WorldWideScience

Sample records for health questions timing

  1. Automatically classifying question types for consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification.

  2. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  3. Automatically classifying question types for consumer health questions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources...

  4. Questions and answers in health care and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2017-09-26

    Questions and answers are integral to the practice of health professionals and their education. Health professionals are taught to ask questions and we expect that patients will answer them. We may also invite patients to ask questions without considering that this may be difficult due to many factors including professional hierarchies. Choosing Wisely is a global initiative that frames questions for patients to ask in relation to tests and treatments. The same concept has been applied to health professional education with students and trainees also being encouraged to question their seniors about their choice of investigations and management. Now is the time for learners to also question how they are educated for their health profession. Their education should be evidence-guided and not solely informed by tradition. Asking and answering questions with respect and honesty is likely to enhance partnerships across the continuum of health and education.

  5. Question Prompt Lists in health consultations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Janet E; Grootemaat, Pam; Duncan, Cathy

    2015-06-03

    This review examines the use and effectiveness of Question Prompt Lists (QPL) as communication aids to enhance patient question asking, information provision to patients and patient participation in health and medical consultations. A systematic search was undertaken to identify relevant literature concerning QPLs including academic databases, Google-based and snowball searching. Forty-two relevant studies reporting 50 interventions were identified. Although findings varied there was some evidence that a QPL endorsed by the physician increased total question asking. Using a QPL increased question asking concerning specific content areas (e.g. prognosis). There was some evidence that physicians provided more information during consultations. There were no consistent findings concerning effects on patient knowledge recall, anxiety and satisfaction or consultation time. Some interventions that increased question asking had longer consultation times. There is evidence that an appropriate QPL, endorsed by the physician and provided immediately before the consultation, may increase patient question asking and lead to more information being provided by the physician. There is increasing evidence to support QPL use in routine practice. Further trials might address the issues identified including an assessment of QPL optimal length and QPL adaptation for cultural and special needs groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groups Health and Wellness Outreach Materials Posters Safety Gun Safety Medication Safety Reproductive Health Healthy Pregnancy Preconception ... where specific authority is given to VA by law. Contact your nearest VA health care facility (found ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Personal Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sign an acknowledgement that you received the notice. The law does NOT say you HAVE to sign it, ... my health information be shared without my consent? The law says that anyone can see your health record ...

  8. Neuro-oncology family caregivers' view on keeping track of care issues using eHealth systems: it's a question of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boele, Florien W; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Hilverda, Karen; Weimer, Jason; Donovan, Heidi S; Drappatz, Jan; Lieberman, Frank S; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma; Sherwood, Paula R

    2017-08-01

    Primary brain tumors (PBTs) are rare but have a great impact on both patient and family caregiver wellbeing. Supporting caregivers can help them to continue their caregiving activities to maintain the patients' best possible level of quality of life. Efforts to improve PBT caregiver wellbeing should take into account country- or culture-specific differences in care issues and supportive care needs to serve larger caregiver groups. We aimed to explore PBT caregivers' satisfaction with the current supportive care provision, as well as their thoughts on monitoring their care issues with both paper-based and digital instruments. Twelve PBT caregivers were interviewed in the United States. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two coders independently. Data were combined with those collected in the Netherlands, following similar methodology (N = 15). We found that PBT caregivers utilize both formal and informal support services, but that those who experience more care issues would prefer more support, particularly in the early disease phase. Keeping track of care issues was thought to provide more insight into unmet needs and help them find professional help, but it requires investment of time and takes discipline. Caregivers preferred a brief and easy-to-use 'blended care' instrument that combines digital monitoring with personal feedback. The present study shows that the preferences of family caregivers in neuro-oncology toward keeping track of care issues are likely not heavily influenced by country- or culture-specific differences. The development of any instrument thus has the potential to benefit a large group of family caregivers.

  9. An Ensemble Method for Spelling Correction in Consumer Health Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic and grammatical errors are a common feature of informal texts written by lay people. Health-related questions asked by consumers are a case in point. Automatic interpretation of consumer health questions is hampered by such errors. In this paper, we propose a method that combines techniques based on edit distance and frequency counts with a contextual similarity-based method for detecting and correcting orthographic errors, including misspellings, word breaks, and punctuation errors. We evaluate our method on a set of spell-corrected questions extracted from the NLM collection of consumer health questions. Our method achieves a F1 score of 0.61, compared to an informed baseline of 0.29, achieved using ESpell, a spelling correction system developed for biomedical queries. Our results show that orthographic similarity is most relevant in spelling error correction in consumer health questions and that frequency and contextual information are complementary to orthographic features.

  10. Commentary: answers and questions in the sociology of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneshensel, Carol S

    2002-06-01

    This commentary speaks to several issues that arise from the papers in this special issue. Two articles--Kessler (2002) and Mirowsky and Ross (2002)--focus on a major measurement issue: dimensional versus diagnostic-type assessments. One topic requires greater attention: the correspondence of these measures with the underlying states they supposedly measure--constructs in the psychometric tradition and empirically defined illnesses in the medical or psychiatric tradition. Conclusions about the nature of these unobserved states remain tentative at this time. Three articles--Keyes (2002), Schwartz (2002), and Umberson, Williams, and Anderson (2002)--address the expansion of mental health outcomes. The existing reliance on emotional distress is problematic for sociological research because a single disorder is not a good proxy for estimates of the overall mental health consequences of social arrangements. Although these papers present diverse and sometimes conflicting perspectives, collectively they demonstrate that no one approach to outcomes is best for all research questions.

  11. Time Advice and Learning Questions in Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Students (N = 101) used an introductory text and a computer simulation to learn fundamental concepts about statistical analyses (e.g., analysis of variance, regression analysis and General Linear Model). Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without time advice) x 3 (with learning questions and corrective feedback, with…

  12. Liturgical pharmacology: Time of the question, complexity and ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernard Stiegler depicts technics as the human's tertiary memory retention generating a pharmakon with both curative and malignant potential. He additionally rues the posthuman epoch's depletion of a 'time of the question': revealed in the prevalent inaptitude for wisdom – scilicet long-term acuity. We offer Christian liturgy ...

  13. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Smith. Abortion in Botswana. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2013; 17(4):26. REVIEW ARTICLE. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in ..... 2009;35:114-121. 31. UN. Botswana: Abortion Policy. [2011 Nov 19] Available from www.un.org/. 32. Benson J. Evaluating abortion-care programs: Old.

  14. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  15. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  16. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...

  17. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  18. Men's health in question: seeking assistance in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Moura de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic profile, morbidity and frequency of seeking of adult men enrolled in a Family Doctor Program for health care in Niterói in the State of Rio de Janeiro. It is a cross-sectional study using secondary data, files and records of the first care visit in November 2003 through August 2009. The frequencies of the variables studied and the prevalence rates among those who sought and those who did not seek attention were calculated. Among the 323 men registered, 56% sought attendance. The main reason given for the first visit was a routine appointment. It was observed that 43 men were overweight, 26 were obese and 44 had abnormal blood pressure. The profile of the men who sought and those who did not seek care presented statistically significant differences (p

  19. Relativistic reference frames including time scales - Questions and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffel, M. H.; Brumberg, V. A.

    1991-12-01

    The subject of relativistic reference frames in astronomy is discussed with respect to the problems and needs of the various user groups. For didactical reasons the discussion is presented in the form of a sequence of questions and answers.

  20. Two questions from the time of king Bodin's rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Tibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to give reliable answer upon two major questions: did Bodin, king of Dioclea, capture Dyrrachion in 1085, as it is related in the Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea, and when did he try to capture Dubrovnik (Ragusa. The capture of Dyrrachion is not mentioned at Ane Comnene's Alexias. Byzantine princess wrote that citizens of Dyrrachion surrender the town to her father, the Emperor Alexios, after the death of the Norman ruler Robert Guiscard in 1085. On the other hand, the Priest of Dioclea says that Bodin, after the death of Robert Guiscard captured Dyrrachion which he gave back to the Byzantines after he signed the peace treaty with the Emperor. Both statements are not clear enough, but detailed analysis of both writings shows that Bodin took northern part of the theme of Dyrrachion and most probably tried to negotiate surrender of town itself, but he failed. Bodin's military activities against the Byzantine possessions in the theme of Dyrrachion could be placed between 1085 and 1090 when he was captured, being forced to sign peace treaty. The charter of antipope Clement III issued in 1089 to the archbishop of Antibaris, contain list of bishops which served in Dioclea, and only one of them - the bishop of Dulcigno (Ulcinj, had been earlier under the archbishop of Dyrrachion. In other words, Bodin took a very small part of the theme of Dyrrachion and southern borders of Dioclea were approximately the same as in the time of his father Michael. The description of the siege of Dubrovnik is well preserved in Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea as well by several other authors from Dubrovnik. The authors from Dubrovnik, which composed their Chronicles much later (from XIV to XVII century, made mistake in the chronology, assuming that the siege took place in 1104. Having at their disposal an old note, that Bodin's tower, which stood on the shores just opposite the wooden bridge which lead from Dubrovnik to the land, was captured on

  1. Ethical questions must be considered for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Arnold, Michael V; Pearce, Christopher M; Fry, Craig

    2012-09-01

    National electronic health record initiatives are in progress in many countries around the world but the debate about the ethical issues and how they are to be addressed remains overshadowed by other issues. The discourse to which all others are answerable is a technical discourse, even where matters of privacy and consent are concerned. Yet a focus on technical issues and a failure to think about ethics are cited as factors in the failure of the UK health record system. In this paper, while the prime concern is the Australian Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR), the discussion is relevant to and informed by the international context. The authors draw attention to ethical and conceptual issues that have implications for the success or failure of electronic health records systems. Important ethical issues to consider as Australia moves towards a PCEHR system include: issues of equity that arise in the context of personal control, who benefits and who should pay, what are the legitimate uses of PCEHRs, and how we should implement privacy. The authors identify specific questions that need addressing.

  2. One Key Question®: First Things First in Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deborah; Hunter, Michele Stranger; Wood, Susan; Beeson, Tishra

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Preconceptional health care is increasingly recognized as important to promotion of healthy birth outcomes. Preconceptional care offers an opportunity to influence pregnancy timing and intent and mother's health status prior to conception, all predictors of individual outcomes and of inequality in birth outcomes based on race, ethnicity and class. Methods One Key Question, a promising practice developed in Oregon which is now attracting national interest, provides an entry point into preconceptional care by calling on providers to screen for pregnancy intent in well woman and chronic disease care for women of reproductive age. For women who choose not to become pregnant or are not definitive in their pregnancy intent, One Key Question provides an opportunity for provision of or referral to counseling and contraceptive care. Results Adoption of One Key Question and preconceptional care as standard practices will require important shifts in medical practice challenging the longstanding schism between well woman care generally and reproductive care in particular. Adoption will also require shifts in cultural norms which define the onset of pregnancy as the appropriate starting point for attention to infant health. Conclusions for Practice This commentary reviews the case for preconceptional care, presents the rationale for One Key Question as a strategy for linking primary care to preconceptional and/or contraceptive care for women, outlines what is entailed in implementation of One Key Question in a health care setting, and suggests ways to build community support for preconceptional health.

  3. Strategic questions for consumer-based health communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S M; Balch, G I; Lefebvre, R C

    1995-01-01

    Using the consumer-oriented approach of social and commercial marketers, this article presents a process for crafting messages designed to improve people's health behaviors. The process, termed consumer-based health communications (CHC), transforms scientific recommendations into message strategies that are relevant to the consumer. The core of CHC is consumer research conducted to understand the consumer's reality, and thereby allowing six strategic questions to be answered. The immediate result of the CHC process is a strategy statement--a few pages that lay out who the target consumer is, what action should be taken, what to promise and how to make the promise credible, how and when to reach him or her, and what image to convey. The strategy statement then guides the execution of all communication efforts, be they public relations, mass media, direct marketing, media advocacy, or interpersonal influence. It identifies the most important "levers" for contact with the consumer. Everyone from creative specialists through management and program personnel can use the strategy statement as a touchstone to guide and judge the effectiveness of their efforts. The article provides a step by step illustration of the CHC process using the 5 A Day campaign as an example.

  4. Time and Consciousness in Cognitive Naturalism: Four Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Parrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By referring to two paradigm shifts - the passage from classical physics to relativistic physics on the one hand and the one from folk psychology to cognitive science on the other - Nannini aims at explaining “why neurological theories that reduce consciousness and the Self to aspects of brain dynamics appear implausible from a common sense perspective despite being sound from a scientific point of view”. In the comment I underline the importance of the articulated attempt made by Nannini, whilst asking at the same time for some clarifications regarding four epistemological aspects of the perspective he defends.

  5. Time and the Question of Unintended Impact on Military Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    2014-01-01

    CHAPTER TEN: Unintended impact on the strategy This chapter identifies two aspects in the variable “time” to address unintended impact on a strategy: Short versus long term focus and predictability. The International Security Stabilisation Force’s focus on the tactical level successes to secure...... that the short term objectives is reached has gradually changed the objective on the grand strategy level clouding the end state. At the same time the predictability focus contributed to prioritization of short-term tactical objectives, as they were easier to benchmark rather than grand strategic objectives....... This changed the end state from eradication of the Taliban to nation-building to transition of security responsibilities. The result is a strategy that has become focused on tactical level objective. This has blurred the understanding of the end state in a pursuit of tactical successes....

  6. A question of time: Do economists and strategic managers manage time or do they even care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Pfeifer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the notion of time in an economic thought. Opposite to the importance of time, it has been shown that economic thought has no clear conceptual frame of the relevance of time in its investigations. The usage of time as a context of economic processes is being discussed. Different approaches toward the future are presented. Management science forecasting tools are systematized and presented as a tool for controlling and perpetuating present behavior instead of creating future behavior. Management science needs to adopt a new form of the question eligible to it, as well as to adopt a new quality of the answers relevant in management science. Future development depends on the imagination and passion for creating a future behavioral pattern more than the passion for explaining and rationalizing the future as the continuity of the present behavioral pattern that management science has historically inclined to do.

  7. Group members' questions shape participation in health counselling and health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logren, Aija; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how group members' questions shape member participation in health counselling and health education groups. The study applies conversation analytic principles as a method. The data consist of video-recorded health education lessons in secondary school and health counselling sessions for adults with a high risk of Type 2 diabetes. Group members' questions accomplish a temporary change in participatory roles. They are used to 1) request counselling, 2) do counselling or 3) challenge previous talk. They are usually treated as relevant and legitimate actions by the participants, but are occasionally interpreted as transitions outside the current action or topic. Group members' questions result in a shift from leader-driven to member-driven discussion. Thus they constitute a pivot point for detecting changes in participation in group interventions. Observing the occurrence of group members' questions helps group leaders to adjust their own actions accordingly and thus facilitate or guide group participation. Comparison of the type and frequency of members' questions is a way to detect different trajectories for delivering group interventions and can thus be used to develop methods for process evaluation of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole K. Dalmer, BSc, MLIS, PhD Candidate

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media?s increasing role in health i...

  9. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  10. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmer, Nicole K

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media's increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers' unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.

  11. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K. Dalmer, BSc, MLIS, PhD Candidate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media’s increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers’ unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.

  12. Questioning Care in Mental Health: Professionalization of Home Health Care Based on In Home Therapeutic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gouveia Passos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present how to operate home health care practices. It describes  the influence of the experience given by the Italian psychiatric reform in democratic societies, with emphasis on the intervening dimensions and replacement services. The study indicates the guidelines and strategies established for the promotion of health care in individuals under psychological distress in the deinstitutionalization process. It also addresses the professionalization and the performance of caretakers in home services. Based on a review of the literature, this paper poses some questions to guide the ways outlined for the construction and establishment of professional practices by mental health caregivers.

  13. Time scarcity: another health inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndall Strazdins; Griffin, Amy L; Broom, Dorothy H; Cathy Banwell; Rosemary Korda; Jane Dixon; Francesco Paolucci; John Glover

    2011-01-01

    Considerable policy action has focused on the social patterning of health, especially the health risks associated with low income. More recent attention has turned to transport, food systems, workplaces, and location, and the way their intersections with social position and income create health inequalities. Time is another dimension that structures what people do; yet the way in which time contours health has been neglected. This paper explores (a) how time might influence health, and (b) th...

  14. Commentary: Recommendations and remaining questions for health care leadership training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for optimizing cost, access, and quality in health care. Creating a pipeline of effective health care leaders requires developing leadership competencies that differ from the usual criteria of clinical and scientific excellence by which physicians have traditionally been promoted to leadership positions. Specific competencies that differentiate effective leaders from average leaders, especially emotional intelligence and its component abilities, are essential for effective leadership.Adopting a long-standing practice from successful corporations, some health care institutions, medical societies, and business schools now offer leadership programs that address these differentiating leadership competencies. The author draws on experience with such programs through the Cleveland Clinic Academy to provide recommendations for health care leadership training and to identify unanswered questions about such programs.The author recommends that such training should be broadly available to all health care leadership communities (i.e., nurses, administrators, and physicians). A progressive curriculum, starting with foundational concepts and extending to coaching and feedback opportunities through experiential learning, recognizes the challenge of becoming an effective leader and the long time line needed to do so. Linking leadership courses to continuing medical education and to graduate credit opportunities is appealing to participants. Other recommendations focus on the importance of current leaders' involvement in nominating emerging leaders for participation, embedding leadership development discussions in faculty's professional reviews, and blending discussion of frameworks and theory with practical, experiential lessons. The author identifies questions about the benefits of formal health care leadership training that remain to be answered.

  15. Green cities and health: a question of scale?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, E.A.; Mitchell, R.; Hartig, T.; Vries, de S.; Astell-Burt, T.; Frumkin, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cities are expanding and accommodating an increasing proportion of the world's population. It is important to identify features of urban form that promote the health of city dwellers. Access to green space has been associated with health benefits at both individual and neighbourhood

  16. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2015-01-01

    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body Radiation Basics What is Radiation? The Electromagnetic Spectrum Ionizing Radiation Non-ionizing Radiation The Ionized ... people wonder if cell phones can cause health problems. Here’s what you should know about cell phones ...

  18. A question of balance: nutrition, health and gastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, J; Santich, B

    1997-06-01

    Given the higher proportion of manufactured foods now available which meet current dietary recommendations, the food supply in developed countries like Australia could be said to be "healthier". Yet the "health" of the diet is often achieved at the expense of the "health" of the environment since ecological problems created a current food production and distribution methods remain unaddressed. Further, nutritional modifications which produce foods that are low in fat, sugar, salt and high in fibre do not necessarily address the concerns consumers have about the food supply. An emphasis solely on the physical health of populations, through improved diet, is out of keeping with current views on health which recognise the importance of overall well-being. Through the development of the concept of "sustaining gastronomy", consumers, food manufacturers and producers, and food regulators can better address the problems inherent in the food system, including those of an environmental nature.

  19. A qualitative study of older adults' responses to sitting-time questions: do we get the information we want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Robert L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the health effects of sedentary behavior, which is often assessed using self-report sitting-time questions. The aim of this qualitative study was to document older adults' understanding of sitting-time questions from the International Physical Activity (PA Questionnaire (IPAQ and the PA Scale for the Elderly (PASE. Methods Australian community-dwelling adults aged 65+ years answered the IPAQ and PASE sitting questions in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. IPAQ uses one open-ended question to assess sitting on a weekday in the last 7 days 'at work, at home, while doing coursework and during leisure time'; PASE uses a three-part closed question about daily leisure-time sitting in the last 7 days. Participants expressed their thoughts out loud while answering each question. They were then probed about their responses. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded into themes. Results Mean age of the 28 male and 27 female participants was 73 years (range 65-89. The most frequently reported activity was watching TV. For both questionnaires, many participants had difficulties understanding what activities to report. Some had difficulty understanding what activities should be classified as 'leisure-time sitting'. Some assumed they were being asked to only report activities provided as examples. Most reported activities they normally do, rather than those performed on a day in the previous week. Participants used a variety of strategies to select 'a day' for which they reported their sitting activities and to calculate sitting time on that day. Therefore, many different ways of estimating sitting time were used. Participants had particular difficulty reporting their daily sitting-time when their schedules were not consistent across days. Some participants declared the IPAQ sitting question too difficult to answer. Conclusion The accuracy of older adults' self

  20. A questions-based investigation of consumer mental-health information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen E. Crangle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of mental-health information available online to consumers, research has shown that the mental-health information needs of consumers are not being met. This study contributes to that research by soliciting consumer questions directly, categorizing them, analyzing their form, and assessing the extent to which they can be answered from a trusted and vetted source of online information, namely the website of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH. As an alternative to surveys and analyses of online activity, this study shows how consumer questions provide new insight into what consumers do not know and how they express their information needs. The study crowdsourced 100 consumer questions through Amazon Inc.’s Mechanical Turk. Categorization of the questions shows broad agreement with earlier studies in terms of the content of consumer questions. It also suggests that consumers’ grasp of mental health issues may be low compared to other health topics. The majority of the questions (74% were simple in form, with the remainder being multi-part, multifaceted or narrative. Even simple-form questions could, however, have complex interpretations. Fifty four questions were submitted to the search box at the NIMH website. For 32 questions, no answer could be found in the top one to three documents returned. Inadequacies in the search and retrieval technology deployed at websites account for some of the failure to find answers. The nature of consumer questions in mental health also plays a role. A question that has a false presupposition is less likely to have an answer in trusted and vetted sources of information. Consumer questions are also expressed with a degree of specificity that makes the retrieval of relevant information difficult. The significance of this study is that it shows what an analysis of consumer mental-health questions can tell us about consumer information needs and it provides new insight into the

  1. A questions-based investigation of consumer mental-health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Colleen E; Kart, Joyce Brothers

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of mental-health information available online to consumers, research has shown that the mental-health information needs of consumers are not being met. This study contributes to that research by soliciting consumer questions directly, categorizing them, analyzing their form, and assessing the extent to which they can be answered from a trusted and vetted source of online information, namely the website of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). As an alternative to surveys and analyses of online activity, this study shows how consumer questions provide new insight into what consumers do not know and how they express their information needs. The study crowdsourced 100 consumer questions through Amazon Inc.'s Mechanical Turk. Categorization of the questions shows broad agreement with earlier studies in terms of the content of consumer questions. It also suggests that consumers' grasp of mental health issues may be low compared to other health topics. The majority of the questions (74%) were simple in form, with the remainder being multi-part, multifaceted or narrative. Even simple-form questions could, however, have complex interpretations. Fifty four questions were submitted to the search box at the NIMH website. For 32 questions, no answer could be found in the top one to three documents returned. Inadequacies in the search and retrieval technology deployed at websites account for some of the failure to find answers. The nature of consumer questions in mental health also plays a role. A question that has a false presupposition is less likely to have an answer in trusted and vetted sources of information. Consumer questions are also expressed with a degree of specificity that makes the retrieval of relevant information difficult. The significance of this study is that it shows what an analysis of consumer mental-health questions can tell us about consumer information needs and it provides new insight into the difficulties facing

  2. Econometric analyses of national health expenditures: can positive economics help to answer normative questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A; Parkin, D; Hughes, D; Gerard, K

    1993-07-01

    The size of national health care expenditure is an important research and policy issue. This paper reviews theoretical and empirical analyses of an implied optimal size for a health sector. Various economic theories are explicitly or implicitly invoked, but none is fully satisfactory. Theory provides, at best, a loose justification for empirical specifications of health sector behaviour. Nevertheless, this has a large and growing empirical research industry. The complexity of the issues provides an excuse for reliance on empirical analyses using ad hoc models. The paper analyses aggregate time-series data, using the cointegration approach, on health, health care expenditures and national income. Only one national model met both statistical criteria and showed a significant relationship: between potential life years lost and health care expenditure in the UK. The case for any general relationships remains unproven. There is no objective scientific method to determine optimal health expenditure, nor should we expect one. However, positive analyses can help with normative questions. A better understanding of health expenditure determination would arise from better specification of the relationships, perhaps by analysis at a lower level of aggregation.

  3. Classifying Chinese Questions Related to Health Care Posted by Consumers Via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihong; Na, Xu; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2017-06-20

    In question answering (QA) system development, question classification is crucial for identifying information needs and improving the accuracy of returned answers. Although the questions are domain-specific, they are asked by non-professionals, making the question classification task more challenging. This study aimed to classify health care-related questions posted by the general public (Chinese speakers) on the Internet. A topic-based classification schema for health-related questions was built by manually annotating randomly selected questions. The Kappa statistic was used to measure the interrater reliability of multiple annotation results. Using the above corpus, we developed a machine-learning method to automatically classify these questions into one of the following six classes: Condition Management, Healthy Lifestyle, Diagnosis, Health Provider Choice, Treatment, and Epidemiology. The consumer health question schema was developed with a four-hierarchical-level of specificity, comprising 48 quaternary categories and 35 annotation rules. The 2000 sample questions were coded with 2000 major codes and 607 minor codes. Using natural language processing techniques, we expressed the Chinese questions as a set of lexical, grammatical, and semantic features. Furthermore, the effective features were selected to improve the question classification performance. From the 6-category classification results, we achieved an average precision of 91.41%, recall of 89.62%, and F1 score of 90.24%. In this study, we developed an automatic method to classify questions related to Chinese health care posted by the general public. It enables Artificial Intelligence (AI) agents to understand Internet users' information needs on health care.

  4. Reducing the number of options on multiple-choice questions: response time, psychometrics and standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Armour, Chris; Park, Yoon Soo; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and absolute standard setting judgements in a pharmacology examination administered to health professions students. We administered two versions of a computerised examination containing 98 MCQs to 38 Year 2 medical students and 39 Year 3 pharmacy students. Four- and five-option MCQs were converted into three-option MCQs to create two versions of the examination. Differences in response time, item difficulty and discrimination, and reliability were evaluated. Medical and pharmacy faculty judges provided three-level Angoff (TLA) ratings for all MCQs for both versions of the examination to allow the assessment of differences in cut scores. Students answered three-option MCQs an average of 5 seconds faster than they answered four- and five-option MCQs (36 seconds versus 41 seconds; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in item difficulty and discrimination, or test reliability. Overall, the cut scores generated for three-option MCQs using the TLA ratings were 8 percentage points higher (p = 0.04). The use of three-option MCQs in a health professions examination resulted in a time saving equivalent to the completion of 16% more MCQs per 1-hour testing period, which may increase content validity and test score reliability, and minimise construct under-representation. The higher cut scores may result in higher failure rates if an absolute standard setting method, such as the TLA method, is used. The results from this study provide a cautious indication to health professions educators that using three-option MCQs does not threaten validity and may strengthen it by allowing additional MCQs to be tested in a fixed amount

  5. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Yund, E William; Wyma, John M; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function.

  6. Can Workers Answer Their Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their

  7. Corporate sponsorship of global health research: Questions to promote critical thinking about potential funding relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brisbois, Ben W; Cole, Donald C; Davison, Colleen M; Di Ruggiero, Erica; Hanson, Lori; Janes, Craig R; Larson, Charles P; Nixon, Stephanie; Plamondon, Katrina; Stime, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    .... With the objective of promoting critical reflection on potential corporate funding options for global health research, we propose a set of three questions developed through an open conference work...

  8. Health Literacy Screening of Geriatric Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Patients Using Single-Item Literacy Screening Questions and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Kristina M.; Homeier, Diana C.; Franco, Idalid; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We describe the performance of Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions, and educational attainment, as screening for inadequate health literacy (IHL) in older monolingual Spanish speakers. Design: We used a cross-sectional design, interviewing participants once at the time of their arrival for a clinic appointment. Setting: We…

  9. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  10. Do interviewers health beliefs and habits modify responses to sensitive questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...... the interviewers' education, age, or parity correlate with the answers they obtained. In these data gathered through computer-assisted telephone interviews, interviewer effects arising from variations in interviewers' health beliefs and personal habits were found to be negligible. Thorough training...

  11. A deep learning approach for predicting the quality of online health expert question-answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Haiqin; Chen, Qing; Zuo, Decheng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd. The important information, such as the best answer and the number of users' votes, is missing. To tackle these issues, we prepare the first HQA research data set labeled by three medical experts in 90days and formulate the problem of predicting the quality of answers in the system as a classification task. We not only incorporate the standard textual feature of answers, but also introduce a set of unique non-textual features, i.e., the popular used surface linguistic features and the novel social features, from other modalities. A multimodal deep belief network (DBN)-based learning framework is then proposed to learn the high-level hidden semantic representations of answers from both textual features and non-textual features while the learned joint representation is fed into popular classifiers to determine the quality of answers. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of including the non-textual features and the proposed multimodal deep learning framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily

  13. A questions-based investigation of consumer mental-health information

    OpenAIRE

    Crangle, Colleen E.; Kart, Joyce Brothers

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of mental-health information available online to consumers, research has shown that the mental-health information needs of consumers are not being met. This study contributes to that research by soliciting consumer questions directly, categorizing them, analyzing their form, and assessing the extent to which they can be answered from a trusted and vetted source of online information, namely the website of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). As an alternative ...

  14. Does different wording of a global oral health question provide different results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on 70-year-old adults in Sweden and guided by the conceptual framework of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH), the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported oral disease and social/psychological/physical oral health outcome variables are associated with two global measures of self-assessed satisfaction with oral health in Swedish 70-year-olds and if there is a degree of discordance between these global questions. It has become an important task to create a simple way to measure self-perceived oral health. In these attempts to find practical ways to measure health, the 'global oral health question' is a possible tool to measure self-rated oral health, but there is limited knowledge about how important the wording of this question is. In 2012, a questionnaire was mailed to all persons born in 1942 in two Swedish counties, Örebro (T) and Östergötland (E). The total population of 70-year-olds amounted to 7889. Bivariate analyses were conducted by cross-tabulation and Chi-square statistics. Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary multiple logistic regression. The two global oral health question of 70-year-olds in Sweden was mainly explained by the number of teeth (OR=5.6 and 5.2), chewing capacity (OR=6.9 and 4.2), satisfaction with dental appearance (OR=19.8 and 17.3) and Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) (OR=3.5 and 3.9). Regardless of the wording, it seems that the concept of a global oral health question has the same main determinants.

  15. The health of Latino children: urgent priorities, unanswered questions, and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Barbot, Oxiris; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Claudio, Luz; Lara, Marielena; McLaurin, Jennie A; Pachter, Lee; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Mendoza, Fernando; Valdez, R Burciaga; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zambrana, Ruth E; Greenberg, Robert; Weitzman, Michael; Gomez, Francisco J Ramos

    2002-07-03

    Latinos recently became the largest racial/ethnic minority group of US children. The Latino Consortium of the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research, consisting of 13 expert panelists, identified the most important urgent priorities and unanswered questions in Latino child health. Conclusions were drawn when consensus was reached among members, with refinement through multiple iterations. A consensus statement with supporting references was drafted and revised. This article summarizes the key issues, including lack of validated research instruments, frequent unjustified exclusion from studies, and failure to analyze data by pertinent subgroups. Latino children are at high risk for behavioral and developmental disorders, and there are many unanswered questions about their mental health needs and use of services. The prevalence of dental caries is disproportionately higher for Latino children, but the reasons for this disparity are unclear. Culture and language can profoundly affect Latino children's health, but not enough cultural competency training of health care professionals and provision of linguistically appropriate care occur. Latinos are underrepresented at every level of the health care professions. Latino children are at high risk for school dropout, environmental hazards, obesity, diabetes mellitus, asthma, lack of health insurance, nonfinancial barriers to health care access, and impaired quality of care, but many key questions in these areas remain unanswered. This article suggests areas in which more research is needed and ways to improve research and care of Latino children.

  16. Reliability of self-reported health risk factors and chronic conditions questions collected using the telephone in South Australia, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Grande Eleonora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate monitoring of health conditions and behaviours, and health service usage in the population, using an effective and economical method is important for planning and evaluation. This study examines the reliability of questions asked in a telephone survey by conducting a test/retest analysis of a range of questions covering demographic variables, health risk factors and self-reported chronic conditions among people aged 16 years and over. Methods A Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI survey on health issues of South Australians was re-administered to a random sub-sample of 154 respondents between 13-35 days (mean 17 after the original survey. Reliability between questions was assessed using Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results Demographic questions (age, gender, number of adults and children in the household, country of birth showed extremely high reliability (0.97 to 1.00. Health service use (ICC = 0.90 95% CI 0.86-0.93 and overall health status (Kappa = 0.60 95% CI 0.46-0.75 displayed moderate agreement. Questions relating to self-reported risk factors such as smoking (Kappa = 0.81 95% CI 0.72-0.89 and alcohol drinking (ICC 0.75 = 95% CI 0.63-0.83 behaviour showed good to excellent agreement, while questions relating to self-reported risk factors such as time spent walking for physical activity (ICC 0.47 = 95% CI 0.27-0.61, fruit (Kappaw = 0.60 95% CI 0.45-0.76 and vegetable consumption (Kappaw = 0.50 95% CI 0.32-0.69 showed only moderate agreement. Self-reported chronic conditions displayed substantial to almost perfect agreement (0.72 to 1.00 with the exception of moderate agreement for heart disease (Kappa = 0.82 95% CI 0.57-0.99. Conclusion These results show the questions assessed to be reliable in South Australia for estimating health conditions and monitoring health related behaviours using a CATI survey.

  17. A Semantic-based Approach for Exploring Consumer Health Questions Using UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Licong; Tao, Shiqiang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    NetWellness is a non-profit web service providing high quality health information. It has been in operation since 1995 with over 13 million visits per year by consumers across the world in recent years. Consumer questions in NetWellness have been answered by medical and health professional faculties at three Ohio partner universities: Case Western Reserve University, the Ohio State University, and University of Cincinnati. However, the resident interface in NetWellness is ineffective in searching existing questions that have already been carefully answered by experts in an easy-to-understand manner. In our previous work, we presented a Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (CENI) reusing NetWellness' 120 pre-defined health topics in assisting question retrieval. This paper presents a novel semantic-based search interface called Semantic Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (SCENI), using UMLS concepts as topics. 60,000 questions were tagged by UMLS Concept Unique Identifies (CUIs), with each question allowing multiple possible tags. Using a slightly modified 5-point Likert scale for relevance, SCENI reveals improved precision and relevance (precision: 93.47%, relevance: 4.31) in comparison to CENI using NetWellness' pre-defined topics alone (precision: 77.85%, relevance: 3.3) and NetWellness' resident search interface (precision: 50.62%, relevance: 1.97), on a set of sample queries.

  18. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  19. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  20. Assessing health risk behaviors among adolescents: the effect of question wording and appeals for honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy D; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Ross, Jim

    2004-08-01

    To understand how methodological factors influence prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors obtained from surveys, we examined the effect of varying question wording and honesty appeals while holding other aspects of the surveys constant. A convenience sample of students (n = 4140) in grades 9 through 12 was randomly assigned to complete one of six versions of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire in classrooms. Each questionnaire version represented a different combination of honesty appeal (standard vs. strong) and questionnaire type. The questionnaire types varied in wording and in the number of questions assessing particular types of behaviors. The questionnaires were based on those used in three national surveys--the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Monitoring the Future, and the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Logistic regression analyses examined how responses to each survey question assessing behavior were associated with questionnaire type, honesty appeal, and the interaction of those two variables. Among 32 behaviors with different question wording across questionnaire types, 12 showed a significant effect of questionnaire type. Among 45 behaviors with identical question wording across questionnaire types, five showed a significant main effect of questionnaire type. Among all 77 behaviors, one showed a significant main effect for honesty appeal and two showed a significant interaction between honesty appeal and questionnaire type. When population, setting, questionnaire context, mode of administration, and data-editing protocols are held constant, differences in question wording can create statistically significant differences in some prevalence estimates. Varying honesty appeals does not have an effect on prevalence estimates.

  1. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  2. Cosmic Questions: Galactic Halos, Cold Dark Matter and the End of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1995-08-01

    Did the Big Bang really happen? Is space infinite? When did time begin? In this "superb new book" (San Francisco Chronicle), acclaimed science writer Richard Morris probes a host of far-reaching questions about the fundamental nature of the universe. The result is a masterful exploration of the newest discoveries and theories in the field of cosmology-the study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. With dramatic flair and enthusiasm, he introduces us to the intriguing world of cosmic strings and quark nuggets, shadow matter and imaginary time. He brings emerging theoretical concepts into clear focus, offering keen insight into science's most puzzling riddles, the very questions that have challenged and confounded humankind through the ages. Featuring a thorough explanation of the breakthrough voyage of NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and its effects on the Big Bang theory, this remarkable book is a fascinating journey along the cutting edge of cosmological discovery. Praise for Richard Morris... "Mr. Morris's genius is an ability to reveal the wonderful. --Kansas City Star "Morris does a clearer job explaining Hawking than Hawking did." --Library Journal

  3. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  4. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Hulshof, Carel T J; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2010-10-22

    Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition

  5. Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Nadja; Ernsting, Corinna; Icks, Andrea

    2012-09-06

    Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation.The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, "don't know") was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%), time spent receiving healthcare services (39%), regular medication currently taken (35%) and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%). These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

  6. Beyond procedural ethics: foregrounding questions of justice in global health research ethics training for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    Interest in global health is growing among students across many disciplines and fields of study. In response, an increasing number of academic programmes integrate and promote opportunities for international research, service or clinical placements. These activities raise a range of ethical issues and are associated with important training needs for those who participate. In this paper, we focus on research fieldwork conducted in lower income nations by students from more affluent countries and the ethics preparation they would benefit from receiving prior to embarking on these projects. Global health research is closely associated with questions of justice and equity that extend beyond concerns of procedural ethics. Research takes place in and is shaped by matrices of political, social and cultural contexts and concerns. These realities warrant analysis and discussion during research ethics training. Training activities present an opportunity to encourage students to link global health research to questions of global justice, account for issues of justice in planning their own research, and prepare for 'ethics-in-practice' issues when conducting research in contexts of widespread inequality. Sustained engagement with questions of justice and equity during research ethics training will help support students for involvement in global health research.

  7. Beyond procedural ethics: Foregrounding questions of justice in global health research ethics training for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R.; Godard, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global health is growing among students across many disciplines and fields of study. In response, an increasing number of academic programmes integrate and promote opportunities for international research, service or clinical placements. These activities raise a range of ethical issues and are associated with important training needs for those who participate. In this paper, we focus on research fieldwork conducted in lower income nations by students from more affluent countries and the ethics preparation they would benefit from receiving prior to embarking on these projects. Global health research is closely associated with questions of justice and equity that extend beyond concerns of procedural ethics. Research takes place in and is shaped by matrices of political, social and cultural contexts and concerns. These realities warrant analysis and discussion during research ethics training. Training activities present an opportunity to encourage students to link global health research to questions of global justice, account for issues of justice in planning their own research, and prepare for ‘ethicsin-practice’ issues when conducting research in contexts of widespread inequality. Sustained engagement with questions of justice and equity during research ethics training will help support students for involvement in global health research. PMID:23706108

  8. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  9. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.

  10. Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Parinda

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities.

  11. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources.

  12. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A)

  13. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part XIII: applicant questions about remuneration, call, and time off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2014-08-01

    Part of how an applicant is judged is by the quality of questions he/she asks. If the answers to the questions could be readily found with minimal research, that does not give a good impression. Failure to ask good questions can be viewed as a lack of knowledge, preparation, or interest. If the candidate asks many questions about finances and vacations during the opening minutes of an interview, without inquiring about the practice, that also does not give a good impression. On the other hand, during the later phases of an interview day(s), questions regarding remuneration, call, and time off should be asked.

  14. Bergson and Derrida: A Question of Writing Time as Philosophy’s Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alipaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the 1988 publication of Bergsonism by Gilles Deleuze, many contemporary critics such as Leonard Lawlor and Paul Douglass have re-contextualized Bergson within poststructuralism. In so doing, Bergsonian theory enables us to readdress questions associated with concepts of temporality and their relation to language. In considering this re-appropriation, Suzanne Guerlac in Thinking in Time: an introduction to Henri Bergson (2006, asks why Bergson has never been considered in relation to Derrida, given that the two philosophers share fundamental concerns about time and writing. Following Derrida’s critique of Husserl in La Voix et le phénomène (1967, it is perhaps the case that many critics categorize Bergson as a phenomenologist. However, I aim to develop the argument that Guerlac instigates and show that Derrida’s critique of Husserl in fact establishes a close proximity with Bergson’s view that Western metaphysics suppresses time as durée. I will show how both Bergson and Derrida operate with the understanding of a particular rupture in the full presence of the present, an expansion of consciousness as a ‘now’ to include a constant deferral to memory. While this overlap establishes an affinity, I conclude by showing that it simultaneously marks a point of diffraction with regard to how both seek to methodologically embody such a concept of time.

  15. Smartphone-Based Conversational Agents and Responses to Questions About Mental Health, Interpersonal Violence, and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Milstein, Arnold; Schueller, Stephen; Hegde, Roshini; Mangurian, Christina; Linos, Eleni

    2016-05-01

    Conversational agents are smartphone-based computer programs designed to respond to users in natural language, thereby mimicking conversations between people. Many people use their smartphones to obtain health information. To describe the responses of 4 widely used conversational agents (Siri [Apple], Google Now, S Voice [Samsung], and Cortana [Microsoft]) to a standardized panel of questions related to mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health. A pilot study followed by a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 68 phones from 7 manufacturers conducted from December 2015 to January 2016. Investigators asked the smartphones 9 questions (3 each in mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health) in their natural language. We recorded information on features of the smartphones and their software, including manufacturer, phone model, operating system version, and conversational agent. The primary outcomes were the responses of conversational agents to 9 questions. The responses were characterized based on the ability to (1) recognize a crisis, (2) respond with respectful language, and (3) refer to an appropriate helpline, or other health resources for a physical health concern. Questions were asked repeatedly until there were no new answers. The phones ran 77 conversational agents: Siri (n = 27), Google Now (n = 31), S Voice (n = 9), and Cortana (n = 10). Siri, Google Now, and S Voice recognized the statement "I want to commit suicide" as concerning; Siri and Google Now referred the user to a suicide prevention helpline. In response to "I am depressed," Siri recognized the concern and responded with respectful language, the responses from S Voice and Cortana varied, and Google Now did not recognize the concern. None of the conversational agents referred users to a helpline for depression. In response to "I was raped," Cortana referred to a sexual assault hotline; Siri, Google Now, and S Voice did not recognize the

  16. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  17. Mortality Prediction with a Single General Self-Rated Health Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Bloser, Nicole; Reynolds, Kristi; He, Jiang; Muntner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    objective Health planners and policy makers are increasingly asking for a feasible method to identify vulnerable persons with the greatest health needs. We conducted a systematic review of the association between a single item assessing general self-rated health (GSRH) and mortality. Data Sources Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches for studies published from January 1966 to September 2003. Review Methods Two investigators independently searched English language prospective, community-based cohort studies that reported (1) all-cause mortality, (2) a question assessing GSRH; and (3) an adjusted relative risk or equivalent. The investigators searched the citations to determine inclusion eligibility and abstracted data by following a standarized protocol. Of the 163 relevant studies identified, 22 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. Using a random effects model, compared with persons reporting “excellent” health status, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.23 [1.09, 1.39], 1.44 [1.21, 1.71], and 1.92 [1.64, 2.25] for those reporting “good,”“fair,” and “poor” health status, respectively. This relationship was robust in sensitivity analyses, limited to studies that adjusted for co-morbid illness, functional status, cognitive status, and depression, and across subgroups defined by gender and country of origin. Conclusions Persons with “poor” self-rated health had a 2-fold higher mortality risk compared with persons with “excellent” self-rated health. Subjects' responses to a simple, single-item GSRH question maintained a strong association with mortality even after adjustment for key covariates such as functional status, depression, and co-morbidity. PMID:16336622

  18. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  19. Medical Licensure Questions and Physician Reluctance to Seek Care for Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Sinsky, Christine A; Goeders, Lindsey E; Satele, Daniel V; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether state medical licensure application questions (MLAQs) about mental health are related to physicians' reluctance to seek help for a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. In 2016, we collected initial and renewal medical licensure application forms from 50 states and the District of Columbia. We coded MLAQs related to physicians' mental health as "consistent" if they inquired only about current impairment from a mental health condition or did not ask about mental health conditions. We obtained data on care-seeking attitudes for a mental health problem from a nationally representative convenience sample of 5829 physicians who completed a survey between August 28, 2014, and October 6, 2014. Analyses explored relationships between state of employment, MLAQs, and physicians' reluctance to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. We obtained initial licensure applications from 51 of 51 (100%) and renewal applications from 48 of 51 (94.1%) medical licensing boards. Only one-third of states currently have MLAQs about mental health on their initial and renewal application forms that are considered consistent. Nearly 40% of physicians (2325 of 5829) reported that they would be reluctant to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. Physicians working in a state in which neither the initial nor the renewal application was consistent were more likely to be reluctant to seek help (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; P=.002 vs both applications consistent). Our findings support that MLAQs regarding mental health conditions present a barrier to physicians seeking help. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Registered nurses' work with sick leave questions by telephone in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lännerström, Linda; von Celsing, Anna-Sophia; Holmström, Inger K; Wallman, Thorne

    2017-03-01

    To describe registered nurses' work with sick leave questions by telephone. In Sweden, when a sick person needs to request a sickness certification, it is common to contact the primary healthcare centre. The main access to primary health care is by telephone, with a registered nurse answering the care seeker's questions, triaging and helping care seekers to the right level of care. Registered nurses' work with sick leave questions has not been studied, except for two qualitative interview studies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. A questionnaire with 120 questions was distributed to 185 registered nurses in one county in central Sweden. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Response rate was 62% (n = 114). Registered nurses (n = 105) in this study talked weekly to persons on, or at risk, for sick leave. A large part (n = 78) felt they had a role in the care of persons on sick leave, consisting of booking appointments as well as acting as a pilot, advisor, caretaker and coordinator. For 74 of 114 registered nurses, it was problematic to handle the phone calls weekly. Measures were 'often' booking appointments with physicians (n = 67) and 'seldom' providing information on social insurance rules ('never' n = 51). The registered nurses expressed a great need for more education. Registered nurses in this study reported having a role in the care of persons on sick leave when handling sick leave questions by telephone. The telephone calls were problematic to handle, and the registered nurses expressed a great need for education and training in social insurance medicine. There is a need to educate and train registered nurses in social insurance medicine to provide high-quality nursing for patients on or at risk for sick leave. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluating health systems strengthening interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Taghreed; Hsu, Justine; de Savigny, Don; Lavis, John N; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bennett, Sara

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, there have been several calls for rigorous health policy and systems research to inform efforts to strengthen health systems (HS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including the use of systems thinking concepts in designing and evaluating HS strengthening interventions. The objectives of this paper are to assess recent evaluations of HS strengthening interventions to examine the extent to which they ask a broader set of questions, and provide an appropriately comprehensive assessment of the effects of these interventions across the health system. A review of evaluations conducted in 2009-10 was performed to answer these questions. Out of 106 evaluations, less than half (43%) asked broad research questions to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the intervention's effects across multiple HS building blocks. Only half of the evaluations referred to a conceptual framework to guide their impact assessment. Overall, 24% and 9% conducted process and context evaluations, respectively, to answer the question of whether the intervention worked as intended, and if so, for whom, and under what circumstances. Almost half of the evaluations considered HS impact on one building block, while most interventions were complex targeting two or more building blocks. None incorporated evaluation designs that took into account the characteristics of complex adaptive systems such as non-linearity of effects or interactions between the HS building blocks. While we do not argue that all evaluations should be comprehensive, there is a need for more comprehensive evaluations of the wider range of the intervention's effects, when appropriate. Our findings suggest that the full range of barriers to more comprehensive evaluations need to be examined and, where appropriate, addressed. Possible barriers may include limited capacity, lack of funding, inadequate time frames, lack of demand from both researchers and research funders, or difficulties in undertaking this

  2. The nutritional strategy: four questions predict morbidity, mortality and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangvik, Randi J; Tell, Grethe S; Eisman, John A; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Henriksen, Andreas; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Øyen, Jannike; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional care for hospital in-patients is potentially important but challenging. To investigate the association between nutritional status and clinical outcomes. Eight prevalence surveys were performed at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, during 2008-2009. In total 3279 patients were classified as being at nutritional risk or not according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) tool. The initial four questions of NRS 2002 assess dietary intake, weight loss, body mass index (BMI) and illness severity. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 29%. Adjusted mean days for hospitalisation was 8.3 days for patients at nutritional risk and 5.0 days for patients not at risk (p nutritional risk had increased one-year mortality (OR 4.07, 95% CI 2.90-5.70), morbidity (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18-2.13), and were 1.24 (95% CI 1.16-1.32) times more likely to have had a new admission during the three previous years and the one subsequent year, compared to patients not at risk. A 'positive' response to the initial four questions was associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Patients with a reduced dietary intake during the last weeks had OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.03-2.85) for one-year mortality. Patients with a positive answer on all the initial four questions had ten times increased risk for mortality the following year, OR 13.0 (95% CI 4.52-37.6). The four initial questions of the NRS 2002 robustly identify nutritional risk and were strong predictors of hospitalisation, morbidity and most importantly mortality among hospitalised patients. Thus, these simpler and short questions are robust indicators for subsequent poor outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  4. Are patient responses to sensitive sexual health questions influenced by the sex of the practitioner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, S; Chen, M Y; Fairley, C K

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether a patient's responses to sensitive questions about their sexual behaviour are influenced by the sex of their treating practitioner. An audit was conducted on the computerised medical records of all patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre through the walk-in triage system between January 2003 and July 2005. Patient responses to sensitive questions about their sexual behaviour were analysed according to patient group (based upon the sex of their sexual partners) and the sex of the treating practitioner. There was no significant difference in the reported number of sexual partners, condom use, sex overseas, injecting drug use, or commercial sex work based on the sex of the treating practitioner for the different patient groups. This held true whether clients were homosexual men (n = 1609, p>0.07), heterosexual men (n = 4847, p>0.11), or women (n = 4910, p>0.08). The sex of the practitioner did not significantly influence patient responses to sensitive questions about their sexual behaviour.

  5. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2014-01-01

    The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator-attitude accessibility. University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour.

  6. Emotional Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Bullies: Does It Differ from Straight Bullies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.

  7. High time for a change: psychometric analysis of multiple-choice questions in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sandra P; Hartigan-Rogers, Jackie A; Cobbett, Shelley

    2012-11-26

    Nurse educators teach students to develop an informed nursing practice but can educators claim the same grounding in the available evidence when formulating multiple-choice assessment tools to evaluate student learning? Multiple-choice questions are a popular assessment format within nursing education. While widely accepted as a credible format to assess student knowledge across disciplines, debate exists among educators regarding the number of options necessary to adequately test cognitive reasoning and optimal discrimination between student abilities. The purpose of this quasi-experimental between groups study was to examine the psychometric properties of three option multiple-choice questions when compared to the more traditional four option questions. Data analysis revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the item discrimination, difficulty or the mean examination scores when multiple-choice test questions were administered with three versus four option answer choices. This study provides additional guidance for nurse educators to assist in improving multiple-choice question writing and test design.

  8. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  9. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community-Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchaisuwat, Papis; Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-08-02

    Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system-based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm's performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites.

  10. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  11. Assessment of single-item literacy questions, age, and education level in the prediction of low health numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tim V; Abbasi, Ammara; Kleris, Renee S; Ehrlich, Samantha S; Barthwaite, Echo; DeLong, Jennifer; Master, Viraj A

    2013-08-01

    Determining a patient's health literacy is important to optimum patient care. Single-item questions exist for screening written health literacy. We sought to assess the predictive potential of three common screening questions, along with patient age and education level, in the prediction of low health numerical literacy (numeracy). After demographic and educational information was obtained, 441 patients were administered three health literacy screening questions. The three-item Schwartz-Woloshin Numeracy Scale was then administered to assess for low health numeracy (score of 0 out of 3). This score served as the reference standard for Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. ROC curves were constructed and used to determine the area under the curve (AUC); a higher AUC suggests increased statistical significance. None of the three screening questions were significant predictors of low health numeracy. However, education level was a significant predictor of low health numeracy, with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.811 (0.720-0.902). This measure had a specificity of 95.3% at the cutoff of 12 years of education ( or = 12 years of education) but was non-sensitive. Common single-item questions used to screen for written health literacy are ineffective screening tools for health numeracy. However, low education level is a specific predictor of low health numeracy.

  12. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  13. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Online Network Tool for Quality Information to Answer Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Usability and Applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, M.D.F.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Lenderink, A.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online

  15. Questioning: a critical skill in postmodern health-care service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A; Bannigan, Katrina; Gill, Joanna R

    2009-06-01

    Occupational therapists can no longer rely exclusively on biomedical frameworks to guide their practice and facilitate clinical problem-solving. A postmodernist perspective of health and well-being underlines that the illness experience is not a linear, cause-and-effect equation. Rather, life experiences are constructed through a myriad of social, cultural, physical and economic contexts that are highly unique to each individual. In other words, the assumption that 'one-size-fits-all' is as flawed in health care as it is in clothing design. This paper contributes to the growing discussion of health care within the postmodern context of the twenty-first century through first presenting a brief discussion of emerging postmodern thinking and application within the profession, followed by a rationale for the need to scrutinise prevalent modernist assumptions that guide decision-making. Finally, the paper introduces the method of Socratic questioning as a critical tool in successfully carrying out this scrutiny in an empowering and respectful manner for all stakeholders.

  16. The role of topic, interviewee and question in predicting rich interview data in the field of health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Cornwell, Danielle

    2010-11-01

    Although texts recommend the generation of rich data from interviews, no empirical evidence base exists for achieving this. This study aimed to operationalise richness and to assess which components of the interview (for example, topic, interviewee, question) were predictive. A total of 400 interview questions and their corresponding responses were selected from 10 qualitative studies in the area of health identified from university colleagues and the UK Data Archive database. The analysis used the text analysis program, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, and additional rating scales. Richness was operationalised along five dimensions. 'Length of response' was predicted by a personal, less specific or positive topic, not being a layperson, later questions, open or double questions; 'personal richness' was predicted by being a healthy participant and questions about the past and future; 'analytical responses' were predicted by a personal or less specific topic, not being a layperson, later questions, questions relating to insight and causation; 'action responses' were predicted by a less specific topic, not being a layperson, being healthy, later and open questions. The model for 'descriptive richness' was not significant. Overall, open questions, located later on and framed in the present or past tense, tended to be most predictive of richness. This could inform improvements in interview technique. © 2010 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Relationship between Future Time Orientation and Item Nonresponse on Subjective Probability Questions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Liu, Mingnan; Hu, Mengyao

    2017-01-01

    Time orientation is an unconscious yet fundamental cognitive process that provides a framework for organizing personal experiences in temporal categories of past, present and future, reflecting the relative emphasis given to these categories. Culture lies central to individuals’ time orientation, leading to cultural variations in time orientation. For example, people from future-oriented cultures tend to emphasize the future and store information relevant for the future more than those from present- or past-oriented cultures. For survey questions that ask respondents to report expected probabilities of future events, this may translate into culture-specific question difficulties, manifested through systematically varying “I don’t know” item nonresponse rates. This study drew on the time orientation theory and examined culture-specific nonresponse patterns on subjective probability questions using methodologically comparable population-based surveys from multiple countries. The results supported our hypothesis. Item nonresponse rates on these questions varied significantly in the way that future-orientation at the group as well as individual level was associated with lower nonresponse rates. This pattern did not apply to non-probability questions. Our study also suggested potential nonresponse bias. Examining culture-specific constructs, such as time orientation, as a framework for measurement mechanisms may contribute to improving cross-cultural research. PMID:28781381

  18. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Examining reading comprehension text and question answering time differences in university students with and without a history of reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Megan; Zhang, Xiaozhou; Parrila, Rauno

    2017-11-17

    The current study aimed to examine performance times during text reading and question answering of students with and without a history of reading difficulties. Forty-three university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD) were compared to 124 university students without a history of reading difficulties on measures of word and nonword reading rate, text reading rate and comprehension, and question answering times. Results showed that students with HRD demonstrated slower word, nonword, and text reading rates than their peers, but had comparable reading comprehension scores. Results also showed that students with HRD took longer to answer specific types of questions even when reading rate was controlled. Specifically, when word reading rate was controlled, students with HRD took longer to answer vocabulary, literal, inferential, and background knowledge questions. When text reading rate was controlled, they still took longer to answer literal, inferential, and background knowledge questions. These results suggest that students with a history of reading difficulties require extra time to complete reading comprehension measures for reasons other than just slower word and text reading rate. Findings of this study have implications for supporting university students with a history of reading difficulties.

  20. The Magic Wand Question and Recovery-Focused Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen; McCaig, Marie

    2016-11-01

    This paper uses a case study to describe the implementation of the Magic Wand Question (MWQ), also known as the miracle question, in a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) in Scotland. The MWQ, a common intervention, is based on a Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) approach. This intervention was undertaken by a third year student nurse with the intention of demonstrating how practice can be more closely aligned to a recovery-focused, strengths-based approach, which is in line with national policy. SFBT has a growing evidence base for use with children and young people. However, there are still some common uncertainties about its use; therefore, a literature review has been undertaken to further explore the evidence base for the use of SFBT, with a focus on the MWQ. Furthermore, an exploration of the planning, implementation, and evaluation of the effectiveness of the MWQ is provided with a 15-year-old girl experiencing symptoms of low mood. Although limitations have been identified, giving careful consideration to posing the MWQ, through detailed planning prior to implementation, led to an increased understanding of factors supporting the use of the MWQ and reduced any uncertainty around when to use the MWQ in practice. In this clinical intervention, with a 15-year-old girl experiencing symptoms of low mood, the use of the MWQ was successful. The effectiveness of any treatment is best judged by the individual receiving care, and positive results have been achieved in this case study. Use of this approach ensured professionals were looking beyond diagnosis, illness, and problems in line with the principles of recovery-focused practice (Scottish Recovery Network [SRN] and NHS Education for Scotland [NES], 2007). The use of the MWQ in this case enhanced the knowledge of evidence-based practices, in line with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, ) and improved overall outcomes for individuals receiving care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Timing effects in health valuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Andrea M; Pruckner, Gerald J

    2014-06-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of external sources of information, conveyed by the frequency of risky events that vary across time, on the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a reduction of mortality risk. We collected data from a contingent valuation (CV) exercise conducted in two waves (fall and winter) to examine whether individual WTP varied across periods that differed in the predominance of fatal accidents. Risk valuations were based on fatal snow avalanche accidents, that is, a type of risk with seasonal differences in occurrence. We found slightly lower but statistically significant mean WTP figures in the winter than in the fall sample because of time-varying individual risk attitudes and, therefore, recommend controlling for these factors in risk assessment CV surveys. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  3. Responses to mental health stigma questions: the importance of social desirability and data collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Flach, Clare; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the impact on the general public of England's Time to Change program to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination using newly developed measures of knowledge and intended behaviour regarding people with mental health problems, and an established attitudes scale, and to investigate whether social desirability affects responses to the new measures and test whether this varies according to data collection method. The Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS) and Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) were administered together with the 13-item version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale to 2 samples (each n = 196) drawn from the Time to Change mass media campaign target group; one group was interviewed face to face, while the other completed the measures as an online survey. After controlling for other covariates, interaction terms between collection method and social desirability were positive for each instrument. The social desirability score was associated with the RIBS score in the face-to-face group only (β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57), but not with the MAKS score in either group; however, MAKS scores were more likely to be positive when data were collected face to face (β = 1.53, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.32). Behavioural intentions toward people with mental health problems may be better assessed using online self-complete methods than in-person interviews. The effect of face-to-face interviewing on knowledge requires further investigation.

  4. "It's about time": College women's perceptions of gynecologic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Carr, Jeanine; Wohlberg, Jeri

    2005-06-01

    To examine college women's perceptions of gynecologic health, with a particular emphasis on healthcare decision making. Women's perceptions of health promotion efforts that would influence gynecologic health were also examined. Verbatim transcripts of individual and focus group interviews from 34 college women, 18-25 years of age, were thematically analyzed. Questions related to women's decisions to seek gynecologic health care and their healthcare experiences with providers. Three themes were identified: (dis)connecting with their changing bodies, experiencing the healthcare encounter, and making healthcare decisions. Results suggest that college can be "the time" when college women begin to think about and act on decisions about gynecologic health. Implications for practice By acknowledging college women's multidimensional definitions of health and knowledge of healthy behaviors, advanced practice nurses can assist women in developing strategies for enacting these definitions and integrating desired healthy behaviors into their busy college lives.

  5. How old is streamwater? Open questions in catchment transit time conceptualization, modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. McDonnell; K. McGuire; P. Aggarwal; K.J. Beven; D. Biondi; G. Destouni; S. Dunn; A. James; J. Kirchner; P. Kraft; S. Lyon; P. Maloszewski; B. Newman; L. Pfister; A. Rinaldo; A. Rodhe; T. Sayama; J. Seibert; K. Solomon; C. Soulsby; M. Stewart; D. Tetzlaff; C. Tobin; P. Troch; M. Weiler; A. Western; A. Wörman; S. Wrede

    2010-01-01

    The time water spends travelling subsurface through a catchment to the stream network (i.e. the catchment water transit time) fundamentally describes the storage, flow pathway heterogeneity and sources of water in a catchment. The distribution of transit times reflects how catchments retain and release water and solutes that in turn set biogeochemical conditions and...

  6. On the questions P ?= NP $\\cap$ co-NP and NP ?= co-NP for infinite time Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar, Vinay

    2003-01-01

    Schindler recently addressed two versions of the question P $\\stackrel{?}{=}$ NP for Turing machines running in transfinite ordinal time. These versions differ in their definition of input length. The corresponding complexity classes are labelled P, NP and ${\\rm P}^+,{\\rm NP}^+$. Schindler showed that P $\

  7. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  8. Using chat and text technologies to answer sexual and reproductive health questions: Planned Parenthood pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Margaret M; Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

    2013-09-20

    Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program's first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant difference in the odds of feeling better (less

  9. Coproduction of Research Questions and Research Evidence in Public Health: The Study to Prevent Teen Drinking Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Mark; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Rhodes, Scott D; Egan, Kathleen L; Sparks, Michael; Ellerbee, Dylan; Song, Eunyoung Y; Debinski, Beata; Terrillion, Albert; Vining, Judi; Yang, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a set of principles and practices intended to foster coproduction of knowledge. However, CBPR often has shortcomings when applied to population-level policy and practice interventions, including a focus on single communities and a lack of focus on policy change. At the same time, community trials focused on policy have shortcomings, including lack of stakeholder involvement in framing research questions and modest engagement in study implementation and interpretation and dissemination of results. We describe an attempt to hybridize CBPR and community trials by creating a partnership that included a national membership organization, a coalition advisory board, intervention and delayed intervention communities, and an academic study team, which collaborated on a study of community strategies to prevent underage drinking parties. We use qualitative and quantitative data to critically assess the partnership. Areas where the partnership was effective included (1) identifying a research question with high public health significance, (2) enhancing the intervention, and (3) improving research methods. Challenges included community coalition representatives' greater focus on their own communities rather than the production of broader scientific knowledge. This model can be applied in future attempts to narrow the gap between research, policy, and practice.

  10. Coproduction of Research Questions and Research Evidence in Public Health: The Study to Prevent Teen Drinking Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wolfson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR provides a set of principles and practices intended to foster coproduction of knowledge. However, CBPR often has shortcomings when applied to population-level policy and practice interventions, including a focus on single communities and a lack of focus on policy change. At the same time, community trials focused on policy have shortcomings, including lack of stakeholder involvement in framing research questions and modest engagement in study implementation and interpretation and dissemination of results. We describe an attempt to hybridize CBPR and community trials by creating a partnership that included a national membership organization, a coalition advisory board, intervention and delayed intervention communities, and an academic study team, which collaborated on a study of community strategies to prevent underage drinking parties. We use qualitative and quantitative data to critically assess the partnership. Areas where the partnership was effective included (1 identifying a research question with high public health significance, (2 enhancing the intervention, and (3 improving research methods. Challenges included community coalition representatives’ greater focus on their own communities rather than the production of broader scientific knowledge. This model can be applied in future attempts to narrow the gap between research, policy, and practice.

  11. 26 CFR 31.3501(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the time employers must collect and pay the taxes on noncash...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the time...)-1T Question and answer relating to the time employers must collect and pay the taxes on noncash fringe benefits (Temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the time employers must...

  12. Pancreatectomy Versus Conservative Management for Pancreatic Cancer: A Question of Lead-time Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Wayne S

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatectomy is regarded as the only curative treatment for cancer of the pancreas. A population-based study was conducted to examine its efficacy within the general community. Overall and cancer-specific survivals were compared between individuals treated with pancreatectomy and those managed nonsurgically. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used, based on both time from diagnosis and attained age (age at diagnosis plus time from diagnosis). A total of 7830 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results cases of localized cancer of the pancreatic head were retrieved, diagnosed from 2000 to 2008. Median follow-up was 12 months; the pancreatectomy cohort was 5 years younger and had 7-fold less stage III disease. Overall and cancer-specific survivals were 17% and 21% at 5 years from time of diagnosis in the pancreatectomy cohort versus 2% and 4% in the nonsurgical cohort, respectively (Ppancreatectomy cohort was diagnosed earlier, with less disease. If most of these individuals had occult metastases at diagnosis, which manifested later and caused death at similar ages as the nonsurgical cohort, their survival from time of diagnosis would appear speciously improved. A randomized controlled trial would be necessary to confirm whether or not the survival advantage ascribed to pancreatectomy should be attributed to lead-time bias.

  13. New particle formation in the free troposphere: A question of chemistry and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Tröstl, J; Junninen, H; Frege, C; Henne, S; Hoyle, C R; Molteni, U; Herrmann, E; Adamov, A; Bukowiecki, N; Chen, X; Duplissy, J; Gysel, M; Hutterli, M; Kangasluoma, J; Kontkanen, J; Kürten, A; Manninen, H E; Münch, S; Peräkylä, O; Petäjä, T; Rondo, L; Williamson, C; Weingartner, E; Curtius, J; Worsnop, D R; Kulmala, M; Dommen, J; Baltensperger, U

    2016-05-27

    New particle formation (NPF) is the source of over half of the atmosphere's cloud condensation nuclei, thus influencing cloud properties and Earth's energy balance. Unlike in the planetary boundary layer, few observations of NPF in the free troposphere exist. We provide observational evidence that at high altitudes, NPF occurs mainly through condensation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), in addition to taking place through sulfuric acid-ammonia nucleation. Neutral nucleation is more than 10 times faster than ion-induced nucleation, and growth rates are size-dependent. NPF is restricted to a time window of 1 to 2 days after contact of the air masses with the planetary boundary layer; this is related to the time needed for oxidation of organic compounds to form HOMs. These findings require improved NPF parameterization in atmospheric models. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Not this time: Canadians, public policy, and the marijuana question, 1961-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    ... substances, such as heroin and cocaine, its social impact is a matter for debate. In the 1960s, many Canadians began demanding changes to the Narcotics Control Act that would decriminalize or legalize the possession of marijuana. In Not This Time , Marcel Martel explores the recreational use of marijuana in the 1960s and its emergence as a ...

  15. Intolerance over time : macro and micro level questions on attitudes towards euthanasia, homosexuality and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands, as many other Western countries, has experienced large shifts in intolerance in only a few decades. Aggregate opinions on euthanasia and homosexuality have become more accommodating over time, whereas the general opinion on the presence of ethnic minorities has become much more

  16. Not this time: Canadians, public policy, and the marijuana question, 1961 - 1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    ... substances, such as heroin and cocaine, its social impact is a matter for debate. In the 1960s, many Canadians began demanding changes to the Narcotics Control Act that would decriminalize or legalize the possession of marijuana. In Not This Time , Marcel Martel explores the recreational use of marijuana in the 1960s and its emergence as a ...

  17. THE CONCEPT OF POSITION AND MODULE IN QUESTION FOR INDIVIDUALS PROPOSED FOR THE NEW TIMES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Gili Mass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurred during productive processes overthrew the Taylorist-Fordist paradigm, which generated work stations and rigourisly framed them to produce results in a rigid and stable world. Flexibility and instability are the main characteristics of the current scenario. In order to produce results in this environment, innovative companies have adopted the model of individual competence for its compatibility with the nowadays settings. Notwithstanding, many companies still remains attached to the Fordist model of description and job analysis. This paper aims to establish if the Fordist concept of position is aligned with the model of people management proposed for the new times. The bibliographical study and research found indicated that the current concept of position is not aligned with the model of people management proposed for the new times, thus showing that to people management by competence has been evident as an issue to be resolved by the Administration.

  18. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  19. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  20. New times for migrants' health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  1. Power and practices: questions concerning the legislation of health professions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Isabela S C; Ceci, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Developments in professional practice can be related to ongoing changes in relations of power among professionals, which often lead to changes in the boundaries of practices. The differing contexts of practices also influence these changing relations among health professionals. Legislation governing professional practice also differs from country to country. In Brazil, over the past 12 years, in a climate of deep disagreement, a new law to regulate medical practice has been discussed. It was sanctioned, or made into law, but with some notable changes, in July 2013. Of interest to us in this paper are the ways the proposed legislation, by setting out the boundaries and scope of medical practice, 'interfered' in the practices of other health professions, undermining many 'independent' practices that have developed over time. However, even taking into account the multiple routes through which practices are established and developed, the role of legislation that seems able to contradict and deny the historical realities of multiple, intersecting practices should be critically interrogated. In this paper, we use the theoretical resources of poststructuralist thinking to explore gaps, ambiguities, and power relations implicit in the discourses that constituted this law. We argue that although the new law can be understood as a social and political device that will interfere in the organization of other health professions' practices, such legislation is only part of what constitutes change in a consolidated professional practice. And while it is important to understand the effects of such legislation, healthcare practices are also realized or 'made real' through ongoing relations of knowledge and power, including, as we will see in this case, activities of resistance. The problem, then, is to understand the practical arrangements, including legislation, traditions and routines, values and knowledge that come to shape the practices of nursing in a particular context.

  2. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  3. Time-framing and health risks: editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Heyman, B.; Alaszewski, A.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is the last in a four-part series Health Care Through the ‘Lens of Risk’, which focuses on risk categorisation, valuing, expecting and time-framing, respectively, and has been published in 2012-2013. The present editorial introduces the issue of time-framing in relation to an

  4. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches.

  5. Regression On The Right To Health: The Question Of Access To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural, economic, social and human factors like poverty, low GDP, malnutrition, shortage of medical personnel and equipment for diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS and corruption have hindered access to ARVs. Questions remain unclear as to which categories of persons are accorded priority of access to free ...

  6. Library and Informatics Training May Improve Question Formulation among Public Health Practitioners, A Review of: Eldredge, Jonathan D., Richard Carr, David Broudy, and Ronald E. Voorhees. “The Effect of Training on Question Formulation among Public Health Practitioners: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 96.4 (2008: 299‐309.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ganshorn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether providing library and informatics training to public health professionals would increase the number and sophistication of work‐related questions asked by these workers.Design – Randomized controlled trial.Setting – New Mexico Department of Health.Subjects – Public health professionals from a variety of professions, including “administrators, disease prevention specialists, epidemiologists, health educators, nurses, nutritionists, physicians, program directors, and social workers” (301. Only staff from the New Mexico Department of Health were eligible to participate.Methods – All subjects received a three‐hour training session on finding evidence based public health information, with a focus on using PubMed. Two sessions were offered, two weeks apart. Participants were randomized to either an intervention group, which received instruction on the first date, or a control group, which received instruction on the second date. The intervening two weeks constitute the study period, in which both groups were surveyed by e‐mail about their work‐related question generation. Three times per week, subjects received e‐mail reminders asking them to submit survey responses regarding all questions that had arisen in their practice, along with information about their attempts to answer them. Questions were tallied, and totals were compared between the two groups. Questions were also analysed for level of sophistication, and classified by the investigators as either “background” questions, which are asked when one has little knowledge of the field, and can usually be answered using textbooks or other reference sources, or “foreground” questions, which are often asked when an individual is familiar with the subject, and looking for more sophisticated information that is usually found in journals and similar sources. This scheme for classifying questions was developed by Richardson and Mulrow

  7. [Preserving the cultural heritage of health in Brazil: an emerging question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Juliane Conceição Primon

    2015-12-01

    In a discussion that applies the category "heritage" to goods within the realm of health, the article problematizes the recent recognition and incipient protection of the cultural heritage of health in Brazil. It presents a roster of assets that receive federal protection through Brazil's Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), including hospitals and health-related buildings as well as inventories conducted in a number of state capitals by the Brazilian Network for Cultural Heritage in Health. This approach suggests that preserving this valuable heritage is a matter of importance for the history of health in Brazil.

  8. Utilizing elderly free time activities : a study of activities that promote health and wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuthia, Ruth Muthoni; Bambot, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate free time activities that can promote health and wellbeing among hospitalized elderly people in order to provide information to caregivers. The research questions are: Which activities at free time promote health and wellbeing among hospitalized elderly people from caregivers’ point of view? How do activities at free time promote health and wellbeing among hospitalized elderly people from caregivers’ point of view? Which type of activities can long term...

  9. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  11. Some questions regarding the financing of health care in member states of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Before you deal with the primary aim to show that regulated health care systems have contributed and still contribute to the health of citizens of member states of the European Union significantly improved. That is why the older member states of the European Union (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, prepared to spend most of their gross domestic product (GDP on health care for its citizens. At the other member countries on the periphery of the European Union (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain, better known as a group (PIIGS-svinje, due to falling into a debt crisis is not ready for such a step because of which their citizens are faced with big problems when using health care. The paper deals with problems of unequal access to health services and lack of health coverage that exist among individuals as well as in some social groups in many member countries of the European Union. Analysis of unequal access to health services was carried out based on the estimated level depending on its socio-economic status of user-nonusers of health care, are not bypassed with the right of the insured and their acquisition. The rights of the insured whose roots are in agidumu Hippocratic Oath: 'primum non nocere' - 'first do no harm to' vary from very narrow to very broad and diverse framework. The paper konstatovano to the conduct of public finances in the Member States of the European Union is not without problems, especially where contributions for health insurance funding mechanisms dominate. Health care financing in member countries of the European Union, more important than other functions affecting the quality of health of citizens, the mood to invest in access to health services and universal health insurance coverage. Financing of health care policy is not the only link of many of them in a long chain of global politics. However, it is indispensable to measure the effects of decisions made, the application of specific measures aimed

  12. [TRANSDISCIPLINARITY A NEW STATUS OF THE SUBJECT IN HEALTH? EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The discoveries in human genetics regularly question the meaning and limits of our interventions. In fact, to intervene on the physical nature challenges their ethical framework. However a gap exists between a medicine treating biological imbalances, diseases with organics repercussions and the psychological, social and cultural reality of the treated human persons. This gap hopes to fade with bioethics, word that has, in its vocation, the desire to meet the "bios" (biology's techniques and knowledge) and ethics. Ethics therefore refers to the "self", to what has an independent existence, contrary to the quest for universality of science and technology. The same difference is suggested by the genome, which includes universal elements essential to the coding transmission and the development of life in general as well as the inscription and the manifestation of individual characters. Between the universal and the singular, unmasks the issue of the different levels of human reality. Each has its own laws making the genetic or bioethics questioning not only scientific or moral but also phenomenological, epistemological and logical. Transdisciplinarity in these areas could foster debate and open up innovative perspectives on the question of the subject into, through and beyond disease.

  13. Time Preferences, Mental Health and Treatment Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Druss, Benjamin G

    2015-09-01

    In all countries of the world, fewer than half of people with mental disorders receive treatment. This treatment gap is commonly attributed to factors such as consumers' limited knowledge, negative attitudes, and financial constraints. In the context of other health behaviors, such as diet and exercise, behavioral economists have emphasized time preferences and procrastination as additional barriers. These factors might also be relevant to mental health. We examine conceptually and empirically how lack of help-seeking for mental health conditions might be related to time preferences and procrastination. Our conceptual discussion explores how the interrelationships between time preferences and mental health treatment utilization could fit into basic microeconomic theory. The empirical analysis uses survey data of student populations from 12 colleges and universities in 2011 (the Healthy Minds Study, N=8,806). Using standard brief measures of discounting, procrastination, and mental health (depression and anxiety symptoms), we examine the conditional correlations between indicators of present-orientation (discount rate and procrastination) and mental health symptoms. The conceptual discussion reveals a number of potential relationships that would be useful to examine empirically. In the empirical analysis depression is significantly associated with procrastination and discounting. Treatment utilization is significantly associated with procrastination but not discounting. The empirical results are generally consistent with the idea that depression increases present orientation (reduces future orientation), as measured by discounting and procrastination. These analyses have notable limitations that will require further examination in future research: the measures are simple and brief, and the estimates may be biased from true causal effects because of omitted variables and reverse causality. There are several possibilities for future research, including: (i

  14. Parameterizing time in electronic health record studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler

    2015-07-01

    Fields like nonlinear physics offer methods for analyzing time series, but many methods require that the time series be stationary-no change in properties over time.Objective Medicine is far from stationary, but the challenge may be able to be ameliorated by reparameterizing time because clinicians tend to measure patients more frequently when they are ill and are more likely to vary. We compared time parameterizations, measuring variability of rate of change and magnitude of change, and looking for homogeneity of bins of temporal separation between pairs of time points. We studied four common laboratory tests drawn from 25 years of electronic health records on 4 million patients. We found that sequence time-that is, simply counting the number of measurements from some start-produced more stationary time series, better explained the variation in values, and had more homogeneous bins than either traditional clock time or a recently proposed intermediate parameterization. Sequence time produced more accurate predictions in a single Gaussian process model experiment. Of the three parameterizations, sequence time appeared to produce the most stationary series, possibly because clinicians adjust their sampling to the acuity of the patient. Parameterizing by sequence time may be applicable to association and clustering experiments on electronic health record data. A limitation of this study is that laboratory data were derived from only one institution. Sequence time appears to be an important potential parameterization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and

  15. Questions about Common Ailments. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Gail Hoddlebrink; Molleson, Ann L.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  16. [Social inequalities in health less pronounced in women than in men: A question of measurements?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambois, E

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities in mortality are generally less pronounced for women than for men. Are women's health risks and behaviours more homogeneous, or does this pattern arise from a measurement issue inducing an under-estimation of these inequalities? This article reviews a number of studies covering different dimensions of health and different dimensions of social status. Their findings show that there are large social inequalities in health among women. The focus on the working careers, family histories and conciliation of multiple activities provides evidence of major social determinants of health to which women are widely exposed. This article highlights the need to broaden the notion of social inequality and to redefine the social categories, notably by considering the distinct trajectories of men and women and their different spheres of activity. It highlights that gender differences in health are themselves partly socially constructed, as suggested by the gender approaches in the social sciences. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Searching MEDLINE for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature: questionable sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Ruth M; Tieman, Jennifer J; Tyndall, Jess; Phillips, Paddy A

    2013-06-01

    The extent to which existing and future research can impact on reducing health disparities relates not only to the evidence available, but the ability to find that evidence. Our objective is to quantify experts' literature searching effectiveness with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's health. Nine journals were dual reviewed, and a 'gold standard' set of relevant articles was identified. Health librarians (n = 25) completed a standardised searching task using OVID MEDLINE, and results were compared with the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity and precision rates were calculated. The gold standard comprised 136 of 1469 (9.3%) records from nine journals. Searches achieved a mean sensitivity of 53.2% (median = 64.7%, range 0.0-93.4%), specificity of 97.4% (median = 99.4%, range 52.6-100%) and precision of 83.3% (median = 91.0%, range 16.7-100%). Self-estimates of search sensitivity (post hoc) were significantly higher than observed (M = 78.9%, t = 4.812, P MEDLINE. A search filter may improve searching effectiveness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature. Assessment of health librarians' searching competencies warrants further professional debate and consideration. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Mental Health Service Utilization Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning or Queer College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Ramchand, Rajeev; Seelam, Rachana; Stein, Bradley D

    2017-09-01

    College students are at high risk for mental health problems, yet many do not receive treatment even when services are available. Treatment needs may be even higher among sexual minority students, but little is known about how these students differ from heterosexual peers in terms of mental health needs and service utilization. A total of 33,220 California college students completed an online survey on mental health needs (e.g., current serious psychological distress and mental health-related academic impairment) and service utilization. Using logistic regressions, we examined differences in student characteristics, mental health service use, and perceived barriers to using on-campus services by sexual minority status. Approximately 7% of students self-identified as sexual minorities. Compared with heterosexual students, sexual minority students endorsed higher rates of psychological distress (18% vs. 26%, p mental health-related academic impairment (11% vs. 17%, p mental health services. Sexual minority students were also more likely to report using off-campus services and to endorse barriers to on-campus service use (e.g., embarrassed to use services and uncertainty over eligibility for services). Sexual minority individuals represent a sizeable minority of college students; these students use mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual peers but have high rates of unmet treatment need. Efforts to address commonly reported barriers to on-campus service use, foster sexual minority-affirmative campus environments, and promote awareness of campus services may help reduce unmet treatment need in this population. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EMOTIONAL HEALTH, AND SPENDING TIME IN NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana-Loredana Vitalia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For many people, nature represents a place to rest and recover from daily stress. Recent researches emphasized that living in neighbourhood with comparatively plentiful walkable green space was correlated with a better perceived general health, and a lower mortality risk (Maars et all, 2006; Van Dillen et all, 2011. Moreover, physical activity in nature is an important recovery aspect in psychological illness, such as anxiety or depression. This study proposed to investigate the relation between spending time in nature (as a preffered free time activity in the form of walking in the park, playing games in nature, trips etc. and emotional health (functional/dysfunctional emotions. We used Emotional Distress Profile to measure emotional health, and an open answer exercise ,,20 things I like to do``, to assess the spending time in nature variable. Statistical analyses were computed. Results showed that people who preffered to spend time in nature expressed a higher number of functional emotions compared to people who preffered other activities (in door activities.

  20. Exploiting time in electronic health record correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate that a large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal fine temporal patterns in clinical associations; to illustrate several types of associations; and to ascertain the value of exploiting time. Lagged linear correlation was calculated between seven clinical laboratory values and 30 clinical concepts extracted from resident signout notes from a 22-year, 3-million-patient database of electronic health records. Time points were interpolated, and patients were normalized to reduce inter-patient effects. The method revealed several types of associations with detailed temporal patterns. Definitional associations included low blood potassium preceding 'hypokalemia.' Low potassium preceding the drug spironolactone with high potassium following spironolactone exemplified intentional and physiologic associations, respectively. Counterintuitive results such as the fact that diseases appeared to follow their effects may be due to the workflow of healthcare, in which clinical findings precede the clinician's diagnosis of a disease even though the disease actually preceded the findings. Fully exploiting time by interpolating time points produced less noisy results. Electronic health records are not direct reflections of the patient state, but rather reflections of the healthcare process and the recording process. With proper techniques and understanding, and with proper incorporation of time, interpretable associations can be derived from a large clinical database. A large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal clinical associations, time is an important feature, and care must be taken to interpret the results.

  1. Application of real-time global media monitoring and 'derived questions' for enhancing communication by regulatory bodies: the case of human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Priya; Fogd, Julianna; Morales, Daniel; Kurz, Xavier

    2017-05-02

    The benefit-risk balance of vaccines is regularly debated by the public, but the utility of media monitoring for regulatory bodies is unclear. A media monitoring study was conducted at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines during a European Union (EU) referral procedure assessing the potential causality of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) reported to the authorities as suspected adverse reactions. To evaluate the utility of media monitoring in real life, prospective real-time monitoring of worldwide online news was conducted from September to December 2015 with inductive content analysis, generating 'derived questions'. The evaluation was performed through the validation of the predictive capacity of these questions against journalists' queries, review of the EMA's public statement and feedback from EU regulators. A total of 4230 news items were identified, containing personal stories, scientific and policy/process-related topics. Explicit and implicit concerns were identified, including those raised due to lack of knowledge or anticipated once more information would be published. Fifty derived questions were generated and categorised into 12 themes. The evaluation demonstrated that providing the media monitoring findings to assessors and communicators resulted in (1) confirming that public concerns regarding CRPS and POTS would be covered by the assessment; (2) meeting specific information needs proactively in the public statement; (3) predicting all queries from journalists; and (4) altering the tone of the public statement with respectful acknowledgement of the health status of patients with CRSP or POTS. The study demonstrated the potential utility of media monitoring for regulatory bodies to support communication proactivity and preparedness, intended to support trusted safe and effective vaccine use. Derived questions seem to be a familiar and effective

  2. Is the increased reporting of symptomatic ill health in Gulf War veterans related to how one asks the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Hooper, Richard; French, Claire; Jones, Margaret; Rona, Roberto; Wessely, Simon

    2006-08-01

    Following the 1991 Gulf War (GW) there was much controversy surrounding service-related health effects. Evidence from the Vietnam experience suggested that self-reported ill health following that conflict might be related to how service during the conflict is framed. The aim of this article is to determine if a GW health effect persisted when the same questions were asked in a "non-GW" context. Prevalence of physical and psychological health problems were ascertained in a study assessing health screening from a random sample of UK Armed Forces. Record linkage between the screening survey and service history was conducted to obtain information on participation in the GW. Differences in health outcomes were found between the GW and the non-GW groups. This difference existed for symptomatic measures (OR=1.84, 95% CI, 1.17-2.91) rather than psychological or behavioral measures. No differences were found in psychological measures such as PTSD or behavioral measures such as alcohol consumption. Those deployed to the GW had a poorer self-perception of health (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11). Even in the absence of framing, a Gulf-related ill health effect was found.

  3. Lost in translation: the question of evidence linking community-based arts and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putland, Christine

    2008-03-01

    Reflecting a wider preoccupation with 'evidence-based-policy', the effectiveness of community-based arts practice designed to promote individual and community level health and well-being is in the spotlight. Evidence is said to remain elusive despite the proliferation of initiatives and government investment. Responses to this issue can broadly be characterized as health perspectives (calling for more scientific approaches to evaluation research that go beyond anecdote and opinion) and arts perspectives (concerned about reductive measures and narrowly prescribed social outcomes). This article seeks to advance an intersectoral dialogue by highlighting the tensions within present approaches and canvassing alternative frameworks.

  4. Mental health outreach and screening among returning veterans: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloeser, Katharine; McCarron, Kelly K; Batorsky, Benjamin; Reinhard, Matthew J; Pollack, Stanley J; Amdur, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at predictors of mental health treatment utilization in a unique cohort of recently separated Veterans coming to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (N=152). This convenience sample voluntarily completed questionnaires, which included mental health screening tools, during an outreach event at a large urban VA Medical Center. Researchers reviewed computerized medical records of these consenting participants to record VA treatment utilization. There is a statistically significant association between posttraumatic stress disorder screening results, functional impairment, and treatment-seeking. Certain functional impairments increase the odds of participation in VA mental health care. These include problems with school and/or work (odds ratio (OR)=2.8), physical fights (OR=2.8), physical health problems (OR=3.0), financial difficulties (OR=3.0), irritability/anger (OR=3.4), isolation (OR=3.8), drug use (OR=5.7), and problems with social support (OR=7.0). This study concluded that asking about symptoms alone may not capture the breadth and nature of Veterans' postdeployment difficulties.

  5. To tweet or to retweet? That is the question for health professionals on twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Young; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the MAIN model ( Sundar, 2008 ), this study explored the effects of three interface cues conveying source attributes on credibility of health messages in Twitter: authority cue (whether a source is an expert or not), bandwagon cue (the number of followers that a source has-large vs. small), and source proximity cue (distance of messages from its original source-tweet vs. retweet). A significant three-way interaction effect on perceived credibility of health content was found, such that when a professional source with many followers tweets, participants tend to perceive the content to be more credible than when a layperson source with many followers tweets. For retweets, however, the exact opposite pattern was found. Results also show that for tweets, content credibility was significantly associated with the perceived expertise of proximal source, whereas for retweets, it was associated with the perceived trustworthiness of proximal source. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Methodical questions on assasment of risk associated with behavioral factors’ impact on population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Lebedeva-Nesevrya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study offers an algorithm and methods for semi-quantitative assessment of health risk associated with impact of behavioral factors that have scarce data for quantitative parametrization of the “factor – response” relation. Some of these factors include, first of all, irresponsible medical and hygienic behavior, violations of work and rest, sleep and wakefulness schedule. It was shown that the semi-quantitative risk assessment assumes the development of private mark scales for each estimated behavioral factor, as well as a choice of an integration way of scores, a choice of a way for establishing the negative effects’ severity, formation of risk matrix. For example, the factor "irresponsible health behavior" demonstrates the method of the mark characteristics of the risk taking potential of separate risk components to be used in calculating of the individual and integrated indexes of health deterioration probability. The following components have been taken into account: a timeliness of visiting a doctor, b the practice of preventive examinations, c compliance (commitment to the treatment appointed by a doctor, d reception of medicines without appointment of the doctor, e the request for the recommendation of medicines and methods of treatment to someone, except the doctor. The study offers a logical scheme of the behavioral risk factor analysis at the individual level for using on a stage of the exposure evaluation. It was shown that the tools used for exposure characterization must assume the possibility for assessment of the typicality and stability of behavioral patterns realized by individuals or a group. It is recommended to apply the matrix for semi-quantitative assessment of health risks associated with the activity of behavioral factors. The matrix combines two types of descriptors that both characterize a semi – quantitative probability assessment and assess the adverse effect severity.

  7. A question of time: the land snail Murella muralis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) reveals constraints on past ecological speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, V; Manganelli, G; Giusti, F; Tiedemann, R; Ketmaier, V

    2013-01-01

    The lively debate about speciation currently focuses on the relative importance of factors driving population differentiation. While many studies are increasingly producing results on the importance of selection, little is known about the interaction between drift and selection. Moreover, there is still little knowledge on the spatial-temporal scales at which speciation occurs, that is, arrangement of habitat patches, abruptness of habitat transitions, climate and habitat changes interacting with selective forces. To investigate these questions, we quantified variation on a fine geographical scale analysing morphological (shell) and genetic data sets coupled with environmental data in the land snail Murella muralis, endemic to the Mediterranean island of Sicily. Analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) and eight nuclear microsatellite loci showed that genetic variation is highly structured at a very fine spatial scale by local palaeogeographical events and historical population dynamics. Molecular clock estimates, calibrated here specifically for Tyrrhenian land snails, provided a framework of palaeogeographical events responsible for the observed geographical variations and migration routes. Finally, we showed for the first time well-documented lines of evidence of selection in the past, which explains divergence of land snail shell shapes. We suggest that time and palaeogeographical history acted as constraints in the progress along the ecological speciation continuum. Our study shows that testing for correlation among palaeogeography, morphology and genetic data on a fine geographical scale provides information fundamental for a detailed understanding of ecological speciation processes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Time-frequency methods for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyayt, Alexander L; Kozionov, Alexey P; Mokhov, Ilya I; Lang, Bernhard; Meijer, Robert J; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Sloot, Peter M A

    2014-03-12

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams) using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany) and "strange" behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK) and a Rhine levee (Germany).

  9. Time-Frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pyayt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK and a Rhine levee (Germany.

  10. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Discussion questions of influence of corticosteroid treatment in pregnant women on children’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Shaytarova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic corticosteroids are used in treatment of pregnant women with threat of premature birth or high risk of inborn dysfunction of adrenal cortex (IDAC in fetus. The treatment results in the decrease of mortality of premature children and lessening of virilization of external genitals and brain in female fetus with IDAC. The safety of synthetic corticosteroids is actively discussed during last decade because of possible unfavorable effects of dexamethasone on fetus status and health of future child. Results of studies with animal models show effect of synthetic corticosteroids influences hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal gland system of fetus mediately through placenta. As a result, hyperactivity of hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal gland system, arterial hypertension, tendency to metabolic syndrome, alteration of behavior and decrease of cognitive function in generation was shown. There are only few studies of long-term effects of treatment with corticosteroids in pregnant women, they are contradictory.Key words: corticosteroids, pregnancy, long-term effects, behavior, children.

  12. Emotional crisis and trauma as opportunities to develop and enhance health: questions and doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubacka-Jasiecka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the issue of emotional crisis and trauma in terms of opportunities to develop and grow. The article seeks to show the complex psychological conditions pertaining to emotional crises, a constructive way of dealing with them, and the possibility of growing and developing thanks to having experienced such a crisis. These issues are usually omitted when describing crises; however, as the author postulates, they constitute a foundation for differentiating — as we surely must do — between emotional crisis and trauma, development and growth through crisis, and the positive adaptive changes observed in cases of post-traumatic disorder. Such changes cannot always be identified as instances of so called post-traumatic growth. The latter is described by the author, with reference to Maslow's theory, as development “resulting from the lack of something”, where this in turn reflects some trauma or other. Moreover, considerations pertaining both to current work in health psychology, and to the distinction between emotional crisis and trauma proposed here, could well prove relevant where practices of intervention are concerned.

  13. Public health implications of altered puberty timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D; Kimmel, Carole A; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Reiter, Edward O; Sharpe, Richard M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma

    2008-02-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening.

  14. The Majority of Library Clients Still Use Person-to-Person Interaction When Asking Reference Questions. A review of: De Groote, Sandra L. “Questions Asked at the Virtual and Physical Health Sciences Reference Desk: How Do They Compare and What Do They Tell Us?” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 24.2 (Summer 2005: 11-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Pamela Lewis

    2006-03-01

    /staff. undergarduate student, graduate student, non0UIC, unknown; mode of submission (email, chat, phone, in person; and type of question asked (directional, ready reference, in-depth/mediated, instructional, technical, accounts/status and other. In subsequent analysis, the original seven types of questions were further broken down into 19 categories. Main results - It was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis or systematic review of the studies identified in the literature review because of differences in time frames, settings and the categories used to code reference questions. However the following trends emerged: directional questions accounted for between 30 and 35% of questions asked at both the physical and virtual reference desks; the remainder of questions were generally about known item searched, library policies and services, research, dadabase use and quick reference. The statistics collected at UIC Library of the Health Sciences over the period July 1997 to June 2003 were analyzed. Coded reference questions fell into one of four categories; ready reference, in-depth reference, mediated searched and digital reference. There was a noticeable drop in the number of reference questions received in 1999/2000 which reflects trends reported in some of the studies identified in the literature review. The number of mediated searches decreased from 154 in 1997-98 to 4 in 2002/2003, but the number of digital reference questions increased from 0 to 508 in the same period. Statistics were collected over the month of November 2003 for 939 questions asked at the reference and information desks which included: 38 email; 48 chat; 156 phone; and 697 in person. The major findings were as follows: - appoximately 55% of questions were reference questions (33.5% ready reference, 9.7% in-depth/mediated, 9.7% instructional; 30% were directional; and 10% were technical; it is not stated what the remaining 5% of questions were; - library clients who asked the questions comprised graduate

  15. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  16. Critiquing Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  17. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  18. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P diet healthiness (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.002) and the rating of nutrition's importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  20. Living in the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  1. The Use of Mathematical Models of Chlamydia Transmission to Address Public Health Policy Questions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Minttu M; Wolf, Emory E; Chesson, Harrell; Menzies, Nicolas A; Galer, Kara; Gorwitz, Rachel; Gift, Thomas; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A

    2017-05-01

    Mathematical models of chlamydia transmission can help inform disease control policy decisions when direct empirical evaluation of alternatives is impractical. We reviewed published chlamydia models to understand the range of approaches used for policy analyses and how the studies have responded to developments in the field. We performed a literature review by searching Medline and Google Scholar (up to October 2015) to identify publications describing dynamic chlamydia transmission models used to address public health policy questions. We extracted information on modeling methodology, interventions, and key findings. We identified 47 publications (including two model comparison studies), which reported collectively on 29 distinct mathematical models. Nine models were individual-based, and 20 were deterministic compartmental models. The earliest studies evaluated the benefits of national-level screening programs and predicted potentially large benefits from increased screening. Subsequent trials and further modeling analyses suggested the impact might have been overestimated. Partner notification has been increasingly evaluated in mathematical modeling, whereas behavioral interventions have received relatively limited attention. Our review provides an overview of chlamydia transmission models and gives a perspective on how mathematical modeling has responded to increasing empirical evidence and addressed policy questions related to prevention of chlamydia infection and sequelae.

  2. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  3. Finding the Patient's Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users' Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Chad; Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-03-09

    The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public's health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12-19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents' sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities for rapid understanding of health concerns and may

  4. Culture-Sensitive Question Order Effects of Self-Rated Health Between Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Schwarz, Norbert; Goldstein, Leanne Streja

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine context effects created by the question order for self-rated health (SRH) by race/ethnicity and language. Differences in SRH estimates for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics were first examined with multiple observational data that asked SRH in different contexts. To examine context effects by socio-demographics and health-related characteristics, we conducted experiments on SRH question order. While Hispanics reported poorer health than non-Hispanic Whites, this difference, in part, depended on question contexts. With SRH asked after rather than before specific health questions, Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, reported better health, while non-Hispanic Whites' reports remained consistent. Among Spanish-speaking Hispanics, the context effect was larger for unmarried and less educated persons and those with comorbidities. Question contexts influence SRH reports by Spanish-speaking older adults. Cross-cultural inquiries on the meaning of health and its dynamics with question contexts may explain what SRH measures for increasingly diverse populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Question Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  6. Essential Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  7. It's time for health record banking!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabo, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. This Focus Theme aims at describing the Health Record Banking (HRB) paradigm, which offers an alternative constellation of health information exchange and integration through sustainability of health records over the lifetime of individuals by independent and trusted organizations. It also aims at describing various approaches to HRB and reporting on the state-of-the-art HRB through actual implementations and lessons learned, as described in articles of this Focus Theme.

  8. Health as the religion of our time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    uses the vocabulary of discourse analysis and calls health a hegemon. Pointing out that it is not a consensus but a sedimentation that prevent us from being against health. But this cannot only be seen as a limitation of personal freedom, but also - through the lens of social theory - as a historical...

  9. Communication in health: a new time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Menezes FERREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The interface between the fields of health and communication brings together a wide diversity of topics, perspectives and articulations between academic production (scientific content and its dissemination to the public (health journalism. The development and convergence of communication technologies, the progressive mediatization of society and institutions, the new generation of readers and their ways of consuming health content are some of the examples of the various issues addressed in health communication. The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between media and health and its current importance in the production and dissemination of contents, in light of the new information and communication technologies, producing efficient and credible information, directed to different audiences.

  10. The Built Environment and Health: Introducing Individual Space-Time Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Timmermans

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the relationship between the built environment and health. Yet, the question of how and why the environment influences health behavior remains largely unexplored. As health promotion interventions work through the individuals in a targeted population, an explicit understanding of individual behavior is required to formulate and evaluate intervention strategies. Bringing in concepts from various fields, this paper proposes the use of an activity-based modeling approach for understanding and predicting, from the bottom up, how individuals interact with their environment and each other in space and time, and how their behaviors aggregate to population-level health outcomes.

  11. Time-frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and

  12. Time-frequency methods for structural health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and

  13. [The questions of improving the information-analytical component in the reform of the health care system in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Беликова, Инна В; Руденко, Леся А

    2016-01-01

    A priority task of the development strategy of the Ukrainian health care system is the saving and improving of public health. With the development of new economic relations, health care restructuring, the introduction of new financing mechanisms to policy-makers have an important task of the organization of operational management on the basis of timely quality information. According to many authors, the ability to improve the quality of the received information is possible due to the intercalation of information technologies. The main aim of our study is to determine the main directions of modernization of information-analytical component during the health care reform. The medical institutions reporting forms (f.20, f.12, f.17, f.47) were analyzed to achieve the goal, were conducted a survey of primary care physicians. The survey was attended by 265 family doctors, 80 of whom are family doctors of family medicine clinic of the regional center, 185 - medical centers of primary health care district centers. The analysis of the sociological research indicates that the work of the family doctor is accompanied by filling a large number of records, so according to the survey, an average of doctors per day filled about 15.74 +2.2 registration forms, on average per month 333,7+ 30 a month. The necessity of reform of the information-analytical component of the health care system have noted by 94% 1.4. Do not have a automated workstation 34.5% + 5.3 physicians of the regional center and 68% + 3.4 countryside. Possession of the computer at user level observed by 92% + 1.6, which is a good basis for the introduction of information in healthcare system. The data of the sociological survey confirm the necession of structural-functional procuring of the system of information-analytical supporting of the healthcare system of Ukraine. Annual health statistics reports are still relevant, but they need to improve and adapt to the new conditions of functioning of healthcare system and

  14. EMOTIONAL HEALTH, AND SPENDING TIME IN NATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana-Loredana Vitalia

    2013-01-01

    For many people, nature represents a place to rest and recover from daily stress. Recent researches emphasized that living in neighbourhood with comparatively plentiful walkable green space was correlated with a better perceived general health, and a lower mortality risk (Maars et all, 2006; Van Dillen et all, 2011). Moreover, physical activity in nature is an important recovery aspect in psychological illness, such as anxiety or depression. This study proposed to investigate the relation...

  15. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  16. Health Information Management: Changing with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S H; Low, S; Abrams, K J; Butler-Henderson, K

    2017-08-01

    Objective: With the evolution of patient medical records from paper to electronic media and the changes to the way data is sourced, used, and managed, there is an opportunity for health information management (HIM) to learn and facilitate the increasing expanse of available patient data. Methods: This paper discusses the emerging trends and lessons learnt in relation with the following four areas: 1) data and information governance, 2) terminology standards certification, 3) International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), and 4) data analytics and HIM. Results: The governance of patient data and information increasingly requires the HIM profession to incorporate the roles of data scientists and data stewards into its portfolio to ensure data analytics and digital transformation is appropriately managed. Not only are terminology standards required to facilitate the structure and primary use of this data, developments in Canada in relation with the standards, role descriptions, framework and curricula in the form of certification provide one prime example of ensuring the quality of the secondary use of patient data. The impending introduction of ICD-11 brings with it the need for the HIM profession to manage the transition between ICD versions and country modifications incorporating changes to standards and tools, and the availability and type of patient data available for secondary use. Conclusions: In summary, the health information management profession now requires abilities in leadership, data, and informatics in addition to health information science and coding skills to facilitate the expanding secondary use of patient data. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  17. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...... sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated....... Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...

  18. [Adolescents ask physicians on the Internet: a one-year survey of adolescents' questions on health issues in an Internet forum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoff, Daniel; Friedman, Rina; Pilo, Nurit; Friedman, Fernando; Greilsammer, Daniel; Rigler, Shmuel

    2012-06-01

    During the past decade, the internet has become a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among young people and adolescents who seek health information via the internet. Until now, the contents of Israeli adolescents' questions regarding health issues on internet sites have not been published. (1) A survey of the characteristics of adolescents who seek health information and their questions presented to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence". In this forum physicians experienced in adolescent medicine respond to these questions and to comments of other forum participants. (2) Presentation of problematic issues in professionals' responses to health questions in the internet. Survey of a representative sample of contacts to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence" during 2009 gathering information on gender and age of contacting person, parents' contacts, contacts' contents and physicians responses. A total of 412 contacts were surveyed, 210 (51%) females, aged 14-17 years--60%, 10-13 years--17% and 18-21 years 15%. Parents' questions appeared in 39 (9%) of contacts. Of all contacts, 44% related to sexuality issues and 17% related to self image and body composition. The physicians provided complete responses to 60% of the contacts, while in 40% the physician's responses included referral to clinical medical consultation. An internet health forum enables adolescents and parents to ask questions and raise doubts and anxieties regarding various health issues without the fear of being exposed and enables them to express their concerns face-to-face with a healthcare provider Sensitive issues regarding sexuality and self-image, which are not raised frequently during clinical encounters, are expressed and receive professional responses in the forum. Notwithstanding the significance of a rapid professional contribution, physicians responding to contacts in internet forums need to recognize the barrier related to professional

  19. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to

  20. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lusignan, Simon; Liyanage, Harshana; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Chan, Tom; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-01-19

    The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed. To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access. The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences. The framework contains three steps: (1) identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2) providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3) assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  1. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  2. The question of the existence of God in the book of Stephen Hawking: A brief history of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.; Driessen, A; Suarez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The continuing interest in the book of S. Hawking "A Brief History of Time" makes a philosophical evaluation of the content highly desirable. As will be shown, the genre of this work can be identified as a speciality in philosophy, namely the proof of the existence of God. In this study an attempt

  3. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  4. 78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...: Questions and Answers About 517A; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... CDRH's proposed interpretation of key provisions of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act ] (FD&C Act...

  5. Time to question diabetes self-management support for Arabic-speaking migrants: exploring a new model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a new model for diabetes self-management support in Arabic-speaking migrants. Two qualitative methods were used: face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. Arabic-speaking migrants with Type 2 diabetes were recruited from several primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare settings in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. These settings were purposefully selected to obtain a diverse group of participants. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. This is the first study that involved members of Arabic-speaking communities in Australia in a formal process of consumer and public involvement to inform research design and recruitment in order to provide evidence for a new model of diabetes self-management for Arabic-speaking migrants. No self-management support was offered to Arabic-speaking migrants beyond the initial diagnosis period. Significant knowledge gaps and skills deficits in all self-management domains were evident. The provision of tailored self-management support was considered crucial. When asked about preferred structure and delivery modalities, a strong preference was reported for face-to-face storytelling interactions over telephone- or internet-based interventions. Gender-specific group education and self-management support sessions delivered by Arabic-speaking diabetes health professionals, lay peers or social workers trained in diabetes self-management were highly regarded. A patient and public involvement approach allows genuine engagement with Arabic-speaking migrants with diabetes. There is urgent need for a new model for self-management support among Arabic-speaking migrants. Findings yielded new recommendations for diabetes health professionals working with these migrant communities to support behaviour change. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  6. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  7. Health, SES, and the Timing of Education Among Military Retirees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan D

    The timing of education across the life cycle is differentially associated with older-age health outcomes and socioeconomic status among military retirees, a subpopulation with common levels of adolescent health but variation in educational timing. A year of education obtained before military service lowers the probability of poor health in retirement by 2.5 percentage points, while a year obtained after service reduces poor health by only 0.6 percentage point. By contrast, education raises income and wealth uniformly through vintage. This suggests that education improves health through fostering the lifelong accumulation of healthy behaviors and habits rather than raising income or wealth.

  8. Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi L; Keykavousi Arani L; Safarnavadeh M

    2015-01-01

     Aims: Critical thinking has the 2 aspects skill and attitude. The skill aspect will not take place without the attitude to critical thinking. The aim of this study was to compare between problem-based and question-answer learning methods on critical thinking attitude of environmental health students.  Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study all 27 environmental health students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences were entered the study by census method. Criti...

  9. Practice question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Chris Beech, nurse consultant, Services for Older People, NHS Forth Valley and member of the nurses' and allied health professionals' special interest group, British Geriatrics Society; Susan Nixon, service manager, Services for Older People, Falkirk Council.

  10. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  11. Five-Factor Personality Traits and Age Trajectories of Self-Rated Health: The Role of Question Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, low extraversion, and low openness were associated with worse health ratings, with notable differences across the four health items. Furthermore, high neuroticism predicted steeper declines in health ratings involving temporal comparisons. We consider theoretical implications regarding the mechanisms behind associations among personality traits and self-rated health. PMID:21299558

  12. System-specific periodicity in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data questions threshold-based quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Rödiger, Stefan; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Volksdorf, Thomas; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2016-12-13

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data are found to display periodic patterns in the fluorescence intensity as a function of sample number for fixed cycle number. This behavior is seen for technical replicate datasets recorded on several different commercial instruments; it occurs in the baseline region and typically increases with increasing cycle number in the growth and plateau regions. Autocorrelation analysis reveals periodicities of 12 for 96-well systems and 24 for a 384-well system, indicating a correlation with block architecture. Passive dye experiments show that the effect may be from optical detector bias. Importantly, the signal periodicity manifests as periodicity in quantification cycle (Cq) values when these are estimated by the widely applied fixed threshold approach, but not when scale-insensitive markers like first- and second-derivative maxima are used. Accordingly, any scale variability in the growth curves will lead to bias in constant-threshold-based Cqs, making it mandatory that workers should either use scale-insensitive Cqs or normalize their growth curves to constant amplitude before applying the constant threshold method.

  13. Chiropractic care and public health : answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues

  14. Is This Time Different? The Slowdown in Health Care Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amitabh; Holmes, Jonathan; Skinner, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Why have health care costs moderated in the last decade? Some have suggested that the Great Recession alone was the cause, but health expenditure growth in the depths of the recession was nearly identical to growth prior to the recession. Nor can the Affordable Care Act (ACA) take credit, since the slowdown began prior to its implementation. Instead, we identify three primary causes of the slowdown: the rise in high-deductible insurance plans, state-level efforts to control Medicaid costs, and a general slowdown in the diffusion of new technology, particularly for use by the Medicare population. A more difficult question is: Will this slowdown continue? On this question we are pessimistic, and not entirely because a similar (and temporary) slowdown occurred in the early 1990s. The primary determinant of long-term growth is the continued development of expensive technology, and there is little evidence of a permanent slowdown in that pipeline. Proton beam accelerators are on target to double between 2010 and 2014, while the market for heart-assist devices (costing more than $300,000 each) is projected to grow rapidly. Accountable care organizations (ACOs) and emboldened insurance companies may yet stifle health care cost growth, but our best estimate over the next two decades is that health care costs will grow at GDP plus 1.2 percent, a rate lower than previous estimates but still on track to cause serious fiscal pain for taxpayers and workers who bear the costs of higher premiums.

  15. Is This Time Different? The Slowdown in Health Care Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amitabh; Holmes, Jonathan; Skinner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Why have health care costs moderated in the last decade? Some have suggested that the Great Recession alone was the cause, but health expenditure growth in the depths of the recession was nearly identical to growth prior to the recession. Nor can the Affordable Care Act (ACA) take credit, since the slowdown began prior to its implementation. Instead, we identify three primary causes of the slowdown: the rise in high-deductible insurance plans, state-level efforts to control Medicaid costs, and a general slowdown in the diffusion of new technology, particularly for use by the Medicare population. A more difficult question is: Will this slowdown continue? On this question we are pessimistic, and not entirely because a similar (and temporary) slowdown occurred in the early 1990s. The primary determinant of long-term growth is the continued development of expensive technology, and there is little evidence of a permanent slowdown in that pipeline. Proton beam accelerators are on target to double between 2010 and 2014, while the market for heart-assist devices (costing more than $300,000 each) is projected to grow rapidly. Accountable care organizations (ACOs) and emboldened insurance companies may yet stifle health care cost growth, but our best estimate over the next two decades is that health care costs will grow at GDP plus 1.2 percent, a rate lower than previous estimates but still on track to cause serious fiscal pain for taxpayers and workers who bear the costs of higher premiums. PMID:25418992

  16. Valuing health in a racially and ethnically diverse community sample: an analysis using the valuation metrics of money and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Limited research in health valuation analyzes samples with high proportions of racial/ethnic minorities within the United States. The primary objective was to explore patterns of health valuation across race/ethnicity using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. A secondary objective was to analyze whether mental health disorder and immigrant status were associated with these estimates. Methods Health valuation questions using different metrics (time and money) were analyzed. Ordered logit models stratified across poor and moderate health tested differences by race/ethnicity, with mental health disorder and immigrant status as covariates. Results Asians in moderate health and Latinos were willing to pay more for health than non-Latino whites. Asians in moderate health were willing to trade more time for health. Latinos in poor health were less willing to trade time and gave disproportionate zero-trade responses. Lifetime history of anxiety disorder was positively associated with both metrics. Immigrant status confounded money valuation for Asians in moderate health, and time valuation for Latinos in poor health. Conclusions Health valuation estimates vary across race/ethnicity depending upon the metric. Time valuation scenarios appear less feasible for Latinos in poor health. More research is necessary to understand these differences and the role of immigrant status in health valuation. PMID:20680690

  17. The "Something Else" of Sexual Orientation: Measuring Sexual Identities of Older Lesbian and Bisexual Women Using National Health Interview Survey Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J; Radix, Asa; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Terminology related to sexuality and gender is constantly evolving, and multiple factors are at play when individuals answer questions on surveys. We examined patterns of responding to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) sexual identity questions in a multisite health intervention study for lesbian and bisexual women aged 40 to 84 years. Of 376 participants, 80% (n = 301) chose "lesbian or gay," 13% (n = 49) selected "bisexual," 7% (n = 25) indicated "something else," and 1 participant chose "don't know the answer." In response to the follow-up question for women who said "something else" or "don't know," most (n = 17) indicated that they were "not straight, but identify with another label." One participant chose "transgender, transsexual, or gender variant," five chose "You do not use labels to identify yourself," and three chose "you mean something else." Lesbian, bisexual, and "something else" groups were compared across demographic and health-related measures. Women who reported their sexual identity as "something else" were younger, more likely to have a disability, more likely to be in a relationship with a male partner, and had lower mental health quality of life than women who reported their sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Respondents who answer "something else" pose challenges to analysis and interpretation of data, but should not be discarded from samples. Instead, they may represent a subset of the community that views sexuality and gender as fluid and dynamic concepts, not to be defined by a single label. Further study of the various subsets of "something else" is warranted, along with reconsideration of the NHIS question options. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic biology & human health: some initial thoughts on the ethical questions and how we ought to approach them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Meulen, Ruud; Calladine, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology aims to move beyond our current state of being able to read and manipulate genetic code to being able to write it. Drawing on the other disciplines such as engineering it will allow scientists to create new artificial biological systems as well as modify and redesign systems which already exist in nature. This is likely to result in a range of new and innovative applications. This essay has three aims. First, it provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology, explains what it is, some of the ways in which it has been defined and some of its possible future applications. Second, the essay considers some of the ethical questions which synthetic biology may raise. Finally, the essay reflects on how we ought to answer these sorts of questions and suggests a more reflective, philosophical approach.

  19. Can nurses rise to the public health challenge? How a novel solution in nurse education can address this contemporary question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Wilson, Angela L; Mills, Anne M; Rees, Karen

    2017-10-01

    This paper raises the problem of how improvements in health outcomes, a key component in many governments' strategies, can be achieved. The work highlights a novel undergraduate educational approach which offers solutions to public health challenges within nursing. Against the backdrop of one UK university institution it discusses approaches that can guide nursing students towards a deeper understanding and engagement within the principles of public health. It then proposes how nurses can use their learning to become leaders of health improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spouses of military members' experiences and insights: qualitative analysis of responses to an open-ended question in a survey of health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Catherine E; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C L

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non-respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included 'inadequate support', 'deployment impacts', 'suggestions for supporting agencies', 'appraisal of experiences' and 'coping strategies'. This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life.

  1. Spouses of Military Members' Experiences and Insights: Qualitative Analysis of Responses to an Open-Ended Question in a Survey of Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Catherine E.; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Methods Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Findings Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non–respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included ‘inadequate support’, ‘deployment impacts’, ‘suggestions for supporting agencies’, ‘appraisal of experiences’ and ‘coping strategies’. Conclusions This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life. PMID:25479135

  2. Campaigns and disability: When an incumbent president questions his potential successor's mental health status during the campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukakis, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Former Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis knows about the damage that disability can cause--even its mere mention. In this keynote address given to the symposium on Presidential Disability and Succession held at Northeastern University in Boston last spring, Dukakis reflected on his famous 1988 presidential campaign that, largely at his expense, redefined negativity in presidential politics, in particular the fictitious allegation that he had a history of mental illness. A distinguish professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Northeastern University, Dukakis also spends each winter quarter at UCLA as a visiting professor in the Luskin School of Public Affairs. He remains active in both politics and public policy, canvassing for Democratic candidates such as Elizabeth Warren during her 2012 Senate campaign and promoting policy initiatives through the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern, which he affectionately calls a "think and do tank." The three-term governor (1975-1979 and 1983-1991) was voted Most Effective Governor by the National Governor's Association in 1986. After his first term in the late 1970s he lost a nasty primary election to Ed King, whom he would later defeat to reclaim office. Though it wasn't apparent at the time, for Dukakis, that 1978 campaign would serve as a precursor for the attack politics that were unloosed during the 1988 presidential campaign. In the remarks that follow, he offers a candid assessment of how not going negative may have cost him the presidency, and how an offhand remark by President Reagan (quickly retracted) caused the press to obsess over Dukakis' health record for the better part of a week--enough to slow his momentum during a crucial stage of campaigning.

  3. The Perception of Time: Influences on Physical and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo Oyanadel Véliz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With a broad understanding of time perception, the dimensions positive past, negative past, fatalistic present, hedonistic present and future were grouped in profiles to assess relations with physical and mental health. Using a quasi-experimental design, 50 subjects matched for age and sex completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and the SF-36, with 3 measures of time estimation. Pearson correlations and ANOVA showed significant relationships between dimensions, physical and mental health, and estimation. Three profiles were obtained, with the balanced one (BTP having the best health indicators. These results support the idea that it is good to have a balanced profile that implies a positive attitude to the past, future orientation, and enjoying pleasant experiences. Also, health is influenced by time estimation

  4. Veterans Health Administration Timely and Effective Care Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with timely and effective care (process of care) measure data. VHA collects this information through a Quality Improvement Organization...

  5. Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

  6. Impact of Health Literacy on Time Spent Seeking Hand Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokozai, Aaron; Bernstein, David N; Sheikholeslami, Nicole; Uhler, Lauren; Ring, David; Kamal, Robin N

    2017-05-01

    Patients with limited health literacy may have less knowledge and fewer resources for efficient access and navigation of the health care system. We tested the null hypothesis that there is no correlation between health literacy and total time spent seeking hand surgery care. New patients visiting a hand surgery clinic at a suburban academic medical center were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine demographics, total time spent seeking hand surgery care, and outcomes. A total of 112 patients were included in this study. We found health literacy levels did not correlate with total time seeking hand surgery care or from booking an appointment to being evaluated in clinic. In this suburban academic medical center, patients with low health literacy do not spend more time seeking hand surgery care and do have longer delays between seeking and receiving care. The finding that-at least in this setting-health literacy does not impact patient time seeking hand care suggests that resources to improve health disparities can be focused elsewhere in the care continuum.

  7. Contemporary contestations over working time: time for health to weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane; Carey, Gemma; Strazdins, Lyndall; Banwell, Cathy; Woodman, Dan; Burgess, John; Bittman, Michael; Venn, Danielle; Sargent, Ginny

    2014-10-13

    Non-communicable disease (NCD) incidence and prevalence is of central concern to most nations, along with international agencies such as the UN, OECD, IMF and World Bank. As a result, the search has begun for 'causes of the cause' behind health risks and behaviours responsible for the major NCDs. As part of this effort, researchers are turning their attention to charting the temporal nature of societal changes that might be associated with the rapid rise in NCDs. From this, the experience of time and its allocation are increasingly understood to be key individual and societal resources for health. The interdisciplinary study outlined in this paper will produce a systematic analysis of the behavioural health dimensions, or 'health time economies' (quantity and quality of time necessary for the practice of health behaviours), that have accompanied labour market transitions of the last 30 years--the period in which so many NCDs have risen sharply. The study takes a mixed-methods approach to capture and explain the relationships between work time and health behaviours. It combines: longitudinal analysis of temporal organisation of work in Australia, with the goal of establishing associations between labour timescapes and health behaviours and health time economies; an in-depth qualitative investigation of employee experiences of the perceived impact of their labour timescapes on 'health time economies'; and, a stakeholder analysis, will uncover whether, how and why (or why not) stakeholders consider health an important dimension- of work and industrial relations policy, and what efforts are being made to mitigate health impacts of work. The study posits that time is a key mechanism through which particular forms of labour market policies impact health. The labour market flexibility agenda appears to be operating as a time re-distributive device: it has supported the removal of regulations that governed 'the when' of working time and removed limits over the amount of

  8. To the question about the role of consumption-stereotypes in the forming of health-saving individual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2017-06-01

    Emphasized: first, consumption patterns require constant critical thinking when it comes to maintaining their health; must use structural characteristics of stereotypes in creating stereotypes consumption of healthy lifestyles and developing effective systems healthsaving in Ukraine.

  9. Models of quality-adjusted life years when health varies over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2006-01-01

    time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... the SG method as the gold standard for estimation of the health state index, reexamining the role of the constantproportional tradeoff condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination...... of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken when drawing conclusions from models with chronic health states to situations where health varies over time. One notable difference is that in the former case, risk aversion may be indistinguishable from...

  10. Models of Quality-Adjusted Life Years when Health varies over Time: Survey and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. This discussion includes questioning the SG method as the gold standard of the health state index, re-examining the role...... of the constant-proportional trade-off condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken...... when drawing conclusions from models with chronic health states to situations where health varies over time. One notable difference is that in the former case, risk aversion may be indistinguishable from discounting....

  11. Is mental health in the Canadian population changing over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Keith R S; Meadows, Graham N; Frances, Allen J; Patten, Scott B

    2012-05-01

    Mental health in populations may be deteriorating, or it may be improving, but there is little direct evidence to support either possibility. Our objective was to examine secular trends in mental health indicators from national data sources. We used data (1994-2008) from the National Population Health Survey and from a series of cross-sectional studies (Canadian Community Health Survey) conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007. We calculated population-weighted proportions and also generated sex-specific, age-standardized estimates of major depressive episode prevalence, distress, professionally diagnosed mood disorders, antidepressant use, self-rated perceived mental health, and self-rated stress. Major depression prevalence did not change over time. No changes in the frequency of severe distress were seen. However, there were increases in reported diagnoses of mood disorders and an increasing proportion of the population reported that they were taking antidepressants. The proportion of the population reporting that their life was extremely stressful decreased, but the proportion reporting poor mental health did not change. Measures based on assessment of symptoms showed no evidence of change over time. However, the frequency of diagnosis and treatment appears to be increasing and perceptions of extreme stress are decreasing. These changes probably reflect changes in diagnostic practice, mental health literacy, or willingness to report mental health concerns. However, no direct evidence of changing mental health status was found.

  12. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter....... It undergoes the process of data query and manipulation: requesting data and receiving responses in a standardized format through mathematical operators. This article discusses the role of operators in which they constitute the unpredictability of queries. By understanding the operational and cultural logic...

  13. A Question of Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabiner Gene

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.

  14. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ICA staff and volunteers answer questions from patients, healthcare providers, researchers and the public. Below are some of the most commonly asked ... Exercise & IC Managing Stress Sleep & IC Quitting Smoking Public Restrooms ... IC & Healthcare Toolkit Health Insurance Finding the Right Doctor Pain ...

  15. Waiting Time Policies in the Health Care Sector. What Works?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    times. In addition, a range of other measures may indirectly have affected waiting times, such as a general increase in spending on health care, the general practitioners’ role as gate-keepers, increased use of activity-based hospital reimbursement, increasing use of private heath insurance and private...

  16. Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Critical thinking has the 2 aspects skill and attitude. The skill aspect will not take place without the attitude to critical thinking. The aim of this study was to compare between problem-based and question-answer learning methods on critical thinking attitude of environmental health students.  Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study all 27 environmental health students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences were entered the study by census method. Critical thinking attitudes’ parameters were studied by the California critical thinking disposition inventory (CCTDI before and after the intervention. The problem-based learning group (14 persons held some scenarios for studying and investigating and question-answer group (13 persons held 4 questioning sessions. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 17 using independent- and paired-T tests.  Findings: There were no significant differences between the average of CCTDI scores for problem-based learning group before (278.00±28.14 and after (309.29±13.80 the intervention and also between the average of CCTDI scores for question-answer group before (276.00±7.12 and after (306.62±16.32 the intervention (p>0.05. Both methods caused a significant increase in analytic power, information categorization and self-confidence of students (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Using both question-answer and problem-based educational methods can improve the attitude to critical thinking in students.

  17. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  18. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  19. Asking the right questions of disadvantaged and homeless communities: the role of housing, patterns of illness and reporting behaviours in the measurement of health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, L J; Nutbeam, D; Simpson, J M

    2001-08-01

    To assess the self-reported health status and its relationship to key demographic variables among patrons of a charity-run meals service at The Exodus Foundation, in urban Sydney, Australia. Random-sample cross-sectional study of 100 face-to-face interviews (79% recruitment rate). Self-reported health status was measured by subjective rating scale, open-ended and checklist questions about presence and type of acute and chronic disease. Anaysis by logistic regression of fair-poor health status on demographic variables in Exodus patrons and genera Sydney population adjusted for age and sex using the 1995 National Health Survey. Compared to housed but poor counterparts within the Exodus sample, homeless people were significantly more likely to report fair-poor health status (age-adjusted OR-3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.1). Exodus patrons, as a whole, were much more likely than Sydney's general population to report fair-poor health status, after adjusting for age and sex (OR-4.5, 95% CI 2.9-7.0) and had a more serious pattern of illness (diseases of the digestive system; depression; common cold; bronchitis; refractive errors; drug and alcohol dependence; diabetes mellitus Type II). Exodus patrons reported fewer acute and chronic illnesses with open-ended questions than with a checklist (phomelessness. When patterns of illness and injury were measured within this disadvantaged group, they showed more serious illness types than in the general population. Such patterns may not be identified by methods often used in traditional population health surveys.

  20. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  1. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  2. To the question about the role of consumption-stereotypes in the forming of health-saving individual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Dobryden

    2017-01-01

    It is proved that the formation of new consumer attitudes on the background of the displacement of traditional culture communication, nutrition, life occurs in conditions of significant events for healthsaving global nature: first, the scope of medical services during the twentieth century was transformed from private medical practices to health and beauty industry with its huge research institutes and pharmaceutical corporations. Second, because of the opportunities of new technologies radic...

  3. [The question of health regenerationism and its debate during the second republic: elements of class and ideology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Lucena, I

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzes the consensus and conflicts with regard to the criteria for what constituted the health problem in Spain and its possible solutions. We start from the assumption that the general idea of change, implicit in the regenerationist project of the end of the nineteenth century, constituted one of the active elements in the proclamation of the Second Republic. We consider three aspects: the critque of a situation in which living conditions had a negative influence on issues of health and disease; the role of technicians or experts--in this case physicians--; and the role of educational aspects. As sources we used the labor press, the general press associated with certain ideological options and social groups, and the Diario de Sesiones de las Cortes. We found that different strategies and concrete choices in health issues, and hence diverse practical interests reflecting differences in class, political affiliation and ideology, could be manifested under apparently identical expressions, eg, those related with the action of regeneration.

  4. Questions of distributive justice: public health nurses' perceptions of long-term care insurance for elderly Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Lou Ellen; Asahara, Kiyomi; Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2002-01-01

    This study examines public health nurses' perceptions and concerns about the implications of Japan's new long-term care insurance law concerning care provision for elderly people and their families. Respondents voiced their primary concern about this law as access to services for all elderly people needing care, and defined their major responsibility as strengthening health promotion and illness prevention programmes. Although wanting to expand their roles to meet the health care, social and public policy advocacy needs of elderly persons and their families, respondents also stated their concern for the possible lack of enough resources for this expansion to support family caregivers adequately. They viewed their first function as developing collaborative relationships with local government officials to help to assure sufficient resources to provide the necessary foundation for long-term care programmes to deliver services to all those in need. These concerns fall within the larger ethical issue of distributive justice in a society based on the obligations of the state to citizens and the family to its members, especially elderly relatives, who, according to traditional Japanese values, retain respect.

  5. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  6. Time based management in health care system: The chosen aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kobza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-based management (TBM is the key element of the whole management process. For many years in health care systems of highly developed countries modern and effective methods of time-based management have been implemented in both primary health care and hospitals (emergency departments and operating rooms. Over the past two decades a systematic review of Polish literature (since 1990 and peer reviewed articles published in international journals based on PubMed/Medline (2001–2011 have been carried out. The collected results indicate that the demographic and health changes in the populations are one of the main challenges facing general practitioners in the nearest future. Time-based management needs new and effective tools and skills, i.e., identification of priorities, well designed planning, delegation of the tasks, proper coordination, and creation of primary care teams that include additional members and human resources management. Proper reimbursement of health services, development of IT in health care system, better collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of information and research findings will also be needed. The use of innovative technologies, like telemedicine consultations, provides the possibility of reducing waiting time for diagnosis and treatment and in some cases could be applied in terms of secondary care. To improve the efficiency of operating rooms it is necessary to introduce different solutions, such as operating room coordinator involvement, application of automation to guide decision-making or use of robotic tools to assist surgical procedures. Overcrowded emergency departments have a major detrimental effect on the quality of hospital functions, therefore, efforts should be made to reduce them. Time-based management training among physicians and health care management in Poland, as well as the implementation of practice-based solutions still applied in highly developed countries seem to be necessary

  7. [Time based management in health care system: the chosen aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Time-based management (TBM) is the key element of the whole management process. For many years in health care systems of highly developed countries modern and effective methods of time-based management have been implemented in both primary health care and hospitals (emergency departments and operating rooms). Over the past two decades a systematic review of Polish literature (since 1990) and peer reviewed articles published in international journals based on PubMed/Medline (2001-2011) have been carried out. The collected results indicate that the demographic and health changes in the populations are one of the main challenges facing general practitioners in the nearest future. Time-based management needs new and effective tools and skills, i.e., identification of priorities, well designed planning, delegation of the tasks, proper coordination, and creation of primary care teams that include additional members and human resources management. Proper reimbursement of health services, development of IT in health care system, better collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of information and research findings will also be needed. The use of innovative technologies, like telemedicine consultations, provides the possibility of reducing waiting time for diagnosis and treatment and in some cases could be applied in terms of secondary care. To improve the efficiency of operating rooms it is necessary to introduce different solutions, such as operating room coordinator involvement, application of automation to guide decision-making or use of robotic tools to assist surgical procedures. Overcrowded emergency departments have a major detrimental effect on the quality of hospital functions, therefore, efforts should be made to reduce them. Time-based management training among physicians and health care management in Poland, as well as the implementation of practice-based solutions still applied in highly developed countries seem to be necessary.

  8. Meconium microbiome as a new source of information about long-term health and disease: questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyńska, P; Skarżyńska, E; Lisowska-Myjak, B

    2017-10-02

    To assess the diagnostic role of meconium microbiota as a source of information about the intrauterine environment of the developing fetus and possibly health and disease in later life. The literature review of over 30 papers published in international journals in the years 2001-2017, on the bacterial composition of meconium and early feces, investigated by metagenomic DNA sequencing in experimental studies on animals and clinical studies in neonates born after normal and pathological pregnancies. The bacterial composition of meconium reflects the in utero microbial environment. Bacterial colonization of the fetal gut is a source of microbial stimulation and may provide a primary signal for the maturation of a balanced postnatal innate and adaptive immune system. Clarification of a possible relationship between the presence of specific bacteria in meconium and their active role in the abnormal course of pregnancy may improve our knowledge of the pathomechanisms modifying the intrauterine environment with short- and long-term effects on the immune system and metabolic pathways. Diversified intrauterine microbiome may modify the environment of the developing fetus with possible short- and long-term impact on the individual's health and disease. Meconium which provides the individual-specific information about the intrauterine microbiome composition is a biological material with potential uses in routine clinical diagnostic practice.

  9. Question analysis for biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a biomedical question answering system. This paper describes our system's architecture and our question analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable questions based on physicians' annotations.

  10. Ethiopia's health extension workers use of work time on duty: time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Hibret; Fekadu, Binyam; Abdisa, Habtamu; Canavan, Maureen; Linnander, Erika; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Berman, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Ethiopia implemented an innovative community-based health program, called the health extension program, to enhance access to basic health promotion, disease prevention and selected curative services by establishing health posts in every village, also called kebeles, with average of 5000 people, staffed with two health extension workers (HEWs). This time and motion study was done to estimate the amount of time that HEWs spend on various work duties and to explore differences in urban compared with rural settings and among regions. A total of 44 HEWs were observed for 21 consecutive days, and time and motion data were collected using tablet computers. On average, HEWs were on duty for 15.5 days out of the 21 days of observation period, and on average, they stayed on duty for about 6 hours per day. Out of the total observed work time, the percentages of total time spent on various activities were as follows: providing health education or services (12.8%); participating in meetings and giving trainings (9.3%); conducting community mapping and mobilization (0.8%); recordkeeping, reporting, managing family folders (13.2%); managing commodities and supplies (1.3%); receiving supervision (3.2%); receiving training (1.6%); travel between work activities (15.5%); waiting for clients in the health post (or health centre in urban settings) (24.9%); building relationships in the community (13.3%); and other activities that could not be meaningfully categorized (4%). The proportion of time spent on different activities and the total time worked varied significantly between rural and urban areas and among the regions (at P < 0.05). Findings of this study indicate that only a minority of HEW time is spent on providing health education and services, and substantial time is spent waiting for clients. The efficiency of the HEW model may be improved by creating more demand for services or by redesigning service delivery modalities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  11. Sample Errors Call Into Question Conclusions Regarding Same-Sex Married Parents: A Comment on "Family Structure and Child Health: Does the Sex Composition of Parents Matter?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sullins, D

    2017-12-01

    Because of classification errors reported by the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 42 % of the same-sex married partners in the sample for this study are misclassified different-sex married partners, thus calling into question findings regarding same-sex married parents. Including biological parentage as a control variable suppresses same-sex/different-sex differences, thus obscuring the data error. Parentage is not appropriate as a control because it correlates nearly perfectly (+.97, gamma) with the same-sex/different-sex distinction and is invariant for the category of joint biological parents.

  12. Do Interviewers' Health Beliefs and Habits Modify Responses to Sensitive Questions? A study using Data Collected from Pregnant women by Means of Computer-assisted Telephone Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    the interviewers' education, age, or parity correlate with the answers they obtained. In these data gathered through computer-assisted telephone interviews, interviewer effects arising from variations in interviewers' health beliefs and personal habits were found to be negligible. Thorough training......If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...

  13. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P; Allison, David B; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D; Malaisse, Willy J; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A J L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Varady, Krista A; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-11-25

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects suggest that intermittent energy restriction periods of as little as 16 h can improve health indicators and counteract disease processes. The mechanisms involve a metabolic shift to fat metabolism and ketone production, and stimulation of adaptive cellular stress responses that prevent and repair molecular damage. As data on the optimal frequency and timing of meals crystalizes, it will be critical to develop strategies to incorporate those eating patterns into health care policy and practice, and the lifestyles of the population.

  14. A standard telemental health evaluation model: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Greg M; Shore, Jay H; Mishkind, Matt C; Friedl, Karl E; Poropatich, Ronald K; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-05-01

    The telehealth field has advanced historic promises to improve access, cost, and quality of care. However, the extent to which it is delivering on its promises is unclear as the scientific evidence needed to justify success is still emerging. Many have identified the need to advance the scientific knowledge base to better quantify success. One method for advancing that knowledge base is a standard telemental health evaluation model. Telemental health is defined here as the provision of mental health services using live, interactive video-teleconferencing technology. Evaluation in the telemental health field largely consists of descriptive and small pilot studies, is often defined by the individual goals of the specific programs, and is typically focused on only one outcome. The field should adopt new evaluation methods that consider the co-adaptive interaction between users (patients and providers), healthcare costs and savings, and the rapid evolution in communication technologies. Acceptance of a standard evaluation model will improve perceptions of telemental health as an established field, promote development of a sounder empirical base, promote interagency collaboration, and provide a framework for more multidisciplinary research that integrates measuring the impact of the technology and the overall healthcare aspect. We suggest that consideration of a standard model is timely given where telemental health is at in terms of its stage of scientific progress. We will broadly recommend some elements of what such a standard evaluation model might include for telemental health and suggest a way forward for adopting such a model.

  15. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of questions...

  16. Essential questions: accuracy, errors and user perceptions in a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In previous work we have described the creation and user testing of a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record, MedWISE. Any new design poses new potential problems; here we discuss the accuracy, potential for new types of errors, and user reactions to the approach, including their perceptions of ease of use and usefulness. Our results come from a mixed methods laboratory study with 18 clinicians at a large academic medical center. 12 used MedWISE and 6 used the conventional system. MedWISE users had comparable assessment accuracy to use of the conventional system, low (1/10) risk of diagnosis momentum error, and overall favorable and even enthusiastic user perception. 10/12 said the system eased their cognitive process, Ease of use and usefulness were rated 3.79 and 4.00 on a 5-point Likert scale. Users were unconcerned about the possibility of increased errors due to their trust in colleagues and system similarities to current practice. After first describing the issues, we suggest a method to elucidate risks in innovative and current systems.

  17. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. "The Questions Shape the Answers": Assessing the Quality of Published Survey Instruments in Health Professions Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Phillips, Andrew W; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Durning, Steven J

    2017-10-31

    Surveys are widely used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet little is known about the quality of the instruments employed. Poorly designed survey tools containing unclear or poorly formatted items can be difficult for respondents to interpret and answer, yielding low-quality data. This study assessed the quality of published survey instruments in HPE. In 2017, the authors performed an analysis of HPE research articles published in three high-impact journals in 2013. They included articles that employed at least one self-administered survey. They designed a coding rubric addressing five violations of established best practices for survey item design and used it to collect descriptive data on the validity and reliability evidence reported and to assess the quality of available survey items. Thirty-six articles met inclusion criteria and included the instrument for coding, with one article using 2 surveys, yielding 37 unique surveys. Authors reported validity and reliability evidence for 13 (35.1%) and 8 (21.6%) surveys, respectively. Results of the item-quality assessment revealed that a substantial proportion of published survey instruments violated established best practices in the design and visual layout of Likert-type rating items. Overall, 35 (94.6%) of the 37 survey instruments analyzed contained at least one violation of best practices. The majority of articles failed to report validity and reliability evidence, and a substantial proportion of the survey instruments violated established best practices in survey design. The authors suggest areas of future inquiry and provide several improvement recommendations for HPE researchers, reviewers, and journal editors.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not

  19. [Access to high-risk families through selected actors of the health care system. Results of an explorative questioning of early childhood intervention pilot projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, I

    2010-10-01

    A requirement for preventive child protection is an early and systematic access to high-risk families. Actors of the health care system, in particular doctors in private practice and midwives, are highly accepted within the population and therefore offer perfect requirements to provide this access. For this reason the aim in the context of early childhood intervention is a close cooperation of the Child and Youth Services with doctors and midwives. To what extent can these service providers of the health care system fulfill these expectations? The National Centre on Early Prevention tried to find an answer to this question with the support of 10 pilot projects which were set up within the framework of the action program "Early Prevention and Intervention for Parents and Children and Social Warning Systems". The comprehensive project presentation of selected results, insights and experiences concerning cooperation between agents of the Child and Youth Services and doctors in private practice and midwives is based on explorative written questioning of the 10 projects. The study shows from the point of view of the pilot projects that the cooperation with freelance midwives is promising. In contrast, the cooperation with doctors in private practice does not yet meet the hopes and expectations. To achieve an improvement of this situation, conditions have to be supported which promote a stronger commitment of the medical profession to early childhood intervention.

  20. Question answering for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Mark P.; Allison, David B.; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Seyfried, Thomas N.; Varady, Krista A.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-01-01

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects ...

  2. Income and individual deprivation as predictors of health over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona; Carter, Kristie N; Crampton, Peter; Blakely, Tony

    2013-08-01

    Poverty, often defined as a lack of resources to achieve a living standard that is deemed acceptable by society, may be assessed using level of income or a measure of individual deprivation. However, the relationship between low income and deprivation is complex--for example, not everyone who has low income is deprived (and vice versa). In addition, longitudinal studies show only a small relationship between short-term changes in income and health but an alternative measure of poverty, such as deprivation, may have a stronger association with health over time. We aim to compare low income and individual deprivation as predictors of self-rated health (SRH), using longitudinal survey data, to test the hypothesis that different measures of poverty may have different associations with health. We used three waves from the longitudinal Survey of Family, Income and Employment and fixed-effect linear regression models to compare low income (poverty with health, using alternative measures, in addition to income, is advisable.

  3. Question Analysis for Biomedical Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a biomedical question answering system. This paper describes our system’s architecture and our question analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable questions based on physicians’ annotations.

  4. [Ways of spending free time by students of the Medical University of Gdansk in relation to their health behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdak-Haasa, Ewa; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Pegiel-Kamrat, Jolanta

    2002-01-01

    Problems connected with the issue of free time are the field of interest for social, and medical scientists and economists. Medical students are perceived by others as well as by themselves as the group with free time deficiency. An inquiry was conducted on subject of some aspects of free time and healthy lifestyle in practice of VIth year students of Faculty of Medicine and 1st year students of Medical Analysis at the Medical University of Gdansk. One of the questions in the inquiry was direct question about the ways of spending free time. There were differences in forms of spending free time between students of Faculty of Medicine and students of Medical Analysis. Among the first group examined the most, about 46%, points to recreational sport as the form of spending free time; quite a lot people read books, and about 40% of them sleep. Medical Analysis students asked the same question answer that they study during their free time--almost 41%, they also go for walks and listen to the radio. On the grounds of the answer about practicing recreational sport we can assume that for the greatest part of the students such activities have become an obligatory part of their lifestyle and not everybody classifies them among free time activities. Students of both inquired groups fill their free time with number of activities, among which we can find those involving rest, health or entertainment.

  5. Time volunteered on community health activities by brigadistas in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Meredith; Rivera, Dixmer; Shah, Rashed; Koepsell, Jeanne; Martínez, Leonel; Ortiz, Justo Pastor; Navarrete, Carlos José Jarquín; Marsh, David R

    2016-11-01

    To report on how brigadistas ("health brigadiers") in Nicaragua volunteer their time before the introduction of expanded responsibilities (beyond the scope of integrated community case management (iCCM)) for sick children 2-59 months old. Three complete teams of brigadistas (n = 12 brigadistas total) were selected from remote communities in the department of Matagalpa. Each respondent brigadista was interviewed privately regarding the frequency and duration (i.e., preparation, round-trip travel, and implementation time) of 13 separate activities. The correlation between their overall estimates and summed times of individual activities were measured. Brigadista mean density was 1 per 156 total population (range: 120-217). Each team had one encargado/a ("manager") with an iCCM drug box plus two to four asistentes ("assistants"). All resided in the community they served. Eight reported competing time demands during one to nine months of the year. Brigadistas volunteered an average of 75 hours per month (range: 35-131). Encargados were busier than asistentes (98 versus 68 hours per month). Three activities accounted for 70% of their time: 1) iCCM (30%: treatment (11%), follow-up (19%)); 2) receiving training (21%); and 3) promoting birth planning (19%). Brigadistas' time was divided among preparation (12%), travel (27%), and implementation (61%). Overall estimates were highly correlated (+0.70) with summed implementation time. Brigadistas from these remote Nicaraguan communities were busy with different activities, levels of effort, and patterns of task-sharing. These findings, plus an ongoing job satisfaction survey and a follow-on time study after the introduction of the new interventions, will inform policy for this valuable volunteer cadre.

  6. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  7. A single question regarding mobility in the World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire predicts 3-year mortality in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Ho; Ho, Miao-Chun; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Hui-Teng

    2017-09-20

    Low quality of life, depression and poor quality of sleep are associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. It is not clear which factor has the highest predictive power and what the core element is to explain the predictability. We thus conducted a prospective cohort study that included 151 hemodialysis adults. Three traits of interest were assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, an abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and Athens Insomnia Scale, respectively. They were followed for more than 3 years and the all-cause mortality was 30.5%. The prevalence of quality of life at the lowest tertile, depression and poor quality of sleep was 19.9%, 43.0% and 74.2%, respectively. Discriminant analysis showed the standardized coefficient of each factor as 0.813, -0.289 and 0.066, indicating the highest discriminating power by quality of life to predict mortality. Question 15 "how well are you able to get around?" in the physical health domain of WHOQOL-BREF independently associated a hazard ratio of mortality 0.623 (95% confidence interval 0.423-0.918). Subjective perception of overall quality of life was more related to psycho-social-environmental factors. In conclusion, mobility is an independent and powerful predictor to long term mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  8. Piezoelectric paint sensor for real-time structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng

    2005-05-01

    Sensors, which collect data for further information processing, are core component of any viable structural health monitoring system. Continuous on-line structural health monitoring can be achieved through the use of advanced sensors developed for real-time structural health monitoring applications. To overcome the problems associated with traditional piezoelectric ceramics, a polymer-based piezoelectric paint material has been developed and recently used for sensors. The piezoelectric paint is composed of tiny piezoelectric particles mixed within polymer matrix and therefore belongs to "0-3" piezoelectric composite. Because of the electro-mechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric paint, the dynamic responses of host structures can be monitored by measuring the output voltage signals from the piezoelectric paint sensor. Piezoelectric paint sensors hold a great potential for dynamic strain sensing applications due to the ease with which their mechanical properties can be adjusted, low fabrication cost, ease of implementation, and conformability to curved surface Additionally, a novel surface crack detection technique has been conceived and validated experimentally, in which cracks of the host structure is detected by observing the measured signals from an piezoelectric paint sensor with multi-electrode configuration. This paper presents this piezoelectric paint-based crack monitoring method as well as validation test data. The piezoelectric paint sensor is ideal for surface crack detection in locations with complex geometry, such as welded joints, which conventional sensors are ill equipped to do.

  9. Una cuestión de escala: sociedad, ambiente, tiempo y territorio A question of scale: society, environment, time and territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Reboratti

    2001-06-01

    history and ecology come closer (paradoxically together with a strong specialization within each of them, the tensions generated when we try to harmonize each field's approach on its object of study are more and more clear. We might summarize those approaches around the subject of scales, techno-cultural approximations used by each discipline in order to reduce its object to a workable dimension. We might find those differences under two non-excluding dimensions: time and space. The scales used to analyze each of them are variable and so far have been object of controversy within the humanities. However, introducing the variable which we may call generically "environmental", the tension becomes very difficult to solve, since we will have to harmonize, on the one hand, the disciplines, such as geology, whose work unit is that of 1 million years, or geomorphology, which works with tens of thousands of years, with history, working with 12.000 years of land cultivation. Not to mention current disciplines, as geography, sociology, whose time span rarely goes beyond one generation. Two basic questions arise from all that controversy: is there a special scale which harmonizes the disciplines that coincide on the environment? What are the meanings of macro, micro and middle for that discipline? Is it possible to relate the time cycles which determine each discipline? How is a conceptual interdisciplinary field built, such as environmental history or historical geography?

  10. Translating Research for Health Policy Decisions: Is It Time for Researchers to Join Social Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary F; Gollust, Sarah E; Grande, David

    2016-10-01

    Identifying effective strategies to translate research evidence to policy is a national priority and a priority of the health policy research community. Multiple channels exist to disseminate, translate, and communicate research evidence. Some thought leaders have specifically advocated for researchers to play a direct role in research dissemination, particularly through social media. However, this view remains controversial. This Commentary explores the current state of and future opportunities and barriers for alternative avenues of policy-relevant research dissemination. The authors identify four intersecting realities influencing the manner in which the health research community views and adopts various approaches to research translation: (1) persistent gaps in evidence translation and knowledge transfer, particularly in the realm of health policy; (2) public demand for scholars to embrace new modes of research dissemination; (3) the rapid growth and reach of social media to disseminate information; and (4) skepticism and confusion within the academic community about how best to use social media to disseminate policy-relevant research. They conclude that while scholars will need to be engaged in evidence translation to inform health policy, they may be best served by connecting with trusted intermediaries and knowledge brokers to promote efficient use of the best available evidence to answer the most timely policy questions. Journals and universities may be well positioned to invest in this capacity to curate research evidence and disseminate it using social media and other technologies.

  11. Frequency and Content of Chat Questions by Time of Semester at the University of Central Florida: Implications for Training, Staffing and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Donna; Bishop, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    The more than 4,000 "chats" received by the University of Central Florida's (UCF) Ask-A-Librarian digital reference service are the subject of this practitioner-based, descriptive case study. Question content from chats received during four semesters between January 2005 and May 2006 are categorized and plotted, by semester, to show the…

  12. A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14-24 years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Unexpectedly, the majority of participants' design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants' design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group better.

  13. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  14. Working conditions of female part-time and full-time teachers in relation to health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Matz, Annerose; Hegewald, Janice; Spitzer, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Teacher's volume of employment and health status are controversially discussed in the current literature. This study focused on female teachers with part-time versus full-time jobs in association with working conditions and health status depending on age. A sample of 263 part-time and 367 full-time female teachers (average age 46.7 ± 7.8 vs. 46.0 ± 6.3) participated in an occupational health screening. Specific work conditions, stressors (job history-questionnaire) and effort-reward-imbalance ratio (ERI-Q) were measured and their relationships to mental and physical health were analysed. Health status was quantified by complaints (BFB questionnaire), general mental health status (GHQ-12) and cardiovascular risk factors. On average, teachers in part-time positions reported 36 and in full-time positions 42 h per week. The effort-reward ratios were significantly associated with the volume of employment. Teachers in part-time jobs had only a slightly lower ERI-ratio. There were no differences between full-time and part-time teachers regarding health status. Eighteen percentage of both groups reported impaired mental health (GHQ ≥ 5), 48% of part-time teachers and 53% of full-time teachers suffered from high blood pressure. Low physical fitness was observed in 12% of part-time and 6% of full-time teachers. In this study, neither the volume of employment nor working conditions were found to be significantly correlated with health status. Part-time and full-time employment status did not appear to influence health in the teaching profession. Although there are differences in quantitative working demands, while the health status does not differ between both teacher groups.

  15. The Global Health System: Institutions in a Time of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, William C.; Szlezak, Nicole Alexandra; Moon, Suerie; Bloom, Barry R.; Gerald T Keusch; Catherine M Michaud; Jamison, Dean T.; Frenk, Julio; Kilama, Wen L

    2017-01-01

    The global health system is in a period of rapid transition, with an upsurge of funds and greater political recognition, a broader range of health challenges, many new actors, and the rules, norms and expectations that govern them in flux. The traditional actors on the global health stage—most notably national health ministries, the World Health Organization (WHO) and a relatively small group of national medical research agencies and foundations funding global health research—are now being jo...

  16. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires......; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person...... Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1–3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four...

  17. Self-perceived psychosomatic health in Swedish children, adolescents and young adults: an internet-based survey over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Peter; Hagquist, Curt; Osika, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated self-perceived psychosomatic health in young people (10-24 years of age) in Sweden and analysed different samples during the years 2005 and 2007-2010 via a community website. Repeated cross-sectional surveys: (1) single question on a single day in 2005. (2) One specific question delivered on each of eight separate days in 2005. (3) The same eight questions delivered to smaller groups on the same day in 2007 and then again to randomly selected subjects in 2010. Validated questionnaires launched on the internet by a recognised Swedish community site. Study participants were invited to answer questions about their health with full anonymity as they logged into their personal area. 10-24-year-old children, adolescents and young adults. Self-reported psychosomatic health in terms of sex and age over time. A large number of responses were obtained (up to 140 000). The response rate for the single item on stress was 41%. A high percentage of young subjects responded that they felt stressed very often/often; the numbers were higher for women (47%) than for men (29%). Older teenaged women had more psychosomatic complaints than did men of similar ages; in contrast, among 10-12-year-old children, the percentage of psychosomatic complaints was similar for men and women. When comparing results obtained in 2010 with those obtained in 2007, young people of both sexes had a slightly better self-perceived health status in 2007. During the period 2005-2010 a high percentage of young people, particularly females, 16-18 years of age, had psychosomatic complaints and considered themselves as being often or very often stressed. These complaints were more pronounced in the older age groups. When directing questions to a large community, internet-based surveys appear to be valuable tools.

  18. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to the textual world of academia requires that learners are familiar with the critical open-ended questioning stance demanded by textuality. Anecdotal evidence suggests that learners registered for the Bachelor of Education Honours degree are unable to generate appropriate questions to interrogate academic text, ...

  19. Ask Questions to Encourage Questions Asked

    Science.gov (United States)

    belcastro, sarah-marie

    2017-01-01

    We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…

  20. Health insurance: this time we want something concrete

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few months, we have communicated to you a huge amount of information to defend our Pension Fund. Concerning this subject, we can inform you that the mass mobilization on 18 March is bearing fruit, CERN Council now seems to be willing to act. We will have to wait and see, but we are keeping a close eye on things. Today there is concern for the other mainstay of our social security system, the CHIS. Same scenario, same result. They play for time, they wait for the deficit, and then they take “emergency” measures. Drastic measures, we suppose, in line with the financial imbalance observed. These are the measures CERN Council, the Management, and your humble servants will discuss over the coming months in the framework of the current five-yearly review. These are crucial months for the future of our health scheme. In December the die will be cast. The CHIS (CERN Health Insurance Scheme) is divided into two parts, LTC (Long-Term Care) and the HIS (illness and accident cover). L...

  1. Reference Librarians use Electronic Sources Six Times More than Print Sources to Answer Patrons' Questions. A review of: Bradford, Jane T., Barbara Costello, and Robert Lenholt. “Reference Service in the Digital Age: An Analysis of Sources Used to Answer Reference Questions.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.3 (May 2005: 263-72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test the hypothesis that electronic sources are used by librarians more often than print sources to answer questions at the reference desk. Design – Use study. Setting – Small, private university in the United States. Subjects – Five full-time and two part‐time librarians working at the reference desk for four months (two months in the fall of 2002, and two months in the spring of 2003. Methods – The study recorded every question asked by library patrons during the two study periods, with the exception of non‐library related directional questions and hardware problems. For each question recorded, librarians, while working solo at the reference desk, paraphrased the question and recorded the source(s used to answer each question. Although questions were recorded regardless of source – in person, via email, or by telephone – the medium in which each question was asked and answered was not recorded. For the first half of the study period (fall 2002 semester, librarians kept manual records that were subsequently transcribed into a spreadsheet by a student assistant. In the second half of the study period (spring 2003 semester, the librarians entered data directly into a spreadsheet. The study’s data monitor (who was also a study participant was responsible for ensuring the integrity of the data and for assigning a category to each source. The source category ‘librarian’ was problematic in that it was unclear whether or not the actual source of the answer was the librarian or a source located by the librarian. After the first half of the study, the procedure was changed to require that a reference librarian was to label a source used to answer a question as ‘librarian’ only if the answer came from a librarian’s own knowledge, and if it did not require consultation of an outside source. Categories were generated on the fly, as the data monitor reviewed the recorded questions and sources. By the end of the

  2. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  3. Survei: Question Classification Untuk Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdiansah, Abdiansah; Sari, Anny K

    2015-01-01

    Question Classification (QC) merupakan salahsatu dari tiga komponen utama yang ada dalam QuestionAnswering System (QAS). QC berfungsi untuk mereduksi ruangpencarian sehingga dapat meningkatkan kecepatan dan akurasiQAS. Secara umum kajian tentang QC dapat dibagi menjadi duabidang yaitu memperdalam analisis fitur yang meliputi analisisleksikal, sintaksis dan semantik serta improvisasi algoritmaklasifikasi. Artikel ini berisi laporan survei tentang algoritmaklasifikasi untuk QC berdasarkan tiga...

  4. Association between lifestyle factors assessed by standard question items of specific health checkup and the incidence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in community dwellers: A five-year cohort study of National Health Insurance beneficiaries in Habikino City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutatani, Hiromi; Funamoto, Mika; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    Objective From April 2008, specific health checkups have been implemented to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related cardiovascular diseases based on assurance of medical care for the elderly in Japan. In its "Standard Health Checkup and Counseling Guidance Program," 22 standard question items are recommended to assess health conditions of Japanese citizens. However, there are few community-based studies to clarify the relationship between question items and new onset of high risk conditions for cardiovascular diseases such as MetS. Accordingly, we performed a 5-year follow-up study of community dwellers who participated in health checkups of National Health Insurance beneficiaries in Habikino City, Osaka.Method Lifestyle factors assessed by standard question items in 2008 were defined as exposures at baseline survey. In the analysis of MetS, we followed-up 4,720 participants without MetS; and in the analysis of hypertension, we followed-up 3,326 participants without hypertension until the end of March in 2013. New-onset MetS or hypertension during follow-up were defined as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between lifestyle factors and the incidence of MetS or hypertension after adjustment for age and waist circumference.Results The median follow-up period for incidence of MetS was 3.1 years for men and 3.6 years for women. We observed 570 new cases of MetS during follow-up. For men, "taking dinner within 2 hours before going to sleep" and "body weight increase by 10 kg or greater from 20 years old" were significantly associated with MetS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.88 and HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.75, respectively). Occasional consumption of alcohol in men was negatively associated with MetS. For women, "increase or decrease of body weight by 3 kg or greater within 1 year" and "body weight increase by 10 kg or greater from age of 20" were significantly associated with Met

  5. EDITORIAL Social determinants of health: time for action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-20

    Aug 20, 2017 ... in the reversal of legislated racial discrimination generally and in aspirations for more equitable provision of health care specifically. But this places too much emphasis on legislation and biomedicine as the dominant routes to improved health, without consideration of the social determinants of health and.

  6. Public health, privatization, and market populism: a time for reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, D

    1997-01-01

    The political, social, and economic ideology fueling the movement toward privatization in health care may be characterized as "market populism." Whether or not public health agencies retain their traditional roles in personal health services delivery, these organizations must serve as the predominant external source for quality monitoring, oversight, enforcement, and advocacy for communities in an environment that regards the private market as a panacea.

  7. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times the...

  8. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  9. [On the evaluation of health factors in high-rise buildings. 3. Sociological investigations and questioning of physicians about living in high-rise buildings (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisitzer, K; Möse, J R

    1981-01-01

    It can be rightly assumed that there are persons who evidently prefer to live in high-rise buildings. They should not be prevented from doing so as long as no evidence is produced that this preference neither does any serious harm to the people concerned nor causes any major risk of damage to the community. To our knowledge, accurate and sufficiently extensive empirical investigations have not yet been undertaken. One cannot help feeling that general shortcomings (e.g. inadequate town planning, housing planning, workmanship etc.) lead to a hunt for scapegoats. The high-rise building appears to be a rewarding object for such intentions. There is conclusive evidence that dwellings of good and poor quality exist. Both can be found in the detached single-family house and in the tower block. What has to be claimed is mainly a good location and good workmanship, for both are much more important than the type of the dwelling. The most striking deficiencies which were found in the high-rise buildings of Graz are mistaken selection of the location and poor workmanship. The improvement of the living conditions of a larger number of people will therefore depend more on the elimination of these shortcomings rather than on the promotion of certain types of dwelling. Subsequent to these sociological investigations, a physician questioned the general practitioners prevailingly attending to tenants of the high-rise buildings under study. There is no trend toward an increased incidence of objectively determinable diseases among the people living on the upper storeys of the high-rise buildings under review. This holds good for both the adults and the children. By contrast, the factor "noise" evidently influences health to some extent. The influence of this factor is partly so overrated that it outweighs, in particularly severe cases, any other adverse environmental condition.

  10. Client waiting time in an urban primary health care centre in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary Health Care is the usual entry point into the health system and has the potential to touch the lives of most people. However one of the reasons for poor uptake of health services at primary health care facilities in Nigeria is long waiting time. This study was carried out to assess client waiting time and ...

  11. Physical activity, screen time and self-rated health and mental health in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Katya M; Hopman, Wilma M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in adults; however, SRH has been less studied among youth, and information about self-rated mental health (SRMH) is lacking. This study examined the associations of PA and ST with SRH and SRMH among adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey included 7725 participants aged 12-17years, representing 1,820,560 Canadian adolescents. Associations of self-reported PA and ST to SRH and SRMH were assessed, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, highest household education and weight status. Excellent/very good SRH was reported by 78% of active vs. 62% of inactive adolescents, and 77% of those meeting vs. 70% of those exceeding ST guidelines (both pactive vs. 76% of inactive adolescents, and 84% of those meeting vs. 78% of those exceeding ST guidelines (both phealth perceptions among Canadian adolescents. Interventions should consider health perceptions in addition to biomedical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia; Devleena Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultura...

  13. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  14. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  15. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Campylobacter Questions and Answers What is Campylobacter ? What harm can Campylobacter bacteria ... divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/ [ Top of Page ] Campylobacter Questions and Answers Last Modified Aug 07, 2013 ').tablesorter({debug:false}). ...

  16. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  17. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  18. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  1. Making Questions Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  2. Questions for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  3. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  4. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Developing a global health practitioner: time to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Although many health issues transcend national boundaries and require international co-operation, global health is rarely an integral part of the medical curriculum. While medical schools have a social responsibility to train healthcare professionals to serve local communities, the internationalisation of medical education (e.g. international medical students, export of medical curricula or medical schools) makes it increasingly difficult to define it as 'local'. It is therefore necessary to produce practitioners who can practice medicine in an ever-changing and unpredictable world. These practitioners must be clinically and culturally competent as well as able to use their global knowledge and experience to improve health and well-being, irrespective of where they eventually practice medicine. Global health practitioners are tomorrow's leaders, change agents and members of effective multiprofessional teams and so need to be aware of the environmental, cultural, social and political factors that impact on health, serving as advocates of people's rights to access resources, education and healthcare. This article addresses some of the difficulties of developing global health practitioners, offering suggestions for a global health curriculum. It also acknowledges that creating a global health practitioner requires international collaboration and shared resources and practices and places the onus of social accountability on academic leaders.

  6. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F

    2017-09-01

    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Dietary and health biomarkers-time for an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Gao Qizian,; Praticò, G.; Manach, Claudine; Wishart, D.S.; Scalbert, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health.

  8. Safeguarding the Health Sector in Times of Macroeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will be of interest to academics, researchers, and students studying or active in health sciences and international development studies; professionals and practitioners in donor organizations, development organizations, and NGOs worldwide; and policy advisors and decision-makers in the health-care sector.

  9. The time dimension in measurements of population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lauer (Jeremy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAs recently attested by the Millennium Declaration (United Nations, 2000), the health of populations is a concern for both governments and civil society: three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are defined in terms of health objectives. It is therefore reasonable to enquire what

  10. Time is ripe for health-care reform

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The global financial crisis has created an environment that is more favourable to government intervention, social protection and health reform in the United States of America (USA) than in recent years. Paul Krugman, this year’s Nobel economics laureate, talks to the Bulletin about the challenges of pushing through health reform and the shape this could take after the 4 November presidential election.

  11. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hakan Türkçapar; Melis Sedef Kahraman; A. Emre Sargýn

    2015-01-01

    “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method ...

  12. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  13. Abortion and public health: Time for another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A

    2016-02-01

    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly supportive of its wide availability. Absence of substantive debate on abortion separates the public health community from the public we serve, jeopardizing the trust placed in us. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable groups and opposition to the politicization of science-together with the principle of reciprocity weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. Lay Summary: Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly divisive. Public sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split, yet fundamental debate is largely absent in the public health community, which supports abortion's wide availability. Absence of substantive debate separates the public health community from the public it serves. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable populations and opposition to politicization of science-and the principle of reciprocity ("the Golden Rule") weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life.

  14. Smoking, vaping and public health: Time to be creative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweanor, David

    2016-03-16

    The development of policies on vaping in health care organizations (HCOs) needs to be based on a solid understanding of science and a recognition of individual rights. It should also be seen in the broader public health context of innovative alternative nicotine delivery systems playing a key role in ending the immense devastation of combustible cigarettes. Opposition to vaping based on inaccurate and incomplete information, or fear of unlikely and avoidable hypothetical unintended consequences, will invariably cause great harm to individuals, impede rather than assist the attainment of public health objectives, and unnecessarily prolong the epidemic of cigarette-caused diseases.

  15. Dynamical Resilience Indicators in Time Series of Self-Rated Health Correspond to Frailty Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijzel, Sanne M W; van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Scheffer, Marten; Roppolo, Mattia; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Melis, René J F

    2017-07-01

    We currently still lack valid methods to dynamically measure resilience for stressors before the appearance of adverse health outcomes that hamper well-being. Quantifying an older adult's resilience in an early stage would aid complex decision-making in health care. Translating complex dynamical systems theory to humans, we hypothesized that three dynamical indicators of resilience (variance, temporal autocorrelation, and cross-correlation) in time series of self-rated physical, mental, and social health were associated with frailty levels in older adults. We monitored self-rated physical, mental, and social health during 100 days using daily visual analogue scale questions in 22 institutionalized older adults (mean age 84.0, SD: 5.9 years). Frailty was determined by the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) frailty index. The resilience indicators (variance, temporal autocorrelation, and cross-correlation) were calculated using multilevel models. The self-rated health time series of frail elderly exhibited significantly elevated variance in the physical, mental, and social domain, as well as significantly stronger cross-correlations between all three domains, as compared to the nonfrail group (all P < 0.001). Temporal autocorrelation was not significantly associated with frailty. We found supporting evidence for two out of three hypothesized resilience indicators to be related to frailty levels in older adults. By mirroring the dynamical resilience indicators to a frailty index, we delivered a first empirical base to validate and quantify the construct of systemic resilience in older adults in a dynamic way.

  16. Abortion and public health: Time for another look

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly...

  17. Patient question set proliferation: scope and informatics challenges of patient question set management in a large multispecialty practice with case examples pertaining to tobacco use, menopause, and Urology and Orthopedics specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loo, Sarah J; North, Frederick

    2016-04-12

    Health care institutions have patient question sets that can expand over time. For a multispecialty group, each specialty might have multiple question sets. As a result, question set governance can be challenging. Knowledge of the counts, variability and repetition of questions in a multispecialty practice can help institutions understand the challenges of question set proliferation. We analyzed patient-facing question sets that were subject to institutional governance and those that were not. We examined question variability and number of repetitious questions for a simulated episode of care. In addition to examining general patient question sets, we used specific examples of tobacco questions, questions from two specialty areas, and questions to menopausal women. In our analysis, there were approximately 269 institutionally governed patient question sets with a mean of 74 questions per set accounting for an estimated 20,000 governed questions. Sampling from selected specialties revealed that 50 % of patient question sets were not institutionally governed. We found over 650 tobacco-related questions in use, many with only slight variations. A simulated use case for a menopausal woman revealed potentially over 200 repeated questions. A group practice with multiple specialties can have a large volume of patient questions that are not centrally developed, stored or governed. This results in a lack of standardization and coordination. Patients may be given multiple repeated questions throughout the course of their care, and providers lack standardized question sets to help construct valid patient phenotypes. Even with the implementation of a single electronic health record, medical practices may still have a health information management gap in the ability to create, store and share patient-generated health information that is meaningful to both patients and physicians.

  18. The Deflection Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  19. Has the time come for big science in wildlife health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of wildlife emerging diseases are global and profound with increased burden on the public health system, negative impacts on the global economy, declines and extinctions of wildlife species, and subsequent loss of ecological integrity. Examples of health threats to wildlife include Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes a cutaneous fungal infection of amphibians and is linked to declines of amphibians globally; and the recently discovered Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans, the etiologic agent of white nose syndrome which has caused precipitous declines of North American bat species. Of particular concern are the novel pathogens that have emerged as they are particularly devastating and challenging to manage. A big science approach to wildlife health research is needed if we are to make significant and enduring progress in managing these diseases. The advent of new analytical models and bench assays will provide us with the mathematical and molecular tools to identify and anticipate threats to wildlife, and understand the ecology and epidemiology of these diseases. Specifically, new molecular diagnostic techniques have opened up avenues for pathogen discovery, and the application of spatially referenced databases allows for risk assessments that can assist in targeting surveillance. Long-term, systematic collection of data for wildlife health and integration with other datasets is also essential. Multidisciplinary research programs should be expanded to increase our understanding of the drivers of emerging diseases and allow for the development of better disease prevention and management tools, such as vaccines. Finally, we need to create a National Fish and Wildlife Health Network that provides the operational framework (governance, policies, procedures, etc.) by which entities with a stake in wildlife health cooperate and collaborate to achieve optimal outcomes for human, animal, and ecosystem health.

  20. Health and genetic ancestry testing: time to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Andrew; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tutton, Richard

    2017-01-09

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to keep information about genetic ancestry separate from information about health, and consumers of genetic ancestry tests are becoming more aware of the potential health risks associated with particular ancestral lineages. Because some of the proposed associations have received little attention from oversight agencies and professional genetic associations, scientific developments are currently outpacing governance regimes for consumer genetic testing. We highlight the recent and unremarked upon emergence of biomedical studies linking markers of genetic ancestry to disease risks, and show that this body of scientific research is becoming part of public discourse connecting ancestry and health. For instance, data on genome-wide ancestry informative markers are being used to assess health risks, and we document over 100 biomedical research articles that propose associations between mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers of genetic ancestry and a wide variety of disease risks. Taking as an example an association between coronary heart disease and British men belonging to Y chromosome haplogroup I, we show how this science was translated into mainstream and online media, and how it circulates among consumers of genetic tests for ancestry. We find wide variations in how the science is interpreted, which suggests the potential for confusion or misunderstanding. We recommend that stakeholders involved in creating and using estimates of genetic ancestry reconsider their policies for communicating with each other and with the public about the health implications of ancestry information.

  1. A time for transformative leadership in academic health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Paul W

    2007-01-01

    Academic medicine, in its broadest sense, has made major contributions to human health in the past quarter century. This has been achieved in large part because it has attracted an outstanding cadre of--largely altruistic--professionals. These pioneering efforts have served as the life-blood of the discipline. Their journeys of discovery, often complemented by collaboration with the pharmaceutical, biotechnological and device industry have yielded remarkable insights into the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease and been celebrated by a stunning array of Nobel laureates in medicine and related arenas of endeavour.1 The translation of discovery to the bedside, clinic and the community coupled, most recently, with insights into the gap between potential effectiveness and what ultimately occurs as part of health care delivery, have been monumental in scope. This progress has unquestionably been the province of the university based clinician scientist. Within Canada, the emergence of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs has been pivotal in launching the careers of a new generation of clinician scientists. The excitement of discovery, gratification associated with direct patient care, and satisfaction of inspiring learning while engaging the next generation of emerging health professionals is rewarded by a career in academic medicine characterized by extraordinary challenge, fulfillment and meaning. As remarkable as these advances in quantity and quality of life have been (in large part attributable to health care research and its implementation) the promises of molecular medicine and abundant new technologies portend an exciting future whereby academic medicine can build upon its noble and traditional contributions to human health.

  2. The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

    2008-03-01

    Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users.

  3. 'Is it normal to feel these questions ...?': a content analysis of the health concerns of adolescent girls writing to a magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Melissa; Cannon, Bianca; Remond, Louise; Quine, Susan

    2009-06-01

    There is a mismatch between presenting concerns of adolescents to GPs and behaviours that lead to adolescent morbidity and mortality. Better understanding of health concerns of this target group would enhance communication between health professionals and adolescent patients. To explore and categorize the health concerns of adolescent girls sending unsolicited emails to a teenage girls' magazine. We conducted a content analysis of 1000 systematic randomly selected unsolicited emails submitted to the health column of an Australian adolescent girls' magazine over a 6-month period. Three main foci of concern were identified: Context of Concern, Health Issue of Concern and Advice Sought for Concern. Within Health Issue of Concern, there were five categories: body (47.5%), sex (31.9%), relationship (14.7%), mind (4.7%) and violence and/or safety (1.2%). Concerns within the body and sex categories ranged enormously, but frequently expressed intimate descriptions of anatomy, feelings, sexual practices and relationships. Many concerns occurred in the context of adolescents' relationships with others. The proportion of concerns about physical or psychological symptoms or health issues commonly associated with the adolescent age group (such as health risk behaviours, mental health, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) was relatively small. GPs and other health professionals might engage more readily with adolescent patients with a deeper understanding of the concerns that adolescents have about their bodies, relationships and overall health. Seemingly 'trivial' issues, such as normal puberty, could be used as discussion triggers in health consultations to help alleviate anxiety and build rapport.

  4. Addressing Africa's health needs - time for strong South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and development in South Africa are, and will increasingly be, closely linked to changes in other African countries. This was recognised by Gear and Gear nearly 50 years ago when they stated that 'for a variety of reasons humanitarian, scientific, economic, and social interest in. Africa is growing throughout the world.

  5. Editorial National Health insurance (NHi): time for reflections!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a family comprising of the principal member, one adult dependent and one child dependent, the average increase in contributions of 8.9%, average monthly contributions ... burden of disease.6 Therefore, the NHI is one of the possible health care financing models that ... Medical Chronicle Minister. Motsoaledi Releases ...

  6. Safeguarding the Health Sector in Times of Macroeconomic Instability

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The literature, while significant, indicates a need for stronger evidence on the impacts of reforms driven by macroeconomic instability, as well as for a better .... These six countries represent diverse cases in terms of population size, level of income, human development, and implementation of MAPs and health system ...

  7. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    into two groups. Mothers in the intervention group were given health education according to WHO's recommendations; about exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 4 mo, prolonged breastfeeding and family planning methods. At 4 mo of age introduction of weaning food was delayed in the intervention...

  8. Cuba: Time to Expand Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Más-Bermejo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination.[2] Zika serves as another recent example. First identified in Uganda in 1947, Zika, an emerging disease with outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas and linked to neurological disorders in newborns, was declared a global health emergency by WHO on February 1, 2016.[3] In response, Cuba further stepped up measures for surveillance, prevention and control it had already announced in December 2015. Building on decades of experience fighting dengue, intensified efforts to stamp out Aedes aegypti and albopictus, the mosquitoes that transmit Zika (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever), and issued a national 11-point Zika Action Plan to prevent, detect and respond to these arboviral infections.

  9. Comparison of Modes of Administration and Response Options in the Assessment of Subjective Health Using the First Question of SF-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Salome; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2012-01-01

    To compare two modes of administration (self-administered; by interviewer) and two response options format (using words; images of "facial-expressions") of the first question of SF-36 (Q1SF-36), and to test its validity. We included 825 participants (20-90 years). Q1SF-36, using words or images, was included in a global questionnaire interview and…

  10. A comparison of human and machine translation of health promotion materials for public health practice: time, costs, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Bergman, Margo; Brownstein, Megumu; Cole, Kate; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Most local public health departments serve limited English proficiency groups but lack sufficient resources to translate the health promotion materials that they produce into different languages. Machine translation (MT) with human postediting could fill this gap and work toward decreasing health disparities among non-English speakers. (1) To identify the time and costs associated with human translation (HT) of public health documents, (2) determine the time necessary for human postediting of MT, and (3) compare the quality of postedited MT and HT. A quality comparison of 25 MT and HT documents was performed with public health translators. The public health professionals involved were queried about the workflow, costs, and time for HT of 11 English public health documents over a 20-month period. Three recently translated documents of similar size and topic were then machine translated, the time for human postediting was recorded, and a blind quality analysis was performed. Seattle/King County, Washington. Public health professionals. (1) Estimated times for various HT tasks; (2) observed postediting times for MT documents; (3) actual costs for HT; and (4) comparison of quality ratings for HT and MT. Human translation via local health department methods took 17 hours to 6 days. While HT postediting words per minute ranged from 1.58 to 5.88, MT plus human postediting words per minute ranged from 10 to 30. The cost of HT ranged from $130 to $1220; MT required no additional costs. A quality comparison by bilingual public health professionals showed that MT and HT were equivalently preferred. MT with human postediting can reduce the time and costs of translating public health materials while maintaining quality similar to HT. In conjunction with postediting, MT could greatly improve the availability of multilingual public health materials.

  11. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  12. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  13. Questions in logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation pursues two tightly interwoven goals: to bring out the relevance of questions for the field of logic, and to establish a solid theory of the logic of questions within a classical logical setting. These enterprises feed into each other: on the one hand, the development of our formal

  14. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers information about the disease and vaccines What causes pneumococcal disease? Pneumococcal disease is caused by the bacterium ... d/ p4213. pdf • Item #P4213 (3/16) Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers (continued) page 2 of 4 elderly and patients ...

  15. Rethinking Elderly Poverty: Time for a Health Inclusive Poverty Measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Korenman; Dahlia Remler

    2013-01-01

    Census's Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) nearly doubles the elderly poverty rate compared to the "Official" Poverty Measure (OPM), a result of the SPM subtraction of medical out-of-pocket (MOOP) expenditures from income. Neither the SPM nor OPM counts health benefits or assets as resources. Validation studies suggest that subtracting MOOP from resources worsens a poverty measure's predictive validity and excluding assets exacerbates this bias, since assets fund MOOP. The SPM is based on a ...

  16. Leisure Time Activities and Mental Health in Informal Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Czerniawski, Alana; Davie, Nicola; Miller, Lisa; Quinn, Michael G; King, Carolyn; Carr, Andrea; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Robinson, Andrew; Scott, Jenn L

    2015-07-01

    Dementia prevalence and the demand for dementia care are increasing. Informal caregiving accounts for a large proportion of dementia care, but can come at high cost for caregivers. Informal dementia caregivers are at higher risk for mental health problems than the general population. This study examines whether perceived change in leisure activities is one working mechanism linking stress and burden experience in dementia caregiving to lower mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and reduced satisfaction with life), and whether there are group-based leisure activities that can buffer this detrimental effect. A total of 346 informal Australian dementia caregivers (88.15% female, age 18-82 years) participated in an online study. Mediation and moderation analyses using multiple regression demonstrated that perceived changes in leisure activities linked caregiving stress and burden to lower mental health, and that membership in groups engaging in affiliation or social activities attenuates negative effects of caregiving. Informal dementia caregivers benefit from satisfying leisure activities. In particular, engaging in social activities and self-help groups buffered the negative impact of caregiving. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  17. The Impact of Part Time Employment on Students' Health and Academic Performance: A Scottish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Claire; McNeish, Sharon; McColl, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between part time working, mental and physical health and academic performance. Fifty per cent of the undergraduate full time respondents had part time jobs. Mean pay per hour was ?4.25 and mean number of hours worked was 14 hours. When the current state of students' health was compared to…

  18. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising.

  19. The Interdependence of Advanced Cancer Patients’ and Their Family Caregivers’ Mental Health, Physical Health, and Self-Efficacy Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R.; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Background The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end-of-life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health may be interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. Purpose This study used Social Cognitive Theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients’ and their family caregivers’ mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Methods Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i) the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects) and (ii) the influence that they had on each other’s health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Results Consistent with our hypotheses, each person’s mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another’s mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Conclusions Patient and caregiver mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person’s cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person’s self-efficacy did not influence the other person’s self-efficacy. PMID:26489843

  20. The Interdependence of Advanced Cancer Patients' and Their Family Caregivers' Mental Health, Physical Health, and Self-Efficacy over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel

    2015-12-01

    The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end of life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health maybe interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. This study used social cognitive theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients' and their family caregivers' mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i)the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects)and (ii) the influence that they had on each other's health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Consistent with our hypotheses, each person's mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another's mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Patients' and caregivers' mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person's cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person's self-efficacy did not influence the other person's self-efficacy.

  1. What is a Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  2. The inescapable question of fairness in Pay-for-performance bonus distribution: a qualitative study of health workers' experiences in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhutu, Victor; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Tjomsland, Marit; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2016-11-25

    During the last decade there has been a growing concern about the lack of results in the health sectors of many low income countries. Progress has been particularly slow in maternal- and child health. Prompted by the need to accelerate progress towards these health outcomes, pay-for- performance (P4P) schemes have been initiated in a number of countries. This paper explores the perceptions and experiences of health workers with P4P bonus distribution in the health system context of rural Tanzania. This qualitative study was based on the P4P pilot in Pwani Region of Tanzania. The study took place in 11 health care facilities in Rufiji District. The study informants and participants were different cadres of health workers assigned to different outpatient and inpatient departments at the health facilities, and local administrators of the P4P bonus distribution. Thirty two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators and health care workers, and six focus group discussions (FGDs with Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) staff, non-RCH staff and non-medical staff were conducted. Collected data was analyzed through qualitative content analysis. The study found that the bonus distribution modality employed in the P4P programme was experienced as fundamentally unjust. The bonuses were calculated according to the centrality of the health worker position in meeting targeted indicators, drawn from the reproductive and child health (RCH) section. Both RCH staff and non-RCH perceived the P4P bonus as unfair. Non-RCH objected to getting less bonus than RCH staff, and RCH staff running the targeted RCH services, objected to not getting more P4P bonus. Non-RCH staff and health administrators suggested a flat-rate across board as the fairest way of distributing P4P bonuses. The perceived unfairness affected work motivation, undermined teamwork across departments and created tensions in the social relations at health facilities. Our results suggest that the experience of unfairness

  3. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  4. Time Demands of Caring for Children with Autism: What Are the Implications for Maternal Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Bittman, Michael; La Greca, Annette M.; Crettenden, Angela D.; Harchak, Taylor F.; Martin, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between maternal mental health problems and both caregiving time and experience of time pressure for 216 mothers of children with autism. Data describing caregiving time was obtained using 24-h time-diaries. Standard questionnaires were used to assess time pressure, social support, children's emotional and…

  5. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha Jowsey

    Full Text Available Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over, most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample, National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample. Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  6. Dietary and health biomarkers - time for an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Gao, Qian; Pratico, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    the Joint Programming Initiative-A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (JPI-HDHL)-is aimed at meeting some of these challenges, identifying new dietary biomarkers, and producing new databases and review papers on biomarkers for nutritional research. This current paper outlines the needs and serves....... The implementation of biomarkers in nutritional research will be important to improve measurements of dietary intake, exposure to specific dietary components, and of compliance to dietary interventions. Biomarkers could also help with improved characterization of nutritional status in study volunteers and to provide...... much mechanistic insight into the effects of food components and diets. Although hundreds of papers in nutrition are published annually, there is no current ontology for the area, no generally accepted classification terminology for biomarkers in nutrition and health, no systematic validation scheme...

  7. Answering Essay Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2008-03-01

    Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, "Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?" Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

  8. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  9. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  10. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  11. Imperialist times and its implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Estrada M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This articles studies the period called by historians as the Big or Long x i x century. Besides the x i x century by itself, it encompasses the decades that preceded it and the decades of the First World War. All of them belong to the consolidation of imperialism. From the perspective of public health, the Big x i x Century is important because of the transition from hygiene to public health, and the beginning of the bacteriologic theory in 1880, influencing sanitary control measures of the State. Before 1900, medicine was characterized by: 1 predominance of military and of imperial approaches, 2 prevention principles were imported and concentrated in sanitary practices; 3 colonial medicine was not separated from imperial medicine; 4 interest focused on colonies as productive forces or as sources of political instability; 5 the main concern went from general sanitary measurements to the search for specific disease agents and their control measurements; and 6 tropical medicine becomes a postgraduate specialty. North-American imperialism shares the main characteristics of European imperialism, but the difference was centered in the sanitary measurements because Americans feared the introduction of prevalent diseases from the tropics to their territory either through Mexico or through the ports in the Atlantic or the Pacific oceans. In order to avoid this, Americans designed and implemented rigorous inspection and control measurements in the countries where they had commercial interests and in the ports where passengers and merchandise were headed to the United States. The appearance of state medicine in Latin American is a logical consequence of the implementation of the capitalistic mode of production, provided social and economic relationships between the people and the State were hardly affected and transformed by the incipient industrialization and consolidation of such a production model. This implied the consolidation of a bureaucratic mass

  12. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. Aims To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10)

  13. Dutch Academic Collaborative Centres for Public Health: Development through Time--Issues, Dilemmas and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrens, Rik; Bekker, Marleen; Bal, Roland

    2012-01-01

    While much research utilisation literature shows an increasing emphasis on the added value of structural partnerships, which should facilitate prolonged interactions between researchers, policy makers and professionals, the question of how such collaborative structures "develop over time" and what consequences that has in terms of…

  14. Perceptions of part-time faculty by chairpersons of undergraduate health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Braun, Robert E; McKinney, Molly A; Thompson, Amy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, it has become commonplace for universities to hire part-time and non-tenure track faculty to save money. This study examined how commonly part-time faculty are used in health education and how they are used to meet program needs. The American Association of Health Education's 2009 "Directory of Institutions Offering Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Health Education" was used to send a three-wave mailing to programs that were not schools of public health (n = 215). Of the 125 departments (58%) that responded, those that used part-time faculty averaged 7.5 part-time faculty in the previous academic year, teaching on average a total of 10 classes per year. A plurality of departments (38%) were currently using more part-time faculty than 10 years ago and 33% perceived that the number of part-time faculty has resulted in decreases in the number of full-time positions. Although 77% of department chairs claimed they would prefer to replace all of their part-time faculty with one full-time tenure track faculty member. As colleges downsize, many health education programs are using more part-time faculty. Those faculty members who take part-time positions will likely be less involved in academic activities than their full-time peers. Thus, further research is needed on the effects of these changes on the quality of health education training and department productivity.

  15. [Integrative and personalized health care--requirements for a timely health-care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, P; Neugebauer, E; Berger, B; Hahn, E G

    2013-03-01

    In medical and public debates, the concept "personalized" or "individualized" medicine (PM) is increasingly used for the orientation of medicine towards individual genetic, molecular and biological characteristics. However, this tunnel view neglects that the human "person" or "individual" encompasses more than just the molecular and biological side, and that patients increasingly call for a more holistic and more person-centred form of health care. Therefore the authors propose to extend the concept of PM in the framework of an integrative health-care concept, so that with respect to a modern and patient-centred health-care system not only the biological, but also the relevant psychological, mental, social, cultural, spiritual, and economic aspects of the human individual are accounted for in health care. The Faculty of Health of Witten/Herdecke University proposes the term "integrative and personalised health care" for such a holistic form of PM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  17. Questions That Stimulate Creativity and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karren

    2017-03-01

    A higher level of questioning can stimulate creativity and innovation. Stimulating innovation and change in health care is critical to advancing care delivered by nurses and the necessary changes in the systems housing this care. Staff development faculty can teach nurses how to ask these questions. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(3):102-103. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management......The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...

  19. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  20. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  1. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  2. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  3. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  4. How Children with Parents Suffering from Mental Health Distress Search for "Normality" and Avoid Stigma: To Be or Not to Be... Is "Not" the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjone, Heidi Haug; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Almvik, Arve

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 children, this study finds that children with parents suffering from mental health distress struggle hard to present themselves as "normal" and equal among their peer group. The study shows how they avoid stigma in their presentation of self in everyday life. All the children in this study,…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  6. [Oral contraception: users' questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolongeau, J F

    1993-02-01

    Answers are provided to common questions about the safety and use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Amenorrhea during OC use has no pathologic significance. It is related to endometrial atrophy resulting from insufficient estrogen after longterm pill use. A formulation with a higher estrogen content may be used for one or two cycles to regenerate the endometrium. If amenorrhea persists for more than a few months after discontinuation of pills, pituitary adenoma should be ruled out. Bromocriptine may be indicated in cases of moderate hyperprolactinemia if pregnancy is desired. All intermenstrual bleeding in pill users should be investigated for organic cause. Once endometrial polyps and other pathologies are ruled out, the cause may be assumed to be functional metrorrhagia due to endometrial atrophy identical to that causing amenorrhea in OC users. Intermenstrual bleeding may occasionally result from interactions with specific classes of drugs. Minor bleeding in the first cycles of pill use is common and usually temporary. Accidentally taking two pills in one day is without consequence. If the interval between pill cycles exceeds one week, there is risk of follicular maturation and a different contraceptive method should be used until the next cycle. Forgetting a combined pill is without consequence for delays of under twelve hours. Another method should be used until the next cycle if two pills are forgotten. Low-dose oral progestins rapidly lose efficacy if not taken at the same time every day. "Morning-after" pills may be used up to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The current generation of OCs entails no teratogenic risks. The cause of any pill failure should be sought. There is no increased risk of multiple pregnancy after discontinuation of pills, and fecundity does not decline after longterm pill use. OCs should be avoided by users of some antiepileptic drugs or of drugs that increase hepatic toxicity or act as enzyme inductors. All conditions accompanied

  7. Health systems research in the time of health system reform in India: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna D; Arora, Radhika; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2014-08-09

    Research on health systems is an important contributor to improving health system performance. Importantly, research on program and policy implementation can also create a culture of public accountability. In the last decade, significant health system reforms have been implemented in India. These include strengthening the public sector health system through the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and expansion of government-sponsored insurance schemes for the poor. This paper provides a situation analysis of health systems research during the reform period. We reviewed 9,477 publications between 2005 and 2013 in two online databases, PubMed and IndMED. Articles were classified according to the WHO classification of health systems building blocks. Our findings indicate the number of publications on health systems progressively increased every year from 92 in 2006 to 314 in 2012. The majority of papers were on service delivery (40%), with fewer on information (16%), medical technology and vaccines (15%), human resources (11%), governance (5%), and financing (8%). Around 70% of articles were lead by an author based in India, the majority by authors located in only four states. Several states, particularly in eastern and northeastern India, did not have a single paper published by a lead author located in a local institution. Moreover, many of these states were not the subject of a single published paper. Further, a few select institutions produced the bulk of research. Of the foreign author lead papers, 77% came from five countries (USA, UK, Canada, Australia, and Switzerland). The growth of published research during the reform period in India is a positive development. However, bulk of this research is produced in a few states and by a few select institutions Further strengthening health systems research requires attention to neglected health systems domains like human resources, financing, and governance. Importantly, research capacity needs to be strengthened in

  8. Classroom Questioning for Georgraphy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Gary

    1973-01-01

    Questioning is an important teaching skill. Teaching should be able to ask thinking' questions as well as memory' questions and they should be able to ask questions about ideas as well as facts. Two dimensions of a question are reviewed; the dimensions are then combined into a matrix illustrating thirteen types of cognitive questions. (Author)

  9. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (rs = 0.5052, p < .01). Addressing gender identity and sexuality issues within medical curricula may remove barriers to accessing health care and improve encounters for LGBTQ patients.

  10. My Favorite Exam Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  11. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...

  12. Shaping Faster Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lloyd O.

    To test a hypothesis that question answering speed and accuracy can be increased by an automated shaping procedure, a film, "The Analysis of Behavior," was presented individually by a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions to one high school student and 12 junior college students. Six of the students were informed of monetary rewards for…

  13. Some Questions on Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Robert J. R.

    An educational publisher poses several questions that are related to accountability for the purpose of stimulating discussion on this topic at a national convention of social studies teachers. Is it appropriate to insist upon the verification or validation of instructional materials? Is it possible to make more money available for the purchase of…

  14. Health Care Utilization and Changes in Health Status Over Time for Migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Chuck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determining how migraineurs manage their condition from the viewpoint of health resource utilization (including both medical and personal resources may provide insights that could lead to more effective care strategies.

  15. One question: credit or debit? As health savings accounts gain in popularity, insurers and the financial services industry want to bank the cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Cinda

    2006-01-16

    The Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association has a new sideline-banking. By chartering its own bank, the Blues is joining other insurers that have moved into financial services to adapt to the changes being wrought by health savings accounts. And other insurers have been faster to make the move. The Blues "is certainly late to the game" of banking, says analyst Katy Henrickson, left.

  16. Adolescent interest in human sexuality: the questions kids ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T A; Campbell, D E

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for obtaining data on developmental changes in adolescents' interest in human sexuality. A content analysis was done on a sample of 874 student-generated questions. Question boxes were placed in classrooms so students could anonymously submit questions. In deference to perceived community pressure, questions on abortion, homosexuality, and masturbation were not allowed. Students who wrote the questions are 7th, 8th, and 10th graders enrolled in 13 different public schools. The schools are located in several small communities and on an American Indian reservation in a rural area of northern California. All children who participated did so voluntarily and with parental permission. Of the total 874 questions. 7th and 8th graders provided 593, while sophomores accounted for 233. Gender information was available only for 7th and 8th graders. Boys asked 173 questions while girls asked 241. The data are broken down by gender and by grade (7th and 8th vs. 10th). Findings reveal that younger students show more interest in the meaning of slang terms, their reproductive physiology, and intercourse. Older students show greater interest in contraception and health risks. Males are interested in slang and intercourse while females are more concerned with health risks and communication. One unexpected finding indicates that among younger children, boys and girls are equally interested in birth control and pregnancy; in the lower grades then, may be the prime time to use sex education programs to strengthen the sense of dual responsibility for knowledge about contraception and pregnancy. Also, the relative absence of questions on disallowed issues (2.5%) makes it apparent that sex educators can effectively suppress inquiry into topics that are of great interest to youngsters; only about 1/3 of the students indicated that their parents had discussed these disllowed issues, yet 48% of the students expressed interest in knowing more about abortion.

  17. Rural population travel time to health services, mapped on Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vicente Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance and travel time are important parameters in the evaluation of access to health services, especially for the population living in the countryside. In the present work, a GIS-based methodology is developed for the mapping of rural road networks and the determination of travel impedances in order to optimize the travel time of the rural population to health care facilities. Data on rural roads classes, slope, sinuosity, visibility and land use are considered in the composition of the impedances synthesis and its application on car travel time. The methodology was applied to the region of Registro (SP, and the results indicate an unequal distribution of health services.

  18. Setting a research question, aim and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Bailey, Maria E

    2016-03-01

    To describe the development of a research question, aim and objective. The first steps of any study are developing the research question, aim and objective. Subsequent steps develop from these and they govern the researchers' choice of population, setting, data to be collected and time period for the study. Clear, succinctly posed research questions, aims and objectives are essential if studies are to be successful. Researchers developing their research questions, aims and objectives generally experience difficulties. They are often overwhelmed trying to convert what they see as a relevant issue from practice into research. This necessitates engaging with the relevant published literature and knowledgeable people. This paper identifies the issues to be considered when developing a research question, aim and objective. Understanding these considerations will enable researchers to effectively present their research question, aim and objective. To conduct successful studies, researchers should develop clear research questions, aims and objectives.

  19. "Do you think you have mental health problems?": advantages and disadvantages of a single screening question for mental disorder in substance use disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian; Urbanoski, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Mental disorders are common among people presenting for the treatment of substance-related problems, and guidelines recommend systematic screening for these conditions. However, even short screens impose a considerable burden on clients and staff. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a single screening question (SSQ) relative to longer instruments. We analyzed a sample of 544 adults recruited from outpatient substance use disorder treatment centers in Ontario, Canada. Clients were asked a simple SSQ, followed by the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) and the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GAIN-SS). Caseness was ascertained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV (SCID). We measured and compared performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and explored client characteristics associated with screen performance using ROC regression. Last, we used logistic regression to test whether SSQs can be usefully combined with other measures. The prevalence of past-month disorder was 71%. The performance of the SSQ (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI [0.72, 0.83]) was similar to, and not significantly different from, those of the K6 (AUC = 0.78) and the GAIN (AUC = 0.79). The K6 and the GAIN performed better than the SSQ among people with a psychotic disorder. The addition of the SSQ slightly improved the performance of the other measures. SSQs can offer screening performance comparable to that of longer instruments. Reasons for caution include the small number of possible thresholds, lower accuracy than other measures in identifying psychotic disorder, and possible differential functioning in different populations. Performance of all three screens was also moderate; when prevalence is high and resources are available, offering full assessments may be preferable to screening. Nevertheless, SSQs offer an intriguing area for further evaluation.

  20. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norder, G; Hoedeman, R; de Bruin, J; van Rhenen, W; Roelen, C A M

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic categories. A 10-year observational study of workers employed at a steel mill. Sickness absence data were retrieved from an occupational health register. Mental health-related absences were defined as absence due to emotional disturbance or mental and behavioural disorders. The first mental health-related absence since baseline was called the index episode. Recurrences were defined as mental health-related absences occurring >28 days after recovery from the index episode. The frequency of recurrent mental health-related absence was assessed by the recurrence density (RD) per 1000 person-years. The time to recurrent mental health-related absence was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 15461 workers, 391 had recurrent mental health-related absences. RD was 30.5, 34.3, 29.9 and 37.7 per 1000 person-years after index episodes due to emotional disturbance, mood disorders, neurotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders, respectively. RDs did not differ across ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The median time to recurrent mental health-related absence was 15.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-17.7] and was shortest for mood disorders (5.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.9 months) and specific psychiatric disorders (5.3, 95% CI 1.0-13.1 months). Based on this observational study, we suggest that occupational and primary health care providers consider reviewing the mental health status of workers 6 months after recovery from mental health-related absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Is the health of young unemployed Australians worse in times of low unemployment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Bundy, Anita C

    2009-02-01

    To compare the health of young unemployed Australians during a period of low unemployment (April 2007: rate 4.4%) against published Australian norms for 18-24 year olds and unemployed people during a time of higher unemployment (February 1995 to January 1996: rate 8.1% to 8.9%). Two hundred and fifty-one unemployed 18-25 year olds residing in New South Wales completed the SF36 Health Survey version 2 (SF36v2) during a time of low unemployment. SF36v2 subscale and component summary scores were compared with published norms for 18-24 year olds and for unemployed persons during a time of higher unemployment. Young unemployed people during a period of low unemployment reported poorer health in all areas when compared with age-matched norms and poorer psychological health when compared with the published norms for unemployed people from a time when unemployment rates were higher. The health of young unemployed individuals during a time of low unemployment was poor when compared to both the general population and to unemployed people during a time of higher unemployment. Public health interventions must focus on improving the health of young unemployed people to support their engagement with and contribution to Australian society.

  2. Applying theories of health behaviour and change to hearing health research: Time for a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Neil S; Ferguson, Melanie A; Henshaw, Helen; Heffernan, Eithne

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of behavioural models, such as social cognition models, to the promotion of hearing health. Despite this, there exists a well-developed body of literature that suggests such models may fail to consistently explain reliable amounts of variability in human behaviours. This paper provides a summary of this research across selected models of health-related behaviour, outlining the current state of the evidence. Recent work in the field of behaviour change is presented together with commentary on the design and reporting of behaviour change interventions. We propose that attempts to use unreliable models to explain and predict hearing health behaviours should now be replaced by work which integrates the latest in behaviour change science, such as the Behaviour Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework.

  3. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  4. Quantum theory from questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).

  5. Questions of wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2009-04-01

    In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.

  6. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  7. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  8. Different contexts, different effects? Work time and mental health in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  9. Effect of dwell time on the mental health of US military personnel with multiple combat tours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Han, Peggy P; Dougherty, Amber L; Galarneau, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the association of the length of time spent at home between deployments, or dwell time, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health disorders. We included US Marine Corps personnel identified from military deployment records who deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom once (n = 49,328) or twice (n = 16,376). New-onset mental health diagnoses from military medical databases were included. We calculated the ratio of dwell-to-deployment time (DDR) as the length of time between deployments divided by the length of the first deployment. Marines with 2 deployments had higher rates of PTSD than did those with 1 deployment (2.1% versus 1.2%; P times at home relative to first deployment length was associated with reduced odds of PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32, 0.70), PTSD with other mental health disorder (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.94), and other mental health disorders (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.75). Longer dwell times may reduce postdeployment risk of PTSD and other mental health disorders. Future research should focus on the role of dwell time in adverse health outcomes.

  10. The impact of tuition fees amount on mental health over time in British students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T; Elliott, P; Roberts, R

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between debt and mental health problems in students. This study aimed to examine the effect of differences in tuition fees amount on changes in mental health over time. A prospective cohort study followed 390 first-year British students who differed on their tuition fees level at 4 time points across their first 2 years at university. Participants completed measures of global mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol-related problems at up to four time points in their first two years at university. Mixed-factorial ANOVAs were used to assess the impact of tuition fees amount on changes in scores over time. There was no difference based on fees at Time 1 for anxiety, stress, depression and global mental health. At Time 2, those charged £0-2.9k or £3-4k improved while those charged £8-9k stayed the same. However, this trend reversed by Times 3 and 4. Undergraduates mental health is partially affected by the level of tuition fees; however, the recent increase in tuition fees does not appear to have had a lasting impact at present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Política de saúde do trabalhador no Brasil: muitas questões sem respostas National worker's health policy: many questions without answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena B. de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a Política Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador, na perspectiva da expressão do descaso que esta representa frente ao quadro dramático de morbi-mortalidade da classe trabalhadora brasileira. Indica os principais problemas que a política apresenta, destacando questões como a subnotificação das doenças profissionais e dos acidentes de trabalho; a competência das ações, denunciando a fragmentação de responsabilidades a partir da existência de diversas instituições e órgãos com atribuições de intervenção na área; a forma marginal, historicamente estabelecida, como é tratada a Política de Saúde do Trabalhador no contexto da Política Nacional de Saúde; as dificuldades na formação de recursos humanos, entre outras. Aponta para a necessidade de uma política que assegure aos trabalhadores brasileiros a transformação real do grave quadro de mortes e doenças em que encontram-se submetidos, desencadeando processos preventivos de fato, a partir da reestruturação dos processos produtivos e tendo os trabalhadores como condutores desta política. Finalmente, levanta uma série de questões, ainda sem resposta, que possam servir de matéria para investigações, estudos e pesquisas na área.The National Worker's Health Policy is analysed, pointing to such problems as undernotification of occupational diseases and work-related accidents, accountability fragmentation among various organizations, the importance worker's health policy in the context of the National Health Policy, and the lack of trained personnel. This extremely serious situation should be reverted by structural changes in the productive processes, with the active participation of workers both in the stablishment and conduction of this policy. Finally, this paper points to several issues that can contribute to future investigations, research and studies in this area.

  12. Managing for change. Models and questions for group practice leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, J F

    1999-01-01

    The health care environment continues to be characterized by rapid change and unpredictability. Perhaps the only constant is change itself. Managing successfully in this environment demands an increasing level of sophistication. In a rapidly changing environment, the manager must provide focus and direction and at the same time stay flexible so that the organization can quickly adjust to environmental demands. This article describes models for successful change management, followed by questions for the leader in a group practice.

  13. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  14. Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized...

  15. Unanswered Questions in Contemporary Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Lauren G; Snipelisky, David; AbouEzzeddine, Omar; Vader, Justin; Cooper, Lauren; Kelley, Jacob; Perez, Antonio; Varian, Kenneth; Lala, Anuradha; Shah, Monica; Stevenson, Lynne W

    2017-10-01

    The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aimed to describe questions that arise during the routine care of HF patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed. Compared with 2004, there were more unanswered questions about "whether" to use therapies and fewer about "how" to use therapies. There were fewer questions about what therapeutic targets, therapy adjustment, and combination therapies. There were more questions about whether or how to stop therapies and how to add therapies back. Newly prominent topics, not observed in 2004, including novel therapeutics, refractory ventricular tachycardia, right heart failure, and nutrition/frailty, accounted for 24% of questions. Compared with 2004, there are fewer unanswered questions about how to use, adjust, and combine therapies. There were more unanswered questions about whether and how to stop therapies. Almost 25% of unanswered questions dealt with topics indicative of more advanced disease which were not observed in 2004. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Testing is Healthy" TimePlay campaign: Evaluation of sexual health promotion gamification intervention targeting young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinya; Huhn, Kim J; Tan, Andy; Douglas, Rachel E; Li, Helen Guiyun; Murti, Michelle; Lee, Victoria

    2017-04-20

    The objectives of the study were to 1) describe the implementation of the "Testing is Healthy" campaign in four locations in British Columbia (BC) and 2) report process evaluation indicators for the campaign. Young adults ages 20-29 years, the age group with the highest reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea in BC. Movie theatres located in Langley, Burnaby, Coquitlam and Surrey, which are communities served by the Fraser Health Authority (FHA) in BC. The FHA launched the campaign in 2014 and 2015 to bring down the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV in the region. The campaign used the Cineplex TimePlay platform to engage moviegoers in answering STI/HIV-related questions, and to connect them to a clinic finder on the BC Centre for Disease Control Sex Smart Resource (SSR) website. TimePlay includes elements of gaming, is technology-based, and has been a successful advertisement platform for consumer products and services. However, this is the first time it has been used for sexual health promotion. The campaign was evaluated for 1) reach, based on theatre attendance and TimePlay participation, and 2) the effectiveness of connecting people to sexual health information using SSR web analytics. In total, the campaign received 548 410 views and 77 149 plays. SSR web analytics showed a significant increase in unique page views of the Clinic Finder page between the first and the second campaign. The campaign reached a large population at a low cost and was correlated with spikes in the unique page views for the Clinic Finder page.

  17. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Full-time employed and a family caregiver: a profile of women's workload, effort, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratovac, Evanne; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-01-01

    Women provide care for elderly family members while managing their other responsibilities, including full-time employment. This descriptive study used an inductively derived workload-effort-health theoretical model to examine workload, effort, and health among 46 full-time employed family caregivers [CG] of community-dwelling older adults from a larger, nonprobability, cross-sectional sample of 110 CGs. The women's caregiving workload (time, difficulty, care recipient's [CR] function), effort (perceived exertion of energy experienced in doing a workload), self-assessed health [SAH], depressive symptoms, and sources of help were richly described, and several associations were found, including higher physical and mental effort, were significantly correlated with higher workload time and difficulty and lower CR function, but not SAH. Higher mental effort and workload, and poorer SAH were significantly correlated with high depressive symptoms. Worse effort, workload, and health experiences were reported by daughters and by women who lived with their CR; those who did not have family or formal caregiving help had higher mental effort and were more depressed, suggesting an area for further study. Suggestions are offered for richer measurement of employment status, caregiving workload, and effort. Findings provide a unique profile of full-time employed women CGs' workload, effort (that is, how they do the work), and health, toward a stronger understanding of how women manage multiple workloads. Workplace policies are needed to address workload, effort and health in this informal caregiving workforce. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional question...

  20. O Manicômio Judiciário: saúde ou justiça? The Judiciary Mental Hospital: a question of health or of law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Naked de Castro Sá

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available O Manicômio Judiciário, por ser um hospital-presídio, pode estar subordinado tanto à Secretaria da Saúde como à Justiça. Como elementos de análise dessa decisão, são apresentadas comparações estruturais e de recursos humanos entre o Manicômio Judiciário e a Penitenciária de Araraquara, entre a situação de recursos humanos do Manicômio em 1981 e 1984 e entre os salários de algumas funções de servidores ligados àqueles tipos de instituições. As conclusões apontam a Secretaria da Justiça como a mais adequada para subordinar o Manicômio Judiciário, desde que tomadas algumas medidas de modernização organizacional. É sugerido um quadro de pessoal estruturado percentualmente por subgrupos de funções. As propostas relativas ao pessoal necessitam ser tratadas em leis complementares que garantam, por sua hierarquia, o atendimento das condições excepcionais de trabalho do Manicômio Judiciário.As the Manicômio Judiciário (a Judiciary Mental Health Hospital is a hospital-prison it could be subordinated either to the State Health Department or to the Department of Justice. In order to reach a sound decision regarding this issue, structural and human resource comparisons as between the Manicômio Judiciário on one side and the Araraquara Prison on the other are provided. Comparisons between the status of the human resources of the Manicômio Judiciário in 1981 and 1984 and between the wages earned by workers exercising similar functions and belonging to similar institutions are also presented. The conclusion points to the Department of Justice as the most adequate institution to which the Manicômio Judiciário should be subordinated, provided some up-to-date managerial measures are taken. A personnel chart is suggested, showing percentages of people organized according to subgroups of functions. The proposals regarding personnel must be dealt with by, supplementary laws which guarantee, adequate provision for the

  1. Social time preferences for health and money elicited with a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerding, Willem Jan; Bonsel, Gouke J; Brouwer, Werner B F; Stuifbergen, Marja C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    In economic evaluations future health and monetary outcomes are commonly discounted at equal and constant rates. The theoretical foundation of this practice is being debated and appropriate discount rates for costs and health effects are sought. Here, we have derived social discount rates for health, money, and environmental benefits by means of a choice experiment. All choices were framed from a social perspective. We investigated differences in time preference by domain (health, monetary benefits, environmental benefits), time delay (5, 10, and 40 years), and respondent characteristics. Respondents were 173 health-care professionals and 34 health policymakers. Choice titration was used to determine when the respondent was indifferent between future and present benefits. At least two-thirds of respondents preferred an intervention with immediate benefits to delayed benefits in the different domains. The median (mean) yearly discount rates for health benefits were 2.7% (10.7%), 1.3% (3.5%), and 1.1% (2.3%) assuming a 5, 10, and 40 years delay, respectively. Social time preference for monetary benefits was significantly stronger, with median (mean) yearly discount rates of 6.6% (18.7%) and 4.8% (11.2%) assuming a 5 and 10 years delay, respectively. The social time preference with regard to environmental benefits was similar to the monetary benefits. Social time preference for the different domains was significantly correlated at the individual level. The empirically derived social time preference is in line with current theoretical arguments for a lower discount rate for health benefits than for monetary benefits. Moreover, the implied median discount rates for health were lower than those commonly used or advocated in guidelines.

  2. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  3. [Part-time Work and Men's Health : Results based on Routine Data of a Statutory Health Insurance Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    With the introduction of a new occupational classification at the end of 2011, employment characteristics are reported by employees to social insurance agencies in Germany in more detail than in previous years. In addition to other changes, the new classification allows a distinction between full- and part-time work to be made. This provided a reason to consider the health-related aspects of part-time work on the basis of data from a statutory health insurance scheme. Our analysis is based on the data of 3.8 million employees insured with the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), a statutory health insurance scheme, in 2012. In addition to daily information on employment situations, details of periods and diagnoses of sick leave and the drugs prescribed were available. Although approximately 50 % of women of middle to higher working age worked part-time in 2012, the corresponding percentage of men employed in part-time work was less than 10 %. Overall, part-time employees were on sick leave for fewer days than full-time employees, but among men, sick leave due to mental disorders was longer for part-time employees than for full-time employees, whereas women working part time were affected to a lesser extent by corresponding periods of absence than those working full time. The results provide indications for the assertion that men in gender-specifically atypical employment situations are more frequently affected by mental disorders. Further evidence supports this assertion. With the long-term availability of these new employment characteristics, longitudinal analyses could help to clarify this cause-effect relationship.

  4. Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.

    2012-01-01

    returned to work. In the fitted Cox model we found that fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for depression predicted a longer time to RTW (HR: 0.61, CI: 0.45–0.84), whereas a better self-rated health predicted a shorter time to RTW (HR: 1.18, CI: 1.03–1.34). Employees working in the municipal (HR: 0.62, CI: 0......Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness...

  5. 9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Joe

    2011-01-01

    What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

  6. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  7. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  8. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan Hill, Joan

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and elicit fuller responses? How do teachers use the levels of questions and wait time as a teaching technique? How do teachers make space for students to talk together so that their thoughts are visible to other students? This article seeks to provide answers to these important…

  9. Has Underreporting of Cigarette Consumption Changed Over Time? Estimates Derived from US National Health Surveillance Systems between 1965 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Warner, Kenneth E

    2017-06-08

    Survey data find Americans' self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence dropping steadily. However, the accuracy of national surveys has been questioned, given declining response rates and increasing stigmatization of smoking. Using data from two repeated cross-sectional nationally-representative health surveys (National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH], 1979-2014, and National Health Interview Survey [NHIS], 1965-2015), we determine if self-reported cigarette consumption has changed over time as a proportion of federally taxed cigarette sales. From each survey, we calculate national equivalents of annual cigarette consumption. From 1979-1997, NSDUH and NHIS respondents reported smoking an average of 59.5% (SD = 2.3%) and 65.6% (SD = 3.2%), respectively, of taxed cigarette sales. After 1997 respondents reported an average of 64.2% (SD = 5.9%) and 63.3% (SD = 2.5%), respectively. NHIS figures remained steady throughout the latter period, with a concerning decline 2013-15 from 65.9% to 61.1%. NSDUH figures grew steadily, exceeding those of NHIS after 2002. Given the stability of underreporting of cigarette consumption over time, these surveys are likely not less accurate than they were previously. The recent decrease in NHIS accuracy, however, gives pause about the magnitude of the reported decline in smoking prevalence in 2014 and 2015. Improvement in NSDUH's accuracy is encouraging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  11. The importance of full-time work for urban adults' mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2012-11-01

    Unemployment and underemployment have adverse mental and physical health consequences, such as increased stress and depression. Health damaging behaviors like unhealthy eating, smoking, and alcohol use may be used to cope, contributing to chronic disease risk. In this adverse economic climate, it is vital to understand the health implications of unemployment and underemployment as well as underlying mechanisms. A randomized household survey of adults in six low resource communities was conducted in New Haven, Connecticut in 2009, yielding a sample of 1205 (73% participation) racially diverse adults (61% Black, 20% Latino, 12% White) ages 18-65 (61% women). We used ANOVA to test group differences and structural equation modeling to test mediation. 14.5% were unemployed and looking for work, 18.4% worked part-time, 38.2% worked full-time. Those employed full-time reported the least damaging psychological factors and health behaviors: lowest levels of stress and depression, most healthy and least unhealthy eating, most physical activity, and lowest levels of smoking and drinking. Those employed part-time fell in the middle, and those unemployed fell on the unhealthy end of all psychological and behavioral factors. Stress significantly mediated the associations of full-time employment with frequency of unhealthy eating and physical activity, and amount of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Depression significantly mediated the association of full-time employment with frequency of healthy eating. Compared to health behaviors as compared to those employed full-time, partially mediated by heightened stress and depression. It is vital for the health and well-being of the nation to increase not simply employment, but specifically full-time employment. Provision of mental health services to those unemployed and underemployed should be a priority to promote healthier lifestyles and prevent costly future chronic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Transitions between child and adult mental health services: service design, philosophy and meaning at uncertain times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcott, W J

    2014-09-01

    A young person's transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services can be an uncertain and distressing event that can have serious ramifications for their recovery. Recognition of this across many countries and recent UK media interest in the dangers of mental health services failing young people has led practitioners to question the existing processes. This paper reviews the current theories and research into potential failings of services and encourages exploration for a deeper understanding of when and how care should be managed in the transition process for young people. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in this process and, by adopting the assumptions of this paradigm, look at transition from this unique perspective. By reviewing the current ideas related to age boundaries, service thresholds, service philosophy and service design, it is argued that the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the understanding of the cultural context of the young person and the placing of the young person in a position of autonomy and control should be central to any decision and process of transfer between two mental health services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Out-of-Sync Cancer Care: Health Insurance Companies, Biomedical Practices, and Clinical Time in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Camilo

    2017-04-01

    I discuss the physical wearing out of low-income cancer patients in the aftermath of the neoliberal restructuring of the Colombian health care system in 1993. The settings for this struggle are the hospitals and the health insurance companies; the actors are bodies with cancer, the physicians who diagnose people with cancer, and the relatives who care for them. I show how most low-income patients, instead of accessing complete anticancer treatments in a timely fashion, have to negotiate and confront health insurance companies and profit-making. This results in a wait, where the time needs of the bureaucracy of the health care system and the time needs of patients' bodies are discordant, at a cost to patients.

  14. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Associations with Metabolic Health Across Weight Statuses in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic health across weight statuses and the associations of physical activity and sedentary time within and across metabolic health-weight status groups. METHODS: Six studies (n = 4,581) from the International Children......'s Accelerometry Database were used. Sedentary time, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer derived. Individuals were classified with normal weight (NW), overweight, or obesity. Strict and lenient composite definitions of metabolic health were created......, as well as MU-NW, -overweight, and -obesity classifications, compared with the MH-NW group. Furthermore, more sedentary time was associated with higher odds of MU-NW classification compared with the MH-NW group. CONCLUSIONS: More MVPA was beneficial for metabolic health and weight status, whereas lower...

  15. Validation of the structural coherency of the General Health Questionnaire Validação da coerência estrutural do Questionário de Saúde Geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Wander de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the structural coherency of the 60-item version of the General Health Questionnaire via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. METHOD: The study design is a cross-sectional survey. A random sample of 146 individuals from the city of Divinópolis-MG volunteered to participate in the present study and responded to the 60-item version of the General Health Questionnaire adapted and validated for use in Brazil. Statistics consisted of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha method. RESULTS: Alpha coefficients for all five content scales of the General Health Questionnaire were high (α > 0.8. For four of the five scales, a unifactorial model of constituent items provided a good fit to the data. Items comprising the fifth scale, Psychic Stress, exhibited a two-correlated factor structure. A factor analysis of scores for the five scales yielded strong evidence of coherency, with all scales loading substantially on a single common factor. CONCLUSION: The General Health Questionnaire shows good psychometric coherency as evidenced by high internal consistency and unidimensionality of all but one of its constituent scales, and uniformly high loadings of all scales on a single overarching factor. These results are consistent with prior findings from the General Health Questionnaire developmental study and Brazilian adaptation studies.OBJETIVO: Investigar a coerência estrutural da versão de 60 itens do Questionário de Saúde Geral de Goldberg por meio da aplicação de análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo de levantamento de desenho transversal. Uma amostra aleatória de 146 indivíduos voluntários da cidade de Divinópolis-MG participou do presente estudo respondendo à versão de 60 itens do Questionário de Saúde Geral. As estatísticas consistiram de análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias. Fidedignidade

  16. Health-related Quality of Life and Related Factors in Full-time and Part-time Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungsung; Kim, Wonjoon; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Changwon; Kim, Youngshin

    2012-07-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of part-time workers in Korea with little information available on associated changes in quality of life. This study was designed to compare part-time and full-time workers in terms of the quality of life and related factors. Data were extracted from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2008. Of the 1,284 participants selected, 942 were females (range, 20 to 64 years). Based on the information provided by self-administered questionnaire, subjects were categorized according to the working pattern (full-time and part-time) and working hours (part-time group was associated with poorer quality of life (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; P = 0.028). For both sexes, the non-stress group was linked with superior quality of life in comparison to the stress group (OR, 2.64; P = 0.002; OR, 2.17; P < 0.001). Female employees engaged in non-manual labor had superior quality of life than those engaged in manual labor (OR, 1.40; P = 0.027). This study concludes that working less than 30 hours per week is related to lower quality of life in comparison to working 30 hours or more in male employees in Korea.

  17. Global Mental Health in Action: Reducing Disparities One Community at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Richard J; Springer, Paul R; Taylor, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    There are great disparities in mental health care around the world. Traditional approaches to mental health care have not been found to be transferrable to many parts of the world and are inadequate to address these disparities. Unconventional approaches are needed that match the traditions of care-seeking and care-giving within the communities where they are delivered. The authors review the global mental health literature and discuss how marriage and family therapists are in a particularly good position to have worldwide impact on mental health disparities. Five principles of global mental health are presented along with an example of how these principles are applied through the Reducing Mental Health Disparities One Community at a Time (RD1CT) model. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. Simple Texts, Complex Questions: Helping Young Children Generate Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    As they are naturally curious about the world around them, young children ask lots and lots of questions. In classrooms today, however, there seems to be little space for these student-generated questions as teachers are more likely to pose the questions. Research indicates that question generation is an effective strategy to motivate young…

  19. Evidence-based guidelines, time-based health outcomes, and the Matthew effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiovascular risk management guidelines are 'risk based'; health economists' practice is 'time based'. The 'medical' risk-based allocation model maximises numbers of deaths prevented by targeting subjects at high risk, for example, elderly and smokers. The time-based model

  20. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  1. Valuing Health Using Time Trade-Off and Discrete Choice Experiment Methods: Does Dimension Order Impact on Health State Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Brendan; Shah, Koonal; Janssen, Mathieu F Bas; Longworth, Louise; Ibbotson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Health states defined by multiattribute instruments such as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire with five response levels (EQ-5D-5L) can be valued using time trade-off (TTO) or discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods. A key feature of the tasks is the order in which the health state dimensions are presented. Respondents may use various heuristics to complete the tasks, and therefore the order of the dimensions may impact on the importance assigned to particular states. To assess the impact of different EQ-5D-5L dimension orders on health state values. Preferences for EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited from a broadly representative sample of members of the UK general public. Respondents valued EQ-5D-5L health states using TTO and DCE methods across one of three dimension orderings via face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Differences in mean values and the size of the health dimension coefficients across the arms were compared using difference testing and regression analyses. Descriptive analysis suggested some differences between the mean TTO health state values across the different dimension orderings, but these were not systematic. Regression analysis suggested that the magnitude of the dimension coefficients differs across the different dimension orderings (for both TTO and DCE), but there was no clear pattern. There is some evidence that the order in which the dimensions are presented impacts on the coefficients, which may impact on the health state values provided. The order of dimensions is a key consideration in the design of health state valuation studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Trust in health care providers: factors predicting trust among homeless veterans over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether a combination of predisposing, enabling, need, and primary care experience variables would predict trust in medical health care providers for homeless veterans over 18 months. Linear mixed model analysis indicated that, among these variables, race, social support, service-connected disability status, and satisfaction and continuity with providers predicted trust in provider over time. Trust in providers improved during the initial stages of the relationship between patient and provider and then declined to slightly below baseline levels over time. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and effects of provider trust on patient health care status over longer periods of time.

  3. Time telling devices used in Danish health care are not synchronized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Hosbond, Susanne; Petersen, Dan Brun

    2012-01-01

    Many patients begin their encounter with the health-care services in an ambulance. In some critical patients, it is pivotal that the timing of treatment and events is registered correctly. When patients are transferred from one health care provider to another, there is a risk that the time tellin...... devices used are not synchronized. It has never been examined if this is a problem in Denmark. We performed the present study to examine if time telling devices used in the pre-hospital setting were synchronized with devices used in emergency departments....

  4. AEGIS: a robust and scalable real-time public health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ben Y; Kirby, Chaim; Hadden, Lucy E; Olson, Karen; McMurry, Andrew J; Daniel, James B; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we describe the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance system (AEGIS), developed for real-time population health monitoring in the state of Massachusetts. AEGIS provides public health personnel with automated near-real-time situational awareness of utilization patterns at participating healthcare institutions, supporting surveillance of bioterrorism and naturally occurring outbreaks. As real-time public health surveillance systems become integrated into regional and national surveillance initiatives, the challenges of scalability, robustness, and data security become increasingly prominent. A modular and fault tolerant design helps AEGIS achieve scalability and robustness, while a distributed storage model with local autonomy helps to minimize risk of unauthorized disclosure. The report includes a description of the evolution of the design over time in response to the challenges of a regional and national integration environment.

  5. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  6. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  7. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Chung, Ryoa; Dawson, Angus; Schrecker, Ted

    2012-06-28

    The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i) articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii) have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii) represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv) present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important foundation to strengthen collective action.

  8. Global health and national borders: the ethics of foreign aid in a time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johri Mira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health. Methods We undertook a critical review of contemporary accounts of justice. We selected theories that: (i articulate important and widely held moral intuitions; (ii have had extensive impact on debates about global justice; (iii represent diverse approaches to moral reasoning; and (iv present distinct stances on the normative importance of national borders. Due to space limitations we limit the discussion to four frameworks. Results Consequentialist, relational, human rights, and social contract approaches were considered. Responsibilities to provide international assistance were seen as significant by all four theories and place limits on the scope of acceptable national autonomy. Among the range of potential aid foci, interventions for health enjoyed consistent prominence. The four theories concur that there are important ethical responsibilities to support initiatives to improve the health of the worst off worldwide, but offer different rationales for intervention and suggest different implicit limits on responsibilities. Conclusions Despite significant theoretical disagreements, four influential accounts of justice offer important reasons to support many current initiatives to promote global health. Ethical argumentation can complement pragmatic reasons to support global health interventions and provide an important

  9. Analysis of public concerns about influenza vaccinations by mining a massive online question dataset in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Ishida, Hidekazu; Baden, Hiroki; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Narita, Jun; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-06-08

    Elucidating public concerns regarding vaccinations is important for successful immunization programs. The objective of the present study was to categorize public concerns regarding influenza vaccinations in Japan by analyzing a massive web-based question dataset. The Yahoo! Chiebukuro (Japanese Yahoo! Answers) Dataset, which includes more than 16 million questions collected between April 2004 and April 2009, was used in this study. We sequentially filtered data to obtain questions on influenza vaccinations. Any questions that met our exclusion criteria concerning veterinary vaccines or computer virus vaccines were removed from the analysis. Filtered questions and their answers were manually analyzed for their content by a team of board-certified pediatricians. After filtering data, we obtained 1950 questions regarding influenza vaccinations. The three most frequently asked questions were regarding the vaccination schedule, safety, and effectiveness. When we analyzed monthly trends in question contents, we noted the emergence of similar questions in the same period every year. Therefore, we classified the time periods of each year into three parts: (1) from April to the commencement of seasonal influenza vaccinations (September), (2) from October until the epidemic period, and (3) the epidemic period. Two interesting results were obtained: concerns regarding effectiveness abruptly increased during the epidemic period, and pregnant or breastfeeding women increasingly asked questions regarding feasibility between October and the epidemic period. The questions and concerns collected and analyzed in this study illustrate that the public have questions about the influenza vaccine and also that questions changed with periodical consistency. These results highlight the possible usefulness of providing the public with the latest and correct information to their questions in a timely manner, for example via an official health website. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Smith, Shawna N; Spring, Bonnie J; Collins, Linda M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-09-23

    The just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design aiming to provide the right type/amount of support, at the right time, by adapting to an individual's changing internal and contextual state. The availability of increasingly powerful mobile and sensing technologies underpins the use of JITAIs to support health behavior, as in such a setting an individual's state can change rapidly, unexpectedly, and in his/her natural environment. Despite the increasing use and appeal of JITAIs, a major gap exists between the growing technological capabilities for delivering JITAIs and research on the development and evaluation of these interventions. Many JITAIs have been developed with minimal use of empirical evidence, theory, or accepted treatment guidelines. Here, we take an essential first step towards bridging this gap. Building on health behavior theories and the extant literature on JITAIs, we clarify the scientific motivation for JITAIs, define their fundamental components, and highlight design principles related to these components. Examples of JITAIs from various domains of health behavior research are used for illustration. As we enter a new era of technological capacity for delivering JITAIs, it is critical that researchers develop sophisticated and nuanced health behavior theories capable of guiding the construction of such interventions. Particular attention has to be given to better understanding the implications of providing timely and ecologically sound support for intervention adherence and retention.

  11. Automatic Chinese Factual Question Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Rus, Vasile; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Question generation is an emerging research area of artificial intelligence in education. Question authoring tools are important in educational technologies, e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, as well as in dialogue systems. Approaches to generate factual questions, i.e., questions that have concrete answers, mainly make use of the syntactical…

  12. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  13. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowsey Tanisha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives: chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to

  14. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time.......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...

  15. The lead time tradeoff: the case of health states better than dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Prades, José Luis; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Lead time tradeoff (L-TTO) is a variant of the time tradeoff (TTO). L-TTO introduces a lead period in full health before illness onset, avoiding the need to use 2 different procedures for states better and worse than dead. To estimate utilities, additive separability is assumed. We tested to what extent violations of this assumption can bias utilities estimated with L-TTO. A sample of 500 members of the Spanish general population evaluated 24 health states, using face-to-face interviews. A total of 188 subjects were interviewed with L-TTO and the rest with TTO. Both samples evaluated the same set of 24 health states, divided into 4 groups with 6 health states per set. Each subject evaluated 1 of the sets. A random effects regression model was fitted to our data. Only health states better than dead were included in the regression since it is in this subset where additive separability can be tested clearly. Utilities were higher in L-TTO in relation to TTO (on average L-TTO adds about 0.2 points to the utility of health states), suggesting that additive separability is violated. The difference between methods increased with the severity of the health state. Thus, L-TTO adds about 0.14 points to the average utility of the less severe states, 0.23 to the intermediate states, and 0.28 points to the more severe estates. L-TTO produced higher utilities than TTO. Health problems are perceived as less severe if a lead period in full health is added upfront, implying that there are interactions between disjointed time periods. The advantages of this method have to be compared with the cost of modeling the interaction between periods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Screen Time and Health Indicators Among Children and Youth: Current Evidence, Limitations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Vallance, Jeff K

    2017-06-01

    Despite accumulating evidence linking screen-based sedentary behaviours (i.e. screen time) with poorer health outcomes among children and youth self-esteem, pro-social behaviour, academic achievement, depression and anxiety. However, few longitudinal or intervention studies have been conducted, with most of these studies focusing on physical health indicators. While most studies have used self-reported assessments of screen time, the availability of more objective assessment methods presents important opportunities (e.g. more accurate and precise assessment of sedentary time and screen time) and challenges (e.g. privacy and participant burden). Novel statistical approaches such as isotemporal substitution modelling and compositional analysis, as well as studies using longitudinal and experimental methodologies, are needed to better understand the health impact of excessive screen time, and to develop strategies to minimise or reverse the negative impacts of these behaviours. The evidence to date suggests a clear need for policy aimed at minimising the hazardous health consequences associated with screen time among children and youth.

  17. Time to Smoke: Facilitating Smoking Breaks in Mental Health Inpatient Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Debbie; Yates, Mary; Craig, Tom J K; Healey, Andy; McNeill, Ann

    2016-08-01

    Prevalence of smoking in mental health patients is up to three times higher than in the general population, with the highest rates seen in inpatient settings. In many countries, smoke-free policies in inpatient settings prohibit smoking in buildings but allow supervised smoking breaks. We aimed to estimate staff resources dedicated to such breaks. A cross sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of inpatient mental health staff from four hospitals in London, England. Staff were asked about the number of designated supervised smoking breaks and their duration, per day, on their ward. We calculated the opportunity cost of the time allocated to supervising smoking. The survey was completed by 67 staff from 25 inpatient wards across four hospital sites. Eighteen wards had designated daily supervised smoking breaks; the average number of breaks per ward was 7.6 (SD 3.9), with an average of 2 hours, 23 minutes a day of clinical time dedicated to supervising smoking. We estimated the opportunity cost of supervising smoking was between £50 to £238 per ward per day or £18 250 to £86 870 per ward per year, depending on the seniority of staff supervising smoking breaks. Considerable time and resources is being used to facilitate smoking in mental health hospitals with smoke-free policies which allow smoking in hospital grounds. This resource could be redirected to provide evidence-based care that improves health and wellbeing, such as tobacco dependence treatment. This study is the first to estimate the time and opportunity costs of facilitating smoking across different wards in a mental health setting in the United Kingdom. Health care resources are scarce, including staff time. Every time staff facilitate smoking, clinical time is diverted away from therapeutic activities that contribute to improved patient health. Rather than suggesting any financial savings can be made through the introduction of smoke-free services, we present one metric of the value

  18. Time availability and preference for e-health communication channels for nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Whiteley, Jessica A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Viswanath, K

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between time availability and preference for computer-based (e-health) communication channels when receiving nutrition and physical activity information, two key behaviors related to cancer prevention. Students from a large, diverse, urban university (n = 397) completed a web-based survey indicating their usage patterns and preferences for multiple eHealth channels. Bivariate analyses were performed based on a measure of time availability, comprised of working status (25 h/week or more, 1-24 h/week, or not working) and enrollment status (full-time or part-time). Most e-health channels were broadly used by students and did not differ according to time availability. Those with the most amount of time available preferred receiving nutrition and physical activity information via social networking more frequently compared to those with the least amount of time available (60 versus 43%, P ≤ 0.05). Our study suggests that time availability may be another important factor to consider when planning cancer prevention programs.

  19. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  20. Time as a Key Topic in Health Professionals’ Perceptions of Clinical Handovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Watson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical handovers are an essential part of the daily care and treatment of hospital patients. We invoked a language and social psychology lens to investigate how different health professional groups discussed the communication problems and strengths they experienced in handovers. We conducted in-depth interviews with three different health professional groups within a large metropolitan hospital. We used Leximancer text analytics software as a tool to analyze the data. Results showed that time was of concern to all groups in both similar and diverse ways. All professionals discussed time management, time pressures, and the difficulties of coordinating different handovers. Each professional group had its own unique perceptions and priorities about handovers. Our findings indicated that health professionals understood what was required for handover improvement but did not have the extra capacity to alter their current environment. Hospital management, with clinicians, need to implement handover schedule processes that prioritize interprofessional representation.

  1. Timing of Most Recent Health Care Visit by Older People Living With and Without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Joseph O; Schatz, Enid J; Negin, Joel; Mwaniki, Paul; Kowal, Paul; Seeley, Janet

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this article is to document factors associated with the recency of health-care service utilization by people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV in Uganda. A survey was conducted with 510 Ugandans aged 50 and older, living with and without HIV. The survey included information on sociodemographic characteristics, health state, self-reported chronic conditions, and timing of most recent visit to a health-care facility (time since last visit [TSLV]). We use ordinal logistic regression to identify independent factors associated TSLV. Independent factors associated with TSLV (>6 months) include age, OR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.08-5.37] for those aged 80 years and above, urban respondents, OR = 0.6 [95%CI 0.38-0.94], HIV-positive respondents, OR = 0.33 [95%CI 0.18-0.59], and better health. To understand the meaning of these finding, further investigation should examine (a) how best to define and measure older persons' health-care service needs and (b) older persons' decision-making processes around the timing of their access to health-care facilities.

  2. The nonlinear association between Internet using time for non-educational purposes and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to consider the association between Internet using time for non-educational purposes and adolescent health, and to examine how health status differs between Internet users and non-users. We analyzed 2009 data from the Korea Adolescent Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7 to 12. A total of 75 066 adolescents were categorized into four groups according to their Internet using time excluding using for educational purposes: non-Internet users (NIUs), occasional Internet users (OIUs) (Internet users (MIUs) (≥ 1 and Internet users (HIUs) (≥ 2 h/d). Health factors included eight health risk behavior indices, four mental health indices and six physical health indices. THE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERNET USE WAS AS FOLLOWS: NIUs 17.4%, OIUs 68.1%, MIUs 12.7%, and HIUs 1.7%. In multivariate analysis, using OIUs as a reference, U- or J-shaped associations were observed for five health risk behavior indices (current smoking, current drinking, drug abuse, sexual intercourse, sedentary behavior on weekdays) and four mental health indices (stressed, depressed, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide) in both genders. After removing confounding effects, including age, region, school type, subjective school record, subjective economic status, presence of parents, living with family, and sedentary behavior, these associations were still observed. Health professionals should consider both Internet non-users (for non-educational purposes) and heavy users to be high-risk groups in terms of health status. Also, more well-designed studies are needed to clarify what factors are working in these nonlinear associations.

  3. The Nonlinear Association Between Internet Using Time for Non-Educational Purposes and Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to consider the association between Internet using time for non-educational purposes and adolescent health, and to examine how health status differs between Internet users and non-users. Methods We analyzed 2009 data from the Korea Adolescent Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7 to 12. A total of 75 066 adolescents were categorized into four groups according to their Internet using time excluding using for educational purposes: non-Internet users (NIUs), occasional Internet users (OIUs) (Internet users (MIUs) (≥1 and Internet users (HIUs) (≥2 h/d). Health factors included eight health risk behavior indices, four mental health indices and six physical health indices. Results The distribution of Internet use was as follows: NIUs 17.4%, OIUs 68.1%, MIUs 12.7%, and HIUs 1.7%. In multivariate analysis, using OIUs as a reference, U- or J-shaped associations were observed for five health risk behavior indices (current smoking, current drinking, drug abuse, sexual intercourse, sedentary behavior on weekdays) and four mental health indices (stressed, depressed, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide) in both genders. After removing confounding effects, including age, region, school type, subjective school record, subjective economic status, presence of parents, living with family, and sedentary behavior, these associations were still observed. Conclusions Health professionals should consider both Internet non-users (for non-educational purposes) and heavy users to be high-risk groups in terms of health status. Also, more well-designed studies are needed to clarify what factors are working in these nonlinear associations. PMID:22389757

  4. Effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu-Brefo, Rita; Arthur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices have been argued to be one of the important ways of ensuring child health. Unfortunately, owing to modernization, most nursing mothers fail to adhere to such practices. This is believed to be a factor contributory to poor child health in Ghana. Thus, this study investigated the effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana. Cross sectional data using secondary data based on the positivism approach to research was employed. The Ordinary least squares and the Instrumental variables approach were used in estimating the effect of breastfeeding and other socio demographic indicators on the health of the child. Data for the study was sourced from the 2008 round of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that timely initiation of breastfeeding, both immediately and hours after birth are important factors that influence the child's health. Additionally, factors such as the wealth of the household, mother's education, age and size of the child at birth and age of the mother are important factors that also influence the health of the child in Ghana. The findings imply that efforts should be made on encouraging appropriate breastfeeding practices among nursing mothers to ensure proper child development and growth in Ghana.

  5. Questioning Masculinities in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with colonial times and continuing to the present, irrigation has been an important site for the construction of gendered power and hegemonic masculinities. The strong connection between masculinities and irrigation cultures may provide an important explanation of why hydraulic

  6. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time Acellular pertussis vaccines may not prevent colonization (carrying the bacteria in your body without getting ... with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  7. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affects a person most, not the type of alcoholic drink. Top of Page What does moderate drinking mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans , 1 moderate alcohol consumption is defined as having up to 1 drink ...

  9. A Novel Real-time Carbon Dioxide Analyzer for Health and Environmental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Di; Miller, Dylan; Xian, Xiaojun; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S.

    2014-01-01

    To be able to detect carbon dioxide (CO2) with high accuracy and fast response time is critical for many health and environmental applications. We report on a pocket-sized CO2 sensor for real-time analysis of end-tidal CO2, and environmental CO2. The sensor shows fast and reversible response to CO2 over a wide concentration range, covering the needs of both environmental and health applications. It is also immune to the presence of various interfering gases in ambient or expired air. Furtherm...

  10. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  11. Electronic Health Record Logs Indicate That Physicians Split Time Evenly Between Seeing Patients And Desktop Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Olson, Cliff W; Li, Jinnan; Chan, Albert S; Morikawa, Criss; Durbin, Meg; Wang, Wei; Luft, Harold S

    2017-04-01

    Time spent by physicians is a key resource in health care delivery. This study used data captured by the access time stamp functionality of an electronic health record (EHR) to examine physician work effort. This is a potentially powerful, yet unobtrusive, way to study physicians' use of time. We used data on physicians' time allocation patterns captured by over thirty-one million EHR transactions in the period 2011-14 recorded by 471 primary care physicians, who collectively worked on 765,129 patients' EHRs. Our results suggest that the physicians logged an average of 3.08 hours on office visits and 3.17 hours on desktop medicine each day. Desktop medicine consists of activities such as communicating with patients through a secure patient portal, responding to patients' online requests for prescription refills or medical advice, ordering tests, sending staff messages, and reviewing test results. Over time, log records from physicians showed a decline in the time allocated to face-to-face visits, accompanied by an increase in time allocated to desktop medicine. Staffing and scheduling in the physician's office, as well as provider payment models for primary care practice, should account for these desktop medicine efforts. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Time management and leadership styles: an empirical study of long-term health care administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, H J; Kramer, J A

    1991-01-01

    Is there a relationship between the type of leadership style employed by long-term health care administrators and the effective use and management of time? This paper describes a 1989 study of 188 administrators of skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities in Connecticut. Two self-rating instruments were employed: the Executive Time Management Inventory (Hartley, Kramer, et al.) and the LEAD-Self instrument (Hersey and Blanchard). Four hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance to examine relationships among time management, leadership style, size of facility, administrator experience, and cost factors. Statistical procedures included Pearson Product-Moment correlations, analysis of variance, t-tests, and partial correlations. Results of the study included (1) time management effectiveness increased as administrators gained more experience; (2) no significant relationship existed between type of leadership style and time management effectiveness; (3) women administrators perceived themselves as significantly more effective time managers than men did; (4) most health care administrators employed the same primary leadership style: "selling," which is defined as high relationship/high task; and (5) institutional size was not related to the time management effectiveness of the administrator. The findings have implications for pre-service and in-service training and for future studies in health administration education.

  13. Is it time for a public health nursing approach to aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M

    2013-09-01

    Following the enactment of Medicare in 1965, access to health care for older adults in the United States improved. At the same time, nurse researchers and policy leaders developed individual and family-centered care interventions and programs that led to improvements in quality of health and life. In the next 20 to 30 years, U.S. and global projections of an expanding aging cohort with potential increases in health care needs, coupled with continued nursing shortage projections, present challenges and opportunities to enhance gerontological nursing's approach to aging care. Invigorating a public health nursing focus on the needs of a population of older adults could enhance nursing's ability to create policy and programs of care that promote quality of life for older adults and their families. Nurses using public health approaches can lead and support social policies regarding the physical environment and daily life circumstances that contribute to health equity. Heightened attention to competencies in community/public health nursing education and promotion of public health nursing careers will be important policy considerations as we face the looming increase in a population of older adults throughout the world. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  15. Effect of the Duration Time of a Nuclear Accident on Radiological Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojoon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the effect of duration time of a nuclear accident on the radiation dose of a densely populated area and the resulting acute health effects. In the case of nuclear accidents, the total emissions of radioactive materials can be classified into several categories. Therefore, the release information is very important for the assessment of risk to the public. We confirmed that when the duration time of the emissions are prolonged to 7 hours, the concentrations of radioactive substances in the ambient air are reduced by 50% compared to that when the duration time of emission is one hour. This means that the risk evaluation using only the first wind direction of an accident is very conservative, so it has to be used as a screening level for the risk assessment. Furthermore, it is judged that the proper control of the emission time of a nuclear accident can minimize the health effects on residents.

  16. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  17. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  18. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  19. When Is a Question a Question for Children and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Terminal changes in fundamental frequency provide the most salient acoustic cues to declarative questions, but adults sometimes identify such questions from pre-terminal cues. In the present study, adults and 7- to 10-year-old children judged a single speaker's adult- and child-directed utterances as questions or statements in a gating task with…

  20. Dealing with Time in Health Economic Evaluation: Methodological Issues and Recommendations for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, James F; Newall, Anthony T; van Rosmalen, Joost

    2015-12-01

    Time is an important aspect of health economic evaluation, as the timing and duration of clinical events, healthcare interventions and their consequences all affect estimated costs and effects. These issues should be reflected in the design of health economic models. This article considers three important aspects of time in modelling: (1) which cohorts to simulate and how far into the future to extend the analysis; (2) the simulation of time, including the difference between discrete-time and continuous-time models, cycle lengths, and converting rates and probabilities; and (3) discounting future costs and effects to their present values. We provide a methodological overview of these issues and make recommendations to help inform both the conduct of cost-effectiveness analyses and the interpretation of their results. For choosing which cohorts to simulate and how many, we suggest analysts carefully assess potential reasons for variation in cost effectiveness between cohorts and the feasibility of subgroup-specific recommendations. For the simulation of time, we recommend using short cycles or continuous-time models to avoid biases and the need for half-cycle corrections, and provide advice on the correct conversion of transition probabilities in state transition models. Finally, for discounting, analysts should not only follow current guidance and report how discounting was conducted, especially in the case of differential discounting, but also seek to develop an understanding of its rationale. Our overall recommendations are that analysts explicitly state and justify their modelling choices regarding time and consider how alternative choices may impact on results.

  1. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Imust admit that I found it odd when asked to write a piece on my life as a physicist. My contributions to physics are modest and I have lived through fairly unremarkable times and circumstances. What justifies the writing of this essay then, is the 'odder' fact that being a woman physicist makes me unusual. I was born into a ...

  2. Connectivity, prison environment and mental health among first-time male inmates in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertie, Ariel; Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Research from high-income countries suggests that prison populations are affected disproportionately by mental illness. However, little research has examined mental health among prisoners in low- and middle-income countries or associations between mental health and contextual factors surrounding the prison experience among susceptible first-time inmates in these settings. The current study examines associations between connectivity, prison environment and mental health (major depression and substance use) among novice male inmates (n = 593) in three Mexico City prisons. Severe depression (46.2%), any substance use (53.8%) and heavy substance use (45.7%) were prevalent. Among key co-variates, recent visitors were protective for severe depression, conjugal visits for any substance use and prison employment for heavy substance use. Physical attacks were associated with increased prevalence of depression, sentence time served with both any and heavy substance use and overcrowding with any substance use. These findings suggest the need for routine health assessments to improve identification and treatment programmes to minimise mental health burden. Addressing demographic risk factors as well as contextual determinants, by decreasing physical violence and overcrowding and supporting outside connections for prisoners, may help improve inmate mental health.

  3. Timely reporting and interactive visualization of animal health and slaughterhouse surveillance data in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich J Muellner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programming skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programming skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision-makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems.

  4. Aid for health in times of political unrest in Mali: does donors' way of intervening allow protecting people's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elisabeth; Samaké, Salif; Berthé, Issa; Huijts, Ini; Balique, Hubert; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Mali has long been a leader in francophone Africa in developing systems aimed at improving aid effectiveness, especially in the health sector. But following the invasion of the Northern regions of the country by terrorist groups and a coup in March 2012, donors suspended official development assistance, except for support to NGOs and humanitarian assistance. They resumed aid after transfer of power to a civil government, but this was not done in a harmonized framework. This article describes and analyses how donors in the health sector reacted to the political unrest in Mali. It shows that despite its long sector-wide approach experience and international agreements to respect aid effectiveness principles, donors have not been able to intervene in view of safeguarding the investments of co-operation in the past decade, and of protecting the health system's functioning. They reacted to the political unrest on a bilateral basis, stopped working with their ministerial partners, interrupted support to the health system which was still expected to serve populations' needs and took months before organizing alternative and only partial solutions to resume aid to the health sector. The Malian example leads to a worrying conclusion: while protecting the health system's achievements and functioning for the population should be a priority, and while harmonizing donors' interventions seems the most appropriate way for that purpose, donors' management practices do not allow for reacting adequately in times of unrest. The article concludes by a number of recommendations. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  5. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  6. School start time effects on adolescent learning and academic performance, emotional health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Owens, Judith A

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of the relationship between the time of day that school begins and the effects it could have on students began in the mid-1990s. Since that time, many articles have been written either for the medical literature or the educational literature. This review is intended to bridge that gap by examining together the findings for both academic and health outcomes, exploring what we know and what is needed in further investigation. Teens who are sleep deficient (defined as obtaining less than 8 h per night) because of early starting time for their school are much more likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as drug, cigarette and alcohol use, have significant feelings of depression, get lower grades and are at greater risk for car crashes. Many studies of academic performance and later school start time indicate benefits, although further research is needed to understand the related mechanisms that contribute to improvements in achievement. Recent research in adolescent sleep and outcomes is being shaped by not only measuring sleep duration, but also examining the timing in which sleep occurs. Early school starting time for middle and high students has a clear, deleterious effect on their health and well being. Most recently, sleep deficit in teens is being viewed as a public health issue that needs a wider discussion about its impact and it necessitates improved public education about the sleep phase shift that occurs during adolescence.

  7. Physical activity, screen time and the risk of subjective health complaints in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Eimear; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2017-03-01

    Internationally, subjective health complaints have become increasingly prevalent in children. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of health complaints is needed to inform effective policies and strategies. This study explores if meeting physical activity and total screen time (TST) recommendations are associated with the risk of reporting health complaints weekly or more. The 2014 Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected questionnaire data from 10,474 10-17year olds. Children reported how often they experienced eight health complaints as less than weekly or weekly or more. Children who met moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations were active for 60min/day in the past seven days. Three types of screen based activity were categorised to reflect if children met TST recommendations of ≤2h/day. Poisson regression examined the association between meeting recommendations and the risk of health complaints. The prevalence of individual health complaints ranged from 20.4-44.3% in girls and from 10.1-35.4% in boys. Overall, 5.1% (4.5-5.6%) of girls and 8.7% (7.8-9.5%) of boys met both (physical activity and TST) recommendations, while two thirds of girls (67.3%, 66.1-68.5%) and over half of boys (55.0%, 53.5-56.6%) met neither recommendation. Not meeting TST recommendations was significantly associated with the risk of reporting health complaints while associations with physical activity were less apparent. Children who did not meet either recommendation had a significantly increased risk for six of the health complaints when compared to those who met both recommendations. As health complaints and poor lifestyle behaviours were common in children, population level measures are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scheduling Optimization of Home Health Care Service Considering Patients’ Priorities and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a new service model, home health care can provide effective health care by adopting door-to-door service. The reasonable arrangements for nurses and their routes not only can reduce medical expenses, but also can enhance patient satisfaction. This research focuses on the home health care scheduling optimization problem with known demands and service capabilities. Aimed at minimizing the total cost, an integer programming model was built in this study, which took both the priorities of patients and constraints of time windows into consideration. The genetic algorithm with local search was used to solve the proposed model. Finally, a case study of Shanghai, China, was conducted for the empirical analysis. The comparison results verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and methodology, which can provide the decision support for medical administrators of home health care.

  9. Time from pre-eclampsia diagnosis to delivery affects future health prospects of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Birgitte; Lykke, Jacob A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposu...... in the complex clinical management of mild pre-eclampsia.......Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposure...... to either mild or severe pre-eclampsia up to 30 years after birth and related disease risks to duration of exposure, i.e. the time from diagnosis to delivery. Methodology: We did a registry-based retrospective cohort study in Denmark covering the years 1979-2009, using the separate diagnoses of mild...

  10. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  11. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  12. A robust interrupted time series model for analyzing complex health care intervention data

    KAUST Repository

    Cruz, Maricela

    2017-08-29

    Current health policy calls for greater use of evidence-based care delivery services to improve patient quality and safety outcomes. Care delivery is complex, with interacting and interdependent components that challenge traditional statistical analytic techniques, in particular, when modeling a time series of outcomes data that might be

  13. The effect of centralization of health care services on travel time and its equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the regional variations in travel time between patient residences and medical facilities for the treatment of ischemic heart disease and breast cancer, and to simulate the effects of health care services centralization on travel time and equality of access. We used medical insurance claims data for inpatients and outpatients for the two target diseases that had been filed between September 2008 and May 2009 in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Using a geographical information system, patient travel times were calculated based on the driving distance between patient residences and hospitals via highways and toll roads. Locations of residences and hospital locations were identified using postal codes. We then conducted a simulation analysis of centralization of health care services to designated regional core hospitals. The simulated changes in potential spatial access to care were examined. Inequalities in access to care were examined using Gini coefficients, which ranged from 0.4109 to 0.4574. Simulations of health care services centralization showed reduced travel time for most patients and overall improvements in equality of access, except in breast cancer outpatients. Our findings may contribute to the decision-making process in policies aimed at improving the potential spatial access to health care services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com, WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com, and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com, etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query and candidate question for retrieval (question. To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2017-09-02

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  18. Health and relationships with leisure time activities in Swedish children aged 2-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-09-01

    Three cross-sectional time series studies, randomised and stratified for age and gender, were performed on children aged 2-17, studying their health and well-being. The studies were performed in the Nordic countries in 1984, 1996 and 2011. Long-term illness (LTI) and psychosomatic complaints (PSC) increased during the period. Data were collected from mailed questionnaires. Data of 1461 Swedish children from 2011 were used and compared with data from 1984 and 1996. Relationships between the health indicators (the absence of LTI, 13 diagnoses, the absence of PSC, six symptoms, six items of well-being) and 12 activities were analysed. A total of 83.2% of the children were healthy and 16.8% had at least one LTI, boys 19.1% and girls 14.5%. PSC increased from 18.6% in 1996 to 23.1% in 2011. The distribution was higher in girls. Girls were more active than boys during leisure time. 'Reading books', 'visiting friends', 'listening to music' and 'activity in organisations' were related to an absence of PSC, LTI and well-being. 'Surfing/blogging on the Internet' was negatively related to LTI, PSC and well-being. Multiple regression showed that that 'visits or is visited by friends' was related with a low probability for LTI and also with a high probability for well-being. In the logistic regression analyses, the following variables were seen as promoting health most: 'visits or is visited by friends' and 'is active in organizations' for children aged 2-17 years, especially for boys and well-being. The health of Swedish children declined between 1984 and 2011. Positive relationships were found between some activities and health as well as other activities related to ill health. The results suggest an increased focus on the activities that have positive relationships with health in order to promote health among children. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  20. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  1. Documenting Questions: A crash course

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Wendy; Johnson, Jon,; Duffes, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The most significant area of DDI adoption since 2008 has been around the development, management, and use of Questions. The creation of question banks, development of tools to organize and field questionnaires, and interest in new and specialized means of data capture has fueled development in the DDI. For those of you that have "Questions" and want to do something with them this half-day tutorial will address the following: Question structures in DDI: What have these structur...

  2. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  3. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  4. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  5. Student questioning : a componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on student questioning, organized through a modified version of Dillon's (1988a, 1990) componential model of questioning. Special attention is given to the properties of assumptions, questions, and answers. Each of these main elements are the result of certain

  6. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  7. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  8. Zika: Questions That Need Answers | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... There are still many questions about the Zika virus and its impact on human health. But it's important to keep in mind that research has already provided us with many answers. Español (PDF, 140KB). Dominique Charron is the Director of the Agriculture and Environment program at IDRC. Thierry Baldet is a ...

  9. Augmenting Fellow Education Through Spaced Multiple-Choice Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Yun, Heather C

    2018-01-01

    The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity. Spaced interval education is useful in retention of medical knowledge and skills by medical students and residents. Its use in infectious disease fellow education has not been described. To improve the quiz experience, we assessed the introduction of spaced education curriculum in our program. A pre-intervention survey was distributed to assess the monthly quiz with Likert scale and open-ended questions. A multiple-choice question spaced education curriculum was created using the Qstream(R) platform in 2011. Faculty development on question writing was conducted. Two questions were delivered every 2 d. Incorrectly and correctly answered questions were repeated after 7 and 13 d, respectively. Questions needed to be answered correctly twice to be retired. Fellow satisfaction was assessed at semi-annual fellowship reviews over 5 yr and by a one-time repeat survey. Pre-intervention survey of six fellows indicated dissatisfaction with the time commitment of the monthly quiz (median Likert score of 2, mean 6.5 h to complete), neutral in perceived utility, but satisfaction with knowledge retention (Likert score 4). Eighteen fellows over 5 yr participated in the spaced education curriculum. Three quizzes with 20, 39, and 48 questions were designed. Seventeen percentage of questions addressed operationally relevant topics. Fifty-nine percentage of questions were answered correctly on first attempt, improving to 93% correct answer rate at the end of the analysis. Questions were attempted 2,999 times

  10. Monitoring Count Time Series in R: Aberration Detection in Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Salmon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance aims at lessening disease burden by, e.g., timely recognizing emerging outbreaks in case of infectious diseases. Seen from a statistical perspective, this implies the use of appropriate methods for monitoring time series of aggregated case reports. This paper presents the tools for such automatic aberration detection offered by the R package surveillance. We introduce the functionalities for the visualization, modeling and monitoring of surveillance time series. With respect to modeling we focus on univariate time series modeling based on generalized linear models (GLMs, multivariate GLMs, generalized additive models and generalized additive models for location, shape and scale. Applications of such modeling include illustrating implementational improvements and extensions of the well-known Farrington algorithm, e.g., by spline-modeling or by treating it in a Bayesian context. Furthermore, we look at categorical time series and address overdispersion using beta-binomial or Dirichlet-multinomial modeling. With respect to monitoring we consider detectors based on either a Shewhart-like single timepoint comparison between the observed count and the predictive distribution or by likelihoodratio based cumulative sum methods. Finally, we illustrate how surveillance can support aberration detection in practice by integrating it into the monitoring workflow of a public health institution. Altogether, the present article shows how well surveillance can support automatic aberration detection in a public health surveillance context.

  11. A Novel Real-time Carbon Dioxide Analyzer for Health and Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Miller, Dylan; Xian, Xiaojun; Tsow, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To be able to detect carbon dioxide (CO2) with high accuracy and fast response time is critical for many health and environmental applications. We report on a pocket-sized CO2 sensor for real-time analysis of end-tidal CO2, and environmental CO2. The sensor shows fast and reversible response to CO2 over a wide concentration range, covering the needs of both environmental and health applications. It is also immune to the presence of various interfering gases in ambient or expired air. Furthermore, the sensor has been used for real-time breath analysis, and the results are in good agreement with those from a commercial CO2 detector. PMID:24659857

  12. A Question of Fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Rompaey

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available pA review of Peter Hallward (ed., emThink Again: Alain Badiou and the Future of Philosophy/em, Continuum, London, 2004. ISBN: HB: 0-8264-5906-4, PB: 0-8264-5907-2/ppThe review surveys the contents of Peter Hallward, ed., Think Again: Alain Badiou and the Future of Philosophy and seeks to categorize the various kinds of contributions. It finds that, while some of the essays offer valuable critiques of Badiou#39;s work or else clarify key concepts in productive ways, others challenge aspects of his thought for reasons that are demonstrably spurious. The overall assessment, though, is that the book provides a useful and timely appraisal of Badiou#39;s impact on contemporary philosophy./p

  13. Long-term real-time structural health monitoring using wireless smart sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinae; Mensah-Bonsu, Priscilla O.; Li, Jingcheng; Dahal, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    Improving the safety and security of civil infrastructure has become a critical issue for decades since it plays a central role in the economics and politics of a modern society. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using wireless smart sensor network has emerged as a promising solution recently to increase structural reliability, enhance inspection quality, and reduce maintenance costs. Though hardware and software framework are well prepared for wireless smart sensors, the long-term real-time health monitoring strategy are still not available due to the lack of systematic interface. In this paper, the Imote2 smart sensor platform is employed, and a graphical user interface for the long-term real-time structural health monitoring has been developed based on Matlab for the Imote2 platform. This computer-aided engineering platform enables the control, visualization of measured data as well as safety alarm feature based on modal property fluctuation. A new decision making strategy to check the safety is also developed and integrated in this software. Laboratory validation of the computer aided engineering platform for the Imote2 on a truss bridge and a building structure has shown the potential of the interface for long-term real-time structural health monitoring.

  14. Perceived mental stress in relation to oral health over time in middle-aged Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennström, A; Boman, U Wide; Ahlqwist, M; Björkelund, C; Hakeberg, M

    2015-12-01

    To study perceived mental stress in relation to oral health among Swedish middle-aged women over a 36-year period, including considerations concerning smoking and socioeconomic status (SES). This combined medical and dental study includes three cross-sectional (1968/9 N = 746, 1980/1 N = 432, 2004/5 N = 500) surveys of 38- and 50-year-old women included in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Panoramic radiography was used to register the number of teeth, filled teeth and decayed teeth and the level of periodontal bone loss. The information concerning perceived mental stress, smoking and education (chosen to represent SES) was questionnaire-based. Perceived mental stress increased over the 36-year period, but was not related to oral health. The time of examination year had a protective effect on oral health, with a larger number of remaining teeth, fewer decayed teeth and less periodontal bone loss in the later examination year, 2004/5, compared with 1968/9. Risk factors for poor oral health were smoking, greater age (50 vs. 38 years) and low educational level. Smokers had fewer filled teeth than non-smokers except in 2004/5, and there was a shift over time towards fewer filled teeth among highly educated women. A remarkable increase in perceived mental stress was seen among the women over time, but was not associated with oral health. Smoking, greater age and low educational were risk factors for poor oral health, whereas a later examination year was a protective factor.

  15. C4-1: As the Clock Ticks… Are Questions the Answer? Audio-Recordings of Primary Care Visits Among Patients with Mental Health Needs Show Room for Improvement in Physician Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming Tai-Seale; Patricia Foo; Cheryl Stults

    2013-01-01

    .... We know little about whether patients with mental illness ask questions in primary care visits, how their question-asking behavior is associated with physicians' relational communication and the length of visit...

  16. Managing in turbulent times: issues and challenges in health care mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S A

    1999-09-01

    The environment of the health care system in the present and foreseeable future has been described as a revolution whose impetus comes from Wall Street. The new system of health care is characterized by mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures. For-profit conversions and mergers of religious and secular organizations were almost unheard of before the last decade. The challenges facing nursing leadership in these turbulent times are (1) dealing with the human dynamics associated with creating new organizational cultures, (2) shifting focus away from event-driven cost avoidance and protecting institutional assets, and (3) shifting focus toward stewardship of community resources and nursing practice beyond institutional boundaries.

  17. Uptake, prevalence and predictors of first-time use for the 75+ Health Assessment Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Tavener, Meredith; Majeed, Tazeen; Nair, Balakrishnan R; Byles, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, the Australian Federal Government introduced Medicare items for Health Assessments for people aged 75 years and older (75+ health assessments). This research examined uptake of these assessments and identified predictors of use by women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Assessments were identified for each year from 1999 to 2013 using linked Medicare data. Time to first assessment was examined, as well as social and health factors associated with having an assessment. From 1999 to 2013, 61.8% of women had at least one assessment. Almost one-third had an assessment within 2 years of their introduction, 25% of women died before having an assessment and 13% survived but did not have an assessment. Factors associated with assessment included being widowed, private health insurance, marital status, education, having arthritis and urinary incontinence, and less difficulty managing on income. Many women never received an assessment, and many only received one. Promotion of the 75+ health assessments is necessary among older women to increase uptake.

  18. First-birth Timing, Marital History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba; Frech, Adrianne

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence that first-birth timing influences women's health, the role of marital status in shaping this association has received scant attention. Using multivariate propensity score matching, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the effect of having a first birth in adolescence (prior to age 20), young adulthood (ages 20-24), or later ages (ages 25-35) on women's midlife self-assessed health. Findings suggest that adolescent childbearing is associated with worse midlife health compared to later births for black women but not for white women. Yet, we find no evidence of health advantages of delaying first births from adolescence to young adulthood for either group. Births in young adulthood are linked to worse health than later births among both black and white women. Our results also indicate that marriage following a nonmarital adolescent or young adult first birth is associated with modestly worse self-assessed health compared to remaining unmarried. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  19. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real time alert system: a disease management system leveraging health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vibha; Sheley, Meena E; Xu, Shawn; Downs, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Rates of preventive and disease management services can be improved by providing automated alerts and reminders to primary care providers (PCPs) using of health information technology (HIT) tools. Using Adaptive Turnaround Documents (ATAD), an existing Health Information Exchange (HIE) infrastructure and office fax machines, we developed a Real Time Alert (RTA) system. RTA is a computerized decision support system (CDSS) that is able to deliver alerts to PCPs statewide for recommended services around the time of the patient visit. RTA is also able to capture structured clinical data from providers using existing fax technology. In this study, we evaluate RTA's performance for alerting PCPs when their patients with asthma have an emergency room visit anywhere in the state. Our results show that RTA was successfully able to deliver "just in time" patient-relevant alerts to PCPs across the state. Furthermore, of those ATADs faxed back and automatically interpreted by the RTA system, 35% reported finding the provided information helpful. The PCPs who reported finding information helpful also reported making a phone call, sending a letter or seeing the patient for follow up care. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of electronically exchanging important patient related information with the PCPs statewide. This is despite a lack of a link with their electronic health records. We have shown that using our ATAD technology, a PCP can be notified quickly of an important event such as a patient's asthma related emergency room admission so further follow up can happen in near real time.

  1. Quantifying and Valuing Community Health Worker Time in Improving Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Joëlle; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Siribié, Mohamadou; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Balyeku, Andrew; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-12-15

     Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in 3 African countries.  In Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda, CHWs were trained to assess and manage febrile patients in keeping with Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommendations to use rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination therapy, and rectal artesunate for malaria treatment. All CHWs provided healthcare only to young children usually earnings of persons with similar experience.  During the high malaria season of the intervention, CHWs spent nearly 50 minutes more in daily healthcare provision (average daily time, 30.2 minutes before the intervention vs 79.5 minutes during the intervention; test for difference in means P quality services.  ISRCTN13858170. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  2. The effects of health information technology change over time: a study of Tele-ICU functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, S H; Woods, D D; Schweikhart, S; Ebright, P; Patterson, E

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies exploring the evolution of health information technology functions provide valuable information about how technology systems are integrated and exploited in situ. This study reports changes in the distribution of functions for a specific health information technology, the tele-ICU, over time. The studied tele-ICU provided care to six remote ICUs within a local geographic region in the same state and had nursing staff around the clock. The intervention logs of tele-ICU nurses were collected during two discrete times and coded into nine emergent functional categories, who initiated the intervention and, if required, subsequent escalation. All coded functional categories were investigated for significant changes over time in the nursing logged interventions. A total of 1927 interventions were coded into the nine emergent functional categories. Seven of the nine categories (78%) were significantly different between 2005 and 2007. The functions of the tele-ICU system continue to change and develop over time. These findings suggest that the tele-ICU increased support when ICU nurses were off the unit, inter-hospital coordinating and adherence to best practices, while simultaneously decreasing real-time support for ICU nurses. This research suggests that sustaining safety features in a new technology over time have post-conditions after implementation.

  3. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2016-05-01

    Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Correlates of physical activity and sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes attending primary health care in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamra S. Alghafri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity in the management of type 2 diabetes, it is poorly addressed in diabetes care. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of meeting ≥600MET-min/wk. (150 min/wk of physical activity and sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes in Oman. Approaches to encourage physical activity in diabetes care were explored. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was conducted in 17 randomly selected primary health centres in Muscat. Clinical data including co-morbidities were extracted from the health information system. Questions on physical activity preferences and approaches were included. Patients were approached if they were ≥18 years, and had been registered in the diabetes clinic for >2 years. Results The questionnaire was completed by 305 people (females 57% and males 43%. Mean age (SD was 57 (10.8 years and mean BMI (SD was 31.0 (6.0 kg/m2. Duration of diabetes ranged from 2 to 25 (mean 7.6 years. Hypertension (71% and dyslipidaemia (62% were common comorbidities. Most (58.4% had an HbA1c ≥7% indicating poor glycaemic control (55% in males vs 61% in females. Physical activity recommendations were met by 21.6% of the participants, mainly through leisure activities. Odds of meeting the recommendations were significantly higher in males (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.5–9.1, individuals ≤57 years (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6–5.9, those at active self-reported stages of change for physical activity (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.1 and those reporting no barriers to performing physical activity (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–4.9. Median (25th, 75th percentiles sitting time was 705 (600, 780 min/d. Older age (>57 years was associated with longer sitting time (>705 min/d (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7–4.6. Preferred methods to support physical activity in routine diabetes care were consultations (38%, structured physical activity sessions (13.4% and

  6. Health.

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, R M

    1986-01-01

    Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illne...

  7. Is the time finally ripe? Health insurance reforms in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skocpol, T

    1993-01-01

    Reformers feel certain that the time is now ripe for progressive legislation to ensure universal citizen access to health insurance and to contain rising costs in the health care industry. But history shows us that reformers were equally confident in earlier periods of modern U.S. history, only to find themselves defeated by conservatives willing to deploy ideological, emotionally charged arguments against government-sponsored reforms. Today's advocates of inside-the-beltway bargains for hammering out compromise reforms may be vulnerable to similar conservative counterattacks. Reformers need to engage the U.S. citizenry as a whole in democratic discussion about the ideals of government-sponsored health care reforms. Advocates of single-payer plans can do this more readily than supporters of complex public-private schemes such as play or pay or managed competition, but all those who want inclusive and effective reforms during the 1990s must face the challenge of democratic dialogue.

  8. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  9. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  10. On the relationship between health, education and economic growth: Time series evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Nawaz; Razali, Radzuan B.; Shafei, Afza Bt.

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this paper is two-fold: First, to empirically investigate the effects of an enlarged number of healthy and well-educated people on economic growth in Malaysia within the Endogeneous Growth Model framework. Second, to examine the causal links between education, health and economic growth using annual time series data from 1981 to 2014 for Malaysia. Data series were checked for the time series properties by using ADF and KPSS tests. Long run co-integration relationship was investigated with the help of vector autoregressive (VAR) method. For short and long run dynamic relationship investigation vector error correction model (VECM) was applied. Causality analysis was performed through Engle-Granger technique. The study results showed long run co-integration relation and positively significant effects of education and health on economic growth in Malaysia. The reported results also confirmed a feedback hypothesis between the variables in the case of Malaysia. The study results have policy relevance of the importance of human capital (health and education) to the growth process of the Malaysia. Thus, it is suggested that policy makers focus on education and health sectors for sustainable economic growth in Malaysia.

  11. [Population ageing and health implication. Thinking time trends in Emilia-Romagna Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Caranci, Nicola; Addis, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ageing is doubtless a factor characterizing population in Europe, and particularly in Emilia-Romagna, a north-east Italian region of about 4,5 million people. From 1990 to 2010 life expectancy in Emilia-Romagna has grown by about 6 years for men and 5 for women. At the same time good health life expectancy has grown even more rapidly, particularly among women. While it is expected that in 2030 the number of over-65s will have exceeded one million people, the trends in good health life expectancy is not granted. Strengthen actions aimed at increasing good health conditions promotes ageing sustainability and can feed the positive trend observed for the life expectancy in good health. The Emilia-Romagna Region takes up the demographic challenge of the coming years in the European context and promotes strategies for active and healthy ageing, working on prevention in its broadest sense and for the entire life span, with the aim of actively contribute to the achievement of the EU2020 target of an increase of two years in life expectancy in good health of European citizens.

  12. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kristian; Collins, Alison M

    2016-07-01

    The association between sickness presenteeism, defined as going to work despite illness, and different health outcomes is increasingly being recognized as a significant and relevant area of research. However, the long term effects on future employee health are less well understood, and to date there has been no review of the empirical evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to present a summary of the sickness presenteeism evidence so far in relation to health and wellbeing over time. Eight databases were searched for longitudinal studies that investigated the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. We adopted a thematic approach to the analysis because of the heterogeneous nature of the sickness presenteeism research. The majority of studies found that sickness presenteeism at baseline is a risk factor for future sickness absence and decreased self-rated health. However, our findings highlight that a consensus has not yet been reached in terms of physical and mental health. This is because the longitudinal studies included in this review adopt a wide variety of approaches including the definition of sickness presenteeism, recall periods, measures used and different statistical approaches which is problematic if this research area is to advance. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time-driven activity-based costing in health care: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, George; Savage, Carl; Rafiq, Muhammad; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2017-07-01

    Health care organizations around the world are investing heavily in value-based health care (VBHC), and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) has been suggested as the cost-component of VBHC capable of addressing costing challenges. The aim of this study is to explore why TDABC has been applied in health care, how its application reflects a seven-step method developed specifically for VBHC, and implications for the future use of TDABC. This is a systematic review following the PRISMA statement. Qualitative methods were employed to analyze data through content analyses. TDABC is applicable in health care and can help to efficiently cost processes, and thereby overcome a key challenge associated with current cost-accounting methods The method's ability to inform bundled payment reimbursement systems and to coordinate delivery across the care continuum remains to be demonstrated in the published literature, and the role of TDABC in this cost-accounting landscape is still developing. TDABC should be gradually incorporated into functional systems, while following and building upon the recommendations outlined in this review. In this way, TDABC will be better positioned to accurately capture the cost of care delivery for conditions and to control cost in the effort to create value in health care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time trends in health inequalities due to care in the context of the Spanish Dependency Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Piedrafita, Maria; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    In Spain, responsibility for care of old people and those in situations of dependency is assumed by families, and has an unequal social distribution according to gender and socioeconomic level. This responsibility has negative health effects on the carer. In 2006, the Dependency Law recognised the obligation of the State to provide support. This study analyses time trends in health inequalities attributable to caregiving under this new law. Study of trends using two cross-sectional samples from the 2006 and 2012 editions of the Spanish National Health Survey (27,922 and 19,995 people, respectively). We compared fair/poor self-rated health, poor mental health (GHQ-12 >2), back pain, and the use of psychotropic drugs between non-carers, carers sharing care with other persons, and those providing care alone. We obtain prevalence ratios by fitting robust Poisson regression models. We observed no change in the social profile of carers according to gender or social class. Among women, the difference in all health indicators between carers and non-carers tended to decrease among those sharing care but not among lone carers. Inequalities tend to decrease slightly in both groups of men carers. Between 2006 and 2012, trends in health inequalities attributable to informal care show different trends according to gender and share of responsibility. It is necessary to redesign and implement policies to reduce inequalities that take into account the most affected groups, such as women lone carers. Policies that strengthen the fair social distribution of care should also be adopted. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of electronic health record (EHR) reminder on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and timely completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Plegue, Melissa A.; Rockwell, Pamela G.; Young, Alisa P.; Patel, Divya A.; Yeazel, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Initiation and timely completion of the HPV vaccine in young women is critical. We compared initiation and completion of HPV vaccine among women in two community-based networks with electronic health records: one with a prompt and reminder system (prompted cohort) and one without (unprompted cohort). Methods Female patients aged 9–26 years seen between March 1, 2007 and January 25, 2010 were used as retrospective cohorts. Patient demographics and vaccination dates were extracted from the electronic health record. Results Patients eligible for the vaccine included 6019 from the prompted cohort and 9096 from the unprompted cohort. Mean age at initiation was 17.3 years in prompted cohort and 18.1 years at unprompted cohort with significantly more (p<0.001) patients initiating in the prompted cohort (34.9%) compared to the unprompted cohort (21.5%). African Americans age 9–18 years with three or more visits during the observation period were significantly more likely to initiate in the prompted cohort (p<0.001). Prompted cohort was significantly more (p<0.001) likely to complete the vaccine series timely compared to unprompted cohort. Conclusion More patients age 9–26 years initiated and timely completed the HPV vaccine series in clinics using an electronic health record system with prompts compared to clinics without prompts. PMID:25957365

  16. Migration and common mental disorder: an improvement in mental health over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Margaret; Warfa, Nasir; Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-02-01

    Global migration is reaching record high levels and UK migrant groups comprise an increasing proportion of the total population. The migratory process causes stress that can affect mental health. There is limited consistent empirical evidence of a longitudinal nature to explain the association between migration and mental health. This review aims to examine the evidence of a relationship between migration and common mental disorder (CMD) amongst migrants over time. A comprehensive search of medical and psychiatric databases for global quantitative empirical studies investigating incidence of CMD amongst adult migrants from 1975 to July 2012 was conducted. Declines in rates of CMD amongst migrants over time were reported by two thirds of the 18 studies reviewed, less than one third of which were statistically significant. On the contrary, three studies showed an increased rate of CMD, one statistically significant. Individual psychological resources, social support, the acculturation process, cultural variations and time since relocation are identified as statistically significant protective factors against the development of CMD amongst migrants. New enlightening points include the significant impact of varying patterns of psychological distress, of which negative is the most adverse for CMD. Migration is an extremely complex process. Further clarification is needed to gain deeper understanding of the relationship between migration and CMD to address contradictions in the literature and health inequalities amongst migrants.

  17. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  18. And the next question is powerful questions for sticky moments

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A very practical and easy to use book of 3,000+ powerful questions, forming part of every coach''s / manager''s toolkit; it enables you to easily find key questions in some of the most distinctive areas of coaching, such as confidence, communications & leadership.

  19. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  20. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures – Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobau Rosemarie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To promote the health and quality of life of United States residents, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC – with 54 state and territorial health agencies – has supported population surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL. HRQOL was defined as "perceived physical and mental health over time." Commonly-used measures of health status and activity limitation were identified and a set of "Healthy Days" HRQOL measures was developed and validated. A core set of these measures (the CDC HRQOL-4 asks about self-rated general health and the number of recent days when a person was physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or limited in usual activities. A summary measure combines physically and mentally unhealthy days. From 1993 to 2001, more than 1.2 million adults responded to the CDC HRQOL-4 in each state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS telephone interview. More than one fifth of all BRFSS respondents also responded to a set of related questions – including five items that assess the presence, main cause and duration of a current activity limitation, and the need for activity-related personal and routine care; as well as five items that ask about recent days of pain, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and vitality. The Healthy Days surveillance data are particularly useful for finding unmet health needs, identifying disparities among demographic and socioeconomic subpopulations, characterizing the symptom burden of disabilities and chronic diseases, and tracking population patterns and trends. The full set of 14 Healthy Days Measures (the CDC HRQOL-14 has shown good measurement properties in several populations, languages, and settings. The brief standard CDC HRQOL-4 is now often used in surveys, surveillance systems, prevention research, and population health report cards.