterns, and 3) assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP. Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003-2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI), and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007-2011). Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively). The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47%) since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102%) and tuberculosis (TB) (81%), and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007-2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets): HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16), TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06), malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22), and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97). The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003-2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24), TB (4.08) and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10) compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively). The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. >90% of publications from EDCTP

  19. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Karen A.; Mgone, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs). A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1) measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2) describe collaboration patterns, and 3) assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP. Methodology/Principal Findings Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003–2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI), and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007–2011). Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively). The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47%) since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102%) and tuberculosis (TB) (81%), and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007–2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets): HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16), TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06), malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22), and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97). The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003–2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24), TB (4.08) and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10) compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively). Conclusions The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and

  20. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gabrielle Breugelmans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1 measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2 describe collaboration patterns, and 3 assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP.Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003-2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI, and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007-2011. Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively. The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47% since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102% and tuberculosis (TB (81%, and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007-2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets: HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16, TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06, malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22, and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97. The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003-2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24, TB (4.08 and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10 compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively.The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. >90% of publications from EDCTP

  1. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  2. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Fernández, M. F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A. M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C. E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M. S.; Pierik, F. H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A. C.; Slama, R.; Šrám, Radim; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-37 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environment pollution * child health * European birth cohorts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2012

  3. Health Benefits of Leisure. Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Research indicates that leisure participation enhances health at various levels, reducing stress and promoting better physical and mental health. Participation in personally meaningful leisure activities serves as a buffer to life's stressful events. Leisure professionals must work to promote leisure as a priority in people's lives. (SM)

  4. Oman Vision 2050 for Health Research: A Strategic Plan for the Future Based on the Past and Present Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhra Hilal Nasser Al Mawali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Health care delivery in Oman has attained great heights since the modern renaissance in 1970. Although the health service had the main impetus all these years, the importance of health research began to take place by mid 1990’s and is now gaining momentum as an important responsibility and activity of the Ministry of Health (MoH. Although there has been progressively increasing investment and commitment to research activities in the recent Five Year Plan for Health Development, it still lags behind in the quality and quantity of research output. Lack of factors like adequate infrastructure, dedicated human resources, empowerment of existing systems, and societal support for research have adversely affected research output. Centre of Studies and Research in MoH has proposed a strategic plan, the ‘Health Vision 2050 for Health Research’ with aim of making Oman the regional leader and a research hub of world standards in health research. The mission is to promote, facilitate, and conduct high quality health research addressing national health priorities to improve health care services and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the health system, reduce health inequity, and contribute to socioeconomic development. The strategy includes setting health research priorities, strengthening the health research capacity, defining and implementing norms and standards, developing health research (quality and quantity, translating evidence into policy, strategy and practice, monitoring and coordinating research, financing health research, and evaluating the effectiveness of the health research system. It should generate a multifold increase in the quality and quantity of health research in Oman, positively impacting the health system and health care service.

  5. Public health research in the UK: a report with a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Dyakova, Mariana; Clarke, Aileen

    2014-06-01

    Public health research is of growing interest within Europe. Bibliometric research shows the UK with a high absolute output of public health publications, although lower per capita than Nordic countries. UK contributed to a European Union (EU) project PHIRE to assess public health research and innovation. UK health research structures, and programmes funded in 2010, were determined from internet search. Expert informants were asked to comment on national uptake of eight projects EU collaborative health projects. The Faculty of Public Health and the UK Society for Social Medicine discussed the findings at a meeting with stakeholders. Health research in UK is funded by research councils, the National Health Service (NHS) and independent foundations. Reviews and reports on public health research have encouraged diversified funding. There were 15 programmes and calls in 2010. The UK participated in all eight EU projects, and there was uptake of results for four. Strategic coordination between public health researchers and practitioners, and the UK research councils, ministries of health and medical charities would strengthen research for policy and practice. With growing expertise and capacity across other EU countries, the UK should take more active leadership in European collaboration. © The Author 2013, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  6. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    relatable to health educational development. The overall value theme is elucidated by two development projects that transform as well as challenge specific health-educational practices. This forms the basis of the development of a critical, constructive and practice-oriented perspective on competence......Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...

  7. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings.

  8. Assessment of acculturation in minority health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2017-03-01

    Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual's internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of acculturation in minority health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2017-01-01

    Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual’s internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. PMID:28135691

  10. Health physics research abstracts No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    No. 13 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of bulletins published by the IAEA since 1967 and which collect reports from Member States on health physics research in progress or just completed. The present issue contains 370 reports received up to March 1987 and covers the following topics: Personnel monitoring, dosimetry, assessment of dose to man, operational radiation protection techniques, radiation levels, effects of radiation, environmental studies, pathways and monitoring, analysis and evaluation of radiation hazards resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, epidemiology of radiation damage, optimization of radiation protection, research programmes and projects

  11. Health physics research abstracts No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The No. 12 of Health Physics Research Abstracts is the continuation of a series of Bulletins published by the IAEA since 1967 and which collect reports from Member States on Health Physics research in progress or just completed. The present issue contains 386 reports received up to December 1984 and covering the following topics: personnel monitoring, dosimetry, assessment of dose to man, operational radiation protection techniques, biological effects of radiations, environmental studies, pathways and monitoring, radiation hazards resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities, radiation accidents and emergency plans, epidemiology of radiation damage, optimization of radiation protection, research programs and projects

  12. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods: Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results: Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion: Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and

  13. Qualitative research and its place in health research in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teijlingen, E; Simkhada, B; Porter, M; Simkhada, P; Pitchforth, E; Bhatta, P

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in recent decades in Nepal in health and health services research, much of it based on quantitative research methods. Over the same period international medical journals such as The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (BMJ), The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and many more have published methods papers outlining and promoting qualitative methods. This paper argues in favour of more high-quality qualitative research in Nepal, either on its own or as part of a mixed-methods approach, to help strengthen the country's research capacity. After outlining the reasons for using qualitative methods, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the three main approaches: (a) observation; (b) in-depth interviews; and (c) focus groups. We also discuss issues around sampling, analysis, presentation of findings, reflexivity of the qualitative researcher and theory building, and highlight some misconceptions about qualitative research and mistakes commonly made.

  14. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  15. Reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay E

    2012-03-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the use of reliability assessments in qualitative research in general, and health promotion research in particular. In this article, I examine the use of reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research in response to health promotion researchers' commonly held misconception that reliability assessments improve the rigor of qualitative research. All qualitative articles published in the journal Health Promotion International from 2003 to 2009 employing reliability assessments were examined. In total, 31.3% (20/64) articles employed some form of reliability assessment. The use of reliability assessments increased over the study period, ranging from qualitative articles decreased. The articles were then classified into four types of reliability assessments, including the verification of thematic codes, the use of inter-rater reliability statistics, congruence in team coding and congruence in coding across sites. The merits of each type were discussed, with the subsequent discussion focusing on the deductive nature of reliable thematic coding, the limited depth of immediately verifiable data and the usefulness of such studies to health promotion and the advancement of the qualitative paradigm.

  16. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  17. Measuring Efficiency of Knowledge Production in Health Research Centers Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): A Case Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad Meskarpour; Nasiri, Taha; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Anabad, Hosein Amini; Ardakan, Payman Mahboobi

    2016-11-01

    Efficiency analysis is necessary in order to avoid waste of materials, energy, effort, money, and time during scientific research. Therefore, analyzing efficiency of knowledge production in health areas is necessary, especially for developing and in-transition countries. As the first step in this field, the aim of this study was the analysis of selected health research center efficiency using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This retrospective and applied study was conducted in 2015 using input and output data of 16 health research centers affiliated with a health sciences university in Iran during 2010-2014. The technical efficiency of health research centers was evaluated based on three basic data envelopment analysis (DEA) models: input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented. The input and output data of each health research center for years 2010-2014 were collected from the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHE) profile and analyzed by R software. The mean efficiency score in input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented models was 0.781, 0.671, and 0.798, respectively. Based on results of the study, half of the health research centers are operating below full efficiency, and about one-third of them are operating under the average efficiency level. There is also a large gap between health research center efficiency relative to each other. It is necessary for health research centers to improve their efficiency in knowledge production through better management of available resources. The higher level of efficiency in a significant number of health research centers is achievable through more efficient management of human resources and capital. Further research is needed to measure and follow the efficiency of knowledge production by health research centers around the world and over a period of time.

  18. Milestones in Nordic Health Promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Bo J A; Tillgren, Per

    2018-02-01

    Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative centres of Health Promotion in Bergen University and a group at Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, creating supportive environments for health in Stockholm played key roles in initiating and supporting NHPRN. During the second phase, 2007-2014, the network was strengthened and supported by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in Gothenburg. The third phase started when NHV closed down in 2015 and networking activities were transferred to the European Office of WHO in Copenhagen. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference series has served several purposes and will continue to do so. They are important Nordic meeting places, stimulating Health Promotion research, as well as explicitly managing ongoing concerns in the international Health Promotion community. This is reflected in the shift of foci over time. The content of the conferences has been highly responsive to whatever challenges are particularly relevant at different points in time, while also contributing to developing Health Promotion as a discipline, given that every conference has built on the previous ones.

  19. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  20. Portraying Reflexivity in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, John; Green, Bill

    2016-09-01

    A model is proposed for supporting reflexivity in qualitative health research, informed by arguments from Bourdieu and Finlay. Bourdieu refers to mastering the subjective relation to the object at three levels-the overall social space, the field of specialists, and the scholastic universe. The model overlays Bourdieu's levels of objectivation with Finlay's three stages of research (pre-research, data collection, and data analysis). The intersections of these two ways of considering reflexivity, displayed as cells of a matrix, pose questions and offer prompts to productively challenge health researchers' reflexivity. Portraiture is used to show how these challenges and prompts can facilitate such reflexivity, as illustrated in a research project. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Leveraging electronic health records for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Curtis, Lesley H; Temple, Robert; Andersson, Tomas; Ezekowitz, Justin; Ford, Ian; James, Stefan; Marsolo, Keith; Mirhaji, Parsa; Rocca, Mitra; Rothman, Russell L; Sethuraman, Barathi; Stockbridge, Norman; Terry, Sharon; Wasserman, Scott M; Peterson, Eric D; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2018-04-30

    Electronic health records (EHRs) can be a major tool in the quest to decrease costs and timelines of clinical trial research, generate better evidence for clinical decision making, and advance health care. Over the past decade, EHRs have increasingly offered opportunities to speed up, streamline, and enhance clinical research. EHRs offer a wide range of possible uses in clinical trials, including assisting with prestudy feasibility assessment, patient recruitment, and data capture in care delivery. To fully appreciate these opportunities, health care stakeholders must come together to face critical challenges in leveraging EHR data, including data quality/completeness, information security, stakeholder engagement, and increasing the scale of research infrastructure and related governance. Leaders from academia, government, industry, and professional societies representing patient, provider, researcher, industry, and regulator perspectives convened the Leveraging EHR for Clinical Research Now! Think Tank in Washington, DC (February 18-19, 2016), to identify barriers to using EHRs in clinical research and to generate potential solutions. Think tank members identified a broad range of issues surrounding the use of EHRs in research and proposed a variety of solutions. Recognizing the challenges, the participants identified the urgent need to look more deeply at previous efforts to use these data, share lessons learned, and develop a multidisciplinary agenda for best practices for using EHRs in clinical research. We report the proceedings from this think tank meeting in the following paper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  3. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-02-01

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators

  4. Developing a research agenda for patient safety in primary care. Background, aims and output of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M; Verstappen, Wim; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a supplement to The European Journal of General Practice, bringing together a body of research focusing on the issue of patient safety in relation to primary care. The supplement represents the outputs of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care, which was a four-year (2009-2013) coordination and support action funded under the Framework 7 programme by the European Union. Being a coordination and support action, its aim was not to undertake new research, but to build capacity through engaging primary care researchers and practitioners in identifying some of the key challenges in this area and developing consensus statements, which will be an essential part in developing a future research agenda. This introductory article describes the aims of the LINNEAUS collaboration, provides a brief summary of the reasons to focus on patient safety in primary care, the epidemiological and policy considerations, and an introduction to the papers included in the supplement.

  5. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  6. Research utilization among children's mental health providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson H Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. Results There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use – access, assess, adapt, and apply – research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. Conclusion These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  7. Research utilization among children's mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Melanie A; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Ferguson, H Bruce; Blase, Karen; Fixsen, Dean

    2008-04-09

    Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH) service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use - access, assess, adapt, and apply - research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  8. Ethical issues in perinatal mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Anna R; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J; Sadler, John Z

    2009-11-01

    To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental healthcare for this subpopulation.

  9. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  11. The salutogenic model of health in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, Maurice B; Bull, Torill

    2013-06-01

    Despite health promotion's enthusiasm for the salutogenic model of health, researchers have paid little attention to Antonovsky's central ideas about the ease/dis-ease continuum, defined in terms of 'breakdown' (the severity of pain and functional limitations, and the degree medical care is called for, irrespective of specific diseases). Rather, salutogenesis research has a strong focus on how sense of coherence relates to a wide range of specific diseases and illness endpoints. We address two questions: Why has Antonovsky's health concept failed to stimulate research on breakdown, and how can the present emphasis on disease be complemented by an emphasis on positive well-being in the salutogenic model? We show that (i) the breakdown concept of health as specified by Antonovsky is circular in definition, (ii) it is not measured on the 'required' ease/dis-ease continuum, (iii) it is not measureable by any validated or reliability-tested assessment tool, and (iv) it has not so much been rejected by health promotion, as it has not been considered at all. We show that Antonovsky came to view breakdown as but one aspect of well-being. He was open to the idea of well-being as something more positive than the absence of pain, suffering and need for medical care. We suggest ways to move salutogenesis research in the direction of well-being in its positive sense.

  12. Community Empowerment for School Health: Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mathew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the authors living in Yelagiri Hills incidentally noticed that the one government school and two hostels there, were facing acute issues with performance and multiple student health issues. Hence the action research was undertaken to address the problem and simultaneously to empower the local community. Methods: It was a mixed-method action research study comprising of quantitative surveys (before- after design and qualitative approach (participatory intervention. At baseline survey 177 children in two residential hostels and one government school were examined using a locally adapted Global School based Student Health Survey questionnaire. The hemoglobin level was estimated using WHO hemoglobin color scale. The participatory interventions were carried out through School Health Committee. Periodic health checkup with hemoglobin levels and school performance were examined. After one year, 230 children were examined in the follow up survey using the same questionnaire. Results: There was significant improvement in the personal hygiene and reduction in related morbidity among the children. The number of students of hemoglobin level less than 12gm% decreased from 31.4% to 11.3%.The number of students of hemoglobin level more than or equal to 12gm% increased from 68.6% to 88.7%. There was significant decline in anemia from 31.4% from baseline to 11.3% at follow up survey. There was also significant decrease in the malnutrition. Conclusion: The need based participatory health promoting school initiative for tribal children at Yelagiri hills led to a significant improvement in the school performance and general health conditions of the children. The school health committee has played a vital role in the sustainability of the project. The action research could bring positive improvements in health status of school children through active participation of students, parents, teachers and community members.

  13. Breast cancer research in Iran: a scientometric analysis of publications output from 1991 to 2015 in Scopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mozhdeh; Bagheri-Saweh, Mohammad Iraj; Rasolabadi, Masoud; Vakili, Ronak; Seidi, Jamal; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Etaee, Farshid; Gharib, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    As a common type of malignancy, breast cancer is one of the major causes of death in women globally. The purpose of the current study was to analyze Iran research performance on Breast Cancer in the context of national and international studies, shown in the publications indexed in Scopus database during 1991-2015. Data were retrieved from the Scopus citation database in this scientometric study. The following string was employed; "breast cancer OR breast malignancy OR breast tumor OR mammary ductal carcinoma" keywords in the main title, abstract and keywords and Iran in the affiliation field were the main related keywords. The terms used were searched in Scopus using the tab specified for searching documents. Time span analyzed was 1991 to 2015 inclusive. Using the analyzing software of Scopus, we analyzed the results. Iran's increasing publication production during 1991-2015 in breast cancer research which indexed in Scopus, consists of 2,399 papers with an average of 95.96 papers per year, and achieved an h-index of 48. Iranian cancer research articles have received 15,574 citations during 1991-2015, and average citations per paper were 6.49. Iran ranked 27th among the top 30 nations with a worldwide stake of 0.67 %, the 20 top publishing journals published 744 (31%) Iranian research articles on breast cancer, among them, there were 15 Iranian journals. The number of Iranian research papers on breast cancer and also the number of citations to them, is increasing. Although the quantity and quality of papers are increasing, regarding the prevalence of breast cancer in Iran and also the ineffectiveness of screening programs in the early detection of the cases, more effort should be made, and Iranian policy makers should consider more investment on breast cancer research.

  14. Privacy, security, and the public health researcher in the era of electronic health record research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal D; Sarwate, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Health data derived from electronic health records are increasingly utilized in large-scale population health analyses. Going hand in hand with this increase in data is an increasing number of data breaches. Ensuring privacy and security of these data is a shared responsibility between the public health researcher, collaborators, and their institutions. In this article, we review the requirements of data privacy and security and discuss epidemiologic implications of emerging technologies from the computer science community that can be used for health data. In order to ensure that our needs as researchers are captured in these technologies, we must engage in the dialogue surrounding the development of these tools.

  15. Tendências da produção científica em odontologia no Brasil Scientific output trends in oral health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Angelim Dias

    2008-07-01

    studies; general type (literature review, studies with human subjects, and laboratory studies; and classification into one of the 19 specialty categories recognized by the Brazilian Federal Dentistry Council. Of the 10 406 abstracts presented in this period, 5 203 (50% were reviewed. RESULTS: Concerning methodological design, 87.5% of the abstracts referred to individual-based studies, whereas 12.5% were of aggregate studies. Concerning the general category, 41.7% referred to studies with human subjects. The remaining abstracts (58.3% described in vitro (31.1% or in vivo (23.6% laboratory research and literature reviews (3.6%. Concerning the Council's specialty categories, only five had a frequency higher than 10.0%: esthetic dentistry, periodontics, endodontics, pediatric dentistry, and population-based oral health. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil's scientific output in the field of oral health for the period 2001-2006 was balanced, with increasing interest in the area of population-based oral health.

  16. Guidelines for reporting health economic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, F S; McLawhorn, A S

    2016-02-01

    Health economic evaluations potentially provide valuable information to clinicians, health care administrators, and policy makers regarding the financial implications of decisions about the care of patients. The highest quality research should be used to inform decisions that have direct impact on the access to care and the outcome of treatment. However, economic analyses are often complex and use research methods which are relatively unfamiliar to clinicians. Furthermore, health economic data have substantial national, regional, and institutional variability, which can limit the external validity of the results of a study. Therefore, minimum guidelines that aim to standardise the quality and transparency of reporting health economic research have been developed, and instruments are available to assist in the assessment of its quality and the interpretation of results. The purpose of this editorial is to discuss the principal types of health economic studies, to review the most common instruments for judging the quality of these studies and to describe current reporting guidelines. Recommendations for the submission of these types of studies to The Bone & Joint Journal are provided. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:147-51. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  18. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Resources · Publications. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 1: Proposal Development and Fieldwork ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  19. Technical specifications: Health Physics Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and an envelope of operation within which there is assurance that these limits will not be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  20. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  1. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This article aims: (I) to re-examine the use and usefulness of categorisation based on 'race'. ethnicity and 'population group' membership in public heatth research; and (ii) to assess the consequences of using these categories for describing, analysing and redressing disparities in health within South Africa The ...

  2. National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scientists performing preclinical research to approaches for considering sex as a biological variable. Read the article. Pinn Symposium Celebrates Women’s Contributions to Health Read article Watch video Read event summary (PDF - 293.5KB) ORWH Director ...

  3. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  4. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... at the point of decision need, when motivation is highest. Some basic distinctions, such as those between science and non-science, research and practice, community and individual, and lay and professional become somewhat blurred and may need to be rethought in light of this approach....... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  5. Transnational corporations and health: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Frances Elaine; Margaret Anaf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) are part of an economic system of global capitalism that operates under a neoliberal regime underpinned by strong support from international organisations such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and most nation states. Although TNCs have grown in power and influence and have had a significant impact on population health over the past three decades, public health has not developed an integrated research agenda to study them. This article outlines the shape of such an agenda and argues that it is vital that research into the public health impact of TNCs be pursued and funded as a matter of priority. The four areas of the agenda are: assessing the health and equity impacts of TNCs; evaluating the effectiveness of government regulation to mitigate health and equity impacts of TNCs; studying the work of activist groups and networks that highlight adverse impacts of TNCs; and considering how regulation of capitalism could better promote a healthier and more equitable corporate sector. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Evaluation of Scientific Output of Researchers at Birjand University of Medical Sciences in Web of Science during 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ehtesham

    2012-12-01

    Results: The study population included 81 articles that had been cited 163 times in total. Maximum number of records (57 covered original articles and the topic of most papers (11% was toxicology. Maximum number of scientific papers (22.2 percent were indexed at this database in 2009 and the highest number of citations to all papers (46.6 referred to the year 2011.Most international collaboration of the researchers was with authors from The United States (8.4 percent, and in the national level, it was with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (27%. BUMS Hirsch index was 6. Conclusion: Growth of scientific production and citations is increasing, but it is less than expected.

  7. Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

  8. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  9. An evaluation of rural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R; Dean, M; Solomon, M

    1979-05-01

    Reviews the state of the art of rural health research and evaluation in the U.S. with particular emphasis on the questions of access, health personnel, and financing. The current state of knowledge both in the published and unpublished literature in each area is summarized and a series of unresolved issues is proposed. A strategy for further research to include the various types of rural health care programs is described. Major findings suggest that, although rural populations do have somewhat less access to care than do urban populations, our ability to quantify precisely the extent and importance of this discrepancy is underdeveloped. Despite a substantial investment in a variety of rural health care programs there is inadequate information as to their effectiveness. Programs designed to increase the supply of health personnel to rural areas have met with mixed success. Sites staffed by National Health Service Corps personnel show consistently lower productivity than do sites under other sponsorship. Nonphysician personnel (physician assistants and nurse practitioners) offer a promising source of primary care for rural areas: recent legislation that reimburses such care should increase their utilization. A persistent problem is the expectation (often a mandate) incorporated into many rural health care demonstration efforts that the programs become financially self-sufficient in a finite period of time. Self-sufficiency is a function of utilization, productivity, and the ability to recover charges for services. In many instances stringent enforcement of the self-sufficiency requirement may mean those who need services most will be least likely to receive them.

  10. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  12. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  13. Criticism of health researches: why and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi-rizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research is one of the most important ways of science production (1. The purpose of research is exploring the unknown and explaining the variables that affect the human life. In the health sciences the purpose of which is health promotion, research is valued as much as human life (2. In many scientific texts, there is an emphasis on the importance of health researches in the quality of human life; the lack of attention to the quality of the publishing process is considered as the cause of much damage (3-10. The result of health researches is usually published as a paper, thesis, research project and book, the contents of all needs to be assessed. This process is named Research Review or Research Critique (2. Research critique is done during publishing process or after it, and in this paper we deal with it after publishing health texts. The broker chain between information producer and consumers who is the critic (Reviewer and critique journals has been less attended. In short, Soltani indicates that the purpose of critique as a defense of society’s cultural rights is to help the reader to choose the appropriate work, help the writer identify his weak points and his strengths (11, and also prevent damage to the society, especially people’s health. In the critique of health researches, there are two essential stages: in the first stage, the work is studied quickly by the critic (Survey study. The aim of this study is gaining knowledge of the text and usually the bibliographic information of work like title, writer, incentive of work, headings and so on is assessed briefly (12. In the second stage, a critical study is done. The critical study is the most important and most critical step in the reviewing the texts. “In this study, the critic judges as to the accuracy, reliability, or value of the text based on criteria or standards. This type of study is the key to the appropriate understanding. This method is necessary to determine the truth

  14. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Radiation, chemicals, and occupational health research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation protection and its interplay with physical research programs are described. Differences and similarities between problems in health protection for chemicals and for radiation are discussed. The importance of dosimetry in radiation work and its relevance to chemicals are cited. A collaborative program between physical and biological scientists on the toxicity of metals is briefly described. It serves as an example of new research directed toward the development of fundamental concepts and principles as a basis for understanding and controlling occupational and population exposures to chemicals. 12 references, 4 figures

  16. Iranian Nephrology and Urology Research Output in the Past Two Decades: A Bibliographic Analysis of Medline Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, Behzad; Motalebi, Mohsen; Taghipour, Mehrdad; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad

    2015-09-01

    We performed a bibliometric search to evaluate the number of papers published in the field of nephrology and urology by Iranian researchers in the past two decades. We did an online search in abstract/title part of articles with 129 keywords such as kidney, renal, hemodialysis, transplant, nephrology, glomerulonephritis, ureteral, nephrolithiasis, and etc. Endnote software version 7 was used to search articles published in PubMed database from November 1993 to November 2013. Those articles in which Iran was the affiliation of at least one of the authors were selected. These articles in the field of nephrology and urology were analyzed regarding the name of originated institution, field of study, total number of publications, type of study, collaboration rate of Iranian nephrologist and urologists for every year, annual sharing of Iranian articles in five journals with highest impact factor (IF) and journal IF. The total number of publications in the field of nephrology and urology was 3,771 (average of 189 papers per year). Most of the Iranian nephrology and urology papers were from the capital city, Tehran (50.03%). There was an increasing trend in the number of publications over the years. Most papers were about transplantation (44.6%), nephrology (20.9%) and hemodialysis (16.4%). Of all, 53.7% were retrospective articles, whereas the proportion of clinical trials was relatively small (10.8%). Although Iranian publications in the field of nephrology and urology have had a considerable and significant increase in the recent years amongst the Middle Eastern countries, there is a wide distance to be a science exporter country.

  17. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  18. The OpenMI - its Transformation From a Research Output to a Global Standard for the Integrated Modelling Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure to take a more integrated approach both to science and to management increases by the day. At almost any scale from local to global, it is no longer possible to consider issues in isolation; to do so runs a high risk of creating more problems than are solved. The consequence of this situation is that there is strong encouragement in the scientific world not just to understand and to be able to predict the response of individual processes but also to predict how those processes will interact. The manager is similarly encouraged to think in the widest terms about the likely impact of any policy before it is implemented. A new reservoir may solve a water supply problem but will it adversely affect the fishing and hence the tourist trade? How will climate change impact biodiversity? Will the drugs for treating a flu pandemic adversely affect river water quality? One approach to predicting such impacts would be to create new models simulating more and more processes. This, however, is neither feasible nor useful and makes poor use of the huge investment in existing models. A better approach, with many additional benefits, would be to find a way of linking existing models and modelling components such as databases or visualisation systems. Against this background, the European Commission, as part of its research programme to facilitate the introduction of integrated water management, commissioned a community project to find a generic solution to the linking of simulation models at run time. The outcome of this work was the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI) standard and the creation of the OpenMI Association, an open, non-proprietary, not-for-profit, international organisation for its support. The work has received widespread recognition and encouragement from across the world, especially in the USA. A second phase is now building a community to continue the OpenMI's development and promote its use. The community's vision, mission and implementation strategy

  19. Strengthening Research for Health System Development in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Health Research Unit, has been mandated by its member states to address this issue. ... In each member country, researchers will map existing research for health capacity/needs, formulate a plan of action, design a training curriculum for a course on research for health, and ...

  20. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes. PMID:28119991

  1. A Faculty Development Program can result in an improvement of the quality and output in medical education, basic sciences and clinical research and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2009-07-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International.The traditional teacher- and discipline-centred curriculum was displaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum, which has been named Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem-Oriented Learning (DIPOL). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany.The students play a very important strategic role in all processes. They are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. The Faculty Development program, including a reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification, resulted in an improvement of the quality and output of medical education and was accompanied in an improvement of the quality and output of basic sciences and clinical research and interdisciplinary patient care.

  2. TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2013, 12 May). TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC). Invited talk given at Application of Science to Simulation, Education and Research on Training for Health Professionals Centre (ASSERT for Health Care), Cork, Ireland.

  3. How to refer to people with disease in research outputs: The disconnection between academic practise and that preferred by people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Anandhakrishnan, Ananthi; Tuite-Dalton, Katie A; Lockart-Jones, Hazel; Middleton, Rodden M; Ford, David V; Crowe, Christina; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2016-11-01

    Increasingly, Government and Charity funders require public engagement in research. Invariably these research outputs describe the condition of someone with the disease of interest. We therefore sought to identify the preferred descriptor of someone with a disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine what descriptors are currently used by academics. Several surveys were undertaken: one from the Research Network of the MS Society (MSSRN), a major MS Charity within the United Kingdom, who are involved in reviewing grant applications, priority setting and research governance (n=146), and surveys from both the United Kingdom MS register (MSR; n=1713) and the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry (n=518). People were asked to rate descriptors of someone affected with MS. These were compared to that used by academic experimenters in basic science and clinical science research papers. Although the frequency of responses varied between surveys the overall findings showed many consistencies. This included use of person/people with MS (pwMS) as the preferred descriptor for someone with MS for social media and scientific publications. This was the preferred choice in about 55-60% people from the MRS and in over 70% in the NARCOMS and the MSSRN, respectively. Although MSer was the second preferred-choice for use in social media, there was as a large range of preferences from the 'most-preferred' to the 'most-disliked.' This reflected an earlier survey by UK-based research blogs using the term MSer (n=173). In contrast, pwMS had few 'dislikes' and results were skewed towards the 'liked' and 'most-preferred' choices. Client and sufferer were generally disliked terms, although there was some regional variation in levels of choice. Patient was generally seen as a neutral term that was neither strongly liked nor disliked. However, patient gained more public support for use within scientific publications (~20-25%) compared to social

  4. Strengthening health systems through linking research evidence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    informed policies. Accordingly, a critical way of addressing these challenges facing health systems in the region is through the linking of health research findings to policy. Keywords: Evidence; Sub-Saharan Africa; Health Policy; Health Systems ...

  5. Using the Electronic Health Record in Nursing Research: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joanne G; McGrath, Robert J; Fetzer, Susan J; Mittal, Prashant; Bourgoine, Derek

    2015-10-01

    Changes in the patient record from the paper to the electronic health record format present challenges and opportunities for the nurse researcher. Current use of data from the electronic health record is in a state of flux. Novel data analytic techniques and massive data sets provide new opportunities for nursing science. Realization of a strong electronic data output future relies on meeting challenges of system use and operability, data presentation, and privacy. Nurse researchers need to rethink aspects of proposal development. Joining ongoing national efforts aimed at creating usable data output is encouraged as a means to affect system design. Working to address challenges and embrace opportunities will help grow the science in a way that answers important patient care questions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Research Matters in Governance, Equity and Health - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Centre for Health Science and Social Research (CHESSORE) - Lusaka District. Institution Country ... Institution. Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research ... Institution. Kenya Medical Research Institute ... Journal articles. Tanzania ...

  7. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  8. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  9. On the causal links between health indicator, output, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport, and CO2 emissions: the case of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    This study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality test to investigate the short- and long-run relationships between health indicator, real GDP, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the case of Tunisia, spanning the period of 1990-2011. The empirical findings suggest that the Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirm the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables. Moreover, the long-run estimated elasticities of the ARDL model provide that output and combustible renewables and waste consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on health situation, while CO2 emissions and rail transport both contribute to the decrease of health indicator. Granger causality results affirm that, in the short-run, there is a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to health, a unidirectional causality from health to combustible renewables and waste consumption, and a unidirectional causality from all variables to CO2 emissions. In the long-run, all the computed error correction terms are significant and confirm the existence of long-run association among the variables. Our recommendations for the Tunisian policymakers are as follows: (i) exploiting wastes and renewable fuels can be a good strategy to eliminate pollution caused by emissions and subsequently improve health quality, (ii) the use of renewable energy as a main source for national rail transport is an effective strategy for public health, (iii) renewable energy investment projects are beneficial plans for the country as this contributes to the growth of its own economy and reduce energy dependence, and (iii) more renewable energy consumption leads not only to decrease pollution but also to stimulate health situation because of the increase of doctors and nurses numbers.

  10. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  11. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Parker

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  12. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  13. Can action research strengthen district health management and improve health workforce performance? A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T

    2013-08-30

    The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, 'bundles' of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts' budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Different challenges were faced during the development of

  14. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  15. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  16. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The experiences of health services research and health services research training in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, O R

    1984-12-01

    Early in the 1970s the Korean government recognized the necessity of Health Services Research (HSR). The law of the Korea Health Development Institute was promulgated in 1975, and a contribution from the Republic was combined with an Agency for International Development loan to field test low-cost health service strategies. A program to deploy Community Health Practitioners (CHPs), similar to family nurse practitioners or Medex has been demonstrated to be effective. The CHP training program grew from 9 in 1980 to 1343 in 1984. CHP's main functions are curative, preventive, educative, and administrative. They are selected registered nurses and/or midwives, where possible from serviced communities. They are trained in 24 weeks, including 12 weeks of clinical practice, in an anticipated recruiting post. CHPs help train village health volunteers (VHVs), who are literate women chosen by their communities. They work closely with the CHPs as a liaison with the village and in information gathering. An HSR orientation workshop held in Chuncheon in 1980, discussed role, policy, status, finance components, information systems, behavioral and manpower components, staff training, protocols for project development, HSR in the future and evaluation of the conference. In 1980, a National Workshop on Biomedical Research Methodology was also held, with World Health Organization and Korean consultants. Training of junior scientists would include introduction to scientific method, statement of problems, quantitative study technics, research proposals, and interpretation of results. The Korean Institute of Public Health sponsored a 1982 experts forum on the health care system, medical facilities, organizational management, financing and medical security, and health behavioral aspects. Training of trainers and lower level field workers, orientation of program managers, researchers, and communities themselves should all be training priorities. In future, CHPs should be refresher

  18. Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings.

  19. Evaluation of Scientific Outputs of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in Scopus Citation Database based on Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley Scientometric Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batooli, Zahra; Ravandi, Somaye Nadi; Bidgoli, Mohammad Sabahi

    2016-02-01

    It is essential to evaluate the impact of scientific publications through citation analysis in citation indexes. In addition, scientometric measures of social media also should be assessed. These measures include how many times the publications were read, viewed, and downloaded. The present study aimed to assess the scientific output of scholars at Kashan University of Medical Sciences by the end of March 2014 based on scientometric measures of Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley. A survey method was used to study the articles published in Scopus journals by scholars at Kashan University of Medical Sciences by the end of March 2014. The required data were collected from Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Also, the Spearman correlation was used between the number of views of articles in ResearchGate with citation number of the articles in Scopus and reading frequency of the articles in Mendeley with citation number in Scopus were examined using the Spearman correlation in SPSS 16. Five-hundred and thirty-three articles were indexed in the Scopus Citation Database by the end of March 2014. Collectively, those articles were cited 1,315 times. The articles were covered by ResearchGate (74%) more than Mendeley (44%). In addition, 98% of the articles indexed in ResearchGate and 92% of the articles indexed in Mendeley were viewed at least once. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the number of views of the articles in ResearchGate and Mendeley and the number of citations of the articles in Scopus. Coverage and the number of visitors were higher in ResearchGate than in Mendeley. The increase in the number of views of articles in ResearchGate and Mendeley also increased the number of citations of the papers. Social networks, such as ResearchGate and Mendeley, also can be used as tools for the evaluation of academics and scholars based on the scientific research they have conducted.

  20. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  1. Yonjung High-Speed Railway Bridge Assessment Using Output-Only Structural Health Monitoring Measurements under Train Speed Changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yonjung Bridge is a hybrid multispan bridge that is designed to transport high-speed trains (HEMU-430X with maximum operating speed of 430 km/h. The bridge consists of simply supported prestressed concrete (PSC and composite steel girders to carry double railway tracks. The structural health monitoring system (SHM is designed and installed to investigate and assess the performance of the bridge in terms of acceleration and deformation measurements under different speeds of the passing train. The SHM measurements are investigated in both time and frequency domains; in addition, several identification models are examined to assess the performance of the bridge. The drawn conclusions show that the maximum deflection and acceleration of the bridge are within the design limits that are specified by the Korean and European codes. The parameters evaluation of the model identification depicts the quasistatic and dynamic deformations of PSC and steel girders to be different and less correlated when higher speeds of the passing trains are considered. Finally, the variation of the frequency content of the dynamic deformations of the girders is negligible when high speeds are considered.

  2. Strengthening Health Systems Research Capacity in Mozambique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mozambique's health sector is dealing with system-wide challenges. ... the Ministry's work on national health accounts, resource allocation, and national health ... a combined INS-FIOCRUS program, and the master's in public health and field ...

  3. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. 4th edition

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This bestselling book provides an accessible introduction to the concepts and practicalities of research methods in health and health services. This new edition has been extensively re-worked and expanded and now includes expanded coverage of: Qualitative methods Social research Evaluation methodology Mixed methods Secondary data analysis Literature reviewing and critical appraisal Evidence based practiceCovering all core methodologies in detail the book looks at the following kinds of health...

  5. Aid alignment for global health research: the role of HIROs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of a mechanism that aligns financial flows for global health research towards public health priorities limits the impact of health research on health and health equity. Collaborative groups of health research funders appear to be particularly well situated to ameliorate this situation and to initiate discussion on aid alignment for global health research. One such group is the Heads of International Research Organizations (HIROs, which brings together a large number of major government and philanthropic funders of biomedical research. Surprisingly, there is hardly any information publicly available on HIROs' objectives, or on how it aims to achieve more harmonization in the field of research for health. Greater transparency on HIROs' objectives and on its current efforts towards addressing the gap between global health research needs and investments would be desirable, given the enormous potential benefits of more coordination by this group.

  6. [Research on social determinants of health and health inequalities: evidence for health in all policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Malmusi, Davide

    2010-12-01

    This article aims to review conceptual frameworks and some principles to be considered in research on social determinants of health and health inequalities. Some indicators of research on these issues in Spain are described. General expenditure on research and development in Spain is far from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development mean. In addition, both globally and within Spain, the scientific production on health inequalities is very low, especially compared with other research areas. The budget for research on health inequalities is also reduced. A striking example is provided by analysis of the projects funded by the Marató de TV3, which seems to have little interest in funding research on health inequalities. However, both the scientific production and project financing on health inequalities have increased in the last decade. Finally, to advance research on health inequalities and its contribution to the incorporation of health in all policies, recommendations are made, which include redefining priorities, ensuring resources and promoting knowledge translation. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  8. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  9. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... ... by the University of Ghana School of Public Health, in partnership with WAHO and IDRC. Health systems research experts and partners from across the ... adopted direct payment for health services as the primary means.

  10. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...

  11. Prioritizing health services research: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-05-01

    Given limited resources policymakers need to decide about how much and in what areas of health services research (HSR) to invest. The purpose of this study is to provide guidance for priority setting of HSR projects based on economic theory. The conceptual analysis starts from the premise that competition in health care is valuable-a position that seems to predominate among Western policymakers. The principle of competition rests on economic theory and, in particular, its branch of welfare economics. Based on economic theory, the role of HSR is to detect and alleviate information asymmetry, negative externalities, and harm caused by competition and inappropriate incentives for competition. A hierarchy of HSR projects is provided; following the ethical principle of harm ('do not harm'), the detection and prevention of harm would receive highest priority among HSR projects. Agreeing that competition is valuable in achieving efficiency and quality of care (and therefore agreeing to the assumptions of economic theory) implies accepting the role of HSR in detecting market failure and the HSR hierarchy as suggested. Disagreement would require an alternative coherent concept of improving efficiency and quality of care.

  12. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  13. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Public health research sometimes uses members of communities as researchers. These are called Community Researchers. The advantage of using Community Researchers is that it enables people who live in communities to participate in research by designing the research, gathering data and being involved in analysis. This 'participatory' approach also has the potential to reach communities that might otherwise not be included in research. There are few studies that report the experiences of Community Researchers who take part in such research. This study helps fill this gap by exploring the issues and challenges faced by Community Researchers involved in a study of health and poverty in ethnically mixed areas of east London, UK. Through the accounts of 12 researchers, the study reveals that being a community 'insider' had advantages: many felt they had been able to gain the trust of respondents and access people for the research that would have otherwise been missed. The role of Community Researcher was, however, difficult to manage with some researchers feeling burdened by their role and the increased knowledge they had about the lives of those in their community. In addition to the personal challenges for the Community Researchers, the findings raise various ethical and methodological issues that need consideration in participatory research. Background Inclusive research approaches are increasingly employed by public health researchers. Recent methodological development includes the engagement of Community Researchers (CRs), who use their knowledge and networks to facilitate research with the community with which they identify. Few studies have explored the experiences of CRs in the research process, an important element of any comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of such research endeavours. We report here on the experiences of CRs engaged in a study of health inequalities and poverty in ethnically diverse and disadvantaged areas of London, UK. Methods We

  14. [Targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.

  15. An Implementation Research Approach to Evaluating Health Insurance Programs: Insights from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D. Rao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of implementation research is the importance given to involve implementers in all aspects of research, and as users of research. We report on a recent implementation research effort in India, in which researchers worked together with program implementers from one of the longest serving government funded insurance schemes in India, the Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme (RAS in the state of undivided Andhra Pradesh, that covers around 70 million people. This paper aims to both inform on the process of the collaborative research, as well as, how the nature of questions that emerged out of the collaborative exercise differed in scope from those typically asked of insurance program evaluations. Starting in 2012, and over the course of a year, staff from the Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (AHCT, and researchers held a series of meetings to identify research questions that could serve as a guide for an evaluation of the RAS. The research questions were derived from the application of a Logical Framework Approach (“log frame” to the RAS. The types of questions that emerged from this collaborative effort were compared with those seen in the published literature on evaluations of insurance programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. In the published literature, 60% of the questions pertained to output/outcome of the program and the remaining 40%, relate to processes and inputs. In contrast, questions generated from the RAS participatory research process between implementers and researchers had a remarkably different distribution – 81% of questions looked at program input/processes, and 19% on outputs and outcomes. An implementation research approach can lead to a substantively different emphasis of research questions. While there are several challenges in collaborative research between implementers and researchers, an implementation research approach can lead to incorporating tacit knowledge of program implementers

  16. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  17. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... Health research. Health research is defined very broadly in section 1 of the NHA, as ... national ethical guidelines issued by the Department of Health define research as a ... This definition suggests that section 71 only applies to studies ... nursing, rehabilitative, palliative, convalescent, preventative or other.

  18. The MacGyver effect: alive and well in health services research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriarty Helen J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a manner similar to the television action hero MacGyver, health services researchers need to respond to the pressure of unpredictable demands and constrained time frames. The results are often both innovative and functional, with the creation of outputs that could not have been anticipated in the initial planning and design of the research. Discussion In the conduct of health services research many challenges to robust research processes are generated as a result of the interface between academic research, health policy and implementation agendas. Within a complex and rapidly evolving environment the task of the health services researcher is, therefore, to juggle sometimes contradictory pressures to produce valid results. Summary This paper identifies the MacGyver-type dilemmas which arise in health services research, wherein innovation may be called for, to maintain the intended scientific method and rigour. These 'MacGyver drivers' are framed as opposing issues from the perspective of both academic and public policy communities. The ideas expressed in this paper are illustrated by four examples from research projects positioned at the interface between public policy strategy and academia.

  19. Attitudes to and perceptions of research for health science lecturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of AHP/nurse lecturers are drawn from clinical practice where the opportunity to undertake research activity is limited. Employment in higher education requires the undertaking of research/scholarly activity as part of their role, but research output from this group is below that from other healthcare academics. This study explores attitudes of AHP's/nurses in one higher educational establishment towards research activity. Method: Ethical approval was obtained from the academic ethics committee. Six focus groups were facilitated using semi structured and open grounded theory approaches. Participants included AHP's/nurses who are now lecturers or teachers in HE. Informed written consent was gained and each session audio recorded and transcribed. NVivo v8 was used to code data and thematic analysis carried out using the OSOP method. Findings: All groups identified previously reported barriers to research, such as lack of time, resources and skills. There was evidence of a perceived hierarchy of research within the university culture, and for some a feeling of inadequacy and inability to reach the higher levels. Those involved in research reported a feeling of isolation which reduced their output. One emergent theme highlighted that some participants did not want to undertake research and had difficulty identifying with it as part of their university role. A minority embraced research as an integral part of their work. Discussion/conclusion: When prompted participants could identify practical solutions to some of the barriers identified such as adapting working practices to release research time. The need for appropriate mentorship for inexperienced researchers is clearly demonstrated in the data however the hierarchy of research presents a barrier to accessing this. The participants are relying upon inexperienced peers for support, leading to a restricted research knowledge pool. The relative immaturity of the professions included may also

  20. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  1. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  2. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-12-09

    Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  3. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  4. Research Award: Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... IDRC's Research Awards are a unique opportunity for master's and doctoral-level students, as well as recent graduates to enhance their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. This one-year, paid in-house program of training and mentorship in research, research ...

  5. Integrating intersectionality and biomedicine in health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula A

    2009-01-01

    Persisting health disparities have lead to calls for an increase in health research to address them. Biomedical scientists call for research that stratifies individual indicators associated with health disparities, for example, ethnicity. Feminist social scientists recommend feminist intersectionality research. Intersectionality is the multiplicative effect of inequalities experienced by nondominant marginalized groups, for example, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor. The elimination of health disparities necessitates integration of both paradigms in health research. This study provides a practical application of the integration of biomedical and feminist intersectionality paradigms in nursing research, using a psychiatric intervention study with battered Latino women as an example.

  6. An ontology of and roadmap for mHealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Joshua D; Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Syn, Thant

    2017-04-01

    Mobile health or mHealth research has been growing exponentially in recent years. However, the research on mHealth has been ad-hoc and selective without a clear definition of the mHealth domain. Without a roadmap for research we may not realize the full potential of mHealth. In this paper, we present an ontological framework to define the mHealth domain and illuminate a roadmap. We present an ontology of mHealth. The ontology is developed by systematically deconstructing the domain into its primary dimensions and elements. We map the extent research on mHealth in 2014 onto the ontology and highlight the bright, light, and blind/blank spots which represent the emphasis of mHealth research. The emphases of mHealth research in 2014 are very uneven. There are a few bright spots and many light spots. The research predominantly focuses on individuals' use of mobile devices and applications to capture or obtain health-related data mostly to improve quality of care through mobile intervention. We argue that the emphases can be balanced in the roadmap for mHealth research. The ontological mapping plays an integral role in developing and maintaining the roadmap which can be updated periodically to continuously assess and guide mHealth research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bursaries, writing grants and fellowships: a strategy to develop research capacity in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    interviewed. Capacity, confidence, and level of research skills in ten core areas were generally considered to have improved as a result of the award. More than half (53% had presented their research and 32% had published or submitted an article in a peer-reviewed journal. Conclusion A small grant and mentoring scheme through a University Department can effectively enhance research skills, confidence, output, and interest in research of primary health care practitioners.

  8. A critical review of health research ethical guidelines regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trials, 2006;[22] and Ethics in Health Research Principles, Structures and Procedures, 2015[15]) regarding caregivers' consent in research involving minors as research ..... 11. Jeff H, Ramesh R, Sanjay MB. Pediatric airway management.

  9. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Resources for Health Research in Africa ... the management of research systems for optimal use of results;; packaging research for policymakers; ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  10. Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-13

    Jan 13, 2017 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... These solutions touch on diverse aspects of health systems, ... Read more on how IDRC is helping increase equitable access to health services for the poor in Mali and Burkina Faso.

  11. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and

  12. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  13. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes. Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis. From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR

  14. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  15. Advancing nursing science through health trajectory research: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Jean F; Henly, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Center for Health Trajectory Research has focused on developing ways to better understand how interventions influence health trajectories during transitional, acute, or chronic health challenges across the life span. The health trajectory perspective advances nursing science by providing a person-centered point of view that emphasizes change in health over time within individuals, families, groups, or communities. Theoretical considerations and statistical modeling approaches used in studying health trajectories, along with exemplars from nursing research studies from this special issue of Nursing Research, are highlighted.

  16. Participative mental health consumer research for improving physical health care: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    People with mental illness have a significantly lower life expectancy and higher rates of chronic physical illnesses than the general population. Health care system reform to improve access and quality is greatly needed to address this inequity. The inclusion of consumers of mental health services as co-investigators in research is likely to enhance service reform. In light of this, the current paper reviews mental health consumer focussed research conducted to date, addressing the neglect of physical health in mental health care and initiatives with the aim of improving physical health care. The international literature on physical healthcare in the context of mental health services was searched for articles, including mental health consumers in research roles, via Medline, CINAHL and Google Scholar, in October 2015. Four studies where mental health consumers participated as researchers were identified. Three studies involved qualitative research on barriers and facilitators to physical health care access, and a fourth study on developing technologies for more effective communication between GPs and patients. This review found that participatory mental health consumer research in physical health care reform has only become visible in the academic literature in 2015. Heightened consideration of mental health consumer participation in research is required by health care providers and researchers. Mental health nurses can provide leadership in increasing mental health consumer research on integrated care directed towards reducing the health gap between people with and without mental illness. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Feminist intersectionality: bringing social justice to health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A

    2011-05-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011

  18. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    do not exist. However, besides scaling up research for new drugs and vaccines, research in health care systems are needed to understand the obstacles to implement new as well as existing interventions to prevent and combat the major health problems of those most in need. The task demands political......Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...

  19. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  20. 78 FR 35837 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... disparities research to close the disparity gap in the burden of illness and death experienced by racial and... Number NIH-2007-0931] RIN 0925-AA61 National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research... disparities research and other health disparities research. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  1. Kenya-Malawi Health Research Capacity Strengthening Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support the creation of two task forces in Kenya and Malawi, respectively, to articulate nationally owned and strategies for an effective health research system in each country. The idea is to enhance the capacity of health research institutions to generate new scientific knowledge, and health policymaking ...

  2. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  3. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  4. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  5. Creating a new investment pool for innovative health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Tracey-Lea; Patel, Anushka; Jan, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Recent trends in health research funding towards 'safe bets' is discouraging investment into the development of health systems interventions and choking off a vital area of policy-relevant research. This paper argues that to encourage investment into innovative and perceivably riskier health systems research, researchers need to create more attractive business cases by exploring alternative approaches to the design and evaluation of health system interventions. At the same time, the creation of dedicated funding opportunities to support this work, as well as for relevant early career researchers, is needed.

  6. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  7. Researchers' experience with project management in health and medical research: Results from a post-project review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Project management is widely used to deliver projects on time, within budget and of defined quality. However, there is little published information describing its use in managing health and medical research projects. We used project management in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project (2006-2008) http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy and in this paper report researchers' opinions on project management and whether it made a difference to the project. Methods A national interdisciplinary group of 20 researchers, one of whom was the project manager, formed the Steering Committee for the project. We used project management to ensure project outputs and outcomes were achieved and all aspects of the project were planned, implemented, monitored and controlled. Sixteen of the researchers were asked to complete a self administered questionnaire for a post-project review. Results The project was delivered according to the project protocol within the allocated budget and time frame. Fifteen researchers (93.8%) completed a questionnaire. They reported that project management increased the effectiveness of the project, communication, teamwork, and application of the interdisciplinary group of researchers' expertise. They would recommend this type of project management for future projects. Conclusions Our post-project review showed that researchers comprehensively endorsed project management in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project and agreed that project management had contributed substantially to the research. In future, we will project manage new projects and conduct post-project reviews. The results will be used to encourage continuous learning and continuous improvement of project management, and provide greater transparency and accountability of health and medical research. The use of project management can benefit both management and scientific outcomes of health and medical research projects. PMID:21635721

  8. Residential mobility : Towards progress in mobility health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, T.; Manley, D.J.; Sabel, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Research into health disparities has long recognized the importance of residential mobility as a crucial factor in determining health outcomes. However, a lack of connectivity between the health and mobility literatures has led to a stagnation of theory and application on the health side, which

  9. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  10. Health | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers with the Africa Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) have uncovered ways to strengthen health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Weak health systems cause a high burden of preventable and treatable illnesses, especially for those living in rural areas. Strong health systems are needed to provide adequate access ...

  11. 'Big data' in mental health research: current status and emerging possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert; Davis, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    'Big data' are accumulating in a multitude of domains and offer novel opportunities for research. The role of these resources in mental health investigations remains relatively unexplored, although a number of datasets are in use and supporting a range of projects. We sought to review big data resources and their use in mental health research to characterise applications to date and consider directions for innovation in future. A narrative review. Clear disparities were evident in geographic regions covered and in the disorders and interventions receiving most attention. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the use of different types of data and the challenges of big data in general. Current research output from big data is still predominantly determined by the information and resources available and there is a need to reverse the situation so that big data platforms are more driven by the needs of clinical services and service users.

  12. Leadership as a Health Research Policy Intervention: An Evaluation of the NIHR Leadership Programme (Phase 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Cochrane, Gavin; Manville, Catriona; Harte, Emma; Chataway, Joanna; Jones, Molly Morgan

    2016-01-29

    In early 2012, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) leadership programme was re-commissioned for a further three years following an evaluation by RAND Europe. During this new phase of the programme, we conducted a real-time evaluation, the aim of which was to allow for reflection on and adjustment of the programme on an on-going basis as events unfold. This approach also allowed for participants on the programme to contribute to and positively engage in the evaluation. The study aimed to understand the outputs and impacts from the programme, and to test the underlying assumptions behind the NIHR Leadership Programme as a science policy intervention. Evidence on outputs and impacts of the programme were collected around the motivations and expectations of participants, programme design and individual-, institutional- and system-level impacts.

  13. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2018-04-01

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

  14. Measuring and improving the societal impact of health care research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.; Muscat, N.A.; Keskimäki, I.; Lindahl, A.K.; Pfaff, H.; Wismar, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Health care research is increasingly being evaluated in terms of its contribution to new market products and services, among other factors, in the European Union’s new Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon 2020. However, discoveries in health care research often are not marketable

  15. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's shortage of research on health inequities The Commission on Social ... project's activities will also include establishing a network of health equity researchers. ... Strength in collaboration and numbers The project will help increase the connections between previously disconnected researchers, civil ... Site internet.

  16. [Antibiotic resistance: recommendations from the Advisory Council for Health Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Advisory Council for Health Research (RGO) advised the Dutch Minister of Health on research into the epidemiology, prevention and research of antibiotic resistance in the Netherlands. Good antimicrobial practice, insight into antibiotic use, implementation of measures to prevent development of

  17. Overview: Forging Research Priorities for Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)

  18. [International visibility and impact of the Spanish research on prison health (2002-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Pérez, R; Robinson-García, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyze the dissemination and impact of Spanish research published in international scientific journals on Prison Health over the last decade. Descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective analysis of scientific output. We used the Medline-Pubmed database as an information resource. We focus on the bibliometric aspects of journals, papers and authors using the indicators offered by the Web of Science, the Journal Citation Reports and the Essential Science Indicators. We identify the output of Spanish researchers, journals in which they are published, authors and main research fields. From 2002 to 2011, Spanish researchers published 159 papers, that is, nearly 2% of the world's share in Prison Health. The publication profile is mainly in international journals with an average impact on JCR. The Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria is the most productive journal (9.09%), although its role is not prominent. Only two authors can be considered as medium-high productive authors with 10 papers in the study time period. The co-authors network shows a dense network with 14 authors along with minor fragmented networks. As regards citations, 6 papers have been cited 15 or more times and only two can be considered as highly cited. Three main research fronts have been identified: infectious diseases, drugs and psychiatric-psychological problems. The Spanish research production on Prison Health represents a similar share of the world output similar to that of other disciplines (1.9%), although slightly lower (General Medicine represents 3.05%; Public Health, 2.38%; Psychiatry, 2.29%; Toxicology, 2.46%). It seems likely that this share will increase as a result of the inclusion of its main journal in Medline along with an increasing number of researchers working on this discipline at an international level. However, inclusion has not yet led to integration into high-impact journals or a larger number of citations. The average Journal Impact Factor is

  19. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  20. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The implementation of intercultural health programs, often understood as the integration of indigenous and biomedical models of medicine, is a common challenge in many countries. Currently there is great interest in implementing intercultural health programs in Peru and throughout the Latin American region. This project ...

  1. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  2. Collaborating with consumer and community representatives in health and medical research in Australia: results from an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartu Anne E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To collaborate with consumer and community representatives in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project from 2006-2008 http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy and evaluate researchers' and consumer and community representatives' perceptions of the process, context and impact of consumer and community participation in the project. Methods We formed two reference groups and sought consumer and community representatives' perspectives on all aspects of the project over a three year period. We developed an evaluation framework and asked consumer and community representatives and researchers to complete a self-administered questionnaire at the end of the project. Results Fifteen researchers (93.8% and seven (53.8% consumer and community representatives completed a questionnaire. Most consumer and community representatives agreed that the process and context measures of their participation had been achieved. Both researchers and consumer and community representatives identified areas for improvement and offered suggestions how these could be improved for future research. Researchers thought consumer and community participation contributed to project outputs and outcomes by enhancing scientific and ethical standards, providing legitimacy and authority, and increasing the project's credibility and participation. They saw it was fundamental to the research process and acknowledged consumer and community representatives for their excellent contribution. Consumer and community representatives were able to directly influence decisions about the research. They thought that consumer and community participation had significant influence on the success of project outputs and outcomes. Conclusions Consumer and community participation is an essential component of good research practice and contributed to the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project by enhancing research processes, outputs and outcomes, and this participation was valued by community and

  3. Collaborating with consumer and community representatives in health and medical research in Australia: results from an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; D'Antoine, Heather A; France, Kathryn E; McKenzie, Anne E; Henley, Nadine; Bartu, Anne E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol

    2011-05-14

    To collaborate with consumer and community representatives in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project from 2006-2008 http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy and evaluate researchers' and consumer and community representatives' perceptions of the process, context and impact of consumer and community participation in the project. We formed two reference groups and sought consumer and community representatives' perspectives on all aspects of the project over a three year period. We developed an evaluation framework and asked consumer and community representatives and researchers to complete a self-administered questionnaire at the end of the project. Fifteen researchers (93.8%) and seven (53.8%) consumer and community representatives completed a questionnaire. Most consumer and community representatives agreed that the process and context measures of their participation had been achieved. Both researchers and consumer and community representatives identified areas for improvement and offered suggestions how these could be improved for future research. Researchers thought consumer and community participation contributed to project outputs and outcomes by enhancing scientific and ethical standards, providing legitimacy and authority, and increasing the project's credibility and participation. They saw it was fundamental to the research process and acknowledged consumer and community representatives for their excellent contribution. Consumer and community representatives were able to directly influence decisions about the research. They thought that consumer and community participation had significant influence on the success of project outputs and outcomes. Consumer and community participation is an essential component of good research practice and contributed to the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project by enhancing research processes, outputs and outcomes, and this participation was valued by community and consumer representatives and researchers. The National Health and

  4. Research on Health and Environmental Effects of Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has linked regulated air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, to lung, heart disease and other health problems. Further investigation is needed to understand the role poor air quality plays on health and disease

  5. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  6. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publication of Research Article: An Art or Science? ... for the relative importance of a journal, is now being considered a misleading tool in assessing ... should be kept in mind before manuscript preparation and submission, so that our research

  7. Research award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... food systems research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries. ... the research award recipient will contribute to the management of the ...

  8. Concepts and procedures for mapping food and health research infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijević, Lada; Geurts, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    be achieved in the area of food and health has, to date, been unclear. Scope and approach This commentary paper presents examples of the types of food and health research facilities, resources and services available in Europe. Insights are provided on the challenge of identifying and classifying research...... infrastructure. In addition, suggestions are made for the future direction of food and health research infrastructure in Europe. These views are informed by the EuroDISH project, which mapped research infrastructure in four areas of food and health research: Determinants of dietary behaviour; Intake of foods....../nutrients; Status and functional markers of nutritional health; Health and disease risk of foods/nutrients. Key findings and conclusion There is no objective measure to identify or classify research infrastructure. It is therefore, difficult to operationalise this term. EuroDISH demonstrated specific challenges...

  9. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  10. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  12. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.

  13. An Analysis of Canadian Institute for Health Research Funding for Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deonandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars, clinical research 27% (41%, health services 10% (7%, and population health research 8% (3%. The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response. Preference for biomedical research may be due to the detriment of clinical research.

  14. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  15. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  16. Call for Implementation Research Proposals: Health Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... Improving maternal, child and adolescent health, including sexual ... and youth leaders, and different sectors (e.g. education, sanitation) to ..... Describe the development challenge, its importance and relevance to the thematic.

  17. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health (“m-Health”) is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”). However, f...

  18. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  19. Research culture in allied health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.

  20. [Memorandum IV: Theoretical and Normative Grounding of Health Services Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, W; Farin, E; Menzel-Begemann, A; Meyer, T

    2016-05-01

    With Memoranda and other initiatives, the German Network for Health Service Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e.V. (DNVF)] is fostering the methodological quality of care research studies for years. Compared to the standards of empirical research, questions concerning the role and function of theories, theoretical approaches and scientific principles have not been taken up on its own. Therefore, the DNVF e.V. has set up a working group in 2013, which was commissioned to prepare a memorandum on "theories in health care research". This now presented memorandum will primarily challenge scholars in health care services research to pay more attention to questions concerning the theoretical arsenal and the background assumptions in the research process. The foundation in the philosophy of science, the reference to normative principles and the theory-bases of the research process are addressed. Moreover, the memorandum will call on to advance the theorizing in health services research and to strengthen not empirical approaches, research on basic principles or studies with regard to normative sciences and to incorporate these relevant disciplines in health services research. Research structures and funding of health services research needs more open space for theoretical reflection and for self-observation of their own, multidisciplinary research processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data platforms for ... This exercise will provide the opportunity to raise awareness of the SGDs and the ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower ...

  2. Highlight: Kenya selects first research chair on health systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 avr. 2016 ... Research will focus on a systems approach to improving maternal and child ... and at the same time, endeavour to bridge the gap between universities ... health systems research is grounded in political realities and have real ...

  3. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa ... of research studies that do not conform with international ethical standards and ... Journal articles ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ...

  4. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa. View moreMaternal and child health research featured in Canadian Geographic ...

  5. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka; Julie A. Beans; Renee F. Robinson; Jennifer L. Shaw; Ileen Sylvester; Denise A. Dillard

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of ...

  6. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  7. Research Needs and Priorities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Jytte; Nøhr, Christian; McNair, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi study was accomplished on the topic "what is needed to implement the information society within healthcare? and which research topics should be given higher priority than other topics to achieve the desired evolution?", involving 29 international experts. The study was comprised of four....... In contrast, only a minority of the research issues emphasised was related to technical issues. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....... research items and 58 supplementary barriers were raised, divided into 14 topics grouped according to homogeneity. The emphasised research topics are business process re-engineering, the electronic patient record and connected inter-operating systems, (support for) evidence-based medicine and clinical...

  8. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  9. Storytelling to access social context and advance health equity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, JoAnne

    2012-11-01

    Increased understanding of individual and social determinants of health is crucial to moving toward health equity. This essay examines storytelling as a vehicle for advancing health equity research. Contemplative examination of storytelling as a research strategy. An overview of story theory is provided. This is followed by an examination of storytelling as a tool for increasing understanding about the contexts in which people negotiate health, strengthening participation of communities in addressing health issues, and building bridges between researchers and target populations. Storytelling can be a powerful tool for advancing health equity research. However, its effective use requires a renegotiation of relationships between researchers and target communities, as well as setting aside routine time to attend storytelling events and read a variety of stories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population groups in order to tackle disparities in health, runs the risk of ... view that fundamental, biological or behavioural differences are responsible for ..... Bogue G. How to get along without race in demographic analysis. Soc Bioi 1971;.

  11. eHealth literacy research-Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Lena; Enwald, Heidi; Gilstad, Heidi; Pohl, Anna-Lena; Moreland, Julia; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2017-10-18

    The concept of electronic health (eHealth) literacy evolved from the social and information sciences and describes competencies necessary to use electronic health services. As it is a rather new topic, and as there is no current overview of the state of the art in research, it is not possible to identify research gaps. Therefore, the objective of this viewpoint article is to increase knowledge on the current state of the art of research in eHealth literacy and to identify gaps in scientific research which should be focused on by the research community in the future. The article provides a current viewpoint of the concept of eHealth literacy and related research. Gaps can be found in terms of a missing "gold standard" regarding both the definition and the measurement of eHealth literacy. Furthermore, there is a need for identifying the implications on eHealth developers, which evolve from the measurement of eHealth literacy in eHealth users. Finally, a stronger inclusion of health professionals, both in the evolving concept and in the measurement of eHealth literacy, is needed in the future.

  12. Keeping nurse researchers safe: workplace health and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennieffer; Welch, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a qualitative study of workplace health and safety issues in nursing research. Researcher health and safety have become increasing concerns as there is an increased amount of research undertaken in the community and yet there is a lack of appropriate guidelines on how to keep researchers safe when undertaking fieldwork. This study employed a descriptive qualitative approach, using different sources of data to find any references to researcher health and safety issues. A simple descriptive approach to inquiry was used for this study. Three approaches to data collection were used: interviews with 15 researchers, audits of 18 ethics applications, and exploration of the literature between 1992 and 2010 for examples of researcher safety issues. Data analysis from the three approaches identified participant comments, narrative descriptions or statements focused on researcher health and safety. Nurse researchers' health and safety may be at risk when conducting research in the community. Particular concern involves conducting sensitive research where researchers are physically at risk of being harmed, or being exposed to the development of somatic symptoms. Nurse researchers may perceive the level of risk of harm as lower than the actual or potential harm present in research. Nurse researchers do not consistently implement risk assessment before and during research. Researcher health and safety should be carefully considered at all stages of the research process. Research focusing on sensitive data and vulnerable populations need to consider risk minimization through strategies such as appropriate researcher preparation, safety during data collection, and debriefing if required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  14. Participatory Research in a Mental Health Clubhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth; Birch, Diane E.; Langley, Jack; Langille, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    A 2-year ethnographic study of a clubhouse for people with long-term mental illness involved club members in particpatory research. The study explored questions of what is research and who drives it. A critical perspective on the social organization of knowledge and power inequities between participants was highlighted. (SK)

  15. USDA research and honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA - Agricultural Research Service Bee Research Laboratory (BRL) is comprised of nine full-time federal employees and a team of 20+ students and collaborators from the U.S., England, Thailand, Spain, and China. The mission of the BRL is to provide innovative tools and insights for building and...

  16. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  17. Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled “Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?” The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area.

  18. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...

  19. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  20. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  1. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  2. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  3. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  4. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  5. Defining Health Research for Development: The perspective of stakeholders from an international health research partnership in Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice

    2017-05-03

    The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Vaccine Developer) and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program (PATH/MVI, Funder-Development Partner), (RTS, S) (NCT00866619). The respondents included teams from four clinical research centres (two centres in Ghana and two in Tanzania) and various collaborating partners. This paper analyses responses to the question: What is Health Research for Development? Based on the stakeholders' experience the respondents offered many ways of defining Health Research for Development. The responses fell into four broad themes: i) Equitable Partnerships; ii) System Sustainability; iii) Addressing Local Health Targets, and iv) Regional Commitment to Benefit Sharing. Through defining Health Research for Development six key learning points were generated from the four result themes: 1) Ensure there is local research leadership working with the collaborative partnership, and local healthcare system, to align the project agenda and activities with local research and health priorities; 2) Know the country-specific context - map the social, health, legislative and political setting; 3) Define an explicit development component and plan of action in a research project; 4) Address the barriers and opportunities to sustain system capacity. 5) Support decentralised health system decision-making to facilitate the translation pathway; 6) Govern, monitor and evaluate the development components of health research partnerships. Overall, equity and unity between partners are required to deliver health research for development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Susan; Holden, Libby; Golenko, Xanthe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges. Participants and methods This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey. Results The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation. Conclusion Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to conduct research by increased skills training, infrastructure, and quarantined time is likely to produce better outcomes for research capacity building investment. PMID

  7. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and field testing (Part 1) and with data analysis and report writing (Part 2). ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to ...

  8. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications may contain an abstract, and can be organized either along ... of Medical Journal Editors and World Health Organization requirements can be ... it is quite clear how the experiments were done: any interested colleague should ... If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in ...

  9. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-14

    Jun 14, 2007 ... ... of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4. ... six year Emergency Human Resource Programme aimed ... therefore to elucidate the extent of major surgical work ... back for review seven days after discharge. ... and 24 hour maternal condition, post-operative fever, wound.

  10. Recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey

    2018-06-07

    Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors. These can then inform interventions aimed at reducing health disparities. However, challenges remain in recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research. To provide strategies for recruiting African-American men in health research, using as an exemplar a qualitative study of fathers' perspectives of sexual health promotion with young African-American males. Efforts are needed to increase the representation of African-American men in health research. Ensuring that researchers are aware of the cultural, social and environmental factors related to decisions to participate in research can lead to effective methods to recruit and engage them. There are several essential strategies for increasing African-American men's participation in health research: ensuring the research team is culturally and gender-sensitive; recruiting in trusted environments; using respected gatekeepers; developing trust with participants; and being transparent. Implementing strategies to include African-American men in health research has the potential to improve health disparities in the US. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  11. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  12. Health cyberinfrastructure for collaborative use-inspired research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chismar, William; Horan, Thomas A; Hesse, Bradford W; Feldman, Sue S; Shaikh, Abdul R

    2011-05-01

    Rapid advances in information and networking technologies have greatly expanded the modes for conducting business and science. For the past two decades, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting efforts to develop a comprehensive cyberinfrastructure with the goal of transforming the nature of scientific investigations. More recently, the NIH began supporting efforts to develop a cyberinfrastructure of healthcare research and practice. However, the best structure and applications of cyberinfrastructure in health care have yet to be defined. To address these issues, the NIH and the Kay Center for E-Health Research at Claremont Graduate University sponsored a symposium on "Cyberinfrastructure for Public Health and Health Services: Research and Funding Directions." The symposium convened researchers, practitioners, and federal funders to discuss how to further cyberinfrastructure systems and research in the public health and health services sectors. This paper synthesizes findings of the symposium, the goals of which were to determine the dynamics necessary for executing and utilizing cyberinfrastructure in public health and health services; examine the requirements of transdisciplinary collaboration; and identify future research directions. A multi-faceted conception of use-inspired research for cyberinfrastructure is developed. Use-inspired research aims to further basic theory but is grounded, inspired, and informed by practical problems. A cyberinfrastructure framework is presented that incorporates three intersecting dimensions: research-practice, health services-public health, and social-technical dimensions. Within this framework, this paper discusses the ways in which cyberinfrastructure provides opportunities to integrate across these dimensions to develop research and actions that can improve both clinical outcomes and public health. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Research award: Livestock Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global ... research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... is informed by the significant geographic variation and local operating contexts of ...

  14. Considerations for a Unified Research Agenda for School Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    While there is a history of proposing direction for research in school health education, no formal, profession-wide agenda has been developed in over 25 years. In this commentary the author proposes the development of a new profession-driven research agenda for school health education. He includes

  15. Researching the barriers to HIV treatment and maternal health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... Researching the barriers to HIV treatment and maternal health in South Africa ... between IDRC, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. ... One study, based on interviews with women who used maternal services, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  16. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, they will propose an ethical framework for health research and put forward the basic elements of a training course for professionals, researchers and decision-makers in the area of bioethics and health and the environment. The work will be carried out in three West African Countries (Bénin, Cameroon and Nigeria), ...

  17. Mental health research in Ghana: A literature review | Read | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...

  18. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since its foundation in 1998, the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR) has sought to focus greater attention and resources on research that will improve the health of the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged. The Forum has also become an authoritative and independent source of reliable data, practical tools and ...

  19. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  20. Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As part of the lead up to the October 2000 International Conference on Health Research for Development in Bangkok, the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) called upon its associates around the world to reflect on achievements and setbacks in the 1990s. This book is the result of those reflections.

  1. A consensus statement on how to conduct inclusive health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Garcia Iriarte, E; Buchner, T; Brooker, K; Embregts, P; Joosa, E; Crowther, F; Fudge Schormans, A; Schippers, A; Walmsley, J; O'Brien, P; Linehan, C; Northway, R; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H; Leusink, G

    2018-04-11

    The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement. The consensus statement was developed in three consecutive rounds: (1) an initial feedback round; (2) a roundtable discussion at the 2016 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress; and (3) a final feedback round. This consensus statement provides researchers with guidelines, agreed upon by experts in the field, regarding attributes, potential outcomes, reporting and publishing, and future research directions, for designing and conducting inclusive health research. Consensus was reached on how to design and conduct inclusive health research. However, this statement should be continuously adapted to incorporate recent knowledge. The focus of this consensus statement is largely on inclusive health research, but the principles can also be applied to other areas. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mapping research on health systems in Europe: a bibliometric assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco Garrido, M.; Hansen, J.; Busse, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Europe's health care decision-makers are facing an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. It is crucial that health care problems are addressed with evidence-informed policy and that evidence finding is aimed at those topics most urgent on policy agendas. Research on health

  3. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  4. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  5. Mapping Rwanda public health research(1975-2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research on public health in Rwanda ... formed analyses on journals, most cited articles, authors, publication years, ... One of the major areas is public health. In fact, public health represented the needs ... In the advanced ... searches to get the main relevant topics.

  6. The state of the research for health environment in the ministries of health of the Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Konaté, Blahima; Somé, Télesphore D; Kambou, Stanislas Sansan

    2013-09-11

    An assessment of the state of the Research for Health (R4H) environment can provide relevant information about what aspects of national health research systems needs strengthening, so that research output can be relevant to meet national priorities for decision-making. There is limited information on the state of the R4H environment in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). This article describes the state of the R4H environment within the Ministries of Health of the ECOWAS member states and outlines of some possibilities to strengthen health research activities within the ECOWAS region. Information on the national-level R4H environment (governance and management; existence of a national policy; strategic and research priorities documents; ethics committees; research funds; coordination structures; monitoring and evaluation systems; networking and capacity building opportunities) was collected from the Ministries of Health research units in 14 ECOWAS countries using self-administered questionnaires. A workshop was held where country report presentations and group discussions were used to review and validate responses. Data from the discussions was transcribed using Nvivo, and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of the functioning of the units was done using Robert Preziosi's organisational diagnosis tool. The findings indicate that as of January 2011, 50% of ECOWAS countries had established directorates for health research with defined terms of reference. The existing funding mechanisms were inadequate to support the research structures within and outside the MoHs, and for building the capacity of researchers. Networking and monitoring activities were weak and only 7% of the directors of research units were trained in research management. The majority (85.7%) of countries had broader national health policies, and 57% of the countries had some form of policy or strategic document for research development. Half of the

  7. Developing a critical media research agenda for health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2006-03-01

    This article outlines reasons why psychologists should concern themselves with media processes, noting how media are central to contemporary life and heavily implicated in the construction of shared understandings of health. We contend that the present research focus is substantially medicalized, privileging the investigation and framing of certain topics, such as the portrayal of health professionals, medical practices, specific diseases and lifestyle-orientated interventions, and restricting attention to social determinants of health as appropriate topics for investigation. We propose an extended agenda for media health research to include structural health concerns, such as crime, poverty, homelessness and housing and social capital.

  8. Inequalities in global health inequalities research: A 50-year bibliometric analysis (1966-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericàs, Juan M.; Benach, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence shows that health inequalities exist between and within countries, and emphasis has been placed on strengthening the production and use of the global health inequalities research, so as to improve capacities to act. Yet, a comprehensive overview of this evidence base is still needed, to determine what is known about the global and historical scientific production on health inequalities to date, how is it distributed in terms of country income groups and world regions, how has it changed over time, and what international collaboration dynamics exist. Methods A comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the global scientific production on health inequalities, from 1966 to 2015, was conducted using Scopus database. The historical and global evolution of the study of health inequalities was considered, and through joinpoint regression analysis and visualisation network maps, the preceding questions were examined. Findings 159 countries (via authorship affiliation) contributed to this scientific production, three times as many countries than previously found. Scientific output on health inequalities has exponentially grown over the last five decades, with several marked shift points, and a visible country-income group affiliation gradient in the initiation and consistent publication frequency. Higher income countries, especially Anglo-Saxon and European countries, disproportionately dominate first and co-authorship, and are at the core of the global collaborative research networks, with the Global South on the periphery. However, several country anomalies exist that suggest that the causes of these research inequalities, and potential underlying dependencies, run deeper than simply differences in country income and language. Conclusions Whilst the global evidence base has expanded, Global North-South research gaps exist, persist and, in some cases, are widening. Greater understanding of the structural determinants of these research

  9. Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the

  10. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  11. Research culture in a regional allied health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Research evidence is required to guide best practice, inform policy and improve the health of communities. Current indicators consider allied health research culture to be low. This study aimed to measure the allied health research culture and capacity in a Victorian regional health service. The Research Capacity and Culture tool was used to evaluate research capacity and culture across individual, team and organisation domains. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between allied health professions, whereas responses to open-ended questions were themed using open coding. One hundred thirty-six allied health professionals completed the survey. There were statistically significant differences in the organisation domain between social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions; in the team domain, between social work and all other professions. Motivators for conducting research included providing a high-quality service, developing skills and increasing job satisfaction. Barriers included other work roles taking priority, a lack of time and limited research skills. Multi-layered strategies including establishing conjoint research positions are recommended to increase allied health research culture in this regional area.

  12. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-08-24

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  13. Integration of clinical research documentation in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Debra

    2015-04-01

    Clinical trials of investigational drugs and devices are often conducted within healthcare facilities concurrently with clinical care. With implementation of electronic health records, new communication methods are required to notify nonresearch clinicians of research participation. This article reviews clinical research source documentation, the electronic health record and the medical record, areas in which the research record and electronic health record overlap, and implications for the research nurse coordinator in documentation of the care of the patient/subject. Incorporation of clinical research documentation in the electronic health record will lead to a more complete patient/subject medical record in compliance with both research and medical records regulations. A literature search provided little information about the inclusion of clinical research documentation within the electronic health record. Although regulations and guidelines define both source documentation and the medical record, integration of research documentation in the electronic health record is not clearly defined. At minimum, the signed informed consent(s), investigational drug or device usage, and research team contact information should be documented within the electronic health record. Institutional policies should define a standardized process for this integration in the absence federal guidance. Nurses coordinating clinical trials are in an ideal position to define this integration.

  14. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  15. The evolving role of health care organizations in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, W C; Piland, N F; Smith, H L

    1988-01-01

    Many hospitals and health care organizations are contending with fierce financial and competitive pressures. Consequently, programs that do not make an immediate contribution to master strategy are often overlooked in the strategic management process. Research programs are a case in point. Basic science, clinical, and health services research programs may help to create a comprehensive and fundamentally sound master strategy. This article discusses the evolving role of health care organizations in research relative to strategy formulation. The primary costs and benefits from participating in research programs are examined. An agenda of questions is presented to help health care organizations determine whether they should incorporate health-related research as a key element in their strategy.

  16. Text-mining analysis of mHealth research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengul, Ferhat; Oner, Nurettin; Delen, Dursun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, because of the advancements in communication and networking technologies, mobile technologies have been developing at an unprecedented rate. mHealth, the use of mobile technologies in medicine, and the related research has also surged parallel to these technological advancements. Although there have been several attempts to review mHealth research through manual processes such as systematic reviews, the sheer magnitude of the number of studies published in recent years makes this task very challenging. The most recent developments in machine learning and text mining offer some potential solutions to address this challenge by allowing analyses of large volumes of texts through semi-automated processes. The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of mHealth research by utilizing text-mining and natural language processing (NLP) analyses. The study sample included abstracts of 5,644 mHealth research articles, which were gathered from five academic search engines by using search terms such as mobile health, and mHealth. The analysis used the Text Explorer module of JMP Pro 13 and an iterative semi-automated process involving tokenizing, phrasing, and terming. After developing the document term matrix (DTM) analyses such as single value decomposition (SVD), topic, and hierarchical document clustering were performed, along with the topic-informed document clustering approach. The results were presented in the form of word-clouds and trend analyses. There were several major findings regarding research clusters and trends. First, our results confirmed time-dependent nature of terminology use in mHealth research. For example, in earlier versus recent years the use of terminology changed from “mobile phone” to “smartphone” and from “applications” to “apps”. Second, ten clusters for mHealth research were identified including (I) Clinical Research on Lifestyle Management, (II) Community Health, (III) Literature Review, (IV) Medical

  17. Text-mining analysis of mHealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Bunyamin; Zengul, Ferhat; Oner, Nurettin; Delen, Dursun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, because of the advancements in communication and networking technologies, mobile technologies have been developing at an unprecedented rate. mHealth, the use of mobile technologies in medicine, and the related research has also surged parallel to these technological advancements. Although there have been several attempts to review mHealth research through manual processes such as systematic reviews, the sheer magnitude of the number of studies published in recent years makes this task very challenging. The most recent developments in machine learning and text mining offer some potential solutions to address this challenge by allowing analyses of large volumes of texts through semi-automated processes. The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of mHealth research by utilizing text-mining and natural language processing (NLP) analyses. The study sample included abstracts of 5,644 mHealth research articles, which were gathered from five academic search engines by using search terms such as mobile health, and mHealth. The analysis used the Text Explorer module of JMP Pro 13 and an iterative semi-automated process involving tokenizing, phrasing, and terming. After developing the document term matrix (DTM) analyses such as single value decomposition (SVD), topic, and hierarchical document clustering were performed, along with the topic-informed document clustering approach. The results were presented in the form of word-clouds and trend analyses. There were several major findings regarding research clusters and trends. First, our results confirmed time-dependent nature of terminology use in mHealth research. For example, in earlier versus recent years the use of terminology changed from "mobile phone" to "smartphone" and from "applications" to "apps". Second, ten clusters for mHealth research were identified including (I) Clinical Research on Lifestyle Management, (II) Community Health, (III) Literature Review, (IV) Medical Interventions

  18. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thielke, Stephen; Thompson,; Stuart,

    2011-01-01

    Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, ...

  19. The role of NGOs in global health research for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lori

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health research is essential for development. A major issue is the inequitable distribution of research efforts and funds directed towards populations suffering the world's greatest health problems. This imbalance is fostering major attempts at redirecting research to the health problems of low and middle income countries. Following the creation of the Coalition for Global Health Research – Canada (CGHRC in 2001, the Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH decided to review the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in global health research. This paper highlights some of the prevalent thinking and is intended to encourage new thinking on how NGOs can further this role. Approach This paper was prepared by members of the Research Committee of the CSIH, with input from other members of the Society. Persons working in various international NGOs participated in individual interviews or group discussions on their involvement in different types of research activities. Case studies illustrate the roles of NGOs in global health research, their perceived strengths and weaknesses, and the constraints and opportunities to build capacity and develop partnerships for research. Highlights NGOs are contributing at all stages of the research cycle, fostering the relevance and effectiveness of the research, priority setting, and knowledge translation to action. They have a key role in stewardship (promoting and advocating for relevant global health research, resource mobilization for research, the generation, utilization and management of knowledge, and capacity development. Yet, typically, the involvement of NGOs in research is downstream from knowledge production and it usually takes the form of a partnership with universities or dedicated research agencies. Conclusion There is a need to more effectively include NGOs in all aspects of health research in order to maximize the potential benefits of research. NGOs

  20. Training physician investigators in medicine and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Marc N; Jay, Melanie R; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Foltin, George L; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows' mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health-related research or practice (9/12). A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health.

  1. A theoretical framework to support research of health service innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amanda; Gardner, Glenn; Osborne, Sonya

    2015-02-01

    Health service managers and policy makers are increasingly concerned about the sustainability of innovations implemented in health care settings. The increasing demand on health services requires that innovations are both effective and sustainable; however, research in this field is limited, with multiple disciplines, approaches and paradigms influencing the field. These variations prevent a cohesive approach, and therefore the accumulation of research findings, in the development of a body of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough examination of the research findings and provide an appropriate theoretical framework to examine sustainability of health service innovation. This paper presents an integrative review of the literature available in relation to sustainability of health service innovation and provides the development of a theoretical framework based on integration and synthesis of the literature. A theoretical framework serves to guide research, determine variables, influence data analysis and is central to the quest for ongoing knowledge development. This research outlines the sustainability of innovation framework; a theoretical framework suitable for examining the sustainability of health service innovation. If left unaddressed, health services research will continue in an ad hoc manner, preventing full utilisation of outcomes, recommendations and knowledge for effective provision of health services. The sustainability of innovation theoretical framework provides an operational basis upon which reliable future research can be conducted.

  2. Health Services Research for Drug and Alcohol Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.

  3. Community Based Research Network: Opportunities for Coordination of Care, Public Health Surveillance, and Farmworker Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Sharon P.; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M.; Ryder, E. Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; del Junco, Deborah J.; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extrac...

  4. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 déc. 2014 ... For example, when staff at TARSC asked people in participatory ... The reader includes several examples of successful participatory action research. ... au forum « Think Big: Women in Business » à Delhi, le 9 octobre 2015.

  5. Health and social research in multiethnic societies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazroo, James Y

    2006-01-01

    ... in Multiethnic Societies provides essential and clear guidance on appropriate methods. Topics covered include: * * * * * * approaches to conceptualising ethnicity and understanding the context of ethnicity in modern societies ethical issues and the political context within which conducted how researchers could engage with communities and with service u...

  6. Stem Cell Research and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

  7. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... that impact food systems and promote healthy and sustainable diets. ... communication material; participating in project development, ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  8. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  9. Research Journal of Health Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His principal research interests include knowledge transfer and exchange in public policy-making environments and the politics of healthcare systems. Lavis wrote the report that ... and new members of the Board of Governors. IDRC's Board of Governors congratulates Jean Lebel on his appointment as President and CEO.

  11. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.; Blomstedt, Y.; Eriksson, M.; Becher, H.; Ramroth, H.; Kinsman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health equity is a global policy priority. To support this policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of

  12. Why Health Care Needs Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today's pediatric health care lacks methods to tap into the emotional state of hospitalized pediatric patients (age 4-6 years). The most frequently used approaches were developed for adults and fail to acknowledge the importance of imaginary experiences and the notion of play that may appeal...... of the preliminary tests show that games could serve as a system in which children are willing to express their emotions through play. The results are based on two comparative analyses of the CPgame through which it is possible to identify three different types of players among the patients playing the game...

  13. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  14. Ten steps to conducting health professional education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-08-01

    The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Diet-Related eHealth and mHealth Research: Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Maher, Carol A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Hingle, Melanie; Middelweerd, Anouk; Lopez, Michael L; DeSmet, Ann; Short, Camille E; Nathan, Nicole; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Poppe, Louise; Woods, Catherine B; Williams, Susan L; Wark, Petra A

    2018-04-18

    Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) approaches to address low physical activity levels, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy diets have received significant research attention. However, attempts to systematically map the entirety of the research field are lacking. This gap can be filled with a bibliometric study, where publication-specific data such as citations, journals, authors, and keywords are used to provide a systematic overview of a specific field. Such analyses will help researchers better position their work. The objective of this review was to use bibliometric data to provide an overview of the eHealth and mHealth research field related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet. The Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection was searched to retrieve all existing and highly cited (as defined by WoS) physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet related eHealth and mHealth research papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2016. Retrieved titles were screened for eligibility, using the abstract and full-text where needed. We described publication trends over time, which included journals, authors, and countries of eligible papers, as well as their keywords and subject categories. Citations of eligible papers were compared with those expected based on published data. Additionally, we described highly-cited papers of the field (ie, top ranked 1%). The search identified 4805 hits, of which 1712 (including 42 highly-cited papers) were included in the analyses. Publication output increased on an average of 26% per year since 2000, with 49.00% (839/1712) of papers being published between 2014 and 2016. Overall and throughout the years, eHealth and mHealth papers related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet received more citations than expected compared with papers in the same WoS subject categories. The Journal of Medical Internet Research published most papers in the field (9.58%, 164/1712). Most

  17. Identifying research priorities for public health research to address health inequalities: use of Delphi-like survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ollerhead, E; Cook, A

    2017-10-09

    In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise. This study investigated the use of Delphi-like survey methods in identifying important research priorities relating to health inequalities and framing tractable research questions for topic areas identified. The study was conducted in two phases, both using Delphi-like survey methods. Firstly, public health professionals with an interest in health inequalities were asked to identify research priorities. Secondly academic researchers were asked to frame tractable research questions relating to the priorities identified. These research priorities identified using Delphi-like survey methods were subsequently compared to those identified using different methods. A total of 52 public health professionals and 21 academics across the United Kingdom agreed to take part. The response rates were high, from public health professionals across three survey rounds (69%, 50% and 40%) and from academics across one round (52%), indicating that participants were receptive to the method and motivated to respond. The themes identified as encompassing the most important research priorities were mental health, healthy environment and health behaviours. Within these themes, the topic areas that emerged most strongly included community interventions for prevention of mental health problems and the food and alcohol environment. Some responses received from academic researchers were (as requested) in the form of tractable research questions, whereas others

  18. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  19. Anthropology in Agricultural Health and Safety Research and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dangerous industry, even as agricultural science and technology continue to advance. Research that goes beyond technological changes to address safety culture and policy are needed to improve health and safety in agriculture. In this commentary, I consider the potential for anthropology to contribute to agricultural health and safety research by addressing three aims: (1) I briefly consider what the articles in this issue of the Journal of Agromedicine say about anthropologists in agricultural health and safety; (2) I discuss what anthropologists can add to agricultural health and safety research; and (3) I examine ways in which anthropologists can participate in agricultural health and safety research. In using their traditions of rigorous field research to understand how those working in agriculture perceive and interpret factors affecting occupational health and safety (their "emic" perspective), and translating this perspective to improve the understanding of occupational health professionals and policy makers (an "etic" perspective), anthropologists can expose myths that limit improvements in agricultural health and safety. Addressing significant questions, working with the most vulnerable agricultural communities, and being outside establishment agriculture provide anthropologists with the opportunity to improve health and safety policy and regulation in agriculture.

  20. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    experts were involved in the priority setting process. RESULTS: Twenty priorities for public mental health research were identified through the consensus process. The research priorities were divided into summary principles-encompassing overall recommendations for future public mental health research...... field. METHODS: Experts were invited to compile and discuss research priorities in a series of topic-based scientific workshops. In addition, a Delphi process was carried out to reach consensus on the list of research priorities and their rank order. Three web-based surveys were conducted. Nearly 60...... in Europe-and thematic research priorities, including area-specific top priorities on research topics and methods. The priorities represent three overarching goals mirroring societal challenges, that is, to identify causes, risk and protective factors for mental health across the lifespan; to advance...

  1. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  2. Australian Rotary Health: a major contributor to mental illness research and mental health awareness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy

    2012-08-01

    Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.

  3. Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alaska Native (AN and American Indian (AI people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF, an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of health services for AN/AI people in south central Alaska and transformed the health system into a relationship-based model of care. This change reimagines how researchers interact with tribal communities and established community oversight of all health research conducted with AN/AI people in the region. We describe the SCF research review process, which requires tribal approval of the research concept, full proposal, and dissemination products, as well as local institutional review board approval, and a researcher-signed contract. This review evaluates research through the lens of tribal principles, practices, and priorities. The SCF example provides a framework for other tribes and organizations seeking to reshape the future of health research in AN/AI communities.

  4. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielke S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation

  5. Results of the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) National Research Capacity Survey of Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Li, Vivian; Gillespie, Suzanne; Laws, Reesa; Massimino, Stefan; Nelson, Christine; Singal, Robbie; Wagaw, Fikirte; Jester, Michelle; Weir, Rosy Chang

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) is to build capacity to carry out Patient-Centered Outcomes Research at community health centers (CHCs), with the ultimate goal to improve health care for vulnerable populations. The CHARN Needs Assessment Staff Survey investigates CHCs' involvement in research, as well as their need for research training and resources. Results will be used to guide future training. The survey was developed and implemented in partnership with CHARN CHCs. Data were collected across CHARN CHCs. Data analysis and reports were conducted by the CHARN data coordinating center (DCC). Survey results highlighted gaps in staff research training, and these gaps varied by staff role. There is considerable variation in research involvement, partnerships, and focus both within and across CHCs. Development of training programs to increase research capacity should be tailored to address the specific needs and roles of staff involved in research.

  6. Influence of qualitative research on women's health screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2014-01-01

    Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  8. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa. African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be ...

  9. Imagining roles for epigenetics in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Koehly, Laura M

    2017-04-01

    Discoveries from the Human Genome Project have invigorated discussions of epigenetic effects-modifiable chemical processes that influence DNA's ability to give instructions to turn gene expression on or off-on health outcomes. We suggest three domains in which new understandings of epigenetics could inform innovations in health promotion research: (1) increase the motivational potency of health communications (e.g., explaining individual differences in health outcomes to interrupt optimistic biases about health exposures); (2) illuminate new approaches to targeted and tailored health promotion interventions (e.g., relapse prevention targeted to epigenetic responses to intervention participation); and (3) inform more sensitive measures of intervention impact, (e.g., replace or augment self-reported adherence). We suggest a three-step process for using epigenetics in health promotion research that emphasizes integrating epigenetic mechanisms into conceptual model development that then informs selection of intervention approaches and outcomes. Lastly, we pose examples of relevant scientific questions worth exploring.

  10. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  11. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  12. European military mental health research: benefits of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Willmund, G D; Wesemann, U; Jones, N; Fear, N T

    2017-06-01

    Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel. This could include the study of resilience factors, the prevention of mental disorder, mental health awareness, stigma reduction and the treatment of mental disorder. Military mental health research topics, interests and the studies that have been conducted to date in the UK and Germany have considerable overlap and commonality of purpose. To undertake the investigation of the long-term consequences of operational deployment, the specific burdens placed on military families and to further the understanding of the role of factors such as biomarkers for use in military mental health research, it seems advisable to forge international research alliances across European nations, which would allow for researchers to draw transcultural and generalisable conclusions from their work. Such an enterprise is probably worthwhile given the shared research interests of Germany and the UK and the common perspectives on military mental health in particular. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of public health research in Africa: The overall trend and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.

  14. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  15. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Reinaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR. In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good

  16. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  17. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  18. Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a concise but comprehensive review of research on religion/spirituality (R/S) and both mental health and physical health. It is based on a systematic review of original data-based quantitative research published in peer-reviewed journals between 1872 and 2010, including a few seminal articles published since 2010. First, I provide a brief historical background to set the stage. Then I review research on R/S and mental health, examining relationships with both positive and negative mental health outcomes, where positive outcomes include well-being, happiness, hope, optimism, and gratefulness, and negative outcomes involve depression, suicide, anxiety, psychosis, substance abuse, delinquency/crime, marital instability, and personality traits (positive and negative). I then explain how and why R/S might influence mental health. Next, I review research on R/S and health behaviors such as physical activity, cigarette smoking, diet, and sexual practices, followed by a review of relationships between R/S and heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, immune functions, endocrine functions, cancer, overall mortality, physical disability, pain, and somatic symptoms. I then present a theoretical model explaining how R/S might influence physical health. Finally, I discuss what health professionals should do in light of these research findings and make recommendations in this regard. PMID:23762764

  19. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Stroud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC (www.onehealthcommission.org/ and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/ and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results: A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions: It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities.

  20. Ethical considerations in sexual health research: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an assumption that sexual health research has great influence on the quality of human life through elevating sexual health standards, and their results will eliminate the burden of sexual health challenges on family relationships. The aim of this study was to review ethical considerations in sexual health research. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted between January 1990 and December 2017 based on the five-step approach of York University. The keywords used to search for the studies included ethical issues, research, sexual health, reproductive health, and sensitive topics. The language of the literatures was English and the search process was performed on PubMed, Elsevier, Ovid, Springer, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, SAGE Publishing, ProQuest, WHO website, Kinsey Confidential, and Worldsexology. Results: After assessing the quality and eligibility of 94 articles, 13 were selected. The results of the present study showed that the most important ethical considerations were protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants, obtaining informed consent, and paying attention to vulnerable people. Conclusions: The review of literature exhibited several considerations that sexual health researchers are faced with. In order to manage these considerations, the researcher should have sufficient understanding of them. The important matter is that strategies to manage these challenges should be completely rational and practical according to each context. These strategies can also be applied in other societies with great similarities in their context.

  1. Data Resources for Conducting Health Services and Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Lynn A; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Hest, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Rich federal data resources provide essential data inputs for monitoring the health and health care of the US population and are essential for conducting health services policy research. The six household surveys we document in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP). New federal activities are linking federal surveys with administrative data to reduce duplication and response burden. In the private sector, vendors are aggregating data from medical records and claims to enhance our understanding of treatment, quality, and outcomes of medical care. Federal agencies must continue to innovate to meet the continuous challenges of scarce resources, pressures for more granular data, and new multimode data collection methodologies.

  2. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  3. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  4. [The SGO Health Research Promotion Program. XIII. Evaluation of the section 'Addiction Research'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees-Wortelboer, M M

    1999-01-02

    As a part of the SGO Health Research Promotion Programme a research programme on addiction research was realized. Aim of the programme was to strengthen and concentrate the Dutch research into addiction. Within the Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), a structural collaboration between the Jellinek Treatment Centre for Addiction, the University of Amsterdam and the Academic Hospital of the University of Amsterdam, strategic research programmes were developed on the borderland of addiction and psychiatry, notably 'Clinical epidemiology addiction' and 'Developmental disorders, addiction and psychotraumas'. The institution of a co-ordinating platform of research groups conducting socio-epidemiological addiction research improved the co-ordination of research lines in this field.

  5. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  6. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  7. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Navigating the ethics of cross-cultural health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haintz, Greer Lamaro; Graham, Melissa; McKenzie, Hayley

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC. This poses a challenge for health promotion researchers who must negotiate between meeting both the requirements of the HREC and the needs of the community with whom the research is being conducted. Drawing on two case studies, this paper discusses examples from cross-cultural health promotion research in Australian and international settings where disconnect arose and negotiation was required to appropriately meet the needs of all parties. The examples relate to issues of participant recruitment and informed consent, participants under the Australian legal age of consent, participant withdrawal when this seemingly occurs in an ad hoc rather than a formal manner and reciprocity. Although these approaches are context specific, they highlight issues for consideration to advance more culturally appropriate practice in research ethics and suggest ways a stronger anthropological lens can be applied to research ethics to overcome these challenges.

  9. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Celeste; Lyons, Renée F; Warner, Grace; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Martens, Patricia J; Labonté, Ronald; Brown, Richard E

    2010-10-20

    Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use?In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. COR theory contributes to understanding the role of resources in research use, resistance to

  10. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobfoll Stevan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to

  11. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African Schools of Public Health: strengthening human and financial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371

  12. The 2016 CIOMS guidelines and public-health research ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving ... mention of public health in relation to social value. • The new guideline 7, .... reports, can be obtained from conventional media sources such as.

  13. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Submissions ... can be found on the journal's own website here http://www.amhsr.org/contributors.asp ... The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right ...

  14. Health and safety at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1982-04-01

    This report outlines the health and safety program at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. It describes the procedures in place to ensure that a high standard of conventional industrial and radiation safety is maintained in the workplace

  15. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little ... It is coordinating and strengthening two existing research networks: the ... and the impact of war and the regional governance crisis on public health.

  16. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009) ... Psychosocial characteristics of patients admitted to a drug rehabilitation unit in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia acidissima linn ...

  17. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  18. Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S

    2017-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.

  19. Mother and Child Health International Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...

  20. Participatory action research in the training of primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory action research in the training of primary health care nurses in Venda. ... who had been part of the nurse training programme with clinic attenders. ... enough access to financial decision making and were therefore powerless to ...

  1. Health | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    choice disabled" — vulnerable ... of paid and unpaid work on the mental health of Chilean workers, paying particular attention to gender issues. ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  2. Research Shows Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at EPA and colleagues at NC State University, the University of Sydney and the University of Tasmania are advancing the science of understanding the public health burden associated with wildland fires.

  3. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy population is seen as an important precondition for economic growth and competitiveness. Research into environmental health is therefore concerned with understanding the exposure and magnitude of impact on humans from environmental hazards...

  4. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  5. [Hospital biomedical research through the satisfaction of a Health Research Institute professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R

    2015-01-01

    A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  7. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  8. Oral Health Research and Scholarship in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverini, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 6 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides an overview of five background articles that address the role of research and scholarship in dental education in the year 2040. Beginning with a historical account of research and discovery science in dentistry's evolution as a profession, the article then reviews the role of early thought leaders and organized dentistry in establishing research as a cornerstone of dental education and dental practice. The dental research workforce faces an uncertain future fueled by a volatile funding environment and inadequate mentoring and training of research faculty. Dental schools must forge stronger academic and scientific ties to their university and academic health centers and will be challenged to develop sustainable research and patient care collaborations with other health professions. The changing health care environment will create new opportunities for oral health care providers to expand their scope of practice and focus on prevention and screening for non-communicable chronic diseases. Dental practitioners in the future are likely to place greater emphasis on managing the overall health of their patients while promoting closer integration with other health professionals. All dental schools must develop a sustainable research mission if they hope to graduate dentists who function effectively in a collaborative health care environment. The changing scientific and health care landscape will dramatically alter dental education and dental practice. Dental schools need to reconsider their research and educational priorities and clinical practice objectives. Until dental schools and the practicing community come to grips with these challenges, a persistent attitude of complacency will likely be at the dental profession's peril.

  9. Comments on Navarro's review of Health services research: an anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K L

    1993-01-01

    In preparing Health Services Research: An Anthology, the editors attempted to broaden the definition of health services research promulgated by the National Library of Medicine. Many articles in the Anthology focused on stemming the avalanche of medicine's unevaluated procedures and prescribing practices, and on broadening the horizons of the medical establishment. Another anthology is clearly needed to address Virchow's dictum that medicine is politics writ large.

  10. Health Behaviour Change Support Systems: Past Research and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mettler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of mobile devices and social technologies has opened up new possibilities for health promotion and disease prevention. By means of emotional stimuli, motivation, and persuasion health behaviour change support systems (HBCSS) aim at influencing users to improve their health and wellbeing. This article presents the results of a bibliometric analysis related to the existing HBCSS body of knowledge. A total of 51 research studies were analysed with a look at their topical and theore...

  11. Concepts of social epidemiology in health services research

    OpenAIRE

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Social epidemiologists aim to identify social characteristics that affect the pattern of disease and health distribution in a society and to understand its mechanisms. Some important concepts of social epidemiology are: social inequalities, social relationships, social capital, and work stress. Discussion Concepts used in social epidemiology can make a useful contribution to health services research because the underlying social factors do not only influence health but are also rel...

  12. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J; Aw, T; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia.
METHODS—Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked i...

  13. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  14. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  15. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  16. structured operational research and training in the public health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-01

    Oct 1, 2016 ... PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR: THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE. Operational research is becoming an increasingly valuable tool to health programmes seeking to ... Odense, Denmark) or EpiInfo (4), and the third and last workshop focuses on manuscript writing and submission to an open access peer reviewed.

  17. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  18. Health Care Communication: A Problematic Site for Applied Linguistics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlin, Christopher N.; Candlin, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Addresses how applied linguists and those concerned with discourse analysis in particular have recently approached the study of health care communication, especially in intercultural contexts, and relates these approaches to studies undertaken by researchers in other academic disciplines, such as the sociology of medicine and by health care…

  19. Challenges and opportunities in building health research capacity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity building is considered a priority for health research institutions in developing countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. However, in many countries including Tanzania, much emphasis has been directed towards human resources for health with the total exclusion of human resources for ...

  20. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-12-11

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health.