WorldWideScience

Sample records for health products natural-born

  1. Health products inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, M.

    2009-01-01

    To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

  2. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  3. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  4. Indian women, health, and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Meera

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between women's health and their (physical and economic) productivity is complex and multi-dimensional. It is characterized by"flows"in both directions and a host of intervening factors. Two simple statements summarize the major directional flows: (a) women's health affects their productivity; and (b) productivity affects women's health. In the latter case, women's own productivity, that of their households, and even that of larger units such as the local, regional or nationa...

  5. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Health-related information is increasingly used on food products to convey their benefits. Health claims as a subcategory of these messages link the beneficial component, functions or health outcomes with specific products. For consumers, health claims seem to carry the message of increased...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio......-demographic factors have only minor impact and the impact seems to be case-dependent. Familiarity with claims and functional foods increase perceived healthiness and acceptance of these products. Apparently consumers make rather rational interpretations of claims and their benefits when forced to assess...

  6. The health production function of oral health services systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, R.S.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life......Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life...

  7. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  8. What is the health care product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, K R; Grover, R

    1992-06-01

    Because of the current competitive environment, health care providers (hospitals, HMOs, physicians, and others) are constantly searching for better products and better means for delivering them. The health care product is often loosely defined as a service. The authors develop a more precise definition of the health care product, product line, and product mix. A bundle-of-elements concept is presented for the health care product. These conceptualizations help to address how health care providers can segment their market and position, promote, and price their products. Though the authors focus on hospitals, the concepts and procedures developed are applicable to other health care organizations.

  9. Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™ strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Total Worker Health™ Program defines essential elements of an integrated health protection and health promotion model to improve the health, safety, and performance of employers and employees. The lack of a clear strategy to address the core drivers of poor health, excessive medical costs, and lost productivity has deterred a comprehensive, integrated, and proactive approach to meet these challenges. The Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™, comprising six interrelated and integrated core elements, creates a framework of shared accountability for both employers and their health and productivity partners to implement and monitor actionable measures that improve health, maximize productivity, and reduce excessive costs. The strategy is most effective when linked to a financially incentivized health management program or consumer-directed health plan insurance benefit design.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  12. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... different dairy products) were varied within subjects and the viewing task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, purchase likelihood evaluation) was varied between subjects. As a follow-up, three more studies were carried out using verbal response measures to assess perceived product...... healthfulness and purchase likelihood. Study 2 used a 3x2x2 group mixed design manipulating product images (control images, health-related images, exercise-related images), brand (control brand, health association brand), and color scheme (control color scheme, green health-association color scheme). Study 3...

  13. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternat...

  14. Attention to health cues on product packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (a) to examine which information and design elements on dairy product packages operate as cues in consumer evaluations of product healthfulness, and (b) to measure the degree to which consumers voluntarily attend to these elements during product choice. Visual att...... during purchase likelihood evaluations. The study also revealed that the probability that a consumer will read the nutrition label during the purchase decision process is associated with gender, body mass index and health motivation....

  15. How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, I. Sebastian; Cottini, Elena; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production...... functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically...

  16. Connecting Productivity, Nutrition and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because animal protein is an integral part of a diverse diet, the project ... sufficient to feed 70 animals. The project has ... ability to address food security and health problems related to ... St. Kitts and Nevis: Ministry of Agriculture and Marine.

  17. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries.

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  3. Improving employee productivity through improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Serxner, Seth

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate productivity-related savings associated with employee participation in health promotion programs. Propensity score weighting and multiple regression techniques were used to estimate savings. These techniques were adjusted for demographic and health status differences between participants who engaged in one or more telephonic health management programs and nonparticipants who were eligible for but did not engage in these programs. Employees who participated in a program and successfully improved their health care or lifestyle showed significant improvements in lost work time. These employees saved an average of $353 per person per year. This reflects about 10.3 hours in additional productive time annually, compared with similar, but nonparticipating employees. Participating in health promotion programs can help improve productivity levels among employees and save money for their employers.

  4. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  8. Regulation of natural health products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam

    2014-12-02

    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-05-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.

  10. [Health risks from pest control products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

    2014-05-01

    According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use.

  11. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cherniack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA, such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility.

  12. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  16. [Subjectivity, ethics and productivity in post-productive health restructuring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Doris; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze the ethical problems generated by the modern stressor pattern of post-transformation productivity in productive restructuring in the health area. It is a qualitative study of the descriptive and exploratory type in which 30 professionals (nurses, doctors and dental surgeons) from a metropolitan region in the South of Brazil were interviewed, all of whom had prior experience in the public and private sectors. The results were analyzed through Discursive Textual Analysis. Capitalization is revealed as a major ethical problem in the series of new issues derived from the productivity-profitability imperative in health, due to the acritical incorporation of ethics that is restricted to the company's interests or to corporate-individual interests. The ethical problem of low professional commitment to the needs of the patient and of the social collective indicates the need to build a new engaged solidarity in order to increase the quality of public healthcare. Productivity targeted at individual and social needs/interests in the area of health requires a new self-managing and collective engagement of the subjects, supported by an institutional and ethical-political effort of group action, cooperation and solidarity.

  17. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION. AKINPELU, A.O. ... huge potential for the export market (Egesi et al., 2007). In urban areas ... farmer's/ household income and economic growth. Stakeholders in ..... dissertation submitted to the school of graduate studies in partial fulfilment of the.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  1. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  2. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  3. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design...

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  5. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  7. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  8. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... ideas with the design community and to reflect on lessons learned by the students who, for the first time, were designing robust prototypes that solve real world problems....

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  10. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  13. [Guidelines to productivity bargaining in the health care industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Maloney, W F

    1979-01-01

    A potential conflict exists between the recent growth of unionization in the health care industry and management efforts to increase productivity. One method of managing this conflict is to link employee rewards to employee productivity through productivity bargaining.

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency`s programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  16. Junk Food, Health and Productivity: Taste, Price, Risk and Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analyzed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximizing framework in which the probability of living and productivity rise with health and health deteriorate with the consumption of junkfood. So long that the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, the rational diet deviates from the physiologically optimal and renders the levels of health and productivity lower than the maximal. Taxing junk-food can eliminate this discrepa...

  17. A Health Production Model with Endogenous Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the “optimal” health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, while at the same time individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, while retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and because they stay healthier retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster. PMID:22888062

  18. Health and productivity as a business strategy: a multiemployer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ronald; Taitel, Michael; Haufle, Vince; Parry, Thomas; Kessler, Ronald C; Jinnett, Kimberly

    2009-04-01

    To explore methodological refinements in measuring health-related lost productivity and to assess the business implications of a full-cost approach to managing health. Health-related lost productivity was measured among 10 employers with a total of 51,648 employee respondents using the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire combined with 1,134,281 medical and pharmacy claims. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of health conditions with absenteeism and presenteeism using a range of models. Health-related productivity costs are significantly greater than medical and pharmacy costs alone (on average 2.3 to 1). Chronic conditions such as depression/anxiety, obesity, arthritis, and back/neck pain are especially important causes of productivity loss. Comorbidities have significant non-additive effects on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Executives/Managers experience as much or more monetized productivity loss from depression and back pain as Laborers/Operators. Testimonials are reported from participating companies on how the study helped shape their corporate health strategies. A strong link exists between health and productivity. Integrating productivity data with health data can help employers develop effective workplace health human capital investment strategies. More research is needed to understand the impacts of comorbidity and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of health and productivity interventions from an employer perspective.

  19. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  20. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  1. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  2. Care and pedagogical production: integration of Public Health System scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Batista Franco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Brazilian Public Health System's (Centralized Health System - SUS construction history there has been a reasonable investment in the education for the sector. However, it has been frequently noticed by health professionals and managers the fact that this investment in educational programs has not converted into change of healthcare practices. Assuming that education can be used as a tool for changes in health, the text suggests that the pedagogical practices should be directed towards the production of individuals implied with the care production. Hence it proposes to work on a field of subjectivity in addition to cognition. This work reveals the management of the Brazilian public health system and its flows of permanent education, focusing "micromanagement" to think about the context on which they structuralize the diverse scenarios of care production, treating them as Pedagogical Production Units where it would be possible to develop entailed educational methodologies to a general idea of permanent education in health.

  3. Goods-Time Elasticity of Substitution in Health Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yagihashi, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We examine how inputs for health production, in particular, medical care and health-enhancing time, are combined to improve health. The estimated elasticity of substitution from a constant elasticity of substitution production function is significantly less than one for the working-age population, rejecting the unit elasticity of substitution used in previous studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  6. Health workforce in India: assessment of availability, production and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2013-01-01

    India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, this shortfall impedes progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in health-worker provision and estimate the impact of this maldistribution on key health outcomes in India. Health-workforce availability and production were assessed by use of year-end data for 2009 obtained from the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Inequalities in the distribution of doctors, dentists, nurses and midwives were estimated by use of the Gini coefficient and the relation between health-worker density and selected health outcomes was assessed by linear regression. Inequalities in the availability of health workers exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of health personnel. Inequalities in the distribution of health workers are highest for doctors and dentists and have a significant effect on health outcomes. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years, the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. As India seeks to achieve universal health coverage by 2020, the realization of this goal remains challenged by the current lack of availability and inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported health workers.

  7. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  8. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  9. Lean production teams and health in garment manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P R; Mullarkey, S

    2000-04-01

    The impact of lean production on psychological health was assessed by comparing lean production teams in garment manufacture with a traditional system for making similar garments. Work design characteristics were examined as mediators of the impact of work organization on health. Findings indicate both positive and negative direct effects of teamworking on aspects of autonomy, work demands, and social climate. In turn, both positive and negative direct effects of work design on psychological health were found, which combine to give no overall difference between the groups. This study suggests that the balance between positive and negative effects of lean production teamworking depends on management choices in the form of work design.

  10. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted.

  14. A note on health care productivity with uncertain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Overgård, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The present paper suggests extending the FDH-method, known from the efficiency measurement literature, to cover interval production data. Interval data represent a direct way to handle data uncertainty and problems with data comparability which seem particularly prevalent concerning health care a...... applications. We illustrate the method using a simple 1-input-2-output model on health care data from the OECD health statistics......The present paper suggests extending the FDH-method, known from the efficiency measurement literature, to cover interval production data. Interval data represent a direct way to handle data uncertainty and problems with data comparability which seem particularly prevalent concerning health care...

  15. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    . Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of Research Coordination Meetings held between September and December 1992 and summaries of the status of other Coordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Two new CRPs are announced, both to be based in the Africa region. One is to focus on food supplementation strategies to improve the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms, and the other will concentrate on the use of immunoassay methods to improve the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. Applications for participation in these CRPs are included

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue.

  19. Health Affects of Biocide in Cosmetic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Çot, Duygu Ayabakan; Yener, Emine; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Theskin is the largest organ of the body that protects internal tissues fromchemical, physical, and microbial damage. A cosmetic product is any substanceintended to be placed in contact with the external part of the human body forcleaning, perfuming, changing the appearance, protecting or keeping theepidermis, hair, nails, lips or mucous membranes in good condition. Opstrup andfriends says it is well known that chlorhexidine is widely used as adisinfectant in the healthcare setting. Less well...

  20. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustgaard, J [Institute of Physiology, Endocrinology and Bloodgrouping, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1976-07-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel.

  1. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  2. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  3. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; Işik, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  4. Product differentiation among health maintenance organizations: causes and consequences of offering open-ended products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, D R; Christianson, J B

    1994-01-01

    Open-ended products that allow an HMO enrollee to use providers who are not affiliated with the HMO have become an important component of the Clinton administration's health reform proposal, because these products maintain consumer freedom of choice of any provider. However, little is known about the consequences of offering an open-ended product from an organizational standpoint. This paper uses a theory of "spatial competition" to examine the decisions of health maintenance organizations to offer an open-ended product and the effect of offering an open-ended product on their enrollment.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The editorial of this issue of the Newsletter carries a strong message to its readers how the events of 11 September and the release of anthrax in the USA have affected all those involved in laboratory activities related to infectious agents. In future, it is may be needed to keep detailed records of all dangerous pathogens and account for their production, storage, and use in ways that will prevent, or at least, significantly reduce the risk of their use as bio-weapons. The rest of this issue briefly highlights FAO/IAEA consultants meeting, coordinated research programs and technical cooperation projects.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The editorial of this issue of the Newsletter carries a strong message to its readers how the events of 11 September and the release of anthrax in the USA have affected all those involved in laboratory activities related to infectious agents. In future, it is may be needed to keep detailed records of all dangerous pathogens and account for their production, storage, and use in ways that will prevent, or at least, significantly reduce the risk of their use as bio-weapons. The rest of this issue briefly highlights FAO/IAEA consultants meeting, coordinated research programs and technical cooperation projects

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers.

  11. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample ( n  = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  12. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westerdijk (MacHiel); J.J. Zuurbier (Joost); M. Ludwig (Martijn); S. Prins (Sarah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the

  13. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  14. Networking health: multi-level marketing of health products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droney, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM0), a business model in which product distributors are compensated for enrolling further distributors as well as for selling products, has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades, especially in the so-called global South. This paper argues that the global success of MLM is due to its involvement in local health markets. While MLM has been subject to a number of critiques, few have analyzed the explicit health claims of MLM distributors. The majority of the products distributed through MLM are health products, which are presented as offering transformative health benefits. Based on interviews with MLM distributors in Ghana, but focusing on the experiences of one woman, this paper shows that MLM companies become intimately entwined with Ghanaian quests for health by providing their distributors with the materials to become informal health experts, allowing their distributors to present their products as medicines, and presenting MLM as an avenue to middle class cosmopolitanism. Ghanaian distributors promote MLM products as medically powerful, and the distribution of these products as an avenue to status and profit. As a result, individuals seeking health become a part of ethically questionable forms of medical provision based on the exploitation of personal relationships. The success of MLM therefore suggests that the health industry is at the forefront of transnational corporations' extraction of value from informal economies, drawing on features of health markets to monetize personal relationships.

  15. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, the radio lanthanides: 151 Pm, 147 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 131 I and the 32 P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 188 W/ 188 Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the 99m Tc and the 188 Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  16. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3% reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8% of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1% of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss. Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60% had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215 was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64 was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy.

  17. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced consumer products—such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products— pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098. Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1% could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  18. PA and NP productivity in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Eileen A; Basa, Edesha; Gao, Jian; Woodmansee, Denni; Almenoff, Peter L; Hooker, Roderick S

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the 2014 clinical productivity of 5,959 physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in the US Department of Veterans Affairs' Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Total work relative value units divided by the direct clinical full-time equivalent measured annual productivity, and correlated factors were examined using weighted analysis of variance. PAs and NPs in adult primary care roles were more productive than those in other specialties. Both providers were more productive in rural than in nonrural settings and less productive in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Men were slightly more productive than women but age and years of VHA employment were not correlates of productivity. PAs were more productive when their scope of practice allowed significant autonomy; NP productivity was unaffected by supervisory requirements. PAs and NPs are an important component of the VHA provider workforce, and their productivity correlates with a number of factors. More organizational research is necessary to better understand the contributing roles PAs and NPs provide in a rapidly evolving, vertically integrated, national health delivery system.

  19. New food product consumer's behaviour: Health literacy and neophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soares Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The development of a new food product aims to respond to consumer ́s concerns related to food and health promotion. Education plays a fundamental role in consumer’s behavior by providing tools that allows them to make informed decisions. Consumer’s empowerment is essential to the success of a health promotion strategy, also the knowledge of health literacy level is important to define a proper health policy. The aim of this study is to evaluate health literacy level and new foods consumption behavior (especially neophobic and neophilic behavior of the Lisbon area residents in Portugal. Methods A questionnaire, that includes the Portuguese version of the Newest Vital Sign, was applied to a stratified sample of 384 individuals (over 15 years old living in the Lisbon area in Portugal distributed accordingly to 2001 Census. Health literacy was evaluated by the Portuguese version of NVS, a tool by which a number of health-related information, in this case nutritional information written in a food label, is used to demonstrate one’s ability to use it to answer to questions. Data analysis was performed in SPSS®, version 19. Results Study results show that there is a close relationship between health literacy and general literacy. It is also clear that health literacy level is low for the majority of the participants and that this factor is relevant in new foods consumption, by positively affecting neophilia. Older individuals, with lower school years attendance and health literacy, are the main consumers with neophobic behavior. Higher health literacy is also directly associated with consumers concerns on how the product was manufactured and on environmental characteristics. There is no statistical association between gender and health literacy, but it is of relevance the fact that an association between health literacy and food neophilia is statistically significant. Conclusion Considering that new food products may improve health

  20. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjin Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes. The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.

  1. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjin; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Jaewoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Jungkwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards. PMID:29652814

  2. Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-08-01

    The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  4. Safety and efficacy of health supplement (Pegaga based product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Most traditional products claim contained herbs and have many indication although not proven by evidence based. Hence, consumers must be more selective before buying any health products. MOH continuing demonstrate enforcement action and educating the public in this matter. More research also must be conducted to confirm the efficacy and the appropriate dose for a particular situation either for prevention or treatment of disease.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  6. Health motivation and product design determine consumers' visual attention to nutrition information on food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Hess, Rebecca; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we investigated consumers' visual attention to nutrition information on food products using an indirect instrument, an eye tracker. In addition, we looked at whether people with a health motivation focus on nutrition information on food products more than people with a taste motivation. Respondents were instructed to choose one of five cereals for either the kindergarten (health motivation) or the student cafeteria (taste motivation). The eye tracker measured their visual attention during this task. Then respondents completed a short questionnaire. Laboratory of the ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Videos and questionnaires from thirty-two students (seventeen males; mean age 24.91 years) were analysed. Respondents with a health motivation viewed the nutrition information on the food products for longer and more often than respondents with a taste motivation. Health motivation also seemed to stimulate deeper processing of the nutrition information. The student cafeteria group focused primarily on the other information and did this for longer and more often than the health motivation group. Additionally, the package design affected participants' nutrition information search. Two factors appear to influence whether people pay attention to nutrition information on food products: their motivation and the product's design. If the package design does not sufficiently facilitate the localization of nutrition information, health motivation can stimulate consumers to look for nutrition information so that they may make a more deliberate food choice.

  7. Diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Eugenia Roseira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: identify the compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care and assess possible differences in the compliance among the services characterized as Primary Health Care Service and Family Health Service. Method: quantitative, observational, descriptive and inferential study with the application of structure, process and outcome indicators of the health care product processing at ten services in an interior city of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Results: for all indicators, the compliance indices were inferior to the ideal levels. No statistically significant difference was found in the indicators between the two types of services investigated. The health care product cleaning indicators obtained the lowest compliance index, while the indicator technical-operational resources for the preparation, conditioning, disinfection/sterilization, storage and distribution of health care products obtained the best index. Conclusion: the diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing at the services assessed indicates that the quality of the process is jeopardized, as no results close to ideal levels were obtained at any service. In addition, no statistically significant difference in these indicators was found between the two types of services studied.

  8. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Methods: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  9. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, A.R.; de Vroome, E.M.M.; ten Have, K.C.J.M.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. METHODS:: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  10. Improving occupational safety and health by integration into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety and h...... and studies of documents. A questionnaire regarding product development tasks and occupational safety and health were distributed to 30 design and production engineers. A total of 27 completed the questionnaire corresponding to a response rate of 90 per cent.......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety...... and health into the development process, especially the efforts and attitudes of design and production engineers', and (iii) to identify key actors'reflections on how to improve this integration. The study was based on qualitative as well as quantitative methods including interviews, questionnaires...

  11. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  13. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  14. Commercial products that convey personal health information in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potini, Vishnu C; Weerasuriya, Dilani N; Lowery-North, Douglas W; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Describe commercially available products and services designed to convey personal health information in emergencies. The search engine Google®, supplemented by print ads, was used to identify companies and organizations that offer relevant products and services to the general market. Disease-specific, health system, and health plan-specific offerings were excluded. Vendor web sites were the primary sources of information, supplemented by telephone and e-mail queries to sales representatives. Perfect inter-rater agreement was achieved. Thirty-nine unique vendors were identified. Eight sell engraved jewelry. Three offer an embossed card or pamphlet. Twelve supply USB drives with various features. Eleven support password-protected web sites. Five maintain national call centers. Available media differed markedly with respect to capacity and accessibility. Quoted prices ranged from a one-time expenditure of $3.50 to an annual fee of $200. Associated features and annual fees varied widely. A wide range of products and services exist to help patients convey personal health information. Health care providers should be familiar with their features, so they can access the information in a disaster or emergency.

  15. The Television Advertisements of Health-threatening Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Etemad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: The media strongly affect in individuals consumption behavior, purchasing and food pattern and undoubtedly, if these foods doesn’t advertise, People tend not to consume them and will reduce the related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the television advertising of healththreatening products Methods: In this study, the television advertising of one, two, three and Tehran channels were studied from 6 am to 24 midnight From January 20 to February 3 and from August 23 to September 6 ,2013. According to the list approved by the Ministry of Health, harmful products to health include the grain snack, carbonated drinks, Chips and consuming fast foods. Data were collected from recorded adverting boxes and were analyzed using Excel software. Results: In this 30-day period, 612 cases of harmful products were advertised in four TV Channels in 14567 second. From January 20 to February 3, 295 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 6853 second. From August 23 to September 6, 317 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 7714 second. Most harmful products were done in the TV channel 3. Chips were advertised more than other harmful products. Conclusion: Due to the high amount of advertisements of health-threatening products, it is suggested continuous monitoring, using the legal and regulatory strategies.

  16. Green design for productivity, health and quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartkopf, V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics

    2005-07-01

    The potential cost-benefits for quality construction of office buildings were discussed with particular reference to sick building costs and health building gains. Cost-benefits were indicated in terms of first cost, operational energy costs, individual productivity, organizational productivity, health, attraction, taxation, and waste. The measures of human response in buildings were also discussed with reference to comfort and satisfaction, individual productivity, health and absenteeism, attraction, spatial flexibility, motivation and collaboration. The building attributes that have the greatest impact include air, light, thermal control, ergonomics, privacy and interaction, access to nature, land use and mobility. It was suggested that natural ventilation should be maximized with mixed-mode heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and that ventilation air should be separate from thermal conditioning. It was also suggested that temperature control can increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. Several international case studies have shown that acoustic privacy also increases individual productivity at complex tasks. The presentation concluded by indicating that healthy and sustainable design also depends on changing approaches to land use and community planning in terms of pedestrian walkways, maximized loading of infrastructure and buildings, minimized abandonment and green roof development to reduce annual cooling loads. tabs., figs.

  17. Health programmes for school employees: improving quality of life, health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Lloyd J; Tirozzi, Gerald N; Marx, Eva; Bobbitt-Cooke, Mary; Riedel, Sara; Jones, Jack; Schmoyer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    School health programmes in the 21st century could include eight components: 1) health services; 2) health education; 3) healthy physical and psychosocial environments; 4) psychological, counselling, and social services; 5) physical education and other physical activities; 6) healthy food services; and 7) integrated efforts of schools, families, and communities to improve the health of school students and employees. The eighth component of modern school health programmes, health programmes for school employees, is the focus of this article. Health programmes for school employees could be designed to increase the recruitment, retention, and productivity of school employees by partially focusing each of the preceding seven components of the school health programme on improving the health and quality of life of school employees as well as students. Thus, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees may be distinct from, but integrated with, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and education of students. School employee health programmes can improve employee: 1) recruitment; 2) morale; 3) retention; and 4) productivity. They can reduce employee: 5) risk behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity); 6) risk factors (e.g., stress, obesity, high blood pressure); (7) illnesses; 8) work-related injuries; 9) absentee days; 10) worker compensation and disability claims; and 11) health care and health insurance costs. Further, if we hope to improve our schools' performance and raise student achievement levels, developing effective school employee health programmes can increase the likelihood that employees will: 12) serve as healthy role models for students; 13) implement effective school health programmes for students; and 14) present a positive image of the school to the community. If we are to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees in the 21st century: school administrators, employees, and

  18. Impact of a health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Peter R; Kessler, Ronald C; Cooper, John; Sullivan, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the impact of a multicomponent workplace health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity. Quasi-experimental 12-month before-after intervention-control study. A multinational corporation headquartered in the United Kingdom. Of 618 employees offered the program, 266 (43%) completed questionnaires before and after the program. A total of 1242 of 2500 (49.7%) of a control population also completed questionnaires 12 months apart. A multicomponent health promotion program incorporating a health risk appraisal questionnaire, access to a tailored health improvement web portal, wellness literature, and seminars and workshops focused upon identified wellness issues. Outcomes were (1) cumulative count of health risk factors and the World Health Organization health and work performance questionnaire measures of (2) workplace absenteeism and (3) work performance. After adjusting for baseline differences, improvements in all three outcomes were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. Mean excess reductions of 0.45 health risk factors and 0.36 monthly absenteeism days and a mean increase of 0.79 on the work performance scale were observed in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention yielded a positive return on investment, even using conservative assumptions about effect size estimation. The results suggest that a well-implemented multicomponent workplace health promotion program can produce sizeable changes in health risks and productivity.

  19. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  20. Developing an Emergency Physician Productivity Index Using Descriptive Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding became a major barrier to receiving timely emergency care. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, we identified variables and factors affecting crowding and performance to develop indicators to help evaluation and improvement. Measuring efficiency of work and activity of throughput processes; it was important to develop an ED physician productivity index. Data on all ED patients' encounters over the last six months of 2014 were retrieved and descriptive health analytics methods were used. Three variables were identified for their influence on productivity and performance; Number of Treated Patients per Physician, Patient Acuity Level and Treatment Time. The study suggested a formula to calculate the productivity index of each physician through dividing the Number of Treated Patients by Patient Acuity Level squared and Treatment Time to identify physicians with low productivity index and investigate causes and factors.

  1. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  2. Applying the health action process approach (HAPA) to the choice of health products: An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to uncovering Danish consumers' motives for choosing health food. Schwarzer's (1992) health action process approach (HAPA) was applied to understand the process by which people chose health products. The research focused...... on the role of the behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The model has been proved to be a useful framework for understanding consumer choosing health food and is substantial in the further application of dietary choice issues....

  3. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  4. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes.

  5. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website.

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  7. Galactooligosaccharides: production, health benefits, application to foods and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized from lactose transgalactosylation, galactooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates classified as prebiotic ingredients of high added value. Recently studies associate potential health benefits and disease prevention properties to these oligosaccharides. This review involves production aspects and physicochemical properties of these compounds, correlated to their physiological effects and application in food industry. It was also presented some of the physiological effect and the perspectives for these non-conventional sugars from current viewpoint.

  8. The territory of Bonfim: space of knowledge production in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Lima Simões

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the significance of the territory of Bonfim as an area of knowledge production for students of the Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, in Vitória-ES, Brazil. Methods: This study conducted a survey of all the works produced by undergraduate and postgraduate students of the health area from that university who investigated the mentioned territory. The field work resulted in the cataloging of eleven studies that had been characterized in accordance with the subject, the investigated problem; the approaches of the study and the year of its production. These works were distributed in two great thematic axis: studies related to the local management of health system and studiesrelating to child and adolescent health, respectively. Results: Surprisingly, we found out that all the works consisted of studies conducted by nursing graduate students. Conclusions: The non-participation of students from other graduation courses and / or post-graduation of that university, in the generation of knowledge that take account of exploring that reality, points to the need of the university community to cross the imaginary line that separates the academy from real world.

  9. Health information technology vendor selection strategies and total factor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Menachemi, Nir; Thompson, Mark A; Yu, Feliciano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health information technology (HIT) adoption strategies' relative performance on hospital-level productivity measures. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics for fiscal years 2002 through 2007 were used for this study. A two-stage approach is employed. First, a Malmquist model is specified to calculate hospital-level productivity measures. A logistic regression model is then estimated to compare the three HIT adoption strategies' relative performance on the newly constructed productivity measures. The HIT vendor selection strategy impacts the amount of technological change required of an organization but does not appear to have either a positive or adverse impact on technical efficiency or total factor productivity. The higher levels in technological change experienced by hospitals using the best of breed and best of suite HIT vendor selection strategies may have a more direct impact on the organization early on in the process. However, these gains did not appear to translate into either increased technical efficiency or total factor productivity during the period studied. Over a longer period, one HIT vendor selection strategy may yet prove to be more effective at improving efficiency and productivity.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  12. Marine Enzymes: Production and Applications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T Eswara; Imchen, M; Kumavath, R

    Marine microbial enzymes have wide applications in bioindustries. Selection of microorganisms for enzyme production at the industrial level requires good yield and high production rate. A number of enzymes such as amylase, caseinase, lipase, gelatinase, and DNases have been discovered from microbes isolated from extreme marine environments. Such enzymes are thermostable, tolerant to a varied range of pH and other harsh conditions required in industrial applications. Novelty in their structure and characteristics has shown promising scope to the researchers in academia and industry. In this chapter, we present a bird's eye view on recent research works in the field of enzyme production from marine origin as well as their potential biological applications relevant to human health. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivations for health and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; ten Have, Kristin C J M; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; Bos, Ellen H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2014-05-01

    Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline measurement before a workplace health promotion project. Controlled regulation was not associated with smoking and alcohol use, and negatively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, relaxation, and a balanced work style. Autonomous regulation was positively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, and relaxation, and negatively associated with smoking and alcohol use. Healthy lifestyle and work style were associated with perceived health and vitality, which in turn were associated with employees' productivity (absenteeism and presenteeism). Internalization of the value of health is important to promote a healthy lifestyle and work style among employees, and has meaningful business implications.

  14. The productivity of mental health care: an instrumental variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan

    1999-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Like many other medical technologies and treatments, there is a lack of reliable evidence on treatment effectiveness of mental health care. Increasingly, data from non-experimental settings are being used to study the effect of treatment. However, as in a number of studies using non-experimental data, a simple regression of outcome on treatment shows a puzzling negative and significant impact of mental health care on the improvement of mental health status, even after including a large number of potential control variables. The central problem in interpreting evidence from real-world or non-experimental settings is, therefore, the potential "selection bias" problem in observational data set. In other words, the choice/quantity of mental health care may be correlated with other variables, particularly unobserved variables, that influence outcome and this may lead to a bias in the estimate of the effect of care in conventional models. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper addresses the issue of estimating treatment effects using an observational data set. The information in a mental health data set obtained from two waves of data in Puerto Rico is explored. The results using conventional models - in which the potential selection bias is not controlled - and that from instrumental variable (IV) models - which is what was proposed in this study to correct for the contaminated estimation from conventional models - are compared. METHODS: Treatment effectiveness is estimated in a production function framework. Effectiveness is measured as the improvement in mental health status. To control for the potential selection bias problem, IV approaches are employed. The essence of the IV method is to use one or more instruments, which are observable factors that influence treatment but do not directly affect patient outcomes, to isolate the effect of treatment variation that is independent of unobserved patient characteristics. The data used in this study are the first (1992

  15. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  16. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  17. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  18. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  19. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  20. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 62, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been occupied with our projects and regular activities, including our coordinated research projects and technical support to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects, as well as with the activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory. Particular focus was on the current Avian Influenza H7N9, H7N2 and H5N1 outbreaks, the ever expanding threats of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), of foot and mouth disease, of trypanosomosis and of African swine fever, all areas in which we endeavour to give our highest level of support to our counterparts

  1. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  2. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  3. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  4. Isolation and structure elucidation of an interaction product of aminotadalafil found in an illegal health food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberli, Adrian; Girard, Philippe; Low, Min-Yong; Ge, Xiaowei

    2010-09-21

    An interaction product of aminotadalafil was isolated from an illegal health food product. The structure of the interaction product was elucidated by means of IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The hitherto unknown compound was characterized as condensation product of aminotadalafil and hydroxymethylfuraldehyde and is probably the result of a drug-excipient incompatibility. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  6. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  7. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  8. Using conceptual work products of health care to design health IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew B L; Butler, Keith A; Harrington, Craig; Braxton, Melissa O; Walker, Amy J; Pete, Nikki; Johnson, Trevor; Oberle, Mark W; Haselkorn, Jodie; Paul Nichol, W; Haselkorn, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new, model-based design method for interactive health information technology (IT) systems. This method extends workflow models with models of conceptual work products. When the health care work being modeled is substantially cognitive, tacit, and complex in nature, graphical workflow models can become too complex to be useful to designers. Conceptual models complement and simplify workflows by providing an explicit specification for the information product they must produce. We illustrate how conceptual work products can be modeled using standard software modeling language, which allows them to provide fundamental requirements for what the workflow must accomplish and the information that a new system should provide. Developers can use these specifications to envision how health IT could enable an effective cognitive strategy as a workflow with precise information requirements. We illustrate the new method with a study conducted in an outpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic. This study shows specifically how the different phases of the method can be carried out, how the method allows for iteration across phases, and how the method generated a health IT design for case management of MS that is efficient and easy to use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  10. Forgiveness Working: Forgiveness, Health, and Productivity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Hook, Joshua; Berry, Jack W; Shivy, Victoria A; Miller, Andrea J; Davis, Don E

    2018-01-01

    Associations between forgiveness and health promotion in the workplace were examined as mediating effects of workplace interpersonal stress. Cross-sectional. Multiple Washington, DC, office-based and Midwestern manufacturing workplaces. Study 1: 108 employees (40 males and 68 females); mean age was 32.4 years. Study 2: 154 employees (14 males and 140 females); mean age was 43.9 years. Questionnaires measured forgiveness, unproductivity, absenteeism, stress, and health problems. Bivariate and multiple correlation/regression and structural equation models were used. Indirect effects were estimated with bootstrapping methods. In study 1, forgiveness of a specific workplace offense was inversely associated with unproductivity ( r = -.35, P stress partially mediated these associations (indirect effects = -.03, -.04, -.05, respectively). The association of forgiveness and occupational outcomes is robust. Forgiveness may be associated with outcomes by (at least partially) reducing stress related to workplace offenses. Forgiveness may be an effective means of coping following being emotionally hurt on the job that may promote good health, well-being, and productivity.

  11. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  12. Turning science into health solutions: KEMRI's challenges as Kenya's health product pathfinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Ken; Masum, Hassan; Chakma, Justin; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    A traditional pathway for developing new health products begins with public research institutes generating new knowledge, and ends with the private sector translating this knowledge into new ventures. But while public research institutes are key drivers of basic research in sub-Saharan Africa, the private sector is inadequately prepared to commercialize ideas that emerge from these institutes, resulting in these institutes taking on the role of product development themselves to alleviate the local disease burden. In this article, the case study method is used to analyze the experience of one such public research institute: the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). Our analysis indicates that KEMRI's product development efforts began modestly, and a manufacturing facility was constructed with a strategy for the facility's product output which was not very successful. The intended products, HIV and Hepatitis B diagnostic kits, had a short product life cycle, and an abrupt change in regulatory requirements left KEMRI with an inactive facility. These problems were the result of poor innovation management capacity, variability in domestic markets, lack of capital to scale up technologies, and an institutional culture that lacked innovation as a priority.However, KEMRI appears to have adapted by diversifying its product line to mitigate risk and ensure continued use of its manufacturing facility. It adopted an open innovation business model which linked it with investors, research partnerships, licensing opportunities, and revenue from contract manufacturing. Other activities that KEMRI has put in place over several years to enhance product development include the establishment of a marketing division, development of an institutional IP policy, and training of its scientists on innovation management. KEMRI faced many challenges in its attempt at health product development, including shifting markets, lack of infrastructure, inadequate financing, and weak human

  13. Turning science into health solutions: KEMRI’s challenges as Kenya’s health product pathfinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakma Justin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A traditional pathway for developing new health products begins with public research institutes generating new knowledge, and ends with the private sector translating this knowledge into new ventures. But while public research institutes are key drivers of basic research in sub-Saharan Africa, the private sector is inadequately prepared to commercialize ideas that emerge from these institutes, resulting in these institutes taking on the role of product development themselves to alleviate the local disease burden. In this article, the case study method is used to analyze the experience of one such public research institute: the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI. Discussion Our analysis indicates that KEMRI’s product development efforts began modestly, and a manufacturing facility was constructed with a strategy for the facility’s product output which was not very successful. The intended products, HIV and Hepatitis B diagnostic kits, had a short product life cycle, and an abrupt change in regulatory requirements left KEMRI with an inactive facility. These problems were the result of poor innovation management capacity, variability in domestic markets, lack of capital to scale up technologies, and an institutional culture that lacked innovation as a priority. However, KEMRI appears to have adapted by diversifying its product line to mitigate risk and ensure continued use of its manufacturing facility. It adopted an open innovation business model which linked it with investors, research partnerships, licensing opportunities, and revenue from contract manufacturing. Other activities that KEMRI has put in place over several years to enhance product development include the establishment of a marketing division, development of an institutional IP policy, and training of its scientists on innovation management. Summary KEMRI faced many challenges in its attempt at health product development, including shifting markets, lack

  14. Turning science into health solutions: KEMRI’s challenges as Kenya’s health product pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A traditional pathway for developing new health products begins with public research institutes generating new knowledge, and ends with the private sector translating this knowledge into new ventures. But while public research institutes are key drivers of basic research in sub-Saharan Africa, the private sector is inadequately prepared to commercialize ideas that emerge from these institutes, resulting in these institutes taking on the role of product development themselves to alleviate the local disease burden. In this article, the case study method is used to analyze the experience of one such public research institute: the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). Discussion Our analysis indicates that KEMRI’s product development efforts began modestly, and a manufacturing facility was constructed with a strategy for the facility’s product output which was not very successful. The intended products, HIV and Hepatitis B diagnostic kits, had a short product life cycle, and an abrupt change in regulatory requirements left KEMRI with an inactive facility. These problems were the result of poor innovation management capacity, variability in domestic markets, lack of capital to scale up technologies, and an institutional culture that lacked innovation as a priority. However, KEMRI appears to have adapted by diversifying its product line to mitigate risk and ensure continued use of its manufacturing facility. It adopted an open innovation business model which linked it with investors, research partnerships, licensing opportunities, and revenue from contract manufacturing. Other activities that KEMRI has put in place over several years to enhance product development include the establishment of a marketing division, development of an institutional IP policy, and training of its scientists on innovation management. Summary KEMRI faced many challenges in its attempt at health product development, including shifting markets, lack of infrastructure

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  16. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  17. Reductions in employee productivity impairment observed after implementation of web-based worksite health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Jordan; Schwartz, Steven; Giuseffi, Danielle L; Wang, Chun; Nevedal, Dana; Bedrosian, Richard

    2011-12-01

    To assess changes in employee productivity impairment observed after the implementation of several Web-based health promotion programs. Health risk assessments and self-report measures of productivity impairment were administered on-line to more than 43,000 participants of Web-based health promotion programs. Reductions in productivity impairment were observed after 1 month of program utilization. Productivity impairment at 90- and 180-day follow-ups also decreased relative to baseline. Improvements in employee health were associated with reductions in employee productivity impairment. The use of Web-based health promotion programs was associated with reductions in productivity impairment and improvements in employee health. After the implementation of Web-based health promotion programs, reductions in productivity impairment may be observed before reductions in direct health care costs.

  18. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  19. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  20. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  2. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  6. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  7. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution.

  8. Persuasive Advertising : Consumers' views of and responses to the advertising of health-related products

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Malin

    2012-01-01

    The problem that this thesis deals with is that the intense competition and increasing consumer power in the health industry calls for the operating companies to take consumers’ considerations into account when advertising their products. It is further suggested that consumers will be extra careful before buying health-related products due to their direct effect on their personal health. Thus, companies selling health-related products must gain an understanding of how consumers form their jud...

  9. Health impact of climate change on occupational health and productivity in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkulsen, Uma; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taptagaporn, Sasitorn

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise in global temperature is well documented. Changes in temperature lead to increases in heat exposure, which may impact health ranging from mild heat rashes to deadly heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate several chronic diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Objective This study examined the relationship between climate condition and health status and productivity in two main categories of the occupational setting – where one setting involves heat generated from the industry and the other with heat in a natural setting. Design This cross-sectional study included four industrial sites (pottery industry, power plant, knife industry, and construction site) and one agricultural site in the Pathumthani and Ayutthaya provinces. Exposure data were comprised of meteorological data and heat exposure including relative humidity (RH) measured by Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) monitor. Heat index was calculated to measure the effects of heat exposure on the study population, which consisted of 21 workers at five worksites; a questionnaire was also used to collect data on workers. Results Among the five workplaces, the outdoor WBGT was found to be highest at 34.6°C during 12:00 and 1:00 PM at the agricultural site. It was found that four out of five study sites had heat indices in the ‘extreme caution,’ where heat cramp and exhaustion may be possible and one site showed a value of 41°C that falls into the category of ‘danger,’ where sunstroke and heat exhaustion are likely and prolonged exposure may lead to heatstroke. Productivity as perceived by the workers revealed that only the construction and pottery industry workers had a loss of productivity ranged from 10 to 60 %. Conclusions Climate conditions in Thailand potentially affect both the health and productivity in occupational settings. PMID:21160553

  10. Health impact of climate change on occupational health and productivity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkulsen, Uma; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taptagaporn, Sasitorn

    2010-12-09

    The rise in global temperature is well documented. Changes in temperature lead to increases in heat exposure, which may impact health ranging from mild heat rashes to deadly heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate several chronic diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This study examined the relationship between climate condition and health status and productivity in two main categories of the occupational setting - where one setting involves heat generated from the industry and the other with heat in a natural setting. This cross-sectional study included four industrial sites (pottery industry, power plant, knife industry, and construction site) and one agricultural site in the Pathumthani and Ayutthaya provinces. Exposure data were comprised of meteorological data and heat exposure including relative humidity (RH) measured by Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) monitor. Heat index was calculated to measure the effects of heat exposure on the study population, which consisted of 21 workers at five worksites; a questionnaire was also used to collect data on workers. Among the five workplaces, the outdoor WBGT was found to be highest at 34.6°C during 12:00 and 1:00 PM at the agricultural site. It was found that four out of five study sites had heat indices in the 'extreme caution,' where heat cramp and exhaustion may be possible and one site showed a value of 41°C that falls into the category of 'danger,' where sunstroke and heat exhaustion are likely and prolonged exposure may lead to heatstroke. Productivity as perceived by the workers revealed that only the construction and pottery industry workers had a loss of productivity ranged from 10 to 60 %. Climate conditions in Thailand potentially affect both the health and productivity in occupational settings.

  11. Health impact of climate change on occupational health and productivity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasitorn Taptagaporn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise in global temperature is well documented. Changes in temperature lead to increases in heat exposure, which may impact health ranging from mild heat rashes to deadly heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate several chronic diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Objective: This study examined the relationship between climate condition and health status and productivity in two main categories of the occupational setting – where one setting involves heat generated from the industry and the other with heat in a natural setting. Design: This cross-sectional study included four industrial sites (pottery industry, power plant, knife industry, and construction site and one agricultural site in the Pathumthani and Ayutthaya provinces. Exposure data were comprised of meteorological data and heat exposure including relative humidity (RH measured by Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT monitor. Heat index was calculated to measure the effects of heat exposure on the study population, which consisted of 21 workers at five worksites; a questionnaire was also used to collect data on workers. Results: Among the five workplaces, the outdoor WBGT was found to be highest at 34.6°C during 12:00 and 1:00 PM at the agricultural site. It was found that four out of five study sites had heat indices in the ‘extreme caution,’ where heat cramp and exhaustion may be possible and one site showed a value of 41°C that falls into the category of ‘danger,’ where sunstroke and heat exhaustion are likely and prolonged exposure may lead to heatstroke. Productivity as perceived by the workers revealed that only the construction and pottery industry workers had a loss of productivity ranged from 10 to 60 %. Conclusions: Climate conditions in Thailand potentially affect both the health and productivity in occupational settings.

  12. Health physics aspects of activation products from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.; Poston, J.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the activation products from fusion reactors and their attendant impacts is discussed. This includes a discussion on their production, expected inventories, and the status of metabolic data on these products

  13. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  14. Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-02-01

    The idea of clean nicotine delivery systems that would satisfy nicotine craving and promote smoking cessation has been considered as a possible public health tool for many years. Nicotine medications have been useful for smoking cessation but have not found widespread popularity among smokers, perhaps because of slow nicotine delivery and other sensory characteristics that differ from cigarettes. Traditional smokeless tobacco delivers as much nicotine as cigarettes and has been advocated for harm reduction but contains carcinogenic nitrosamines and has not been proven to promote cessation. Furthermore, there is concern that dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes may inhibit quitting smoking. Newer oral dissolvable tobacco products contain lower levels of toxicants than other smokeless tobacco but also deliver much less nicotine and have not been popular with consumers. Electronic cigarettes that aerosolize nicotine without generating toxic tobacco combustion products have become quite popular and hold promise as a way to attract smokers away from cigarettes, although efficacy in promoting smoking cessation has not yet been demonstrated. There are concerns about safety of long-term use, and there is evidence that youth, including nonsmokers, are taking up e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes are marketed for use when one cannot smoke conventional cigarettes, and such use might result in more persistent cigarette smoking. Although their benefits and risks are being vigorously debated, e-cigarettes or other clean nicotine delivery devices could play an important role as an adjunct to a U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory intervention to make cigarettes less addictive and in this context could contribute to the end of cigarette smoking and smoking-induced disease.

  15. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. Methods Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products (NHP such as vitamins, herbs and other supplements that may have efficacy in the treatment of vitiligo. We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE for vitiligo, leucoderma, and various NHP terms. Prospective controlled clinical human trials were identified and assessed for quality. Results Fifteen clinical trials were identified, and organized into four categories based on the NHP used for treatment. 1 L-phenylalanine monotherapy was assessed in one trial, and as an adjuvant to phototherapy in three trials. All reported beneficial effects. 2 Three clinical trials utilized different traditional Chinese medicine products. Although each traditional Chinese medicine trial reported benefit in the active groups, the quality of the trials was poor. 3 Six trials investigated the use of plants in the treatment of vitiligo, four using plants as photosensitizing agents. The studies provide weak evidence that photosensitizing plants can be effective in conjunction with phototherapy, and moderate evidence that Ginkgo biloba monotherapy can be useful for vitiligo. 4 Two clinical trials investigated the use of vitamins in the therapy of vitiligo. One tested oral cobalamin with folic acid, and found no significant improvement over control. Another trial combined vitamin E with phototherapy and reported significantly better repigmentation over phototherapy only. It was not possible to pool the data from any studies for meta-analytic purposes due to the wide difference in outcome measures and poor quality ofreporting. Conclusion Reports investigating the

  16. Performance of health product risk management and surveillance conducted by health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals in the northeast region of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanarach, Tipaporn; Jaisa-ard, Raksaworn; Poonaovarat, Nantawan

    2014-01-01

    Tipaporn Kanjanarach,1,2 Raksaworn Jaisa-ard,1,2 Nantawan Poonaovarat3 1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Health Consumer Protection, Chaiyapum Health Provincial Office, Chaiyapum, Thailand Background: Health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals (SD-HPHs) are assigned to take responsibility for 15 activities related to health...

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies.

  19. The role of micronutrients in crop production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, M.; Rashid, A.

    2010-01-01

    The soils in Pakistan across 22 Mha cultivated area are predominantly alluvial and loessal, alkaline in pH, calcareous and low in organic matter. These factors are mainly responsible for nutrient fixation in soil and low availability to plants. Zinc (Zn) deficiency in Pakistan was the first micro nutrient disorder recognised in early 1970s as a cause of hadda disease in rice. After identification of Zn deficiency, extensive research has been carried out during last four decades on micro nutrient deficiencies in soils and their drastic effects on crops. Subsequently, field-scale deficiencies of zinc (Zn) boron (B) and iron (Fe) have been established in many field and horticultural crops. The most widespread deficiency is of Zn as 70 % of the soils of Pakistan are Zn deficient and observed in rice, wheat, cotton, maize, sunflower, sugarcane, brassica, potato and in many other crops along with citrus and deciduous fruits. Boron deficiency is another major nutritional disorder which severely affects rice, cotton, wheat, sugarbeet, peanut, citrus and deciduous fruits. The third field-scale disorder is Fe chlorosis which has been exhibited in peanut, chickpea, cotton, citrus, ornamentals and many tree species. Copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies are of localized occurrence. The mineral elements like Zn, Fe and Cu are as crucial for human health as organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, protein and vitamins. The daily dietary intake of young adult ranges from 10-60 mg for Fe, 2-3 mg for Cu and 15 mg for Zn. Intake less than these values can cause slow physiological processes. These micronutrients deficiencies in soil are not only hampering the crop productivity but also are deteriorating produce quality. High consumption of cereal based foods with low contents of micronutrients is causing health hazards in humans. The contents of micronutrients in food can be elevated either by supplementation, fortification or by agricultural strategies i.e., bio

  20. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  1. The Optimal Ordering Strategy of Outsourcing Procurement of Health Education and Behavior Intervention Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…

  2. Nuclear power and health. The implications for health of nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power production is, in principle, a safe technology when practised in accordance with the well established and very strict national and international rules and regulations. Yet management failures have occurred, resulting in injuries to personnel and, occasionally, escape of radioactive material. Such events may cause potential health problems, affecting physical, mental and social well-being. Public concern still tends to concentrate on nuclear-power-related facilities, yet the public's desire for a reduction in environmental pollution has led to increased demand for the development and use of low-waste or non-waste energy technologies. Nuclear energy production is one such technology, which has become established and well developed, particularly in highly industrialized countries. This was recognized by the WHO Regional Office for Europe as early as the 1970s, and led to a series of scientific working groups to discuss the most urgent issues related to the impact on health of the generation of electrical power by means of nuclear energy. Five major meetings took place between 1975 and 1985, resulting in five publications (1 - 5) covering various aspects of particular concern to the general public (and thus also to national authorities) such as handling plutonium, managing high-level radioactive waste, and preparing for accidental releases of radioactive material. The first such publication was issued in 1977. All five books were based on the collective knowledge and experience of groups of experts, and were published following the meetings of the respective working groups. The project was initiated at the request and with the support of the Government of Belgium, to study and discuss the effects of the nuclear power industry on people and the environment. The project served two objectives. First, it assisted Member States in developing the capacity to understand the public health implications of the widespread use of nuclear power. Second, it

  3. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  4. Establishing links between health and productivity in the New Zealand workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williden, Micalla; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Scott

    2012-05-01

    To provide the first investigation of individual health behaviors and measures of work performance in New Zealand. Health risk assessments were completed by 747 adults aged 18 to 65 years. Associations between measures of productivity and health risk factors were assessed using multiple stepwise regression. Participants with low to moderate psychological distress levels and who were physically active reported a work performance 6.5% (P productivity suggests that employers may benefit from contributing to health promotion within the workplace.

  5. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  7. Assessing the Relationship Between Chronic Health Conditions and Productivity Loss Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranksy, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between health conditions and the risk for membership in longitudinal trajectories of productivity loss. Methods: Trajectories of productivity loss from the ages of 25 to 44 years, previously identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), were combined with information on health conditions from the age 40 years health module in the NLSY79. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relative risk of being in the low-risk, early-onset increasing risk, late-onset increasing risk, or high-risk trajectories compared with the no-risk trajectory for having various health conditions. Results: The trajectories with the greatest probability of productivity loss longitudinally had a greater prevalence of the individual health conditions and a greater total number of health conditions experienced. Conclusions: Health conditions are associated with specific longitudinal patterns of experiencing productivity loss. PMID:25479294

  8. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  9. Diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseira, Camila Eugenia; Silva, Darlyani Mariano da; Passos, Isis Pienta Batista Dias; Orlandi, Fabiana Souza; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez de

    2016-11-21

    identify the compliance of health care product processing in Primary Health Care and assess possible differences in the compliance among the services characterized as Primary Health Care Service and Family Health Service. quantitative, observational, descriptive and inferential study with the application of structure, process and outcome indicators of the health care product processing at ten services in an interior city of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. for all indicators, the compliance indices were inferior to the ideal levels. No statistically significant difference was found in the indicators between the two types of services investigated. The health care product cleaning indicators obtained the lowest compliance index, while the indicator technical-operational resources for the preparation, conditioning, disinfection/sterilization, storage and distribution of health care products obtained the best index. the diagnosis of compliance of health care product processing at the services assessed indicates that the quality of the process is jeopardized, as no results close to ideal levels were obtained at any service. In addition, no statistically significant difference in these indicators was found between the two types of services studied. identificar a conformidade do processamento de produtos para saúde na Atenção Primária à Saúde e avaliar possível diferença na conformidade entre as unidades caracterizadas como Unidade Básica de Saúde e Unidade Saúde da Família. estudo quantitativo, observacional, descritivo e inferencial, com a aplicação de indicadores de estrutura, processo e resultado referentes ao processamento de produtos para a saúde em dez unidades, de um município do interior de São Paulo - Brasil. todos os indicadores obtiveram índice de conformidade inferior ao ideal. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos indicadores entre os dois tipos de unidades investigadas, sendo o indicador de limpeza de produtos para sa

  10. [Determination or determinants? A debate based on the Theory on the Social Production of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Patrícia Rodrigues da; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to discuss the concepts of Social Determination of Health and Social Determinants of Health, by establishing a comparison between each of their guiding perspectives and investigating their implications on the development of health policies and health actions. We propose a historical and conceptual reflection, highlighting the Theory on the Social Production of Health, followed by a debate on the concepts, with a comparative approach among them.

  11. Determination or determinants? A debate based on the Theory on the Social Production of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues da Rocha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the concepts of Social Determination of Health and Social Determinants of Health, by establishing a comparison between each of their guiding perspectives and investigating their implications on the development of health policies and health actions. We propose a historical and conceptual reflection, highlighting the Theory on the Social Production of Health, followed by a debate on the concepts, with a comparative approach among them.

  12. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Magdalena J.C.; Ellis, Susanna M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  13. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp... securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended... accurate information concerning the securities of Desert Health Products, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  15. The role of emerging energy-efficient technology in promoting workplace productivity and health: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this particular Indoor Health and Productivity (IHP) project is to improve the communication of research findings in the indoor health and productivity area to scientists and building professionals (e.g. architects and engineers) and, thus, to help stimulate implementation of existing knowledge.

  16. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  17. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  18. Management of natural health products in pediatrics: a provider-focused quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Emily; Silbert-Flagg, JoAnne; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural health products by pediatric patients is common, yet health care providers often do not provide management guidance. The purpose of this project was to improve management of natural health products by pediatric nurse practitioners. Pediatric nurse practitioners from large metropolitan city were recruited (n = 32). A paired pretest-posttest design was used. Study participants were engaged to improve knowledge of natural health products, and a management toolkit was created and tested. Mean knowledge scores increased from 59.19 to 76.3 (p improved with regard to patient guidance (p product use (p = .51) and drug/herb interactions (p = .35) were not significant. This investigation is the first known study to improve knowledge and management of natural health products in pediatric clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicit Communication of Food Product Healthfulness through Package Design: A Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2018-01-01

    of twelve food product categories across two countries (Denmark and USA), our findings indicate that: (a) implicit package design elements (colors, imagery, material, shape) differ between health-positioned and regular products, and (b) these differences are product category-specific rather than universal......How do food companies use package design to communicate healthfulness? The present study addresses this question by investigating the most typical implicit package design elements used by food companies for their health-positioned food products. Using a content analysis on the packaging design...

  20. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Drug Production in Tertiary Health Institutions – Needs, Constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of questionnaires was employed in the study covering all pharmacists in the pharmaceutical services department, pharmacy technicians and quality control technologist in the drug production unit of the hospital. It was unanimously agreed by the respondents that local drug production was necessary in tertiary ...

  2. A framework for production control in health care organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Jan; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Vries, de G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a hierarchical framework for production control of hospitals which deals with the balance between service and efficiency, at all levels of planning and control. The framework is based on an analysis of the design requirements for hospital production control systems. These design

  3. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  4. Health care capital market and product market constraints and the role of the chief financial officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J R; Smith, D G

    2001-01-01

    To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. The constraints imposed on health care systems by both capital and product markets has made the role of the CFO a challenge.

  5. Safe Use of Complementary Health Products and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Rip-offs: Don't Fall for Health Fraud Scams ( FDA ) Research Spotlights Latest Findings From CREST- ... links Twitter Read our disclaimer about external links Facebook Read our disclaimer about external links YouTube Read ...

  6. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  7. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  8. The association of health risks with on-the-job productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Schultz, Alyssa B; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

    2005-08-01

    Decreased on-the-job productivity represents a large yet poorly characterized indirect cost to employers. We studied the impact of employee health risk factors on self-reported worker productivity (presenteeism). Using a brief version of the Work Limitation Questionnaire incorporated into a Health Risk Appraisal, 28,375 employees of a national company responded to the survey. The association between health risks and work limitation and each of the four domains was examined. Percentage of lost productivity also was estimated. Ten of 12 health risk factors studied were significantly associated with self-reported work limitations. The strength of the associations varied between risks and the four domains of work limitation. Perception-related risk factors such as life dissatisfaction, job dissatisfaction, poor health, and stress showed the greatest association with presenteeism. As the number of self-reported health risk factors increased, so did the percentage of employees reporting work limitations. Each additional risk factor was associated with 2.4% excess productivity reduction. Medium and high-risk individuals were 6.2% and 12.2% less productive than low-risk individuals, respectively. The annual cost of lost productivity in this corporation was estimated at between 99Mdollars and 185Mdollars or between 1392dollars and 2592dollars per employee. Health risk factors represent additional causes of lost productivity.

  9. Impact of school staff health on work productivity in secondary schools in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alker, Heather J; Wang, Monica L; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2015-06-01

    Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school employees. Employees of secondary schools in Massachusetts (N = 630) participated in a longitudinal weight gain prevention intervention study. Assessment completed at baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up included survey assessments of health risk factors as well as measurements for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). The survey also included a depression inventory and Work Limitations Questionnaire. Data analysis included multivariate mixed effect models to identify productivity differences in relation to BMI, depressive symptoms, and smoking in this population stratified by position type (teacher and other school staff). The sample included 361 teachers and 269 other school staff. Obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking were significantly associated with work productivity, including workdays missed because of health concerns (absenteeism) and decreases in on-the-job productivity because of health concerns (presenteeism). Three common health conditions, namely obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking, adversely affect the productivity of high school employees. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  10. Main health risks associated with Moroccan fishery products exported to European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.

  11. Contribution of health researches in national knowledge production: A scientometrics study on 15-year research products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers call for updated valid evidence to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of health problems. To respond to these needs, health researches provide the vast multidisciplinary scientific fields. We quantify the national trends of health research outputs and its contribution in total science products. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database with the most coverage in health and biomedicine discipline as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, for all total and health-related publications, from 2000 to 2014. These scientometrics analyses covered the trends of main index of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers. We also provided information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the fields of health researches. Results: In Iran, over a 15-year period, 237,056 scientific papers have been published, of which 81,867 (34.53% were assigned to health-related fields. Pearson's Chi-square test showed significant time trends between published papers and their citations. Tehran University of Medical Sciences was responsible for 21.87% of knowledge productions share. The second and the third ranks with 11.15% and 7.28% belonged to Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, respectively. In total fields, Iran had the most collaborative papers with the USA (4.17%, the UK (2.41%, and Canada (0.02%. In health-related papers, similar patterns of collaboration followed by 4.75%, 2.77%, and 1.93% of papers. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in health research outputs, more efforts required for the promotion of collaborative outputs that cause synergy of resources and the use of practical results. These analyses also could be useful for better planning and management of planning and conducting studies in these fields.

  12. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  13. Effect of nutrition label format and product assortment on healthfulness of food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers’ food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivati...... the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices........ The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when...

  14. Nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Bosqued-Estefanía, María José; Damián, Javier; López-Jurado, Lázaro; Moya-Geromini, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    To describe the use of nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain and to analyse their nutrient profile. A cross-sectional study of television food advertisements over 7 days in five Spanish television channels popular among children. The products were classified as core, non-core or miscellaneous, and as either healthy or less healthy, according to the United Kingdom Nutrient Profile Model. We registered all claims contained on the product (packaging and labelling) and its advertisement. We calculated the frequency distributions of health and nutrition claims. During the 420hours of broadcasting, 169 food products were identified, 28.5% in the dairy group and 60.9% in the non-core category. A total of 53.3% of products contained nutrition claims and 26.6% contained health claims; 62.2% of the products with claims were less healthy. Low-fat dairy products were the food category containing the highest percentage of health and nutrition claims. Over half of all food products marketed to children via television in Spain made some type of nutrition or health claim. Most of these products were less healthy, which could mislead Spanish consumers. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Health hazards associated with arthropod infestation of stored products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects and mites are common inhabitants and accidental invaders of food, including durable commodities, and their presence can have both direct and indirect effects on human health. The most common direct effect is contamination of food with arthropod fragments and related contaminants, which may b...

  16. Disease Recording Systems and Herd Health Schemes for Production Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease recording of cattle is compulsory in Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Denmark also have mandatory disease recording for swine, whereas Finland and Norway only have compulsory recording of infectious diseases. Both compulsory and voluntary systems are databased, the first ones developed in the 1970's. Disease recording at pig slaughtering is somewhat older. The veterinary practitioner, and often also the farmer, can report treated cases as well as fertility disturbances to the systems. Disease recording at slaughter is carried out by veterinarians and inspection officers. The databases are handled by the veterinary authorities or the agricultural organisations in each country. Costs are defrayed by the authorities and/or the agricultural industry. The farmers receive periodic reports. Data are stored for three to ten years, often longer. Affiliation to animal health schemes for cattle or swine is voluntary. In Sweden and Denmark (cattle they are run within the scope of government regulations. Affiliation to animal health programmes may also be demanded by organisations within the agricultural industry. These organisations are also responsible for the administration of the programmes. Costs to take part in herd health schemes are covered by the farmers themselves. In certain cases, grants are received from agricultural organisations, authorities, or the European Union. Recording of diseases and the format of animal health schemes in the Nordic countries are described here in order to illustrate the possibilities to compare data between countries.

  17. Determinants of life expectancy in eastern mediterranean region: a health production function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, Pdeterminants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P0.001). In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region.

  18. Gut health: The new paradigm in food animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern livestock and poultry operations have undergone dramatic changes in production practices over the last 50 years. Genetic selections for high growth rates and reproductive traits as well as improved management techniques and dietary requirements have led to increased performance standards in ...

  19. Addressing conflicts between public health and tobacco production

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measures to control tobacco use will suppress global ... product that goes into global markets. .... lie elsewhere and are grounded in the business model of the ... Today,. 90% of commercial tobacco leaf is grown in LMICs, com- pared to much ...

  20. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.; Dekkers, S.; Noordam, M.Y.; Hagens, W.; Bulder, A.S.; Heer, de P.M.; Voorde, ten S.E.C.G.; Wijnhoven, S.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Sips, A.

    2009-01-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As

  1. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 51, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As 2010 is dawning on us, I want to look forward and highlight some of the exciting new nuclear and nuclear related areas that we think will play an important role in the near future. The main constraint to livestock production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America is the scarcity and fluctuations in quality and quantity of the year-around supply of feeds. Animal productivity is restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues, which form the basis of the diets in these regions. An additional consequence of this poor diet in ruminants is the increased production of methane compared with ruminants fed on better quality forages. Studies on rumen metabolism using isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen have revealed how the ruminal microbial flora can change depending on the type of forage ingested. In addition, certain plant metabolites reduce the microbial population thereby improving efficiency of feed utilization by up to 10 per cent. The future application of this strategy is that the modulation of fermentation can reduce methane production, hence mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

  2. A descriptive study of chiropractors' opinions and practices regarding office-based health product sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Stacey A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sale of non-prescription health products is ubiquitous, the views of health professionals, such as chiropractors, regarding the sale of such products are not well known. Practitioner opinion is important to understand and inform professional practice. The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractors' perspectives and practices on the sale of health care products from practitioners' offices. Methods Chiropractors were invited to provide written comments about health product sales at the end of a fixed choice, mailed survey. Respondents' comments were analyzed using qualitative description. Ethics approval was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary. Results One hundred seven of the 265 respondents (response rate of 51% provided written comments. Approximately 30 pages of double-spaced, typed text were gathered. Respondents did not consistently endorse or condemn health product sales, and engaged in the practice to greater and lesser extents. While some were opposed to health products sales, some accepted the practice with a degree of ambivalence whereas others clearly embraced it. Some respondents acknowledged a professional conflict of interest in such sales and marketing, and described strategies used to mitigate it. Others provided a range of justifications for the practice. Personal integrity and professional standards were discussed and a need for monitoring identified. Conclusions A wide range of opinions and practices were described and this is consistent with resulting variation in practice. In light of this, standards that facilitate consistency in practice may benefit professionals and the public alike.

  3. The quest for quality and productivity in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, V K; Warden, G L

    1991-01-01

    The leaders of health care organizations across the country are facing significant pressures to improve the quality of their services while reducing the rate of cost increases within the industry. Total Quality Management (TQM) has been credited, by many leaders in the manufacturing industry, as an effective tool to manage their organizations. This article presents key concepts of TQM as discussed by quality experts, namely, Deming, Juran, and Crosby. It discusses 12 key concepts that have formed the foundation of TQM implementation at Henry Ford Health System. The process of implementation is presented in detail, and the role of TQM in clinical applications is discussed. Success factors and visible actions by senior management designed to reinforce the implementation of TQM in any organization are presented.

  4. Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inferring product healthfulness from nutrition labelling. The influence of reference points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Erica; Hieke, Sophie; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research on nutrition labelling, it has proven difficult to find a front-of-pack label which is informative about product healthfulness across various situations. This study examines the ability of different types of nutrition labelling schemes (multiple traffic light label, nutrition table, GDA, logo) to communicate product healthfulness (a) across different product categories, (b) between options from the same product category, and (c) when viewed in isolation and in comparison with another product. Results of two experiments in Germany and The Netherlands show that a labelling scheme with reference point information at the nutrient level (e.g., the traffic light label) can achieve all three objectives. Although other types of labelling schemes are also capable of communicating healthfulness, labelling schemes lacking reference point information (e.g., nutrition tables) are less effective when no comparison product is available, and labelling schemes based on overall product healthfulness within the category (e.g., logos) can diminish consumers' ability to differentiate between categories, leading to a potential misinterpretation of product healthfulness. None of the labels affected food preferences.

  6. The association between optimal lifestyle-related health behaviors and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Abigail S; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Lowry, Marcia

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association between lifestyle-related health behaviors including sleep and the cluster of physical activity, no tobacco use, fruits and vegetables intake, and alcohol consumption termed the "Optimal Lifestyle Metric" (OLM), and employee productivity. Data were obtained from employee health assessments (N = 18,079). Regression techniques were used to study the association between OLM and employee productivity, sleep and employee productivity, and the interaction of both OLM and sleep on employee productivity. Employees who slept less or more than 7 or 8 hours per night experienced significantly more productivity loss. Employees who adhered to all four OLM behaviors simultaneously experienced less productivity loss compared with those who did not. Adequate sleep and adherence to the OLM cluster of behaviors are associated with significantly less productivity loss.

  7. Enhancing Health Literacy through Accessing Health Information, Products, and Services: An Exercise for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.; Wantz, Molly S.

    2007-01-01

    The second National Health Education Standard states the importance of student demonstration of the ability to access valid health information and services. The teaching technique presented in this article provides an opportunity for children and adolescents to develop their health literacy and advocacy skills by contributing to a class resource…

  8. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal.

  9. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 59, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... Haematological, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Intensively Managed West ... activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers ...

  10. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The VIIRS Vegetation Health and Drought Products (VHDP) from NDE algorithm provides weekly estimates of the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition...

  11. Health and productivity of commuter railroad employees involved in critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ABSTRACTThe effects of accidentstermed Critical Incidentson the health and productivity of rail transit workers have not been fully investigated. Anecdotal evidence suggests lasting effects of these incidents. Surveys were obtained from 363 com...

  12. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  13. The co-production of what? Knowledge, values, and social relations in health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Filipe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available "Co-production" is becoming an increasingly popular term in policymaking, governance, and research. While the shift from engagement and involvement to co-production in health care holds the promise of revolutionising health services and research, it is not always evident what counts as co-production: what is being produced, under what circumstances, and with what implications for participants. We discuss these questions and propose that co-production can be understood as an exploratory space and a generative process that leads to different, and sometimes unexpected, forms of knowledge, values, and social relations. By opening up this discussion, we hope to stimulate future debates on co-production as well as draw out ways of thinking differently about collaboration and participation in health care and research. Part of the title of this article is inspired by the book "The Social Construction of What?" by Ian Hacking (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2000.

  14. Using the interaction of mental health symptoms and treatment status to estimate lost employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Scuffham, Paul A; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-02-01

    In Australia it has been estimated that mental health symptoms result in a loss of $ AU2.7 billion in employee productivity. To date, however, there has been only one study quantifying employee productivity decrements due to mental disorders when treatment-seeking behaviours are considered. The aim of the current paper was to estimate employee work productivity by mental health symptoms while considering different treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 60 556 full-time employees responded to the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. This questionnaire is designed to monitor the work productivity of employees for chronic and acute physical and mental health conditions. Contained within the questionnaire is the Kessler 6, a scale measuring psychological distress along with an evaluation of employee treatment-seeking behaviours for depression, anxiety and any other emotional problems. A univariate analysis of variance was performed for employee productivity using the interaction between Kessler 6 severity categories and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 9.6% of employees have moderate psychological distress and a further 4.5% have high psychological distress. Increasing psychological distress from low to moderate then to high levels is associated with increasing productivity decrements (6.4%, 9.4% and 20.9% decrements, respectively) for employees in current treatment. Combining the prevalence of Kessler 6 categories with treatment-seeking behaviours, mean 2009 salaries and number of Australian employees in 2009, it is estimated that psychological distress produces an $ AU5.9 billion reduction in Australian employee productivity per annum. The estimated loss of $ AU5.9 billion in employee productivity due to mental health problems is substantially higher than previous estimates. This finding is especially pertinent given the global economic crisis, when psychological distress among employees is likely to be increasing. Effective

  15. Segmenting health maintenance organizations to study productivity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M G

    2000-01-01

    As the decade ended, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were increasing in popularity as a means of health care delivery. These groups take many forms, so it is important for the analyst to see if the efficiency and financial results for these different forms vary. The four major forms are profit vs. not-for-profit, chain vs. non-chain, group/staff vs. individual practice association (IPA), and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. Using a nationwide database of all the HMOs in the United States, the article compares liquidity rates, leverage ratios, profitability ratios, marketing, and per member ratios across the four groups using paired t tests. The two classifications that showed the most differences were group/staff vs. IPA and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. IPAs have a better liquidity position and lower leverage ratios than group/staff but their administrative costs are higher and the time to receive payments and to pay debts is higher. Non-federally qualified have somewhat higher liquidity ratios and higher profitability ratios. These significant differences in financial outcomes indicate that studies of HMOs should segment different major forms of organizations and study them separately before trying to show the effects of different policies on HMO efficiency and effectiveness.

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Health Indicators of Halva and Tahini Production Centers in Ardakan, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2014-03-01

    Results: Generally, 75% production centers had favorable hygienic status and 25% had slightly favorable hygienic status. According to obtained results, hygienic status of production centers had relatively favorable and favorable conditions and only in January and February in 31.3% and 18.8% processing hall and 12.5% product store was in a very favorable hygienic status. The results showed that in terms of environmental health status, 62.5% production centers in raw materials store part, 66.66% in production processing hall, 20.83% in packaging hall, 60.41% in product store and 37.5% in bathrooms had favorable status. Based on the results, hygienic status of bathrooms and processing hall achieved lowest and highest score, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that between hygienic status and production rate (p=0.411 there is no significant relationship. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the halva and tahini production centers of Ardakan city in terms of environmental health indicators had slightly favorable status to favorable and none of the production centers had not very favorable conditions. The results of this study can be used to improve health status of halva and tahini production centers.

  17. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  18. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  19. Association Between Employee Dental Claims, Health Risks, Workplace Productivity, and Preventive Services Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B

    2017-08-01

    This study examined differences in health risks and workplace outcomes among employees who utilized preventive dental services compared with other employees. A retrospective observational study of employees of a large financial services corporation, with data from health risk appraisal questionnaires, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and dental claims. Employees with no dental claims were significantly more likely to have a variety of health risk factors (such as obesity and tobacco use), health conditions (such as diabetes), absenteeism, and lost on-the-job productivity, and were significantly less likely to be compliant with clinical preventive services compared with those with preventive dental claims. Employees with preventive dental claims had fewer health risks and medical conditions and better health and productivity measures. Study employees underutilized free dental care; employers should incorporate preventive dental care awareness into their worksite wellness programs.

  20. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  1. Genetic correlations between milk production and health and fertility dependent on herd environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    High milk production in dairy cattle can have negative side effects on health and fertility traits. This paper explores the genetic relationship of milk yield with health and fertility depending on herd environment. A total of 71,720 lactations from heifers calving in 1997 to 1999 in the Netherlands

  2. Pesticides and health in highland Ecuadorian potato production: assessing impacts and developing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.; Sherwood, S.G.; Crissman, C.; Barrera, V.H.; Espinosa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of

  3. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  4. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  5. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided.

  6. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  7. Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

  8. Productivity loss at work; Health-related and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work.

  9. PRODUCTIVITY AND LAND ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: HEALTH, PUBLIC INVESTMENTS, AND SEQUENTIAL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire; Amacher, Gregory S.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decision...

  10. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  11. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers...... in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity......, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...

  12. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary

  13. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE PRODUCTION FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Karen; Henshall, Chris; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) needs to address the challenges posed by high cost, effective technologies, expedited regulatory approaches, and the opportunities provided by collaborative real-world evaluation of technologies. The Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum met to consider these issues and the implications for evidence production to inform HTA. This paper shares their discussion to stimulate further debate. A background paper, presentations, group discussions, and stakeholder role play at the 2015 HTAi Policy Forum meeting informed this paper. HTA has an important role to play in helping improve evidence production and ensuring that the health service is ready to adopt effective technologies. It needs to move from simply informing health system decisions to also working actively to align stakeholder expectations about realistic evidence requirements. Processes to support dialogue over the health technology life cycle need to be developed that are mindful of limited resources, operate across jurisdictions and learn from past processes. Collaborations between health technology developers and health systems in different countries should be encouraged to develop evidence that will inform decision making. New analytical techniques emerging for real-world data should be harnessed to support modeling for HTA. A paradigm shift (to "Health Innovation System 2.0") is suggested where HTA adopts a more central, proactive role to support alignment within and amongst stakeholders over the whole life cycle of the technology. This could help ensure that evidence production is better aligned with patient and health system needs and so is more effective and efficient.

  14. Labor Productivity Growth, Education, Health and Technological Progress: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Supachet Chansarn

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four per...

  15. The productivity of physician assistants and nurse practitioners and health work force policy in the era of managed health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, R M; Waitzman, N J; Hillman, J M

    1996-01-01

    Managed care is spreading rapidly in the United States and creating incentives for physician practices to find the most efficient combination of health professionals to deliver care to an enrolled population. Given these trends, it is appropriate to reexamine the roles of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in the health care workforce. This paper briefly reviews the literature on PA and NP productivity, managed care plans' use of PAs and NPs, and the potential impact of PAs and NPs on the size and composition of the future physician workforce. In general, the literature supports the idea that PAs and NPs could have a major impact on the future health care workforce. Studies show significant opportunities for increased physician substitution and even conservative assumptions about physician task delegation imply a large increase in the number of PAs and NPs that can be effectively deployed. However, the current literature has certain limitations that make it difficult to quantify the future impact of PAs and NPs. Among these limitations is the fact that virtually all formal productivity studies were conducted in fee-for-service settings during the 1970s, rather than managed care settings. In addition, the vast majority of PA and NP productivity studies have viewed PAs and NPs as physician substitutes rather than as members of interdisciplinary health care teams, which may become the dominant health care delivery model over the next 10-20 years.

  16. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  17. Defining "natural product" between public health and business, 17th to 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziani, Alessandro

    2008-07-01

    The historical definition of a natural product stands at the crossroads of business, health, and the symbolic order of things. Until the end of the 19th century, "natural product" was a synonym of perishable. The emergency of organic chemistry made perishability be replaced with "toxicity". Nowadays, genetics is provoking a radical change in the notion and practises of "natural product". However, these concerns are never entirely opposed to "naturality" as a synonym for sacred and symbolic order. Traceability is largely based upon kosher practices and the association between organic and good for health is hardly based upon sound scientific arguments.

  18. Impact of health-related claims on the perception of other product attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Lampila, Piritta; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    countries explored consumers' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, naturalness, tastiness and ability to reduce risk of disease by comparing ratings of products with and without health claims. Used claims varied in their benefit, active ingredient, claim structure and framing. The results showed...... that health claims had a moderate but mostly negative impact on the perception of other product attributes; the most significant impact was decrease in perceived naturalness. Consumers could also interpret the benefits in claims as intended. The wording of the claim had only small impact on the perception...... is not likely to cause any unrealistic positive inferences in perceived product quality....

  19. Health information systems in Africa: descriptive analysis of data sources, information products and health statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Kebede, Derege; Soumbey-Alley, Edoh William; Zielinski, Chris; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-05-01

    To identify key data sources of health information and describe their availability in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. An analytical review on the availability and quality of health information data sources in countries; from experience, observations, literature and contributions from countries. Forty-six Member States of the WHO African Region. No participants. The state of data sources, including censuses, surveys, vital registration and health care facility-based sources. In almost all countries of the Region, there is a heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators, with more than 121 household surveys having been conducted in the Region since 2000. Few countries have civil registration systems that permit adequate and regular tracking of mortality and causes of death. Demographic surveillance sites function in several countries, but the data generated are not integrated into the national health information system because of concerns about representativeness. Health management information systems generate considerable data, but the information is rarely used because of concerns about bias, quality and timeliness. To date, 43 countries in the Region have initiated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. A multitude of data sources are used to track progress towards health-related goals in the Region, with heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators. Countries need to develop comprehensive national plans for health information that address the full range of data needs and data sources and that include provision for building national capacities for data generation, analysis, dissemination and use. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  20. Co-production of Health enabled by next generation personal health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Niels

    2012-01-01

    ” in conventionally and non-conventionally organized data repositories. The CpH modality aims at providing synergies between professional healthcare, selfcare, informal care and provides data-fusion from several sources such as health characteristics of consumer goods, from sensors, actuators, and health related data-repositories...

  1. Sales effects of product health information at points of purchase: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Information about healthy and unhealthy nutrients is increasingly conveyed at the point of purchase. Many studies have investigated the effects of product health information on attitudes and intentions, but the empirical evidence becomes sketchier when the focus of research is actual purchase behaviour. The present paper provides an overview of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of product health information for food products at the point of purchase. A systematic literature review was conducted. Only studies were included that assessed the effect of product health information at the point of purchase on actual purchase behaviour, using data provided by stores' sales records or obtained by investigating customer receipts as the primary outcome measure. The included studies' target group comprised supermarket clientele. Several studies found no significant effects of product health information on actual purchase behaviour. Interventions were more likely to be effective when they lasted for a longer time, when they included additional intervention components, and when they targeted the absence of unhealthy nutrients instead of or in addition to the presence of healthy nutrients. No strong evidence for the effectiveness of product health information was found. The effect of intervention duration, additional promotional activities and targeting of healthy v. unhealthy nutrients should be closely examined in future studies.

  2. Effect of Probiotics/Prebiotics on Cattle Health and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, Yutaka; Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and are, thus, considered beneficial to the host animal and have been used as functional foods. Numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, have been shown to markedly affect the structure and activities of gut microbial communities in livestock animals. Previous studies reported the potential of probiotics and prebiotics in animal nutrition; however, their efficacies often vary and are inconsistent, possibly, in part, because the dynamics of the GI community have not been taken into consideration. Under stressed conditions, direct-fed microbials may be used to reduce the risk or severity of scours caused by disruption of the normal intestinal environment. The observable benefits of prebiotics may also be minimal in generally healthy calves, in which the microbial community is relatively stable. However, probiotic yeast strains have been administered with the aim of improving rumen fermentation efficiency by modulating microbial fermentation pathways. This review mainly focused on the benefits of probiotics/prebiotics on the GI microbial ecosystem in ruminants, which is deeply involved in nutrition and health for the animal.

  3. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  4. Contributions of knowledge products to health policy: a case study on the Public Health Status and Forecasts Report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Kok, Maarten O; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-12-01

    The Dutch Public Health Status and Forecasts report (PHSF Report) integrates research data and identifies future trends affecting public health in the Netherlands. To investigate how PHSF contributions to health policy can be enhanced, we analysed the development process whereby the PHSF Report for 2010 was produced (PHSF-2010). To collect data, a case study approach was used along the lines of Contribution Mapping including analysis of documents from the PHSF-2010 process and interviews with actors involved. All interviews were recorded and transcribed ad verbatim and coded using an inductive code list. The PHSF-2010 process included activities aimed at alignment between researchers and policy-makers, such as informal meetings. However, we identified three issues that are easily overlooked in knowledge development, but provide suggestions for enhancing contributions: awareness of divergent; continuously changing actor scenarios; vertical alignment within organizations involved and careful timing of draft products to create early adopters. To enhance the contributions made by an established public health report, such as the PHSF Report, it is insufficient to raise the awareness of potential users. The knowledge product must be geared to policy-makers' needs and must be introduced into the scenarios of actors who may be less familiar. The demand for knowledge product adaptations has to be considered. This requires continuous alignment efforts in all directions: horizontal and vertical, external and internal. The findings of this study may be useful to researchers who aim to enhance the contributions of their knowledge products to health policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  5. Reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling; impact on product healthfulness evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raats, M M; Hieke, S; Jola, C; Hodgkins, C; Kennedy, J; Wills, J

    2015-05-01

    The research question addressed in this paper is how different reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling influence evaluation of product healthfulness. A total of 13,117 participants from six European countries (Germany, UK, Spain, France, Poland and Sweden) were recruited via online panels. A mixed between/within-subject factorial design was employed with food (biscuits, sandwiches, yogurts), healthfulness and presence of Guideline Daily Amounts as within-subjects factors and reference amount ('per 100 g', 'typical portion', 'half portion') and country as between-subjects factors. Overall, people correctly ranked foods according to their objective healthfulness as defined by risk nutrients alone, and could distinguish between more and less healthful variants of foods. General healthfulness associations with the three product categories do not appear to have had a strong influence on product ratings. This study shows that where the reference amount of 'per 100 g' is very different from the 'typical' portion size, as was the case for biscuits, products with a 'per 100 g' label are rated significantly less healthful than the 'typical' or 'half typical' portions. The results indicate that across the three food categories, consumers do factor the reference amount, that is, the quantity of food for which the nutritional information is being presented, into their judgements of healthfulness. Therefore, appropriate reference amounts are also of importance for the effective presentation of nutritional information.

  6. [Milk, Daily products and Bone health.Milk or dairy products and bone:Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Junko

    2018-01-01

    An assessment of the association between the intake of milk or dairy products and bone density or the risk of fractures on the basis of epidemiological studies revealed the following findings:(1)a sufficient prepubertal intake of milk or dairy products could contribute to the increased bone growth and maximized peal bone mass because the intake of calcium in the corresponding stage in Japan is inadequate;(2)adequate milk intake could contribute to the maintenance of peal bone mass among menstruating adult females and the decrease of bone loss in postmenopausal females. Adequate milk intake could contribute to the decrease of aging-induced bone loss in elderly males, though there is no sufficient scientific evidence;and(3)a meta-analysis indicated no correlation between the increased milk intake and decreased risks of hip fractures in the elderly. As the intake of milk or dairy products in the Japanese elderly is rather less than that reported by the meta-analysis, the minimal intake of milk or dairy products is anticipated to elevate the risk of fractures in middle-aged or elderly males and females although the scientific evidence is inadequate.

  7. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  8. The effect of disease prevention and health promotion on workplace productivity: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, J E; Lynch, W; Baase, C; Hymel, P; Peterson, K W

    2001-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in the Institute for Health and Productivity Management as part of an effort to improve understanding of the connection between employee health and performance and to begin to identify new strategies through which treating health as an investment in human capital can lead to greater business success. Computer database searches of peer-reviewed literature published between 1993 and 1998 and manual reviews of 20 journals were used to identify research on the link between employee health and performance. Data was extracted to summarize the overall findings on the magnitude of health problems addressed by health promotion and disease prevention programs, and the impact of interventions on improving health risk, reducing medical care cost, and improving worker performance. From this summary, major conclusions on early detection of disease, the impact of behavior change programs, and appropriate care-seeking were drawn. This systematic review is supplemented with summaries of 15 seminal articles and descriptions of five leading-practices programs. The influence of developments in work/family issues, complementary and alternative medicine, and quality of care and health outcomes research are briefly discussed. Finally, a conceptual framework for studying the impact of health and productivity is described.

  9. When is an image a health claim? A false-recollection method to detect implicit inferences about products' health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepacz, Naomi A; Nash, Robert A; Egan, M Bernadette; Hodgkins, Charo E; Raats, Monique M

    2016-08-01

    Images on food and dietary supplement packaging might lead people to infer (appropriately or inappropriately) certain health benefits of those products. Research on this issue largely involves direct questions, which could (a) elicit inferences that would not be made unprompted, and (b) fail to capture inferences made implicitly. Using a novel memory-based method, in the present research, we explored whether packaging imagery elicits health inferences without prompting, and the extent to which these inferences are made implicitly. In 3 experiments, participants saw fictional product packages accompanied by written claims. Some packages contained an image that implied a health-related function (e.g., a brain), and some contained no image. Participants studied these packages and claims, and subsequently their memory for seen and unseen claims were tested. When a health image was featured on a package, participants often subsequently recognized health claims that-despite being implied by the image-were not truly presented. In Experiment 2, these recognition errors persisted despite an explicit warning against treating the images as informative. In Experiment 3, these findings were replicated in a large consumer sample from 5 European countries, and with a cued-recall test. These findings confirm that images can act as health claims, by leading people to infer health benefits without prompting. These inferences appear often to be implicit, and could therefore be highly pervasive. The data underscore the importance of regulating imagery on product packaging; memory-based methods represent innovative ways to measure how leading (or misleading) specific images can be. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Quantification of the Impact of Endometriosis Symptoms on Health Related Quality of Life and Work Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquet, Jessica; Báez, Lorna; Figueroa, Michelle; Iriarte, R. Iván; Flores, Idhaliz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the impact of endometriosis-related symptoms on physical and mental health status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and work-related aspects (absenteeism, presenteeism, work productivity, activity impairment). DESIGN Cross-sectional quantitative study. SETTING Academic and research institution. PATIENT(S) Women (n=193) with self-reported surgically diagnosed endometriosis from the Endometriosis Patient Registry at Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences (PSMHS). INTERVENTION(S) Patients completed an anonymous questionnaire divided into three sections consisting of questions from the Patient Health Survey (SF-12®), the Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Survey (WPAI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Impact of endometriosis symptoms on physical and mental health status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), absenteeism, presenteeism, work productivity and activity impairment was quantified. RESULTS Patients had SF-12 scores denoting significant disability in the phyisical and mental health components. They also reported an average of 7.41 hrs (approximately one working day) of work time loss during the week the symptoms are worse. In addition, WPAI scores show high impact on work-related domains: 13% of average loss in work time (absenteeism), 65% of their work was impaired (presenteeism), 64% loss in efficiency levels (work productivity loss), and 60% of daily activities perturbed (activity impairment). CONCLUSION Endometriosis symptoms such as chronic, incapacitating pelvic pain and infertility negatively and substantially impact the physical and mental health status, HRQoL, and productivity at work of patients with endometriosis. PMID:21621771

  11. Current pulse: can a production system reduce medical errors in health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printezis, Antonios; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan

    2007-01-01

    One of the reasons for rising health care costs is medical errors, a majority of which result from faulty systems and processes. Health care in the past has used process-based initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Six Sigma to reduce errors. These initiatives to redesign health care, reduce errors, and improve overall efficiency and customer satisfaction have had moderate success. Current trend is to apply the successful Toyota Production System (TPS) to health care since its organizing principles have led to tremendous improvement in productivity and quality for Toyota and other businesses that have adapted them. This article presents insights on the effectiveness of TPS principles in health care and the challenges that lie ahead in successfully integrating this approach with other quality initiatives.

  12. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part I. Wheat cereal products, vegetable products, confectionery and products for infants and children (2004 year)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Plewa, Monika; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The testing of products of wheat cereal (310 samples), vegetable (418 samples), confectionery (439 samples) and 952 samples of products for infants and children has initiated the 5-years cycle of monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health planned to perform in 2004-2008. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection collecting samples on all over the territory of Poland, both from retail market (of domestic origin as well as imported) and directly from producers; the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene responsible for elaboration of official food control and monitoring plans to be approved by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate and for the substantive supervising of tests performance. The reported metals contents were not of health concern and generally below the levels set forth in food legislation. The health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for cadmium, which has reached 9.4% PTWI for cereal based products and 4.7% PTWI for vegetables. The cadmium content in chocolate and derived products due to contamination of cocoa beans and the levels of this element in products for infants and children originated from contamination of cereal and soybeans row materials should not be ignored. The decrease of lead contamination comparing to those reported in 1990 studies was observed.

  13. The Influence of a Factitious Free-From Food Product Label on Consumer Perceptions of Healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priven, Matthew; Baum, Jennifer; Vieira, Edward; Fung, Teresa; Herbold, Nancie

    2015-11-01

    Given the rapid rise of free-from products available in the marketplace (especially gluten-free), more research is needed to understand how these products influence consumer perceptions of healthfulness. To determine whether perceptions of healthfulness can be generated about free-from products in the absence of risk information. A survey was administered to 256 adults. Two picture-based food product questions evaluated which products consumers perceived to be healthier. One free-from designation was fabricated (MUI-free), whereas gluten-free was used as the comparison designation. For each question, participants chose which product they thought was healthier (free-from, conventional, or equally healthy). A χ(2) test was run to assess the difference between responses to picture-based food product questions. Multinomial regression assessed variance in responses attributable to participant demographic characteristics. Among the respondents, 21.9% selected the MUI-free product as healthier, whereas 25.5% selected the gluten-free product as healthier. Frequency data showed that a significant number of participants chose both free-from products as healthier than the conventional products (P<0.001). Regression analysis found that individuals who identified as gluten intolerant or unsure of a gluten intolerance were significantly more likely than other participants to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.040). Hispanics and those with an associate's degree or vocational training were significantly more likely than their referent groups (whites and those with a doctoral degree, respectively) to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.022 and 0.034, respectively). Finally, African Americans were more likely than whites to choose the conventional product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.016). Frequency data demonstrated that free-from products can

  14. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyasari; Jony Oktavian Haryanto

    2010-01-01

    This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environm...

  15. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  16. Productivity Growth in the English National Health Service from 1998/1999 to 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojke, Chris; Castelli, Adriana; Grašič, Katja; Street, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Productivity growth is a key measure against which National Health Service (NHS) achievements are judged. We measure NHS productivity growth as a set of paired year-on-year comparisons from 1998/1999-1999/2000 through 2012/2013-2013/2014, which are converted into a chained index that summarises productivity growth over the entire period. Our measure is as comprehensive as data permit and accounts for the multitude of diverse outputs and inputs involved in the production process and for regular revisions to the data used to quantify outputs and inputs. Over the full-time period, NHS output increased by 88.96% and inputs by 81.58%, delivering overall total factor productivity growth of 4.07%. Productivity growth was negative during the first two terms of Blair's government, with average yearly growth rate of -1.01% per annum (pa) during the first term (to 2000/2001) and -1.49% pa during the second term (2000/2001-2004/2005). Productivity growth was positive under Blair's third term (2004/2005-2007/2008) at 1.41% pa and under the Brown government (2007/2008-2010/2011), averaging 1.13% pa. Productivity growth remained positive under the Coalition (2010/2011-2013/2014), averaging 1.56% pa. © 2016 The Authors Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ismail

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    -related technologies that are adapted to more user friendly non-nuclear applications for implementation at field level. Amongst these technologies are the use of 13/14 C, 125 I, 3 H, 32 P, 35 S to label protein and nucleic acid molecules for specific and sensitive detection, monitoring, and characterization of harmful pathogens that have made a critical contribution towards the development of e.g. ELISA, PCR, real-time PCR and sequencing. The subprogramme, furthermore, ensures the deployment and widespread use of applicable technologies in countries most at risk from climatically influenced infectious diseases. This technical support and guidance to countries (e.g. which test to use, when and for what purpose, equipment needs, staff training and proficiency, and quality management) played a vital role in building developing countries' capacities during recent outbreaks of avian influenza and Rift Valley Fever. The subprogramme has developed, implemented, and transferred immuno and molecular assays that are rapid, inexpensive and capable of being used to process large numbers of samples to detect infectious disease agents that adversely affect livestock productivity and prevent international trade. Four new CRPs started this year: The use of enzymes and nuclear technologies to improve the utilization of fibrous feeds and reduce greenhouse gas emission from livestock, control of foot-and-mouth disease, the use of irradiated vaccines in the control of infectious transboundary diseases of livestock and genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity. Activities of the past six months include several workshops, training courses, research coordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings

  19. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  20. Health care and lost productivity costs of overweight and obesity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marj; Ashton, Toni; Siahpush, Mohammad; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the costs of health care and lost productivity attributable to overweight and obesity in New Zealand (NZ) in 2006. A prevalence-based approach to costing was used in which costs were calculated for all cases of disease in the year 2006. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the relative risks obtained from large cohort studies and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For each disease, the PAF was multiplied by the total health care cost. The costs of lost productivity associated with premature mortality were estimated using both the Human Capital approach (HCA) and Friction Cost approach (FCA). Health care costs attributable to overweight and obesity were estimated to be NZ$686m or 4.5% of New Zealand's total health care expenditure in 2006. The costs of lost productivity using the FCA were estimated to be NZ$98m and NZ$225m using the HCA. The combined costs of health care and lost productivity using the FCA were $784m and $911m using the HCA. The cost burden of overweight and obesity in NZ is considerable. Policies and interventions are urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity thereby decreasing these substantial costs. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. PMID:28930200

  2. Disintegration Test of Health Food Products Containing Ginkgo Biloba L. or Vitex Agnus-Castus L. in the Japanese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Satoshi; Terasaki, Sachiko; Yokota, Yoichi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-04-23

    For many years now, a number of Western herbs have been widely used in health food products in Japan and as pharmaceuticals in Europe. There are few or no mandated criteria concerning the quality of these herbal health food products, thus clarification is warranted. Here, we performed disintegration tests of 26 pharmaceutical and health food products containing the Western herbs ginkgo leaf and chaste tree fruit, in accord with the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All eight pharmaceutical herbal products found in the European market completely disintegrated within the defined test time, and 11 of the 18 tested herbal products distributed as health foods in Japan disintegrated. Among the incompatible products identified in the Pharmacopoeia test, some products remained intact after incubation in water for 60 min. To ensure the efficacy of Western herbal products sold as health food in Japan, quality control, including disintegration, is therefore recommended, even though these products are not regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.

  3. The economics of optimal health and productivity in the commercial dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, D T

    1999-08-01

    Dairy production practices are changing; in order to remain viable, producers must optimise the health and productivity of dairy herds in economic terms. Health care is important in economic terms because disease can substantially reduce the productivity of individual animals. Preventive disease control programmes can thus result in economic gains for the dairy producer. The author describes new approaches to preventing postpartum diseases and dealing with fertility problems which can result from these diseases. Other aspects of dairy production are also changing, employing new technologies where these are judged to be profitable. Innovations include: the use of bovine somatotropin; systematic breeding/culling programmes; new mathematical modelling techniques to determine optimum feed composition and to define optimal growth levels for accelerated heifer-rearing programmes; the use of computers to collect, store and analyse data on animal production and health; and semen selection programmes. Increasing awareness of bio-security is also vital, not least because of the large investment present in dairy herds. Whatever practices are employed, they must offer economic returns to producers that compete with alternative uses of capital. Optimal levels of disease control must be determined for a particular production situation, taking into account not only the economic health of the producer, but also the well-being of the animals.

  4. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.

  5. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Dennis; Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. The content of this work is ©the authors or their employers. Design and branding are ©ERS 2016.

  6. Impact of the severity of vasomotor symptoms on health status, resource use, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Jennifer; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Bushmakin, Andrew; Kopenhafer, Lewis; Dibonaventura, Marco; Racketa, Jill

    2013-05-01

    The current study characterizes health-related quality of life, work productivity, and resource use among postmenopausal women by severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Participants were selected from the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Women aged 40 to 75 years who did not report a history of menstrual bleeding or spotting for 1 year were eligible for analysis (N = 3,267). Cohorts of women with no VMS (n = 1,740), mild VMS (n = 931), moderate VMS (n = 462), and severe VMS (n = 134) were compared after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures were assessed using linear models and included health status, work productivity within the past 7 days, and healthcare resource use within the past 6 months. The mean age of women experiencing severe VMS was 57.92 years. After demographic and health characteristics had been controlled for, women experiencing severe and moderate VMS reported significantly lower mean health status scores compared with women with no symptoms (P women with severe, moderate, or mild symptoms than among women with no symptoms (P women experiencing VMS, women with severe and moderate symptoms had adjusted presenteeism of 24.28% and 14.3%, versus 4.33% in women with mild symptoms (P women with mild symptoms (P women, a greater severity of VMS is significantly associated with lower levels of health status and work productivity, and greater healthcare resource use.

  7. Preliminary study on health-related lipid components of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercaci, Luisito; Conchillo, Ana; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Lercker, Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of health-related lipid components, in particular trans fatty acids and sterol oxidation products, in four bakery products. Both types of components are known for their adverse biological effects, especially the increase of atherogenic risk, and therefore it is advisable to monitor their presence in food products. Trans fatty acids were determined by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography-gas chromatography, whereas sterol oxidation was assessed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of 7-keto derivatives (tracers of sterol oxidation). The amount of trans fatty acids (0.02 to 3.13 g/100 g of product), sterols (34.9 to 128.3 mg/100 g of product), and 7-keto derivatives of sterols (1.88 to 3.14 mg/kg of product) varied considerably among samples. The supply of phytosterols (22.5 to 64.0 mg/100 g of product) was not significant, and the extent of oxidation of most phytosterols to its corresponding 7-keto derivative was low (0.29 to 0.84%), except for that of brassicasterol (2.01 to 3.11%). The quality of ingredients and raw materials seems to have greatly influenced the fatty acid profile, stability, safety, and quality of the final product; these ingredients should be chosen with extreme care to decrease their potential negative health effects and to increase safety of these products.

  8. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  9. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS Kongstad, M. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Christensen, JR. 1 1: SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Workplace health promotion involving physical exercise training may negate lifestyle......-sectional sample of health care workers, as well as 2) the change in WP in relation to changes in the before mentioned physiological variables following workplace health promotion. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on a subsample of 139 Danish, female health care workers participating in a cluster...... randomized controlled trial. WP was assessed as a summed score using selected, validated questions from three questionnaires (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability, and Quantity and Quality Method). Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, CRF was measured using a bicycle ergometer...

  10. Estimated hospital costs associated with preventable health care-associated infections if health care antiseptic products were unavailable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmier JK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jordana K Schmier,1 Carolyn K Hulme-Lowe,1 Svetlana Semenova,2 Juergen A Klenk,3 Paul C DeLeo,4 Richard Sedlak,5 Pete A Carlson6 1Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 2EcoSciences, Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA, 3Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 4Environmental Safety, 5Technical and International Affairs, American Cleaning Institute, Washington, DC, 6Regulatory Affairs, Ecolab, Saint Paul, MN, USA Objectives: Health care-associated infections (HAIs pose a significant health care and cost burden. This study estimates annual HAI hospital costs in the US avoided through use of health care antiseptics (health care personnel hand washes and rubs; surgical hand scrubs and rubs; patient preoperative and preinjection skin preparations. Methods: A spreadsheet model was developed with base case inputs derived from the published literature, supplemented with assumptions when data were insufficient. Five HAIs of interest were identified: catheter-associated urinary tract infections, central line-associated bloodstream infections, gastrointestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile, hospital- or ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections. A national estimate of the annual potential lost benefits from elimination of these products is calculated based on the number of HAIs, the proportion of HAIs that are preventable, the proportion of preventable HAIs associated with health care antiseptics, and HAI hospital costs. The model is designed to be user friendly and to allow assumptions about prevention across all infections to vary or stay the same. Sensitivity analyses provide low- and high-end estimates of costs avoided. Results: Low- and high-end estimates of national, annual HAIs in hospitals avoided through use of health care antiseptics are 12,100 and 223,000, respectively, with associated hospital costs avoided of US$142 million and US$4.25 billion, respectively. Conclusion: The model presents a novel

  11. Exploring the influence of context and policy on health district productivity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim; So, Sovannarith; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia has been reconstructing its economy and health sector since the end of conflict in the 1990s. There have been gains in life expectancy and increased health expenditure, but Cambodia still lags behind neighbours One factor which may contribute is the efficiency of public health services. This article aims to understand variations in efficiency and the extent to which changes in efficiency are associated with key health policies that have been introduced to strengthen access to health services over the past decade. The analysis makes use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure relative efficiency and changes in productivity and regression analysis to assess the association with the implementation of health policies. Data on 28 operational districts were obtained for 2008-11, focussing on the five provinces selected to represent a range of conditions in Cambodia. DEA was used to calculate efficiency scores assuming constant and variable returns to scale and Malmquist indices to measure productivity changes over time. This analysis was combined with qualitative findings from 17 key informant interviews and 19 in-depth interviews with managers and staff in the same provinces. The DEA results suggest great variation in the efficiency scores and trends of scores of public health services in the five provinces. Starting points were significantly different, but three of the five provinces have improved efficiency considerably over the period. Higher efficiency is associated with more densely populated areas. Areas with health equity funds in Special Operating Agency (SOA) and non-SOA areas are associated with higher efficiency. The same effect is not found in areas only operating voucher schemes. We find that the efficiency score increased by 0.12 the year any of the policies was introduced. This is the first study published on health district productivity in Cambodia. It is one of the few studies in the region to consider the impact of health policy changes

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN THE HEALTH OF WORKERS: SOME REFLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work represents a conscious activity of human beings, fruit of the effort to transform the nature of products or services. The industrial revolution and how the relationship of work organization are modified resulting consequences on the health of the worker. The purpose of this paper is to present some reflections on the implications of the production process on the health of workers, addressing the discussion of management models of work. Based in analyzes of studies it was found that the methods of analysis of the work contributed to better understanding of the implications of the production process on the health of workers. All types of studies proposed found that working conditions can lead to wear biopsychic employees, becoming the main component illness.

  13. Implications of the process of production in the health of workers: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work represents a conscious activity of human beings, fruit of the effort to transform the nature of products or services. The industrial revolution and how the relationship of work organization are modified resulting consequences on the health of the worker. The purpose of this paper is to present some reflections on the implications of the production process on the health of workers, addressing the discussion of management models of work. Based in analyzes of studies it was found that the methods of analysis of the work contributed to better understanding of the implications of the production process on the health of workers. All types of studies proposed found that working conditions can lead to wear biopsychic employees, becoming the main component illness.

  14. Bioactive peptides: production, health effects and application as natural supplements for functional foods production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirdamadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides, are inactive components within the structure of the protein and when they are released by enzymatic hydrolysis, show different physiological functions. Recently, the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides derived from plant and animal sources and different microorganisms is highly regarded. They are produced during enzymatic hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes or enzymes extracted from microorganisms and plants or by proteolytic starter cultures during fermentation process and exhibit different activities including: opioid, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, chlosterol lowering and so on. Take advantage of bioactive peptides as components of health is related to bio stability assurance, bioavailability and safety of them. The use of computer-based techniques and the use of various databases completed in laboratory studies,  have provided the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of different peptides.

  15. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  16. Productivity cost due to postpartum ill health: A cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Horton, Jennifer; Darshika, Ishani; Galgamuwa, Kaushila Dinithi; Ranasinghe, Wasantha Pradeep; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-01-01

    Even though postpartum morbidity continues to cause high disease burden in maternal morbidity and mortality across the globe, the literature pertaining to resultant productivity loss is scarce. Hence, the present study aimed at determining the productivity loss and associated cost of episodes of postpartum ill health. A cross sectional study was conducted in two Medical Officer of Heath areas in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka in 2011, among 407 women residing in Anuradhapura district with an infant aged between 8 to 24 weeks. Validated interviewer administered questionnaires, including the IMMPACT productivity cost tool, were used to collect data on self-reported episodes of postpartum ill health. The productivity loss was calculated as the sum of days lost due to partial and total incapacitation. The adjusted productivity loss for coping strategies was calculated. Productivity cost, both total and adjusted, were calculated based on the mean daily per capita income of the study sample. Of the 407 participants, 161(39.6%) reported at least one episode of postpartum illness. Hospitalisations were reported by 27 (16.8%) of all symptomatic postpartum women. Common symptoms of postpartum ill health were pain/infection at either episiotomy or surgical site (n = 44, 27.3%), lower abdominal pain (n = 40, 24.8%) and backache (n = 27, 16.8%). The mean productivity loss per episode of ill health was 15 days (SD = 7.8 days) and the mean productivity loss per episode after adjusting for coping strategies was 7.9 days (SD = 4.4 days). The mean productivity cost per an episode was US$ 34.2(95%CI US$ 26.7-41.6) and the mean productivity cost per an episode after adjusting for coping strategies was US$ 18.0 (95%CI US$ 14.1-22.0). The prevalence of self-reported postpartum ill health, associated productivity loss and cost were high in the study sample and the main contributors were preventable conditions including pain and infection. Thus, effective pain management and proper

  17. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative...... analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  18. The ecologic products and the importance of their consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanța Sîrbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to analyze the perception of young people regarding the ecologic products, their consumption and implicitly the awareness of their effect on the human health. The geographic area where we realized the study wasTimisoaraby distributing a questionnaire in different places: universities, super-markets, mall. After analyzing the results, we noticed that 80% of the young people consider that the food is very important for a healthy life. The majority of the young people questioned, even knowing the characteristics of the bio products, consumed fruits and vegetables bought from stores specialized in ecologic products. From our study, we can say that the young people are interested in the ecologic products sold inTimisoaraand they are aware about their impact on the human health.

  19. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and conventional production. Conventional Danish herds consumed three times as much antibiotics (anthelmintics not included) as the organic herds, whilst there was no difference in mortality rate nor more pigs in need of treatment in the organic herds. Slaughter data indicated that organic pigs had fewer...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production......With the aim to identify European health and welfare strategies in organic pig production, we summarized information about health and welfare status and potential hazards for organic fattening pigs. The results were primarily based on studies of organic production or comparisons between organic...

  20. Analysis Effect of Environment Attitude, Health Consciousness and Knowledge in Developing Product Perception and Intention to Buy (A Study on Organic Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to study the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product.The study is necessary in that it explores at least some of the factors that can affect the product perception and consumer intention in buying organic product. The research results indicated that there was a positive influence of health consciousness towards environment attitude, consumer’s organic product knowledge towards organic product perception, environment attitude and consumer’s organic knowledge towards intention to buy organic product. But, there was a negative influence between environment attitude, health consciousness towards consumer’s organic product perception, and consumer’s organic product towards intention to buy organic product.

  1. Telecommuting and health care: a potential for cost reductions and productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S M; Pelfrey, S; Van Sell, M

    1995-12-01

    Health care administrators are striving to maintain positive operating margins while remaining responsive to community needs. As they look for ways to reduce costs and improve productivity, they may consider the benefits associated with telecommuting. Telecommuting refers to the work performed by organizational employees who use computers and telecommunication equipment to work at home or at remote sites one or more days a week. Benefits to the health care industry include release of valuable hospital space, reduced employee turnover, and increased productivity. The time away from the institution may provide administrators with valuable planning time, free from interruptions.

  2. [Health related quality of life and productivity of women with overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek, Márta; Gulácsi, László; Majoros, Attila; Piróth, Csaba; Rubliczky, Levente; Böszörményi Nagy, Géza; Törzsök, Ferenc; Timár, Petra; Baji, Petra; Brodszky, Valentin

    2012-07-08

    The objective of the research was to assess the health related quality of life and productivity of women with overactive bladder. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 5 outpatient centers. General health status (EQ-5D), disease-specific quality of life (King's Health Questionnaire) and productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment) were assessed. Sixty-one women with mean age of 57.7 (SD = 11.6) years have had symptoms for 6.6 (SD = 6.2) years and 57 (93%) had incontinence. The EQ-5D (mean 0.668, SD = 0.314) was not significantly lower than that of the average population (p>0.05). The impact of incontinence and physical limitation (mean 70.5 and 68.9, respectively) were significant, the King's Health Questionnaire-utility was 0.932 (SD = 0.029). Productivity scores of involved patients were: absenteeism 0.04% (SD = 0.11), presenteeism 43.64% (SD = 28.54), overall work impairment 40.97% (SD = 26.91), and other activities 47.72% (SD = 27.24). Applicability of the EQ-5D and King's Health Questionnaire as utility measures in overactive bladder deserve further research. Presenteeism should be considered in the evaluation of the therapy.

  3. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Productivity loss at work; health-related and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Koppes, Lando L J; van den Bossche, Seth N J

    2010-09-01

    Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work. In this cross-sectional study, data of the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey of 2007 were used, which includes a national representative sample of 22,759 employees aged 15 to 64 years. Demographic characteristics, health-related and work-related factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship of work-related and health-related factors with low performance at work and sickness absence in the past 12 months. Poor general health, the number of longstanding health conditions, and most types of longstanding health conditions were associated with productivity loss. Health-related factors were in general stronger associated with sickness absence than with low performance at work. Performance: poor health OR 1.54 CI 1.38-1.71, >1 health conditions OR 1.21 CI 1.09-1.35; sickness absence: poor health OR 2.62 CI 2.33-2.93, >1 health conditions OR 2.47 CI 2.21-2.75. Of the different types of longstanding health conditions, only psychological complaints and to a small extent musculoskeletal symptoms, were associated with low performance (respectively OR 1.54 CI 1.27-1.87; OR 1.09 CI 1.00-1.18). Low performance at work was less likely among employees with high physically demanding work (shift work OR 0.70 CI 0.63-0.76, using force OR 0.78 CI 0.72-0.84, and repetitive movements OR 0.74 CI 0.70-0.79). Psychosocial factors were stronger associated with low performance at work than with sickness absence (performance: job autonomy OR 1.28 CI 1.21-1.37, job demands OR 1.23 CI 1.16-1.31, emotionally demanding work OR 1.73 CI 1.62-1.85; sickness absence: job autonomy ns, job demands OR 1.09 CI 1.03-1.17, emotionally demanding work OR

  5. Comparison of public health impact of Listeria monocytogenes product-to-product and environment-to-product contamination of deli meats at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the relative public health impact in deli meats at retail contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes by either (i) other products or (ii) the retail environment. Modeling was performed using the risk of listeriosis-associated deaths as a public health outcome of interest and using two deli meat products (i.e., ham and turkey, both formulated without growth inhibitors) as model systems. Based on reported data, deli meats coming to retail were assumed to be contaminated at a frequency of 0.4%. Three contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) a baseline scenario, in which no additional cross-contamination occurred at retail, (ii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were cross-contaminated at retail due to transfer of L. monocytogenes cells from already contaminated ready-to-eat deli meats, and (iii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were contaminated as a result of cross-contamination from a contaminated retail environment. By using a previously reported L. monocytogenes risk assessment model that uses product-specific growth kinetic parameters, cross-contamination of deli ham and turkey was estimated to increase the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths by 5.9- and 6.1-fold, respectively, for contamination from other products and by 4.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, for contamination from the retail environment. Sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated that the frequency of cross-contamination at retail from any source (other food products or environment) was the most important factor affecting the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths. Overall, our data indicate that retail-level cross-contamination of ready-to-eat deli meats with L. monocytogenes has the potential to considerably increase the risk of human listeriosis cases and deaths, and thus precise estimates of cross-contamination frequency are critical for accurate risk assessments.

  6. Progress in nutritional and health profile of milk and dairy products: a novel drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemucci, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing focus on diet as a tool to maintain human health and prevent disease. Milk and milk products of ruminants are important source of fat and saturated fatty acids, which are not considered to be very favourable to human health, but are valuable sources of nutrients including bioactive fatty acids (FA), vitamins, and minerals, which can promote positive health effects. The nutritional characteristics of milk and dairy products are related to their composition, which depends on the source species, and varies due to numerous factors, among which the animal diet is the most important. An improvement in milk FA composition and other micronutrients can be reached through an animal feeding strategy. Natural pasture-based farming systems increase microconstituents that are beneficial to human health (CLA, PUFAs, n-3 FAs, antioxidants, vitamins A and E, and Se) and volatile compounds (flavour, and terpenes) in milk and cheese. There are still uncertainties about the health benefits of various milk FAs and other compounds; deep and extensive long-term clinical studies with humans are needed. The contamination of milk and dairy products by heavy metals or dioxins has dramatic negative consequences for human and livestock health and necessitates very urgent consideration and intervention.

  7. Towards healthier bakery products, impact of the EU Food-Nutrition-Health regulation and the healthgrain project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der

    2008-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy cereal products is resulting to a growing number of product launches and an even larger increase in nutrition and health related statements on packaged products. The new EU Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods (EC 1924/2006) does not allow having

  8. Development of the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ): an instrument for assessing workplace productivity in relation to worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikiar, Richard; Halpern, Michael T; Rentz, Anne M; Khan, Zeba M

    2004-01-01

    Workplace productivity evaluations often involve subjective assessments. This study was performed to develop and validate a new multidimensional instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ), for measuring workplace productivity and worker heath. In a prospective, non-randomized study, objective and subjective workplace productivity (measured with the HWQ) was assessed among 96 current, 94 former, and 104 non-smoking volunteer reservation agents at a US-based international airline. Six HWQ sub-scales were identified from factor analyses: productivity, concentration/focus, supervisor relations, impatience/irritability, work satisfaction, and non-work satisfaction. Non-smokers (individuals who had never smoked) had higher scores on all scales. The HWQ scale scores all correlated significantly with the objective measure "Time Lost"; two of the scales correlated significantly with the summary objective performance measure. Magnitudes of the significant correlations were modest (0.12 to 0.22). The HWQ may be useful for evaluating the impact of interventions on workplace productivity. Additional validation research on the HWQ is recommended before use as a primary measure in studies of worker productivity. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  9. Unlabelled advertorials in Slovenian life-style press: a study of the promotion of health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Melita Poler; Erjavec, Karmen; Stular, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses unlabelled advertorials about health products in four life-style magazines and three daily newspapers' life-style supplements in Slovenia. Based on 250 hours of observing the production practice, 20 in-depth interviews with the main participants and a textual analysis of 247 advertorials, supported by three detailed case studies, the process of unlabelled advertorial production was unveiled, reasons for their production explained and their discursive elements of promotion uncovered. Despite their typical news-like appearance, advertorials focus on a product's positive characteristics only and represent an oversimplified viewpoint on health, primarily oriented towards the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. In advertorials, readers are instructed in healthy living and caring about their health through buying the promoted product. No particular differences were found between the magazines and quality dailies' supplements, indicating that the advertorial practice has become a common part of the Slovenian press media scene. The outburst of advertorials in Slovenia is outstanding due to the lack of historical democracy, problems with the supervision of legal transgressions, the small media and advertising market, economic downturns and the financial weakness of the media.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  11. Using routinely collected data to augment the management of health and productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harris

    2008-06-01

    To test models of productivity loss developed from data collected using a health risk appraisal (HRA) designed to examine health in the broader context of work, mental well-being, and the demands of organizational and family life. Secondary analyses of a data extract provided by the HRA's developer. These analyses focused on 17,821 respondents whose version of the HRA included the Work Limitation Questionnaire. Structural equation techniques were used to estimate a series of models featuring 38 measures and a four-step hypothesized sequence. The tests confirmed the presence of two distinct but interrelated components driven by health issues--Presenteeism (impaired performance at work) and Absenteeism (time away from work)--posited to describe productivity loss. The tests also documented the predictive power of eight categories of measures in accounting for the phenomenon. Preeminent among these predictors was a heterogeneous set of measures encompassing current and future aspects of Health. But measures from seven other categories--Work-Life Balance, Personal Life Impact, Stress, Financial Concerns, and Job, Employee, and Company Characteristics--also made significant contributions. Combined, their unique contribution was five times that of Health alone. This case study illustrates how data routinely captured via an instrument that is an example of a class of self-reports surveys increasingly being used to address a variety of workforce issues can be tapped to describe and predict productivity loss. The results confirm the key role that Health plays in determining the phenomenon. They also affirm the advisability of incorporating into interventions undertaken to reduce productivity loss an orientation that is paralleled by the recent emergence of the use of quality of life measures in provider settings. This orientation is predicated on the need to take into better account other contextual factors that exert considerable influences through as well as above and

  12. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an employed population and the impact on health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an employed population and its association with health risks, health perception, illness days, work limitation (presenteeism), and short-term disability (STD). Five thousand five hundred twelve employees of a financial services company responded to an on-site health risk appraisal which included measured waist circumference and biometric results. The metabolic syndrome criteria were based on the 2005 AHA/NHLBI scientific statement on the diagnosis and management of metabolic syndrome. Perceived health, illness days, and presenteeism were self-reported; STD days were obtained from claims data. In this employee population (61% women, average age 41 years), 22.6% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome and were more likely to report more health risks, poorer health perception, and more absent days due to illness. There was no clear association with presenteeism or STD incidence. However, as the number of metabolic risk factors increased, there was an increase in STD incidence, decrease in health perception, and increase in illness days. No association was found with number of metabolic risk factors and presenteeism. Metabolic syndrome was associated with poor perceived health, increased illness days, and an increased trend of STD incidence. Worksite health promotion programs could be useful in helping employees and employers to identify metabolic syndrome risks and take steps to reduce risk and potential productivity losses.

  13. Action learning for health system governance: the reward and challenge of co-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is centrally concerned with people, their relationships and the actions and practices they can implement towards better health systems. These concerns suggest that HPS researchers must work in direct engagement with the practitioners and practice central to the inquiry, acknowledging their tacit knowledge and drawing it into generating new insights into health system functioning. Social science perspectives are of particular importance in this field because health policies and health systems are themselves social and political constructs. However, how can social science methodologies such as action research and narrative and appreciative enquiry enable such research, and how can methodologies from different disciplines be woven together to construct and make meaning of evidence for 'this' field? This article seeks to present 'methodological musings' on these points, to prompt wider discussion on the practice of HPSR. It draws on one long-term collaborative action learning research project being undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa. The District Innovation and Action Learning for Health System Development project is an action research partnership between two South African academic institutions and two health authorities focused, ultimately, on strengthening governance in primary health care.Drawing on this experience, the article considers three interrelated issues: The diversity and complexities of practitioner and research actors involved in co-producing HPSR; The nature of co-production and the importance of providing space to grapple across different systems of meaning;The character of evidence and data in co-production. There is much to be learnt from research traditions outside the health sector, but HPSR must work out its own practices--through collaboration and innovation among researchers and practitioners. In this article, we provide one set of experiences to prompt wider reflection and stimulate engagement on the

  14. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  15. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  16. Employee self-rated productivity and objective organizational production levels: effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna

    2011-08-01

    To investigate how worksite health interventions involving a 2.5-hour reduction of weekly working hours with (PE) or without (RWH) mandatory physical exercise affects productivity. Six workplaces in dental health care were matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH and referents). Employees' (N = 177) self-rated productivity and the workplaces' production levels (number of patients) were examined longitudinally. Number of treated patients increased in all conditions during the intervention year. While RWH showed the largest increase in this measure, PE showed significant increases in self-rated productivity, that is, increased quantity of work and work-ability and decreased sickness absence. A reduction in work hours may be used for health promotion activities with sustained or improved production levels, suggesting an increased productivity since the same, or higher, production level can be achieved with lesser resources.

  17. [Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  19. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...

  20. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018) ... Performance and haematological parameters of growing rabbits fed different levels of ... Association of smallholder dairy farmers management and milking practices with ...

  1. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; A. E. Harvey; R. T. Graham; D. S. Page-Dumroese; J. R. Tonn; M. J. Larsen; T. B. Jain

    1997-01-01

    Soil organic components are important factors in the health and productivity of Inland Northwest forests. Timber harvesting and extensive site preparation (piling, windrowing, or scalping) reduces the amount of surface organic material (woody residues and forest floor layers) over large areas. Some wildfires and severe prescribed burns can have similar consequences....

  2. Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Capone, Pasquale; Freda, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global emergency that influences human health and occupational safety. Global warming characterized by an increase in temperature of the ambience and humidity affects human health directly impairing body thermoregulation with serious consequences: dehydration, fatigue, heat stroke and even death. Several studies have demonstrated negative effects of climate change on working populations in a wide variety of workplaces with particular regard to outdoor and uncooled indoor workplaces. Most vulnerable workers are outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical countries usually involved in heavy labor during hot seasons. Many of the consequences therefore, regarding working people are possible, even without health symptoms by reducing work productivity. The scope of this review is to investigate effects of climate change on workers both in relation to health and work productivity. This study has been realized by analyzing recent international literature. In order to reduce negative effects of climate change on working populations it is essential to implement preventive measures with a multidisciplinary strategy limiting health risks and improving work productivity.

  3. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  4. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  5. Dispelling the Myth of the Natural-Born Linguist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An individual's mindset about the perceived malleability of ability or intelligence is known to strongly influence a person's other beliefs, behaviours, and motivation. This article seeks to provide justification for holding a "growth" mindset in the domain of foreign language learning. It discusses contemporary understandings of ability and…

  6. How to compose fluid teams as natural born coordinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Svend Erik; Hansen, Kristian Rune; Hangaard, Mikkel Gylling

    This study applies an agent-based modeling approach to explore how team composition impacts teams’ ability to coordinate. The modeler can explore (1) how the teams’ average rate of behavioral adaptation impacts teams’ ability to coordinate and (2) how the distribution of rates of adaptation withi...

  7. Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming Explosion of Teenage Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)

  8. Collaborating for oral health in support of vulnerable older people: co-production of oral health training in care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakhee; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2017-11-23

    In recent years, the value of co-production has become embedded in the social care agenda. Care home residents are at significantly higher risk of dental diseases and often rely on the care team for support. It is therefore vital that staff are trained and confident in delivering evidence based oral care to their clients. Three London care homes co-produced a pilot oral health training programme, informed by in-depth interviews and group discussions. The initiative was evaluated using pre/post-questionnaires of carers and semi-structured interviews of managers and the dental teams. Two care homes were available for delivery of the programme, which resulted in training of 64% (n = 87) of care staff. The training programme involved videos and resources and was delivered flexibly with the support of an oral health educator and a dental therapist. There was an improvement in knowledge and self-reported confidence post-training; however, only 54% (n = 45) completed the post-training questionnaire. This study suggests that co-production of an oral care training package for care home staff, is possible and welcome, but challenging in this complex and changing environment. Further work is needed to explore the feasibility, sustainability and impact of doing so. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  10. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  11. Epilepsy in Sweden: health care costs and loss of productivity--a register-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Kristian; Lundgren, Anders; Berggren, Fredrik; Källén, Kristina

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to estimate health care costs and productivity losses due to epilepsy in Sweden and to compare these estimates to previously published estimates. Register data on health care utilisation, pharmaceutical sales, permanent disability and mortality were used to calculate health care costs and costs that accrue due to productivity losses. By linkage of register information, we were able to distinguish pharmaceuticals prescribed against epilepsy from prescriptions that were prompted by other indications. The estimated total cost of epilepsy in Sweden in 2009 was 441 million, which corresponds to an annual per-patient cost of 8,275. Health care accounted for about 16% of the estimated total cost, and drug costs accounted for about 7% of the total cost. The estimated health care cost corresponded to about 0.2% of the total health care cost in Sweden in 2009. Indirect costs were estimated at 370 million, 84% of which was due to sickness absenteeism. Costs resulting from epilepsy-attributable premature deaths or permanent disability to work accounted for about 1% of the total indirect cost in Sweden in 2009. The per-patient cost of epilepsy is substantial. Thus, even though the prevalence of the illness is relatively small, the aggregated cost that epilepsy incurs on society is significant.

  12. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  13. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huneau-Salaün

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 productivity data from 95 kindling to finishing rabbit farms in France were analysed to identify rearing factors and health conditions that influenced their productivity. Farm productivity, expressed on a yearly basis, was described with 4 productivity indices: doe fertility and prolificacy, viability of young rabbits in the nest and mortality during the fattening period. The productivity data were obtained with the technical support of the farm and expressed in a standardised way. The average numerical productivity observed in the sample of farms was 50.9 rabbits produced per doe and per year (CI95% [49.6-52.2]. The husbandry management and health conditions were described based on a questionnaire filled out during an interview with the farmer and a farm visit. Explanatory data were organised into meaningful blocks relative to biosecurity measures, del using a Partiamaternity management, the sanitary context and the farm structure. The relationship between the 4 thematic blocks and the productivity indices was studied in a single mol Least Squares (PLS regression model. Fertility (81.0%, CI95% [80.0-82.0] and viability of young at nest (85.1%, CI95% [85.0-85.3] and mortality rate during fattening: 7.2%, CI95% [6.4-7.9] were significantly associated with common factors relative to maternity management and the health context whereas prolificacy (9.7 live kits per parturition, CI95% [9.5-9.9] was mostly influenced by a specific set of variables pertaining to those 2 blocks. Farm structure and biosecurity measures had a limited impact on fertility and on kit viability before weaning. The health conditions of the doe herd and the fattening rabbits were found to be significantly associated with several productivity indexes, but their impacts on productivity were as high as the impact of the other blocks. Genetic strain of the females, doe replacement strategy and nursing and weaning practices appeared to significantly influence reproductive

  14. Dairy foods and osteoporosis: an example of assessing the health-economic impact of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, F J B; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Fardellone, P; Rizzoli, R; Rocher, E; Poley, M J

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second, to contribute to a generic methodology for assessing the health-economic outcomes of food products. We constructed a model that generated the number of hip fractures that potentially can be prevented with dairy foods intakes, and then calculated costs avoided, considering the healthcare costs of hip fractures and the costs of additional dairy foods, as well as the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures associated with low nutritional calcium intake. Separate analyses were done for The Netherlands, France, and Sweden, three countries with different levels of dairy products consumption. The number of hip fractures that may potentially be prevented each year with additional dairy products was highest in France (2,023), followed by Sweden (455) and The Netherlands (132). The yearly number of DALYs lost was 6,263 for France, 1,246 for Sweden, and 374 for The Netherlands. The corresponding total costs that might potentially be avoided are about 129 million, 34 million, and 6 million Euros, in these countries, respectively. This study quantified the potential nutrition economic impact of increased dairy consumption on osteoporotic fractures, building connections between the fields of nutrition and health economics. Future research should further collect longitudinal population data for documenting the net benefits of increasing dairy consumption on bone health and on the related utilization of healthcare resources.

  15. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  16. Skin Health Connected to the Use of Absorbent Hygiene Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Johanna Karlsson; Faergemann, Jan; Sköld, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, absorbent hygiene products such as baby diapers and incontinence products have become essential features of modern day life. Through innovation and enhanced technology, their design, composition and performance have been dramatically upgraded from their early forms, and they have transformed the lives of millions of people, improving their quality of life. Skin health related to the use of absorbent hygiene products has accordingly also greatly improved. Still, the wearing of absorbent hygiene products will affect the skin, and for some users the changes in microclimate, mechanical interactions and the exposure to urine and faeces may result in irritant contact dermatitis, i.e. diaper dermatitis (DD) or incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). Babies with developing skin and the elderly with deteriorating skin functions who are the most frequent users of absorbent hygiene products are more vulnerable to the causal factors. Although irritant reactions are the most common, allergic contact dermatitis should be considered if a DD/IAD fails to improve by recommended actions. There is also a connection between IAD and pressure ulcer development of which it is important to be aware. A holistic approach of using high-quality absorbent hygiene products in combination with appropriate skin care will help maintaining good skin health.

  17. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  18. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs be...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities.......This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...

  19. Mental health in social studies of science: notes about knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Paiva Nogueira Fornereto Gozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental problems have considerable impact on individuals, on families and on the communities where they live. For this reason, mental health has been the subject of several recent surveys, given its complexity, emergent discussion and increased incidence of mental disorders in the world. The investigation of the scientific /international production and knowledge about the connection of this theme with the field of Science, Technology and Society (STS is, therefore, very timely. This study aims to carry out an integrative and retrospective literature review guided by a prerogative involving the peculiarities of mental health in the STS field as presented in the international literature. The review discusses the trends and ongoing research lines, linking mental health and STS and indicating possible gaps. It is hoped that this work brings contributions and reveal the importance of discussing mental health in the STS field.

  20. Methodology developed for the energy-productive diagnosis and evaluation in health buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, I.; Discoli, C.; Rosenfeld, E. [Instituto de Estudios del Habitat (IDEHAB), Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The public health network in Argentina consists of a wide variety of buildings presenting a complex system of services and structures. In order to modulate and study the energy behaviour of each type of health facility, a database of Energy-Productive Building Modules (Modulos Edilicios Energeticos Productivos: MEEP) was built. This involved evaluating the interactions among physical spaces, building envelope, infrastructure, and equipment usage with the energy consumption, for each specialty service provided in the most common buildings present in the health service network. The MEEP database enables investigators to: (i) Obtain detailed information on each facility. (ii) Identify variables critical to an energy consumption perspective. (iii) Detect areas of over consumption and/or inadequate infrastructure. (iv) Gather essential reference material for the design of health facilities and other similar sectors. The information of each MEEP can be summarized in typological charts. (author)

  1. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  2. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2011-05-31

    The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  3. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  4. Health resource allocation and productive efficiency of Chinese county hospitals: data from 1993 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ruoyan Y; Zhou, Chengchao C; Xu, Lingzhong Z; Zhu, Min; Wang, Xingzhou Z; Li, Shixue X; Zheng, Wengui G; Song, Peipei P; Yang, Xuelai L; Fang, Liyi Y; Zhen, Yancheng C; Tang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to assess trends in the productive efficiency of China's county hospitals during the economic transition using data from 1993 to 2005. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework was used to calculate the efficiency score of county hospitals in all 31 provinces. A C²R model and a BC² model were devised to respectively calculate overall and scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency at the hospital's current scale. Models included four inputs (number of medical staff; number of beds; value of fixed capital; and hospital expenditures) and three outputs (outpatient and emergency visits, number of inpatients, and hospital revenue) in total. As the results, geographical disparities in health resource allocation and county hospital productivity were noted. From 1993 to 2005, the number of county hospitals increased and their inputs, e.g. fixed capital in particular, grew rapidly. However, the amount of both outpatient and inpatient services declined somewhat especially in the middle and the western regions. The overall efficiency at the national level decreased slightly. County hospitals in the eastern region tended to have better overall, scale, and technical efficiency in comparison to the middle and the western regions. In conclusion, county hospitals are inefficient due to their enlarged scale and the reduced amount of health care services they provide. This issue should be addressed especially in the middle and the western regions, where health resources are far more limited and yet wasted. The effects of ongoing health sector reform on the productivity of county hospitals must be monitored and evaluated.

  5. Getting out what we put in: productivity of the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Adriana; Laudicella, Mauro; Street, Andrew; Ward, Padraic

    2011-07-01

    Many countries are incorporating direct measures of non-market outputs in the national accounts. For any particular output to be included there has to be data about it for two adjacent periods. This is problematic because the classification of non-market outputs is often subject to wholesale revision. We outline the challenges associated with classification changes and propose a solution. To illustrate we construct output and input indices and estimate productivity growth of the English National Health Service (NHS) for the period 2003-2004 to 2007-2008. Our index of output growth incorporates all care provided to NHS patients and captures improvements in survival rates, waiting times and disease management. We find that more patients are being treated and the quality of the care they receive has been improving. We implement our approach to dealing with changes as to how health services are defined and show what effect this has on estimates of output growth. Our index of input growth captures all labour, intermediate and capital inputs into health service production and we improve on how capital has been measured in the past. Inputs have increased over time but there has also been a slowdown since 2005-2006, primarily the result of a levelling off in staff recruitment and less reliance on the use of agency staff. Productivity is assessed by comparing output growth with growth in inputs, the net effect being constant productivity growth between 2003-2004 and 2007-2008.

  6. Karoshi--death from overwork: occupational health consequences of Japanese production management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K; Johnson, J V

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in Japanese production management (JPM), known in the West as "lean production." Advocates of this new form of management argue that it improves both economic productivity and health. In Japan, however, the relationship between JPM and sudden death due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has been an important topic of debate since the 1970s. Japanese have named these types of deaths karoshi, which means "death from overwork." In North America and Western Europe a number of studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between high job strain (high production demands and low levels of control and social support) and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the elements of JPM and examines their potential health consequences. The authors present an overview of karoshi, discuss its possible connections to specific ideological and organizational characteristics of JPM, and suggest the job strain mechanism as a possible pathway between karoshi and JPM. They conclude by discussing the need for comparative research that examines the health effects of work organization and management methods cross-culturally.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shanmuga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was done to find out the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the pharmacists in Chennai city was done and data regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards oral health care and oral hygiene products were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the 60 pharmacies approached, 50 pharmacists participated in the study and completed the questionnaire. Though 48% of the participants gave a positive answer when asked whether they had met the dentist practicing close to their pharmacies, the frequency with which they met the dentist ranged from once a week (24% to once a month (28%. Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised 15-25% of their total stock. Of these products toothpaste was the most common (62%, followed by mouth rinses (12%. Toothache or painful teeth was the most common dental problem (78% for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. With regard to the advice given, 38.5% of the pharmacists asked the patient to consult a nearby dentist after dispensing medications, while 22.4% of the pharmacists dispensed antibiotics and painkillers without any referral. Seventy percent of the pharmacists expressed interest in giving oral health care advice to patients. However, many of them (38% felt that lack of proper knowledge is a barrier to providing oral health care advice. Conclusion : It is clear from the present study that pharmacists are presently an underutilized resource, and there is a definitive need to improve their training and access to information on available dental services.

  8. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP regulations: industry perceptions and compliance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural health products, such as vitamins, minerals, and herbs, by Canadians has been increasing with time. As a result of consumer concern about the quality of these products, the Canadian Department of Health created the Natural Health Products (NHP Regulations. The new Canadian regulations raise questions about whether and how the NHP industry will be able to comply and what impact they will have on market structure. The objectives of this study were to explore who in the interview sample is complying with Canada's new NHP Regulations (i.e., submitted product licensing applications on time; and explore the factors that affect regulatory compliance. Methods Twenty key informant interviews were conducted with employees of the NHP industry. The structured interviews focused on the level of satisfaction with the Regulations and perceptions of compliance and non-compliance. Interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were independently coded, using qualitative content analysis. Team meetings were held after every three to four interviews to discuss emerging themes. Results The major finding of this study is that most (17 out of 20 companies interviewed were beginning to comply with the new regulatory regime. The factors that contribute to likelihood of regulatory compliance were: perceptions and knowledge of the regulations and business size. Conclusion The Canadian case can be instructive for other countries seeking to implement regulatory standards for natural health products. An unintended consequence of the Canadian NHP regulations may be the exit of smaller firms, leading to industry consolidation.

  9. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life.

  10. Mental health and psychiatry research in Brazil: scientific production from 1999 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, Denise; Zorzetto, Ricardo; Dubugras, Maria Thereza; Gerolin, Jerônimo; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2006-08-01

    To assess the extent of mental health scientific production in Brazil from 1999 to 2003, and to identify the nature of the publications generated, their sources of finance and the ways of publicly disseminating the research findings. Searches for publications were conducted in the Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period 1999-2003. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by an international team was applied to 626 mental health researchers, covering each interviewee's educational background, research experience, access to funding sources, public impact and research priorities. The sample was composed by 626 mental health researchers identified from 792 publications indexed on Medline and PsychInfo databases for the period above, and from a list of reviewers of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. In Brazil, 792 publications were produced by 525 authors between 1999 and 2003 (441 indexed in Medline and 398 in the ISI database). The main topics were: depression (29.1%), substance misuse (14.6%), psychoses (10%), childhood disorders (7%) and dementia (6.7%). Among the 626 Brazilian mental health researchers, 329 answered the questionnaire. There were steadily increasing numbers of Brazilian articles on mental health published in foreign journals from 1999 to 2003: the number of articles in Medline tripled and it doubled in the ISI database. The content of these articles corresponded to the priorities within mental health, but there is a need for better interlinking between researchers and mental health policymakers.

  11. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  12. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  13. Introduction of a method for presenting health-based impacts of the emission from products, based on emission measurements of materials used in manufacturing of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming, E-mail: rikke.jorgensen@iot.ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    A method for presenting the health impact of emissions from furniture is introduced, which could be used in the context of environmental product declarations. The health impact is described by the negative indoor air quality potential, the carcinogenic potential, the mutagenic and reprotoxic potential, the allergenic potential, and the toxicological potential. An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed by testing both the materials used for production of the furniture and the complete piece of furniture, in order to compare the results gained by adding emissions of material with results gained from testing the finished piece of furniture. Calculating the emission from a product based on the emission from materials used in the manufacture of the product is a new idea. The relation between calculated results and measured results from the same products differ between the four pieces of furniture tested. Large differences between measured and calculated values are seen for leather products. More knowledge is needed to understand why these differences arise. Testing materials allows us to compare different suppliers of the same material. Four different foams and three different timber materials are tested, and the results vary between materials of the same type. If the manufacturer possesses this type of knowledge of the materials from the subcontractors it could be used as a selection criterion according to production of low emission products. -- Highlights: • A method for presenting health impact of emissions is introduced. • An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed. • Health impact is calculated based on sum of contribution from the materials used. • Calculated health impact is compared to health impact of the manufactured product. • The results show that health impact could be useful in product development and for presentation in EPDs.

  14. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 253-258

  15. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 253-258

  16. Systematic Review of Health Communication for Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione Ross, Jennifer; Noar, Seth M; Sutfin, Erin L

    2017-12-13

    The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research gaps. A total of 45 unique studies were retrieved and coded, with the majority focused on messaging for smokeless tobacco (SLT, k = 32, 71.1%), followed by waterpipe tobacco (WT, k = 9, 20%), electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, k = 2, 4.4%), cigars (k = 2, 4.4%), and a potentially reduced exposure product (k = 1, 2.2%). Studies most commonly examined tobacco product warnings (k = 26, 57.8%) and public education (k = 19, 42.2%), which included mass media campaigns. Most studies examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs as outcomes (k = 27, 60%), while behavior was an outcome in the minority of studies (k = 8, 17.8%). Pictorial warnings and public education about NCTPs demonstrated positive impact in some studies, although the literature is nascent. Given the increasing use of NCTPs such as ENDS, WT, and cigars, particularly among adolescents and young adults, more research is needed on effective ways to communicate product risk to those audiences most at risk.

  17. A critical review of sanctioned knowledge production concerning abortion in Africa: Implications for feminist health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Chiweshe, Malvern; Mavuso, Jabulile

    2016-04-01

    Taking a feminist health psychology approach, we conducted a systematic review of published research on abortion featured in PsycINFO over a 7-year period. We analysed the 39 articles included in the review in terms of countries in which the research was conducted, types of research, issues covered, the way the research was framed and main findings. Despite 97 per cent of abortions performed in Africa being classifiable as unsafe, there has been no engagement in knowledge production about abortion in Africa from psychologists, outside of South Africa. Given this, we outline the implications of the current knowledge base for feminism, psychology and feminist health psychology in Africa.

  18. Occupational Heat Stress Impacts on Health and Productivity in a Steel Industry in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Krishnamurthy

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Preliminary evidence shows that high heat exposures and heavy workload adversely affect the workers’ health and reduce their work capacities. Health and productivity risks in developing tropical country work settings can be further aggravated by the predicted temperature rise due to climate change, without appropriate interventions. Apart from industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.

  19. Low-sodium meat products: retaining salty taste for sweet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    There is a positive correlation between excessive intake of sodium and incidence of hypertension. As diet is the main source of sodium, awareness among people regarding its possible role upon health has driven demand for various low sodium foods including meat products. Meat products contribute a significant amount of dietary sodium, thus maligning their own image. However, this is not an easy task as common salt affects taste and flavor, functional attributes, stability, and food safety of meat products. The various properties such as taste and flavor, binding, as well as microbiological characteristics should be given due care while developing low salt meat products and accordingly different approaches have been proposed for processing of such products. Potassium chloride has been mostly used to replace sodium; however, a number of other salts, flavor enhancers, bitter blockers and water, as well as fat binders have also been attempted either alone or in different combinations. A number of low sodium meat products have been developed but their economy and consumer acceptability are the major concerns needing proper attention. In future it is anticipated that these challenges would be overcome to provide well acceptable and cost-effective healthier meat products to the consumers.

  20. Health and Productivity of Sandia National Laboratories Workforce Follow-Up Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Renee L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frey, Jodi [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This Executive Summary provides highlights from the company's full report quantifying the link between health conditions and their business outcomes based on 828 employee survey responses (8% of the workforce) to the HPQ-Select employee questionnaire. These highlights provide key findings on the magnitude of lost productivity, the prevalence of key chronic conditions, their treatment, key conditions driving lost productivity and the potential business impacts of improvements. Details on each of these dimensions can be found in the full report.

  1. [Gender and health: profile and trends of the scientific production in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Estela M L

    2006-08-01

    The differences in health between men and women have been object of great interest, but interpretations tend to be naturalized and essentialists. Gender-oriented studies have criticized this literature and offered new analythical alternatives. The present study was intended to describe the profile and trends of scientific production on gender and health in Brazil. Data sources comprised the Research Groups Directory of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Research Council), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) Thesis Bank, and four journals available in SciELO--Scientific Eletronic Library Online. Fifty-one groups with at least one line of research in the subject were identified, with regional and institutional concentrations. The results confirmed the marked growth of scientific production in this field as 98 master and 42 doctoral dissertations and 665 articles on gender and health were retrieved. Women authored 86.0% and 89.0% of doctoral and master dissertations respectively, and 70.5% of the articles. Most were published in the 2000s when diversification of the studied topics was also seen. The studied subjects can be divided into five subgroups: reproduction and contraception; gender and violence; sexuality and health with emphasis on STD/AIDS; work and health, including domestic and night work; other emergent or less explored topics. There are major political, epistemological and methodological challenges for strengthening these advancements. The gender perspective offers possibilities for enlightment of theoretical dilemmas in public health. Furthermore, it can be added to other intellectual and political efforts towards understanding health and its determinants and fighting against inequalities and for social justice.

  2. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers...... show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness....

  3. Evolution in the office: how evolutionary psychology can increase employee health, happiness, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Carey J; Danner, Kimberly M

    2012-12-20

    We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs). Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.

  4. The work process and care production in a Brazilian indigenous health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridiane Alves Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the constitutive elements of the work process and care production in an Indigenous Health Support Service. Methods: Case study. Systematic observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted in January and February of 2012. The participants were 10 nursing professionals of an Indigenous Health Support Center, located in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The work process was used as a conceptual and analytical category. Results: Through interpretative analysis, the data were organized into three categories. The results showed that care production was focused on procedures and guided by rigid institutional rules and bureaucracy. The prioritization of institutional rules and procedures was detrimental to the provision of person-centered care. Conclusion: The temporary employment contracts and rigid bureaucratic organization generated a tense work environment. These aspects do not maximize the efforts of the nursing staff to provide person-centered care.

  5. Evolution in the Office: How Evolutionary Psychology Can Increase Employee Health, Happiness, and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs. Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.

  6. [Productive restructuring and its impact on labor relations in the public health services in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex

    2013-06-01

    The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.

  7. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-08-03

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead

  8. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed...... through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin....

  9. Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jack; Bolano, Danilo

    2018-04-16

    We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Product policy - the main component of the marketing mix in the Romanian health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Purcarea, V L; Coculescu, E C

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the reforms in the EU healthcare systems are based on the implementation of the marketing concept in the health systems, which are, among other things: • efficient management of the financial resources and control costs of the rendered health services; • increased satisfaction of the clients of health care services; • broad accessibility to health services; • effective implementation of modern technologies; • rational stimulation of medical services consumption; • achievement of a fair and neutral competition between the public/ private providers and health insurance companies; • introduction of performance criteria in order to increase the incomes of the medical staff and hierarchy in hospitals; • implementation of modern management methods in health services management; • decentralization of the public healthcare system. Product policy in the medical system of healthcare - the most important component of the marketing mix - is the attitude that addresses a medical organization to the volume, structure, and diversity of services subject to their own activities in relation to the requirements of the services market and the competitive actions of other medical institutions.

  11. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Functional meat products; development and evaluation of their health-promoting properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    For a number of reasons, meat products are an exceptionally adequate means for introducing different bioactive compounds into the diet without modifying eating habits. In recent years, there has been a notable development of meat products designed as potentially functional foods. Within the framework of the functional food, this article provides a general view of the reasons that motivate and justify their formulation, with special emphasis on: a) aspects to be considered in their design in order to be able to make nutrition claims and statements concerning their health-promoting properties; b) the strategies employed to optimize the presence of functional ingredients, favoring the presence of beneficial bioactive compounds and limiting others with negative consequences for our health, and c) the procedures for demonstrating a relationship between the consumption of potentially functional meat products with beneficial effects on health and the way in which these studies are reflected in the literature. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  14. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  15. Assessment of health implications related to processing and use of natural wool insulation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, E; Loxton, C; Elias, R M; Ormondroyd, G A

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses possible health implications related to dust particles released during the manufacture of sheep's wool-based non-woven insulation material. Such insulation may replace traditional synthetic insulation products used in roofs, wall cavities, etc. A review of the literature concerning organic dusts in general and sheep's wool fiber summarizes dust exposure patterns, toxicological pathways and the hazards imposed by inhalation and explosion risk. This paper highlights a need for more research in order to refrain from overgeneralizing potential pulmonary and carcinogenic risks across the industries. Variables existing between industries such as the use of different wool types, processes, and additives are shown to have varying health effects. Within the final section of the paper, the health issues raised are compared with those that have been extensively documented for the rock and glass wool industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of selenium mineral in health supplement products: Applications of nuclear methods in pharmaceuticals fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titiek Martati; Mellawati

    2010-01-01

    Recently, many health supplement products that are useful as an antioxidant available in the market, and one of them is selenium (Se) tablet. Issue on the falsification of drug due to control to health supplement product becomes very important. There is also some problem in Se analysis, especially in chemical reagent preparation. In this research, determination of Se in health supplement tablet using neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out. The advantages of methods are due to nondestructive materials, simple sample preparation, and no chemical reagent for analysis. The sample was irradiated using thermal neutron with 10"1"3 neutron cm"-"2 seconds"-"1 fluxes during 15 minutes, and based on n, γ reaction "7"5Se isotope would be formed that could identified using gamma spectrometer on 136, 264, and 279 keV energies. The result showed that NAA method can be used for Se analysis contained in health supplement tablets with accuracy ranged between 101.81 and 102.29 % and precision 99.02-99.37 %. The recovery test of Se mineral concentration to the labeled attached showed 105.79-116.66 %, and this value still in the range described in the United States Pharmacopoeias 28 (90-125 %). (author)

  17. The burden of pain on employee health and productivity at a major provider of business services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harris; Hubbard, David; Sullivan, Sean

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the burden of pain on employee health and productivity at a Fortune 100 company headquartered in the northeastern United States to prioritize target areas for reducing this burden. An electronic survey was conducted in late 2004, which produced a reasonably representative national sample of 1039 active employee respondents. A total of 28.6% of respondents met the study definition for pain. Pain was linked to: 1) drops of more than 45% and 23%, respectively, in Overall Physical and Mental Health; 2) a fivefold increase in health-induced limitations in work performance; and 3) nearly three and two thirds workdays lost to presenteeism and absenteeism over a 4-week period. Afflicted workers displayed considerable room for improvement in their capacity for pain control and management. The prevalence of pain and its impact on those with the condition combine to make it an area of much opportunity for improving workforce health and productivity. Musculoskeletal diseases offer a promising initial target for corporate intervention.

  18. Caregiving for ill dependents and its association with employee health risks and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the loss of productivity and health risk status associated with employees who provide care for an ill dependent. A total of 16,651 employees (23% response rate) of a major financial services company completed a confidential Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) that included an eight-item version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire and a self-report of time missed from work during the previous 2 weeks to care for an ill dependent. A total of 10.6% of the respondents reported an average of 7.7 hours absent from work during the previous 2-week period to provide care for an ill dependent. Caregiving also was associated with a significant increase in the number of health risks for the employee. As the demand for caregiving time increased, caregivers reported a significant increase in work limitations. Caregiving for an ill dependent is associated with increased absenteeism and significant work limitations while on the job. Programs and work organization that helps employees balance their caregiving responsibilities for ill dependents may have a positive effect on health and productivity.

  19. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  20. Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiima, Jamil M.; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1 l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks, the external costs of PM 10 , NO X , and PM 2.5 are among the greatest contributors to these costs. The combustion of fossil fuels in upstream fertilizer and energy production processes is the primary source of these emissions and their costs, especially for corn ethanol. The combined costs of emissions associated with the production and use of nitrogen fertilizer also contribute substantially to the net external costs. For cellulosic ethanol production, the combustion of waste lignin to generate heat and power helps to keep the external costs lower than corn ethanol. Credits both for the biogenic carbon combustion and displacement of grid electricity by exporting excess electricity substantially negate many of the emissions and external costs. External costs associated with greenhouse gas emissions were not significant. However, adding estimates of indirect GHG emissions from land use changes would nearly double corn ethanol cost estimates.

  1. THE ACCEPTANCE OF HEALTH RELATED INNOVATIONS IN TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS BY CROATIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Croatian consumers’ acceptance of health related innovations in traditional meat products. A face-to-face survey was conducted with a sample of 151 visitors of a specialized fair of traditional food products in Zagreb in 2013. The respondents were asked to indicate their attitudes on a fivepoint scale, where 1 meant rejection or no impact and 5 meant full acceptance or high impact. Results (mean±SD showed the highest level of acceptance for innovations related to better control of smoking conditions (3.3± 1.14 and reduction of salt content (3.1±1.15, followed by reduced fat content (3.0±1.14 and controlled fermentation (2.9±1.12. The perceived negative impact of innovations on traditional character of meat products was highest for fat (3.4±0.99 and salt (3.4±1.03 reduction and lowest for controlled fermentation (3.2±1.04 and smoking conditions (3.2±1.05. With regards to respondents’ socio-demographic features a nonparametric test statistic (Mann-Whitney U revealed a higher acceptance of fat reduction and higher willingness to increase a consumption of healthier traditional meat products among females, while age, education level and income had no influence on the investigated parameters. In addition, some health related innovations; e.g. fat reduction and controlled fermentation were generally less acceptable among respondents with a high consumption frequency of traditional meat products. The results of this preliminary study indicated controlled smoking conditions as the best accepted health related innovation by Croatian consumers with the least negative impact on perceived traditional character of product. In general terms, women were more likely to accept some of the investigated innovations and consequently to increase their consumption of innovate products. However, the most regular consumers of traditional meat products were less open towards innovations which may pose a challenge to

  2. Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Garcia-Diz, Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17 g, 43.8 mg and 168.6 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3.74 g, 45.3 mg and 109.8 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) on cardiovascular health were assessed in two controlled, cross-over studies in free-living normocholesterolemic and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Both products increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations, whereas only DFCP decreased glucose and IL-1β levels in all subjects. Flavanols appeared to be responsible for the increase in HDL-cholesterol, whereas insoluble-dietary-fibre and theobromine in DFCP were associated with the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PRICING, REIMBURSEMENT, AND HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF MEDICINAL PRODUCTS IN BULGARIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisheva-Dimitrova, Tatyana; Sidjimova, Dobriana; Cherneva, Daniela; Kralimarkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the analysis, discussion, and challenges of the price and reimbursement process of medicinal products in Bulgaria in the period 2000-15 and health technology assessment (HTA) role in these processes. The dynamics of the reform, with respect to the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors, are tracked by documentary review of regulations, articles, and reports in the European Union (EU), as well as analytical and historical analysis. Pricing and reimbursement processes have passed through a variety of committees between 2003 and 2012. Separate units for pricing and reimbursement of medicinal products were established in Bulgaria for the first time, in 2013, when an independent body, the National Council at Prices and Reimbursement of Medicinal Products, was set up to approve medicinal products with new international nonproprietary names (INN) for reimbursement in Bulgaria. Over the course of 2 years (2013-14), thirty-three new INNs were approved for reimbursement. In December 2015, a new HTA body was introduced, and assigned to the National Centre for Public Health and Analyses. Although Bulgaria has current legislation on pricing and reimbursement which is in accordance with the EU rules, there is no mechanism for reporting and monitoring these processes or the financial resources annually, so as to provide an overall objective assessment and analysis by year. Therefore, this financial assessment should become a national policy objective for the future.

  4. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  5. Coverage, universal access and equity in health: a characterization of scientific production in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Parra, Sara

    2016-01-01

    to characterize the scientific contribution nursing has made regarding coverage, universal access and equity in health, and to understand this production in terms of subjects and objects of study. this was cross-sectional, documentary research; the units of analysis were 97 journals and 410 documents, retrieved from the Web of Science in the category, "nursing". Descriptors associated to coverage, access and equity in health, and the Mesh thesaurus, were applied. We used bibliometric laws and indicators, and analyzed the most important articles according to amount of citations and collaboration. the document retrieval allowed for 25 years of observation of production, an institutional and an international collaboration of 31% and 7%, respectively. The mean number of coauthors per article was 3.5, with a transience rate of 93%. The visibility index was 67.7%, and 24.6% of production was concentrated in four core journals. A review from the nursing category with 286 citations, and a Brazilian author who was the most productive, are issues worth highlighting. the nursing collective should strengthen future research on the subject, defining lines and sub-lines of research, increasing internationalization and building it with the joint participation of the academy and nursing community.

  6. [Costs with personnel and productivity analysis of family health program teams in Fortaleza, Ceará].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Filho, Fernando dos Santos; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The research verified the productivity and the operational personnel costs of eight teams of the Family Health Program (PSF) of two Basic Units of Family Health (UBASF) in Fortaleza, Ceará, through the methodology of costs by absorption, in 2004. The largest expenses were with personnel (75%), mainly with the PSF teams, and medicines (18%). The federal allocations received in September, 2004, by each PSF team, were R$ 9,543.33. The total cost by team was R$ 15,719.00. Some professionals of various PSF teams showed productivity above the set objectives, but the average productivity by doctor and nurse was below fifty per cent of objectives, with high idle time making the work onerous. The unity cost of home visits by doctor and prenatal attendance by nurses were checked, and, would be less expensive if the idle time were reduced. Various alternatives of cost reduction were observed, such as scale savings of some resources and services and re-negotiation of contracts with suppliers and cooperatives. The data obtained will contribute to more accurate planning for the installation and maintenance of PSF teams as well as alternatives of cost reductions, higher productivity, and better quality.

  7. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...... and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... of major agricultural and food products. Taking advantages of recent methodological advances in building calorie and other nutrition data sourced from the FAO into the GTAP model and database, we further represent current and predicted dietary patterns for China in a baseline projection. The projected...

  8. Employee empowerment, innovative behavior and job productivity of public health nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chieh-Hsing

    2008-10-01

    Employee empowerment is an important organizational issue. Empowered employees with new ideas and innovative attributes may increase their ability to respond more effectively to face extensive changes in current public health care work environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between employee empowerment, innovative behaviors and job productivity of public health nurses (PHNs). This study conducted a cross-sectional research design. Purposive sampling was conducted from six health bureaus in northern Taiwan. 670 PHNs were approached and 576 valid questionnaires were collected, with a response rate of 85.9%. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data by post. Meaning and competence subscales of psychological empowerment, information and opportunity subscales of organizational empowerment, and innovative behaviors were the predictors of job productivity, only accounting for 16.4% of the variance. The competence subscale of psychological empowerment made the most contribution to job productivity (beta = 0.31). Meaning subscale of psychological empowerment has a negative impact on job productivity. Employee empowerment and innovative behavior of PHNs have little influence on job productivity. Employees with greater competence for delivering public health showed higher self-evaluated job productivity. The negative influences on job productivity possibly caused by conflict meaning on public health among PHNs in current public health policy. It should be an issue in further researches. Public health department should strengthen continuing education to foster competence of psychological sense of empowerment and innovative behavior to increase job productivity

  9. Productivity and quality improvements in health care through airboss mobile messaging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P J; Martinez, R; Cooney, E

    1997-01-01

    The US health care industry is in the midst of revolutionary changes. Under tremendous pressures from third-party payers and managed care programs to control costs while providing high quality medical services, health care entities are now looking at information technologies to help them achieve their goals. These goals typically include improved productivity, efficiency and decision-making capabilities among staff members. Moreover, hospitals and other health care facilities that provide a broad and integrated range of inpatient and outpatient care, wellness and home care services are in the best position to offer comprehensive packages to managed care and private insurers. Many health care providers and administrators are considered mobile employees. This mobility can range from intra-building and intra-campus to multi-site and metropolitan areas. This group often relies on a variety of information technologies such as personal computers, communicating laptops, pagers, cellular phones, wireline phones, cordless phones and fax machines to stay in touch and handle information needs. These health care professionals require mobile information access and messaging tools to improve communications, control accessibility and enhance decision-making capabilities. AirBoss mobile messaging services could address the health care industry's need for improved messaging capabilities for its mobile employees. The AirBoss family of services supports integrated voice services, data messaging, mobile facsimile and customized information delivery. This paper describes overview of the current mobile data networking capability, the AirBoss architecture, the health care-related applications it addresses and long-term benefits. In addition, a prototype application for mobile home health care workers is illustrated. This prototype application provides integrated e-mail, information services, web access, real-time access and update of patient records from wireline or wireless networks

  10. Improving the production of applied health research findings: insights from a qualitative study of operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Turner, Simon; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-09-08

    Knowledge produced through applied health research is often of a form not readily accessible to or actionable by policymakers and practitioners, which hinders its implementation. Our aim was to identify research activities that can support the production of knowledge tailored to inform policy and practice. To do this, we studied an operational research approach to improving the production of applied health research findings. A 2-year qualitative study was conducted of the operational research contribution to a multidisciplinary applied health research project that was successful in rapidly informing national policy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were conducted with all members of the project's research team and advisory group (patient and health professional representatives and academics). These were augmented by participant (> 150 h) and non-participant (> 15 h) observations focusing on the process and experience of attempting to support knowledge production. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo software. Operational research performed a knowledge mediation role shaped by a problem-focused approach and an intent to perform those tasks necessary to producing readily implementable knowledge but outwith the remit of other disciplinary strands of the project. Three characteristics of the role were found to support this: engaging and incorporating different perspectives to improve services by capturing a range of health professional and patient views alongside quantitative and qualitative research evidence; rendering data meaningful by creating and presenting evidence in forms that are accessible to and engage different audiences, enabling them to make sense of it for practical use; and maintaining perceived objectivity and rigour by establishing credibility, perceived neutrality and confidence in the robustness of the research in order to unite diverse professionals in thinking creatively about system-wide service improvement. Our study

  11. Quantification of the impact of endometriosis symptoms on health-related quality of life and work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquet, Jessica; Báez, Lorna; Figueroa, Michelle; Iriarte, R Iván; Flores, Idhaliz

    2011-07-01

    To quantify the impact of endometriosis-related symptoms on physical and mental health status, health-related quality of life, and work-related aspects (absenteeism, presenteeism, work productivity, and activity impairment). Cross-sectional quantitative study. Academic and research institution. Women (n = 193) with self-reported surgically diagnosed endometriosis from the Endometriosis Patient Registry at Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences (PSMHS). Anonymous questionnaire divided into three sections consisting of questions from the Patient Health Survey (SF-12), the Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Survey (WPAI). Quantification of impact of endometriosis symptoms on physical and mental health status, health-related quality of life, absenteeism, presenteeism, work productivity, and activity impairment. Patients had SF-12 scores denoting statistically significant disability in the physical and mental health components. They also reported an average of 7.41 hours (approximately one working day) of work time lost during the week when the symptoms are worse. In addition, the WPAI scores showed a high impact on work-related domains: 13% of average loss in work time (absenteeism), 65% of work impaired (presenteeism), 64% of loss in efficiency levels (work productivity loss), and 60% of daily activities perturbed (activity impairment). Endometriosis symptoms such as chronic, incapacitating pelvic pain and infertility negatively and substantially impact the physical and mental health status, health-related quality of life, and productivity at work of women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The business end of health information technology. Can a fully integrated electronic health record increase provider productivity in a large community practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Samantha; Connelly-Flores, Alison; Mostashari, Farzad; Shih, Sarah C

    2010-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are expected to transform and improve the way medicine is practiced. However, providers perceive many barriers toward implementing new health information technology. Specifically, they are most concerned about the potentially negative impact on their practice finances and productivity. This study compares the productivity of 75 providers at a large urban primary care practice from January 2005 to February 2009, before and after implementing an EHR system, using longitudinal mixed model analyses. While decreases in productivity were observed at the time the EHR system was implemented, most providers quickly recovered, showing increases in productivity per month shortly after EHR implementation. Overall, providers had significant productivity increases of 1.7% per month per provider from pre- to post-EHR adoption. The majority of the productivity gains occurred after the practice instituted a pay-for-performance program, enabled by the data capture of the EHRs. Coupled with pay-for-performance, EHRs can spur rapid gains in provider productivity.

  13. Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskiewicz Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly recognized as a critical link in improving access to services and achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Given the financial and human resources constraints in developing countries, CHWs are expected to do more without necessarily receiving the needed support to do their jobs well. How much can be expected of CHWs before work overload and reduced organizational support negatively affect their productivity, the quality of services, and in turn the effectiveness of the community-based programmes that rely on them? This article presents policy-makers and programme managers with key considerations for a model to improve the work environment as an important approach to increase CHW productivity and, ultimately, the effectiveness of community-based strategies. Methods A desk review of selective published and unpublished articles and reports on CHW programs in developing countries was conducted to analyse and organize findings on the elements that influence CHW productivity. The search was not exhaustive but rather was meant to gather information on general themes that run through the various documents to generate perspectives on the issue and provide evidence on which to formulate ideas. After an initial search for key terminology related to CHW productivity, a snowball technique was used where a reference in one article led to the discovery of additional documents and reports. Results CHW productivity is determined in large part by the conditions under which they work. Attention to the provision of an enabling work environment for CHWs is essential for achieving high levels of productivity. We present a model in which the work environment encompasses four essential elements—workload, supportive supervision, supplies and equipment, and respect from the community and the health system—that affect the productivity of CHWs. We propose that when CHWs have a

  14. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  15. Genetic correlations between methane production and fertility, health, and body type traits in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, L; Kargo, M; Norberg, E; Lassen, J

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH 4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH 4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH 4 and several different traits were estimated. These traits were interval between calving and first insemination, interval between first and last insemination, number of inseminations, udder diseases, other diseases, height, body depth, chest width, dairy character, top line, and body condition score. Bivariate linear models were used to estimate the genetic parameters within and between CH 4 and the other traits. In general, the genetic correlations between CH 4 and the traits investigated were low. The heritability of CH 4 was 0.25, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 for fertility and health traits, and from 0.17 to 0.74 for body conformation traits. Further research with a larger data set should be performed to more accurately establish how CH 4 relates to fertility, health, and body conformation traits in dairy cattle. This will be useful in the design of future breeding goals that consider the production of CH 4 . The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  16. Distance saturation product predicts health-related quality of life among sarcoidosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Julie M; Malaisamy, Subramanian; Dalal, Bhavinkumar D; Samarakoon, Priyan C; Parikh, Swapna R; Samavati, Lobelia

    2012-06-13

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease with different phenotypic manifestations. Health-related quality of life is an important aspect in sarcoidosis, yet difficult to measure. The objective of this study was to identify clinical markers predictive of poor quality of life in sarcoidosis patients that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention. We assessed the quality of life of 162 patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a prospective, cross-sectional study using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We evaluated the validity of these questionnaires and sought to identify variables that would best explain the performance scores of the patients. On multivariate regression analyses, the very best composite model to predict total scores from both surveys was a model containing the distance-saturation product and Borg Dyspnea Scale score at the end of a 6-min walk test. This model could better predict SF-36 scores (R² = 0.33) than SHQ scores (R² = 0.24). Substitution of distanced walked in 6 min for the distance-saturation product in this model resulted in a lesser ability to predict both scores (R² = 0.26 for SF-36; R² = 0.22 for SHQ). Both the SHQ and SF-36 surveys are valuable tools in the assessment of health-related quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. The best model to predict quality of life among these patients, as determined by regression analyses, included the distance-saturation product and Borg score after the 6-min walk test. Both variables represent easily obtainable clinical parameters that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention.

  17. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Product development public-private partnerships for public health: a systematic review using qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-10-01

    Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  20. Productivity losses associated with tuberculosis deaths in the World Health Organization African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Muthuri, Rosenabi Deborah Karimi

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, almost half of the global tuberculosis deaths occurred in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. Approximately 21.5 % of the 6 060 742 TB cases (new and relapse) reported to the WHO in 2014 were in the African Region. The specific objective of this study was to estimate future gross domestic product (GDP) losses associated with TB deaths in the African Region for use in advocating for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis. The cost-of-illness method was used to estimate non-health GDP losses associated with TB deaths. Future non-health GDP losses were discounted at 3 %. The analysis was conducted for three income groups of countries. One-way sensitivity analysis at 5 and 10 % discount rates was undertaken to assess the impact on the expected non-health GDP loss. The 0.753 million tuberculosis deaths that occurred in the African Region in 2014 would be expected to decrease the future non-health GDP by International Dollars (Int$) 50.4 billion. Nearly 40.8, 46.7 and 12.5 % of that loss would come from high and upper-middle- countries or lower-middle- and low-income countries, respectively. The average total non-health GDP loss would be Int$66 872 per tuberculosis death. The average non-health GDP loss per TB death was Int$167 592 for Group 1, Int$69 808 for Group 2 and Int$21 513 for Group 3. Tuberculosis exerts a sizeable economic burden on the economies of the WHO AFR countries. This implies the need to strongly advocate for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis and to help countries end the epidemic of tuberculosis by 2030, as envisioned in the United Nations General Assembly resolution on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  1. A Framework for Evaluating the Software Product Quality of Pregnancy Monitoring Mobile Personal Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idri, Ali; Bachiri, Mariam; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Stakeholders' needs and expectations are identified by means of software quality requirements, which have an impact on software product quality. In this paper, we present a set of requirements for mobile personal health records (mPHRs) for pregnancy monitoring, which have been extracted from literature and existing mobile apps on the market. We also use the ISO/IEC 25030 standard to suggest the requirements that should be considered during the quality evaluation of these mPHRs. We then go on to design a checklist in which we contrast the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements with software product quality characteristics and sub-characteristics in order to calculate the impact of these requirements on software product quality, using the ISO/IEC 25010 software product quality standard. The results obtained show that the requirements related to the user's actions and the app's features have the most impact on the external sub-characteristics of the software product quality model. The only sub-characteristic affected by all the requirements is Appropriateness of Functional suitability. The characteristic Operability is affected by 95% of the requirements while the lowest degrees of impact were identified for Compatibility (15%) and Transferability (6%). Lastly, the degrees of the impact of the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements are discussed in order to provide appropriate recommendations for the developers and stakeholders of mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring.

  2. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C. L.

    1999-07-01

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity.

  3. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM's purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12-24 months. Mixed-method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012-2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis. The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works best when three key elements (product flow, data

  4. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM’s purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. Methods SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12–24 months. Mixed–method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012–2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis Results The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Conclusions Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works

  5. Radiation dose setting for sterilization of health care items in relation to product microbiological quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Nagi Marsit; Asnah Hassan

    1997-01-01

    Radiation dose of 25 k gray is no longer a generally accepted dose for sterilization. ISO document no. 11137 stated that a manufacturer can decide the dose to sterilize his product depending on the product's microbiological quality (number and type of the contaminants) and the sterility assurance level (SAL) should attain in relation to its usage. Five health care products were selected for the microbiological studies including bio burden counts, identification of most commonly found microorganisms and the radioresistance (D sub 10 value) of the selected isolates. Radiation dose was then determined by two methods, namely Method for Dose Validation of ISO 11137, and calculation based on log survival or population cycle reduction. At a given SAL of 10 sup -6 the radiation sterilization dose obtained by both methods was influenced by microbiological quality of the product. Sterilization dose set by the ISO Method I (Cotton Ball 19.4 kGy, Syringe 20.4 kGy, Suture 15. 0 kGy, Surgical Glove 24.9 kGy and Amnion 17.8 kGy) was higher than the dose calculated according to the log cycle reduction concept in all the products (Cotton Ball 14. 0 kGy, Syringe 15.5 kGy, Suture 11. 6 kGy, Surgical Glove 18. 0 kGy and Amnion 12.6 kGy). The ISO method has limitation on bio products such as amnion and other high valued products which are produced in small number with low bio burden and microorganism spectrum different from those commonly found on medical items

  6. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  7. Nutritional Sustainability: Aligning Priorities in Nutrition and Public Health with Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Dimick, Dennis; Marshall, Elizabeth; Nelson, Gerald Charles; Mein, Jonathan R; Gustafson, David I

    2017-09-01

    Nutrition science-based dietary advice urges changes that may have a great impact on agricultural systems. For example, the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends greatly increased fruit and vegetable consumption, but the present domestic production is insufficient to accommodate large-scale adoption of these guidelines. Increasing production to the extent needed to meet the DGA will necessitate changes in an already stressed agriculture and food system and will require nutrition and agriculture professionals to come together in open and collegial discourse. All involved need to understand the stress placed on the food system by increasing populations, changing diets, and changing environments, and recognize the major diet-based public health challenges. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the intricate interplay of the myriad parts of the food system and the vast amount of work necessary to make even small changes. New systems approaches are needed, especially at the research level, where nutrition, public health, agriculture, and the food industry work together to solve interconnected problems. Future well-being depends on a sustainable food system that continues to deliver optimal health with minimal impact on the environment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  9. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-09-04

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  10. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  12. Health-risk assessment based on an additive to paints made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Tic, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    Solvents are primarily used for making protective coatings. Considering their chemical nature, there are a great variety of coatings, including those based on liquid hydrocarbons and organic chloroderivatives. These products are a serious load to the environment because of their physicochemical properties, therefore, they have for some time been replaced with more-environmentally friendly, new generation products. One of them is the hydroxyester HE-1: made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products, it is an alternative to those coalescents for paints and varnishes which are intended to be replaced or their use restricted. The results of selected toxicological tests relating to the human health risk effect of the hydroxyester HE-1 - environmentally-friendly additive to paints and varnishes are presented. The test results indicate that HE-1 causes skin irritation in rabbit only when used at its maximum concentrations. No lesions in the cornea or iris were observed in any of the test rabbits after the application of the hydroxyester HE-1. In the mutagenic effect test of HE-1 on the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, the result was negative. Based on the test results, it was found that the hydroxyester HE-1 may only have a human health risk effect when used at its maximum concentrations.

  13. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin and oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin, and oral health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...

  15. Production of scientific articles on health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pellegrini Filho

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, 41 238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil. The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was three, which was less than half the number received per article in the ISI database (7.78. Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96% dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international

  16. Production of scientific articles on health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Filho Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, 41 238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil. The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was three, which was less than half the number received per article in the ISI database (7.78. Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96% dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international

  17. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  18. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  19. Comparative study: TQ and Lean Production ownership models in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiro, Natalia Yuri; Torres-Junior, Alvair Silveira

    2015-01-01

    compare the application of Total Quality (TQ) models used in processes of a health service, cases of lean healthcare and literature from another institution that has also applied this model. this is a qualitative research that was conducted through a descriptive case study. through critical analysis of the institutions studied it was possible to make a comparison between the traditional quality approach checked in one case and the theoretical and practice lean production approach used in another case and the specifications are described below. the research identified that the lean model was better suited for people that work systemically and generate the flow. It also pointed towards some potential challenges in the introduction and implementation of lean methods in health.

  20. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  1. The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  2. Newer biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis: impact on health-related quality of life and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Vibeke; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly impaired as a result of pain, deficits in physical function and fatigue associated with this disease. Decrements in HR-QOL are also associated with an increased probability of no longer working, absence from work due to RA-associated sickness, and reduced productivity while at work or in the home, all of which have consequences for the patient as well as society. HR-QOL and productivity are thus important components in the assessment of outcomes in RA, and assessment of HR-QOL is now recommended in clinical trials that assess the efficacy of new treatments for RA. Measures to assess HR-QOL include the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and the Health Utilities Index - Mark 3 (HUI3); these measures not only provide an indication of the clinical (i.e. statistical) efficacy of a treatment, but also provide information on whether this efficacy is truly 'meaningful' from a patient's perspective. These measures have been utilized in clinical trials of biological agents in patients with RA, including tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab), the co-stimulatory inhibitor molecule abatacept, the B-cell depletion agent rituximab and the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, and have demonstrated that these agents can significantly improve HR-QOL. Assessment of work productivity in patients with RA and the impact of treatment is a practical way to measure disability from RA from individual and societal perspectives. As RA affects women three times more frequently than men, there is also a critical need for productivity assessment within the home as well as participation in family/social/leisure activities. Data from recent trials of biological agents demonstrate that these agents can reverse disease-related decrements in productivity and limitations in participation in family

  3. Characteristics of scientific production in Special Education in Virtual Health Library (VHL: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pizzani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize, through bibliometric approach, the scientific literature in this Special Education in the databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL. The VHL is coordinated by BIREME - Specialized Center of the Pan American Health Organization whose objective is to promote the dissemination and use of scientific information in health. Method: The research methodology was performed by observing the following steps: a literature review on education special and bibliometrics, data collection from the site of BIREME about the presence of special education in the databases, organization, processing and bibliometric analysis of data collected using the software MS Excel and Vantage Point. Results: indicators produced allow signal that the predominant language of scientific production was the Portuguese and the majority of records were written individually, the themes addressed were psychology and developmental psychology. Conclusion: These bibliometric indicators characterizing the state of the art of scientific literature in Special Education at the various bases Data Bireme and also showed a field of interconnections between Health Sciences and Special Education.

  4. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal organisms in algae products marketed as health supplements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-09-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Irish society. One of these is blue-green algae which is used with a variety health benefits in mind. A batch of Chlorella powder was found to be contaminated with Salmonella species in Ireland in 2015. This prompted additional testing of a total of 8 samples of three different products (Chlorella, Spirulina and Super Greens), for other faecal flora and antimicrobial resistance in any bacteria isolated. All 8 samples cultured enteric flora such as Enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed one isolate with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity and one with carbapenemase activity. Clinicians caring for vulnerable patients should be aware of the potential risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with these products

  5. Analytical methods in dairy cows nutrition and their application in creation of production health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vajda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quantity of nutrients on rumen fermentation and the level of metabolic markers in blood serum were simultaneously analysed in groups of dairy cows 21 days before and 21 days after parturition with aim to diagnose disorders in milk production in the transition period of dairy cows. Results of analysis of health disorders confirmed the following: low energy concentration in the diet insufficiently saturated with fibrous carbohydrates, followed with rapid change to concentrate type of diet after delivery resulted in insufficient adaptation of the rumen metabolism before and after rapid transition to production feeding rations after calving; the level indicative of acidification of the rumen environment. Investigation of intermediary metabolism confirmed pre- and post-partum lipomobilization, with increased values of NEFA in 68 % and 54 % of animals respectively, with liver load manifestation in 37 % and 69 % of animals, respectively.

  6. The economics of optimal health and productivity in smallholder livestock systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Staal, S J

    1999-08-01

    Livestock kept or produced in smallholder farming systems are an important component of the agricultural economy in the developing world. The role of livestock on smallholder farms varies widely, providing draught power for crop production or as a production activity for subsistence needs or market sale under systems ranging from extensive pastoralist to intensive, peri-urban feeder and dairy systems. A set of unique conditions and features characterise smallholder systems, and these need to be appreciated when assessing the strategies that have evolved for managing animal health in smallholder systems, and evaluating opportunities for improving disease control strategies. To provide a framework for discussing animal health issues and analytical methodogies, a typology of smallholder livestock and crop/livestock systems is developed. The typology considers livestock systems both in terms of the degree of intensification, as measured by market orientation and intensity of factor use, and in terms of importance within the household economy, as measured by contribution to household income. A number of characteristics are identified that distinguish smallholder systems from the commercialised systems of developed countries, including the multiple functions livestock serve, the integrated nature of livestock activities, multiple objectives of producers and lower capacity to bear risk at the household level, as well as poor infrastructure, markets, and access to information at the community level. Three representative smallholder livestock systems from Africa are described in detail, highlighting the relevant characteristics and the implications for analysing disease control strategies. Smallholder dairy systems in Kenya demonstrate the role of individual producer decision-making for animal health management in intensive, market-oriented systems, placing emphasis on farm-level risk and production management aspects of disease control. In extensive pastoralist systems

  7. The role of the Federal Trade Commission in advertising health products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynard, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Trade Commission plays a unique role in enforcing well-established standards ensuring that consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions about health-related products and services based on truthful, non-misleading advertising claims while encouraging competition. Deceptive and unfair practices are defined. The importance of the "net impression" that ads convey to consumers and the need for substantiation of objective, factual claims is explained. The FTC uses its enforcement powers and consumer and industry outreach to create a climate for preventing misleading advertising.

  8. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.

  9. Research on determination of bio-burden for radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinfang

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization, determination of bio-burden on 148 kinds of health care products from 52 manufacturers were carried out. The culture of microorganisms, different elution technology, and correction coefficient of the microbiological methods have been used for determination of bio-burden. Frequent distribution of bio-burden was established. 5 kinds of elution processes were checked. Actual data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization was gotten. (authors)

  10. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 2. Public health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    While health hazards from air pollution are observed there is little documenting research for specific toxicity levels. This volume is an attempt to compile all relevant information in one place as a data bank of information that will aid in the required cost-benefit analysis for an energy production or utilization project. Sources include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The compilation is organized into air pollution, water pollution and land use considerations and cover both radioactive and chemical pollutants. (PCS)

  11. Evaluation of scientific production in the field of Dentistry in Public Health from 1999 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Zanin

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies that analyze scientific production are essential to guide researchers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of scientific production in the field of Dentistry in Public Health, by means of the abstracts published in the Annals of Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica in the period from 1999 to 2009. Material and method: First, the reading of all the 22388 abstracts published in the annals of the Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica from 1999 to 2009 was undertaken. The sample was 3061 abstract belonging to Public Health area. Result: There was growing participation of studies on Dentistry in Public Health with 113 studies having been inscribed in 1999 and 441 in 2009. There was a predominance of scientific studies in comparison with systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or case reports. In the classification of general nature of the research, 71.28% concerned studies with human beings. The greatest weight in the total number of researches with humans was in 2002, contributing with 79.79% of the total. With regard to the area of thematic domain, it was verified that studies involving Epidemiology were more frequent in all the years. When analyzing the institutional origin of studies, it was verified that in all the studied years, the public universities were responsible for the majority of scientific publications, 75.6% (n=2315. Conclusion: The studies on Dentistry in Public Health have grown significantly in the studied period of ten years. There was predominance of Epidemiological studies, and those of the in vivo and scientific research type.

  12. THE LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISING FOR HEALTH PRODUCTS IN TELEVISION: ITS IMPACT ON VIEWER'S PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Maya Iriana Sari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The language of advertising has certain characteristics and characters that are expected to be able to manifest or present what the advertiser wants to show to the wide community. Language engagement in advertising is not a thing that can be denied. In an advertisement, the language plays an important role in the process of delivering the product in order to be accepted by the viewers . The use of language becomes one of the important aspects for the success of advertising to influence the public to be interested in that advertised product. The phenomena of language advertising using unique and different language style is a strategy to attract the attention of consumers. This paper aims to identify the language style and characteristics of health products advertisement in television, to describe the message or its meaning, to know the impacts of language of advertising on viewer‘s perception. The study used a mix method design of research. The quantitative data was taken from a questionnaire and the qualitative data were gathered from observation and interview. The language in advertising can incite an emotional response to the viewers. It is consciously and intentionally attempt to create a positive impression of the products on viewer's perception

  13. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-01-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  14. Potential of Food and Natural Products to Promote Endothelial and Vascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Said, Amissi; Nguyen, Phuong Nga; Chabert, Philippe; Idris-Khodja, Noureddine; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is now well established as a pivotal early event in the development of major cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. The alteration of the endothelial function is often triggered by an imbalance between the endothelial formation of vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, and an increased level of oxidative stress involving several prooxidant enzymes such as NADPH oxidase and, often also, the appearance of cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstrictors. Preclinical studies have indicated that polyphenol-rich food and food-derived products such as grape-derived products, black and red berries, green and black teas and cocoa, and omega-3 fatty acids can trigger activating pathways in endothelial cells promoting an increased formation of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. Moreover, intake of such food-derived products has been associated with the prevention and/or the improvement of an established endothelial dysfunction in several experimental models of cardiovascular diseases and in humans with cardiovascular diseases. This review will discuss both experimental and clinical evidences indicating that different types of food and natural products are able to promote endothelial and vascular health, as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  16. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  17. Agreement among the Productivity Components of Eight Presenteeism Tests in a Sample of Health Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angus H; Waye, Arianna

    2018-06-01

    Presenteeism (reduced productivity at work) is thought to be responsible for large economic costs. Nevertheless, much of the research supporting this is based on self-report questionnaires that have not been adequately evaluated. To examine the level of agreement among leading tests of presenteeism and to determine the inter-relationship of the two productivity subcategories, amount and quality, within the context of construct validity and method variance. Just under 500 health care workers from an urban health area were asked to complete a questionnaire containing the productivity items from eight presenteeism instruments. The analysis included an examination of test intercorrelations, separately for amount and quality, supplemented by principal-component analyses to determine whether either construct could be described by a single factor. A multitest, multiconstruct analysis was performed on the four tests that assessed both amount and quality to test for the relative contributions of construct and method variance. A total of 137 questionnaires were completed. Agreement among tests was positive, but modest. Pearson r ranges were 0 to 0.64 (mean = 0.32) for Amount and 0.03 to 0.38 (mean = 0.25) for Quality. Further analysis suggested that agreement was influenced more by method variance than by the productivity constructs the tests were designed to measure. The results suggest that presenteeism tests do not accurately assess work performance. Given their importance in the determination of policy-relevant conclusions, attention needs to be given to test improvement in the context of criterion validity assessment. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biogas production and distribution. Operators' health and safety. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardeur-Algros, E.; Chesnot, T.; Charissou, A.M.; Paris, T.; Bronner, C.

    2013-06-01

    Production and recovery of biogas from different substrates of agricultural, urban and industrial issues are at the heart of sustainable development for the production of renewable energy, reducing greenhouse gases and waste treatment. In 2011, in France, about 200 biogas plants were operational. Moreover, about 300 ISDND (nonhazardous waste storage or landfill sites) also produce biogas, about 90 that of them valorize it. Because of regulatory contexts and favorable measures to bolster the economy, the number of sites is growing and anaerobic pathways are diversifying in terms of substrate / treated waste, anaerobic digestion processes and ways of valorization. So it seems appropriate to focus on the health and safety of workers potentially exposed to various hazards during operations of monitoring, maintenance or malfunction of facilities. First, through a literature search and a query of experts, data such as substrate, digestate and biogas composition, information feedback on reported incidents / accidents or accidents at work and illnesses of operators have been sought. Then, critical points concerning the health and safety of operators in these sectors were identified by implementing some steps of HACCP (Hazard Analysis - Critical Control Points). Five sectors (agricultural methanization in farms and in centralized plants - methanization of urban sewage sludge - methanization of household garbage - industrial methanization in sectors like food industry, stationery and chemistry - biogas production from landfill sites) have been studied and led to dedicated syntheses. They summarize the collected information and present an operating diagram indicating the different stages of biogas production and recovery. On this diagram, critical points are identified, assessed according to their importance and are associated with phases of maintenance operation, or malfunction. The results are intended to educate the actors to potential risks and attention they need to

  19. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  20. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...

  1. A scoping review of the public health impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickael; Neuprez, Audrey; Buckinx, Fanny; Locquet, Médéa; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2017-12-01

    Dairy products are rich in nutrients that positively influence bone health and hence fracture risk, and have therefore been recommended and used for fracture prevention. To help decision makers to efficiently allocate scare resources, it is further important to assess the public health and economic impact of any health intervention. In recent years, several studies have been conducted to estimate the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products but no overview is currently available. This article aims therefore to summarize evidence and review articles that estimated the public health and/or economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify original studies that assessed the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products (or of calcium/vitamin D supplementation) for fracture prevention up to January 15, 2017. Seven articles were identified. Different strategies were used by the authors to model the economic/public health impact of dairy products. The four studies assessing the public health impact of dairy products revealed a substantial benefit in terms of fracture prevented, life years, disability-adjusted life years and/or quality-adjusted life years gained. Studies assessing the cost-effectiveness revealed that the use of dairy products is generally cost-effective in the general population aged above 70 years, and from the age of 60 years in populations at high risk of fractures. This systematic review suggests that the use of dairy products could substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seem to be an economically beneficial strategy.

  2. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  3. Energy balance in transition cows and its association with health, reproduction and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furken, C; Nakao, T; Hoedemaker, M

    2015-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations at different time periods of the transition period as well as lactation number on metabolism, health, reproduction and milk production in dairy cows. This trial was conducted in a single dairy herd located in Northern Germany. Of the herd, which comprised 330 lactating Holstein cows housed in a free stall barn and fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 83 primiparous and multiparous cows were randomly selected. Animals were checked for body condition score (BCS), locomotion score, calving data, quality of colostrum, reproductive measures, daily rectal temperature of the first 10 days post-partum (p. p.), health data and culling rates up to 200 days in milk (DIM) as well as milk production until 305 DIM. Three different time periods were considered: 3 and 1 week ante partum (a. p.); partus and 1 week p. p.; 3 weeks p. p. Animals with NEFA concentrations ≥ 0.4 mmol/l ante partum had a higher risk of no ovarian activity in week 5 p. p. and of subclinical ketosis post partum than cows with lower NEFA concentrations (p reproduction of dairy cows.

  4. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  5. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  6. Water Quality, Essential Condition Sustaining the Health, Production, Reproduction in Cattle. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iuliana El Mahdy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main component of the body: the water, alongside with many function which it has,represents a constituent in the diet of animal. There are many and various factors that influence the daily water requirements of animals: some dependent on animal: and others dependent on the environment. Water quality administered to livestock must meet the requirements for potability prerequisite to maintaining the health, externalization full productive potential and sustaining breeding. Knowing the importance of water quality consists in the negative action which can exert on the body to exceeding certain thresholds translated through: reducing water consumption simultaneously with the decrease milk production, decreased feed conversion rate and average daily gain, degradation of health status by reducing the local resistance, decrease overall body resistance, metabolic, digestive, skeletal disorders and impaired reproduction sphere translated through:decreasing fertility, abortions; elements interfering with the absorption of other essential water body, producing chronic or acute poisoning. The water composition plays essential role depending on which is supplemented or not as the case the quantity of the macro and trace minerals from feedingstuff  according to the synergism or antagonism action between  the minerals present.

  7. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  8. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  10. Electronic health record impact on productivity and efficiency in an academic pediatric ophthalmology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Travis K; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, K. S.; Simon, H. M. Ap; Bell, J. N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  12. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, K S; ApSimon, H M; Bell, J N B [Centre for Environmental Policy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: keith.jamieson02@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  13. Role of the pre- and post-natal environment in developmental programming of health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S

    2012-05-06

    The concept that developmental insults (for example, poor pre- or postnatal nutrition) can have long-term consequences on health and well-being of the offspring has been termed developmental programming. In livestock, developmental programming affects production traits, including growth, body composition, and reproduction. Although low birth weight was used as a proxy for compromised fetal development in the initial epidemiological studies, based on controlled studies using livestock and other animal models in the last two decades we now know that developmental programming can occur independently of any effects on birth weight. Studies in humans, rodents, and livestock also have confirmed the critical role of the placenta in developmental programming. In addition, the central role of epigenetic regulation in developmental programming has been confirmed. Lastly, relatively simple therapeutic/management strategies designed to 'rescue' placental development and function are being developed to minimize the effects of developmental programming on health and productivity of humans, livestock, and other mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Heat Stress Impacts on Health and Productivity in a Steel Industry in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Manikandan; Ramalingam, Paramesh; Perumal, Kumaravel; Kamalakannan, Latha Perumal; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah; Shanmugam, Rekha; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2017-03-01

    Workers laboring in steel industries in tropical settings with high ambient temperatures are subjected to thermally stressful environments that can create well-known risks of heat-related illnesses and limit workers' productivity. A cross-sectional study undertaken in a steel industry in a city nicknamed "Steel City" in Southern India assessed thermal stress by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of dehydration from urine color and urine specific gravity. A structured questionnaire captured self-reported heat-related health symptoms of workers. Some 90% WBGT measurements were higher than recommended threshold limit values (27.2-41.7°C) for heavy and moderate workloads and radiational heat from processes were very high in blooming-mill/coke-oven (67.6°C globe temperature). Widespread heat-related health concerns were prevalent among workers, including excessive sweating, fatigue, and tiredness reported by 50% workers. Productivity loss was significantly reported high in workers with direct heat exposures compared to those with indirect heat exposures (χ 2  = 26.1258, degrees of freedom = 1, p  industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.

  15. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, K S; ApSimon, H M; Bell, J N B

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  16. Integrating health economics modeling in the product development cycle of medical devices: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Steuten, Lotte M G; Buxton, Martin J; Girling, Alan J; Lilford, Richard J; Young, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Medical device companies are under growing pressure to provide health-economic evaluations of their products. Cost-effectiveness analyses are commonly undertaken as a one-off exercise at the late stage of development of new technologies; however, the benefits of an iterative use of economic evaluation during the development process of new products have been acknowledged in the literature. Furthermore, the use of Bayesian methods within health technology assessment has been shown to be of particular value in the dynamic framework of technology appraisal when new information becomes available in the life cycle of technologies. In this study, we set out a methodology to adapt these methods for their application to directly support investment decisions in a commercial setting from early stages of the development of new medical devices. Starting with relatively simple analysis from the very early development phase and proceeding to greater depth of analysis at later stages, a Bayesian approach facilitates the incorporation of all available evidence and would help companies to make better informed choices at each decision point.

  17. Shift work and mental health sickness absence : A 10-year observational cohort study among male production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder, Giny; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Objectives Epidemiological studies investigating mental-health-related sickness absence (SA) among shift workers are lacking. This 10-year observational study investigated the risk of mental health SA among shift compared with day workers. Methods The data of 5826 male production workers were used

  18. Emerging Use of Early Health Technology Assessment in Medical Product Development: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Maarten J; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Krahn, Murray

    2017-07-01

    Early health technology assessment is increasingly being used to support health economic evidence development during early stages of clinical research. Such early models can be used to inform research and development about the design and management of new medical technologies to mitigate the risks, perceived by industry and the public sector, associated with market access and reimbursement. Over the past 25 years it has been suggested that health economic evaluation in the early stages may benefit the development and diffusion of medical products. Early health technology assessment has been suggested in the context of iterative economic evaluation alongside phase I and II clinical research to inform clinical trial design, market access, and pricing. In addition, performing early health technology assessment was also proposed at an even earlier stage for managing technology portfolios. This scoping review suggests a generally accepted definition of early health technology assessment to be "all methods used to inform industry and other stakeholders about the potential value of new medical products in development, including methods to quantify and manage uncertainty". The present review also aimed to identify recent published empirical studies employing an early-stage assessment of a medical product. With most included studies carried out to support a market launch, the dominant methodology was early health economic modeling. Further methodological development is required, in particular, by combining systems engineering and health economics to manage uncertainty in medical product portfolios.

  19. Evaluating the Productivity of VA, NIH, and AHRQ Health Services Research Career Development Awardees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, John W; Amundson, Erin O; Bi, Xiaoyu; Cucciare, Michael A; Eisen, Seth A; Finlay, Andrea K; Halvorson, Max A; Hayashi, Ko; Owens, Douglas K; Maisel, Natalya C; Timko, Christine; Weitlauf, Julie C; Cronkite, Ruth C

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the academic advancement and productivity of Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Career Development Award (CDA) program recipients, National Institutes of Health (NIH) K awardees in health services research (HSR), and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) K awardees. In all, 219 HSR&D CDA recipients from fiscal year (FY) 1991 through FY2010; 154 NIH K01, K08, and K23 awardees FY1991-FY2010; and 69 AHRQ K01 and K08 awardees FY2000-FY2010 were included. Most data were obtained from curricula vitae. Academic advancement, publications, grants, recognition, and mentoring were compared after adjusting for years since award, and personal characteristics, training, and productivity prior to the award. No significant differences emerged in covariate-adjusted tenure-track academic rank, number of grants as primary investigator (PI), major journal articles as first/sole author, Hirsch h-index scores, likelihood of a journal editorship position or membership in a major granting review panel, or mentoring postgraduate researchers between the HSR&D CDA and NIH K awardees from FY1991-FY2010, or among the three groups of awardees from FY2000 or later. Among those who reported grant funding levels, HSR&D CDAs from FY1991-2010 had been PI on more grants of $100,000 than NIH K awardees. HSR&D CDAs had a higher mean number of major journal articles than NIH K awardees from FY1991-2010. Findings show that all three HSR career development programs are successfully selecting and mentoring awardees, ensuring additional HSR capacity to improve the quality and delivery of high-value care.

  20. Millennials and the World of Work: The Impact of Obesity on Health and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Shari L; Heerman, William J; Warren, Michael D; Rennhoff, Christina

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: Thirty states now report one in three children between 10-17 years of age are either overweight or obese. This disturbing trend will have lasting implications for our children, specifically those known as the Millennial generation born between 1982 and 1993. APPROACH: Utilizing evidence in the existing literature, we created an economic model to predict the impact of obesity on the aggregate lifetime earnings for the Millennial generation and the consequences for employers and employees. We provide case reports on successful business strategies that speak to the classic characteristics of the Millennials. FINDINGS: The lifetime medical expenditure that is attributable to obesity for an obese 20-year-old varies from $5,340 to $29,460, increasing proportionally with rising weight. If the model's assumptions hold true, Millennial American women will earn an average of $956 billion less while men will earn an average of $43 billion less due to obesity. IMPLICATIONS: As Millennials enter the workforce, the growing prevalence of obesity among their generation may negatively impact their productivity and resulting economic prosperity. Given that most of one's adult life is spent on the job, employers have a unique opportunity to contribute to the solution by creating an environmental culture of health. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This is the first assessment, which we know of, that examines the potential economic impact of obesity on the Millennial generation. We propose a unique approach applying a common health framework, the Chronic Care Model, to business strategies to contain costs and maximize Millennial workers' health and productivity.

  1. The availability of reliable information about medicines in Serbia for health professionals summary of product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Ljiljana C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today, there are many drugs for the treatment of a large number of indicator areas. Significant financial resources are invested in research with the aim of introducing reliable therapeutics to therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to provide health care professionals exact information about new therapies. The overall process of scientific data, ideas and information exchange is possible through numerous communications of modern IT tools. Methodology According to the Law, key information on registered drug is included in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC for health professionals, which is harmonized with EU directives and regulations (SmPC.Protocol content and structure of the information provided in SPC is determined in the guidelines of the EU, therefore, a unique set of data is established for all the drugs registered in Serbia. Topic This paper presents the key segments of SPC, with special reference to the description of the regulations that are required for data related to indications, mechanism of action, dosage, contraindications, side effects, interactions and other important information regarding the profile of the drug, which are standardized and harmonized with the structure of identical documents which operate at the EU level, or EMEA. Conclusions SPC is the regulatory determined technical document on medicinal products in the RS in which there are listed scientifically proven, clinical and pharmacological data and information on the profile of the drug, which are essential for health professionals - doctors and pharmacists in the implementation of pharmacotherapy in our society. This document is the starting point for the development of applied Pharmacoinformatics and it includes a range of activities important for the development of appropriate manuals and makes available data and information for monitoring indicators of the national policy on drugs and modern effective drugs treatment.

  2. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  3. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  4. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Garry C; McNabb, Warren C

    2003-05-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are diverse in structure but are characterised by hydroxylated aromatic rings (e.g. flavan-3-ols). They are categorised as secondary metabolites, and their function in plants is often poorly understood. Many plant phenolic compounds are polymerised into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignins. Only the lignins, PA, oestrogenic compounds and hydrolysable tannins will be considered here. Lignins slow the physical and microbial degradation of ingested feed, because of resilient covalent bonding with hemicellulose and cellulose, rather than any direct effects on the rumen per se. The PA are prevalent in browse and are expressed in the foliage of some legumes (e.g. Lotus spp.), but rarely in grasses. They reduce the nutritive value of poor-quality diets, but can also have substantial benefits for ruminant productivity and health when improved temperate forages are fed. Beneficial effects are dependent on the chemical and physical structure, and concentration of the PA in the diet, but they have been shown to improve live-weight gain, milk yield and protein concentration, and ovulation rate. They prevent bloat in cattle, reduce gastrointestinal nematode numbers, flystrike and CH4 production. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. coumestans) cause temporary infertility, whilst those produced by Fusarium fungi found in pasture, silage or stored grains can cause permanent infertility. The HT may be toxic because products of their metabolism can cause liver damage and other metabolic disorders.

  5. The Public Health Challenge of Consumer Non-Compliance to Toy Product Recalls and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayang Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the public health issue of toy product recalls in the United States, an under-addressed topic in scholarly literature, yet highly relevant to the prevention of pediatric injuries. Toy-related injuries led to 274,000 emergency room visits and seven fatalities in 2016 in the United States, and toy-related injury rates have remained stable over the last five years despite declining incidences of recalls. While dangerous toys not being recalled and the misuse of “safe” products are possible contributing factors, consumer non-response to recall notices also contributes to unintentional child injury from dangerous toys. We discuss the process of recalling toys, and the role of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in that process. We also review potential factors behind significant consumer non-response to recall notifications, citing economic and psychological theories as explanations for the actions of multiple stakeholders in the recall process. We close by proposing reforms at the regulatory, consumer, and retailer levels that might boost compliance with recall notifications and ultimately reduce injury morbidity and mortality.

  6. Potential functional bakery products as delivery systems for prebiotics and probiotics health enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria-García, S; Cruz-Hernández, M A; Flores-Verástegui, M I M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Montañez-Sáenz, J C; Belmares-Cerda, R E

    2018-03-01

    Several health benefits have been associated to probiotics and prebiotics, most of these are involved in the regulation of the host's gut microbiome. Their incorporation to diverse food products has been done to develop potential functional foods. In the case of bakery products, their incorporation has been seen to improve several technological parameters such as volume, specific volume, texture along with sensorial parameters such as flavor and aroma. Scientific literature in this topic has been divided in three main research branches: nutrition, physical quality and sensory analyzes, however, studies rarely cover all of them. Due to the harsh thermal stress during baking, sourdough technology along with microencapsulation of probiotics, has been studied as an alternative to enhance its nutritional values and increase cell viability, though in few occasions. The potential functional baked goods have maintained acceptable physical characteristics and sensorial acceptability, while in some cases an improvement is seen due to the effect of probiotics and prebiotics. The results obtained from several studies done, have shown the viability of developing functional bakery products by applying prebiotics or probiotics. This could be used as an encouragement for more research to be done in this topic.

  7. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morganti P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P Morganti1, G Morganti2, A Morganti3,41Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud s.r.l, Aprilia, Italy; 3Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich, Germany; 4Lextray, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm. Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.Keywords: chitin nanofibrils, biomimetic cosmetics, biomedical products, food, nanotechnology, waste

  8. Adulteration of proprietary Chinese medicines and health products with undeclared drugs: experience of a tertiary toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chor Kwan; Chen, Sammy Pak Lam; Lee, Hencher Han Chih; Lam, Ying Hoo; Ng, Sau Wah; Chen, Mo Lung; Tang, Magdalene Huen Yin; Chan, Suzanne Suk San; Ng, Candy Wai Yan; Cheung, Jana Wing Lan; Chan, Tina Yee Ching; Lau, Nike Kwai Cheung; Chong, Yeow Kuan; Mak, Tony Wing Lai

    2018-01-01

    Proprietary Chinese medicines (pCMs) and health products, generally believed to be natural and safe, are gaining popularity worldwide. However, the safety of pCMs and health products has been severely compromised by the practice of adulteration. The current study aimed to examine the problem of adulteration of pCMs and health products in Hong Kong. The present study was conducted in a tertiary referral clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. All cases involving the use of pCMs or health products, which were subsequently confirmed to contain undeclared adulterants, from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 404 cases involving the use of 487 adulterated pCMs or health products with a total of 1234 adulterants were identified. The adulterants consisted of approved drugs, banned drugs, drug analogues and animal thyroid tissue. The six most common categories of adulterants detected were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.7%), anorectics (15.3%), corticosteroids (13.8%), diuretics and laxatives (11.4%), oral antidiabetic agents (10.0%) and erectile dysfunction drugs (6.0%). Sibutramine was the most common adulterant (n = 155). The reported sources of these illicit products included over-the-counter drug stores, the internet and Chinese medicine practitioners. A significant proportion of patients (65.1%) had adverse effects attributable to these illicit products, including 14 severe and two fatal cases. Psychosis, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and hypoglycaemia were the three most frequently encountered adverse effects. Adulteration of pCMs and health products with undeclared drugs poses severe health hazards. Public education and effective regulatory measures are essential to address the problem. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  10. Linguistic validation of the US Spanish work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, general health version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlicki, Mary C; Reilly, Margaret C; Popielnicki, Ana; Reilly, Kate

    2006-01-01

    There are no measures of health-related absenteeism and presenteeism validated for use in the large and increasing US Spanish-speaking population. Before using a Spanish translation of an available English-language questionnaire, the linguistic validity of the Spanish version must be established to ensure its conceptual equivalence to the original and its cultural appropriateness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linguistic validity of the US Spanish version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, General Health Version (WPAI:GH). A US Spanish translation of the US English WPAI:GH was created through a reiterative process of creating harmonized forward and back translations by independent translators. Spanish-speaking and English-speaking subjects residing in the US self-administered the WPAI:GH in their primary language and were subsequently debriefed by a bilingual (Spanish-English) interviewer. US Spanish subjects (N = 31) and English subjects (N = 35), stratified equally by educational level, with and without a high school degree participated in the study. The WPAI-GH item comprehension rate was 98.6% for Spanish and 99.6% for English. Response revision rates during debriefing were 1.6% for Spanish and 0.5% for English. Responses to hypothetical scenarios indicated that both language versions adequately differentiate sick time taken for health and non-health reasons and between absenteeism and presenteeism. Linguistic validity of the US Spanish translation of the WPAI:GH was established among a diverse US Spanish-speaking population, including those with minimal education.

  11. Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment-techniques for its reduction during poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sadia; King, Annie J

    2018-06-01

    Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH 3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR). NH 3 concentration and emissions in poultry houses depend on VR; seasons also have effects on NH 3 production. Modern ventilation systems can minimize NH 3 in enclosed production spaces quickly but increase its emissions to the environment. NH 3 adversely affects the ecosystem, environment, and health of birds and people. Less than 10 ppm is the ideal limit for exposure, but up to 25 ppm is also not harmful. NH 3 can be minimized by housing type, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, manure handling practices, litter amendment, and diet manipulation without affecting performance and production. Antibiotics can minimize NH 3 , but consumers have concerns about health effects. Administration of probiotics seems to be a useful replacement for antibiotics. More studies have been conducted on broilers, necessitating the need to evaluate the effect of probiotics on NH 3 production in conjunction with laying hen performance and egg quality. This comprehensive review focuses on research from 1950 to 2018.

  12. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  13. Characterization of the ultrasonic welding process in the production of women's health devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Elizondo, Jenniffer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the ultrasonic welding process in the area of women's health is performed to determine appropriate levels for the critical variables of the process to guarantee the quality specifications of the devices. The handle of the product A is detached. The assembly was made under pressure. Available technologies have been studied to comply with the regulations of medical industry to propose a change in process to a product B. The ultrasonic technology is used to weld the handle of the device to prevent the release of the two parts of the handle of the medical device. A variable characterization process was performed to determine which variables are critical to the process and define the operation parameters of ultrasonic welding. A number of designs of experiments is carried out, first the parameters behavior of the equipment is evaluated to analyze which have greater influence on the quality of the weld. A full factorial design was developed with all process input variables and input variables that are significant was performed another series of designs of experiments to determine the parameters of the process.The conclusion for the ultrasonic welding process in the product B has been that the critical variables or that have had a greater influence on the quality and appearance in experienced designs are: pressure and soldier collapse. The process of ultrasonic welded cycle has started to arrive at the value of driving force that tells the computer. The input variable is recommended to be the lowest possible to weld components using the ordering of particles product of ultrasonic welded avoiding compression component. (author) [es

  14. Oilseed rape as feedstock for biodiesel production in relation to the environment and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is one of the most important crops in cultivation process. A current developmental trend in non-food rapeseed production on agricultural land shows that this new course is irreversible and is a great opportunity for agriculture. Non-food rapeseed production is focused on the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel has good environmental properties. Lower emissions are produced by the combustion of biodiesel than for diesel. In content of exhaust gas is observed a significant decrease of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and etc. The analysis of the literary knowledge on impacts of biodiesel on exhaust emissions, on regulated emissions, shows a reduction of 10.1% for particulate matter, of 21.1% for hydrocarbons, and 11.0% for carbon monoxide with the use of B20. Nitrogen oxides (NOx increased by 2.0%. Biodiesel was introduced into the European market in the 1988s as B100. The use of blends with content up to 5% biodiesel has no significant impact on the emissions and their toxicity. An increased mutagenicity was observed with blends containing 20%. Nevertheless, increased mutagenic effects were observed under specific conditions. Accordingly, the problem concerning blends of diesel fuel with biodiesel (B20 should be investigated with high priority. No comprehensive risk assessment for diesel engine emissions from biodiesel and its blends is possible In regard to a comprehensive hazard characterization it is urged to develop a panel of standardized and internationally accepted protocols which allow a reliable assessment of possible health hazards which may arise from the combustion of new fuels compared to conventional diesel fuel. These methods should be robust and should reflect the various health hazards associated with diesel engine emissions to supplement data on regulated emissions. Methods for the generation of the exhaust and sample preparation should be harmonized. There is sufficient evidence supporting a

  15. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  16. Country-wise differences in perception of health-related messages in cereal-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saba, A.; Vassallo, M.; Sheperd, R.

    2010-01-01

    and on likelihood to buy the products, whereas the pictorial representations were found to have a weak influence on the two dependent variables. However, the findings showed that health-related information on food labels differently influenced the healthiness perception and the likelihood to buy the product across......The objective of the present study was to explore the impact of health-related messages on the perceived overall healthiness and consumers' likelihood to buy cereal-based products or non-cereal products containing beneficial compounds from grains, across four European countries. The data were...... collected from a sample of 2392 members of the public in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. The results from a conjoint task with a main effects additive model were reported. In general, the presence of a health claim on foods had positive influence on respondents perception of healthiness...

  17. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  18. Mental-Health Conditions, Barriers to Care, and Productivity Loss Among Officers in An Urban Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justin; Desai, Mayur M.; Britten, Karissa; Lucas, Georgina; Luneau, Renee; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Police officers are frequently exposed to situations that can negatively impact their mental health. Methods We conducted this study of an urban police department to determine 1) the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse; 2) patterns of and barriers to mental-health services utilization; and 3) the impact these conditions have on productivity loss. Results Among 150 officers, PTSD (24%), depression (9%), and alcohol abuse (19%) were common. Only 46.7% had ever sought mental-health services; the most commonly cited barriers to accessing services were concerns regarding confidentiality and the potential “negative career impact.” Officers with mental-health conditions had higher productivity loss (5.9% vs 3.4%, P police officers are common, and costly, yet most officers had never accessed mental-health services; many due to modifiable risk factors. PMID:23155671

  19. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment as a new issue of environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Koszowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products PPCPs are different chemical substances biologically active. They are part of drugs, supplements and cosmetics. An increasing interest in the field of PPCPs is observed recently. High sensitivity analysis methods allowed to detect PPCPs in natural environment in the world . Because of their complex chemical structure these compounds are not completely removed and discharged into the sewage for treatment and as such unchanged or intermediate metabolites may cause pollution of surface and deep water. It is estimated that they may accumulate in living organisms. PPCPs problem becomes a serious challenge for many scientific disciplines. The aim of the study is to present the problem of the occurrence of PPCPs in water environment as a new environmental health hazard. This study presents selected groups of PPCPs as the examples of research in the field of PPCPS and their presence in the environment. Moreover new prospects of removing these substances from water are shown.

  20. Climate installations, comfort, health and productivity; Klimaatinstallaties, comfort, gezondheid en productiviteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Haans, L. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-08-01

    Sometimes engineers lose sight of why both the private and business sectors are willing to spend so much money on heating and ventilation systems. The main drive for the average Dutch person's day-to-day investment in his or her indoor environment resides in the trinity of comfort, health and productivity. This article present an update on current ideas about the three unique selling points of HVAC systems. [Dutch] Soms wordt uit het oog verloren waarom zowel de particuliere als de zakelijke markt zoveel geld over heeft voor installaties. De grootste drijfveer die de gemiddelde Nederlander heeft voor zijn of haar dagelijkse binnenmilieu-investering, is te vinden in de drie-eenheid: comfort, gezondheid en productiviteit. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de laatste inzichten waar het deze drie aspecten van klimaatinstallaties betreft.

  1. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs. Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  2. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  3. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of...... of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health and productivity.......The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  4. Information and Communication Technologies, Genes, and Peer-Production of Knowledge to Empower Citizens' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, Annibale; Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2018-06-01

    The different and seemingly unrelated practices of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) used to collect and share personal and scientific data within networked communities, and the organized storage of human genetic samples and information-namely biobanking-have merged with another recent epistemic and social phenomenon, namely scientists and citizens collaborating as "peers" in creating knowledge (or peer-production of knowledge). These different dimensions can be found in joint initiatives where scientists-and-citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. While this kind of initiative usually takes place only after rights have been infringed (or are put at risk)-as the two cases presented in the paper show-collaborative scientists-and-citizens' knowledge should be institutionally allowed to complement and corroborate official knowledge-supporting policies.

  5. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  6. Measuring Efficiency of Knowledge Production in Health Research Centers Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): A Case Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad Meskarpour; Nasiri, Taha; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Anabad, Hosein Amini; Ardakan, Payman Mahboobi

    2016-11-01

    Efficiency analysis is necessary in order to avoid waste of materials, energy, effort, money, and time during scientific research. Therefore, analyzing efficiency of knowledge production in health areas is necessary, especially for developing and in-transition countries. As the first step in this field, the aim of this study was the analysis of selected health research center efficiency using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This retrospective and applied study was conducted in 2015 using input and output data of 16 health research centers affiliated with a health sciences university in Iran during 2010-2014. The technical efficiency of health research centers was evaluated based on three basic data envelopment analysis (DEA) models: input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented. The input and output data of each health research center for years 2010-2014 were collected from the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHE) profile and analyzed by R software. The mean efficiency score in input-oriented, output-oriented, and hyperbolic-oriented models was 0.781, 0.671, and 0.798, respectively. Based on results of the study, half of the health research centers are operating below full efficiency, and about one-third of them are operating under the average efficiency level. There is also a large gap between health research center efficiency relative to each other. It is necessary for health research centers to improve their efficiency in knowledge production through better management of available resources. The higher level of efficiency in a significant number of health research centers is achievable through more efficient management of human resources and capital. Further research is needed to measure and follow the efficiency of knowledge production by health research centers around the world and over a period of time.

  7. Impact of IT on health care professionals: changes in work and the productivity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, M A

    1998-05-01

    Health care organizations are under increasing pressure to become more efficient while at the same time maintaining or improving the quality of care. Information technology (IT), with its potential to increase efficiency, accuracy and accessibility of information, has been expected to play an important role in supporting these changes. We report the impact of patient care information systems on health care professionals in five community hospitals. The study framework incorporated both quality of care in Donabedian's elements of structure-process-outcome and Grusec's three levels of IT impact: direct substitution, proceduralization and new capabilities. The study results suggest that, for specific tasks, IT increased efficiency and productivity--a single employee was able to complete more tasks. However, this produced other consequences not predicted. Participants noted this change did not 'free up time' to spend with patients, but meant there were potentially more opportunities to provide services and more tasks to complete. Other effects included: reduced job satisfaction as more time was spent on the computer; less frequent interactions with patients and for shorter duration; and an increasingly 'visible' accountability as performance was easily monitored. There were also changes in roles and responsibilities as the computer enabled tasks to be carried out from a number of locations and by a variety of personnel. When innovations are introduced into organizations there are both expected and unexpected consequences. Increased awareness of the interactive relationship between computer users and the technology helps organizations better understand why results do, or do not, occur. One must look beyond just simply increasing productivity by replacing manual tasks with automated ones, to examining how the changes influence the nature of work and relationships within the organization.

  8. Health and productivity management: establishing key performance measures, benchmarks, and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, R Z; Guindon, A M; Turshen, I J; Ozminkowski, R J

    2001-01-01

    Major areas considered under the rubric of health and productivity management (HPM) in American business include absenteeism, employee turnover, and the use of medical, disability, and workers' compensation programs. Until recently, few normative data existed for most HPM areas. To meet the need for normative information in HPM, a series of Consortium Benchmarking Studies were conducted. In the most recent application of the study, 1998 HPM costs, incidence, duration, and other program data were collected from 43 employers on almost one million workers. The median HPM costs for these organizations were $9992 per employee, which were distributed among group health (47%), turnover (37%), unscheduled absence (8%), nonoccupational disability (5%), and workers' compensation programs (3%). Achieving "best-practice" levels of performance (operationally defined as the 25th percentile for program expenditures in each HPM area) would realize savings of $2562 per employee (a 26% reduction). The results indicate substantial opportunities for improvement through effective coordination and management of HPM programs. Examples of best-practice activities collated from on-site visits to "benchmark" organizations are also reviewed.

  9. Biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of palmitoleate production, an important contributor to human health and sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmei; Li, Runzhi; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-10-01

    Palmitoleate (cis-Δ9-16:1) shows numerous health benefits such as increased cell membrane fluidity, reduced inflammation, protection of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of oncogenesis. Plant oils containing this unusual fatty acid can also be sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important and high-demand 1-octene. Vegetable oils rich in palmitoleate are the ideal candidates for biodiesel production. Several wild plants are known that can synthesize high levels of palmitoleate in seeds. However, low yields and poor agronomic characteristics of these plants limit their commercialization. Metabolic engineering has been developed to create oilseed crops that accumulate high levels of palmitoleate or other unusual fatty acids, and significant advances have been made recently in this field, particularly using the model plant Arabidopsis as the host. The engineered targets for enhancing palmitoleate synthesis include overexpression of Δ9 desaturase from mammals, yeast, fungi, and plants, down-regulating KASII, coexpression of an ACP-Δ9 desaturase in plastids and CoA-Δ9 desaturase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and optimizing the metabolic flux into triacylglycerols (TAGs). This review will mainly describe the recent progress towards producing palmitoleate in transgenic plants by metabolic engineering along with our current understanding of palmitoleate biosynthesis and its regulation, as well as highlighting the bottlenecks that require additional investigation by combining lipidomics, transgenics and other "-omics" tools. A brief review of reported health benefits and non-food uses of palmitoleate will also be covered. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Nutrient profiling for product reformulation: public health impact and benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Undine; Charles, Véronique Rheiner; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies. NP systems should be adapted to their specific purposes as it is not possible to design one system that can equally address all policies and purposes, e.g. reformulation and labelling. The present paper discusses some of the key principles and specificities that underlie a NP system designed for reformulation with the example of the Nestlé nutritional profiling system. Furthermore, the impact of reformulation at the level of the food product, dietary intakes and public health are reviewed. Several studies showed that food and beverage reformulation, guided by a NP system, may be effective in improving population nutritional intakes and thereby its health status. In order to achieve its maximum potential and modify the food environment in a beneficial manner, reformulation should be implemented by the entire food sector. Multi-stakeholder partnerships including governments, food industry, retailers and consumer associations that will state concrete time-bound objectives accompanied by an independent monitoring system are the potential solution.

  11. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  12. Application of Bioameliorant and Biofertilizers to Increase the Soil Health and Rice Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tualar Simarmata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The major rice intensity of diseases in Indonesia was increased significantly and has caused a yield loss of up to 20–30%. The experiments had been conducted to investigate the effect of bioameliorant or composted straw (CS combined with consortia of biofertilizers (CB and biocontrol agent to restore the soil health and promote the induced systemic resistance (ISR for increasing the rice productivity. The experiment arranged as randomized block design consisted of 12 treatments (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 ton of CS per ha combined with 400 g of CB and 200 g inoculant of CB + 200 g inoculant of Trichoderma sp and was provided with three replications. The experimental results revealed that application of 2.5–7.5 ton per ha of bioameliorant combined with 400 g per ha of CB and 400 g Trichoderma sp has increased the ISR and enhanced the rice productivity significantly. The brown spot, sheath rice blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases were reduced from 16.7% to 3.3–8.0%, 20% to 4–10%, 24% to 2.7–4.7% and 20.7% to 8–14.0%, respectively at 7 weeks after transplanting. In addition, the rice grain yield was increased from about 7.1 ton ha−1 to 7.9–10.1 ton per ha.

  13. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  14. Human resources in primary health care: investments and the driving force of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sayuri Tanaka; Moleiro, Priscilla Francescucci; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the composition, the qualification, the salary investment, the workforce produce, and discusses users' accessibility in terms of time at Basic Health Units (BHUs). The study was performed at two BHUs from January to December 2008, and developed by analyzing administrative documents. In both, the composition of professionals according to education level revealed: 21% with a university degree, 27% with a secondary education, and50% with a primary education; showing a positive salary variation. The medical and nursing conducts were the majority at both. The production indicators confirmed: 25 and 37 min/person/month for accessibility, respectively for BHU A and B; R$ 8.43 and R$ 12.11/person/month for the salary investment at both BHUs, and 0.07 appointments/person/month at both BHUs. The professionals' available time is scarce compared to the potential of the demand. The production indicated an opportunity of care < 1 per person/month at a reduced cost.

  15. Misplaced Trust: Racial Differences in Use of Tobacco Products and Trust in Sources of Tobacco Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z; Morey, Brittany N

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the rates of utilization of alternative tobacco products have increased. Providing health information about tobacco products from trustworthy sources may help decrease the popularity of these products. Using a nationally representative study of adults, we fill the current gap in research on racial and ethnic disparities in utilization of alternative tobacco products as well as in trust of sources of health information about tobacco products. Data came from the Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3738), which was collected in 2015. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds of use of seven different tobacco product (eg, hookah, e-cigarettes, etc.), trust in seven different sources of e-cigarette health information (eg, family or friends, health care providers, etc.), and trust in six different sources of tobacco health information, adjusting for control variables. There were disparities in utilization of alternative tobacco products and in trust, in tobacco companies across racial and ethnic groups. Blacks and Asians were far more likely than whites to trust tobacco (adjusted odds ratios = 8.67 and 4.34) and e-cigarette companies (adjusted odds ratios = 6.97 and 3.13) with information about the health effects of e-cigarettes than whites. The popularity of alternative tobacco products appears to be high and may offset recent observed decreases in cigarette use. Blacks and Asians appear to trust tobacco companies as sources of information when compared to whites. Higher levels of trust in tobacco companies among Asians and blacks may translate to greater susceptibility to utilize tobacco products among these groups, thereby increasing disparities. There is a need for social marketing and education efforts focused on increasing awareness of adverse health effects of using alternative tobacco products as well as on the untrustworthiness of tobacco and e-cigarette companies, especially among racial and ethnic minorities. © The Author

  16. The Effect of Weight Loss on Health, Productivity and Medical Expenditures among Overweight Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Kruger, Eliza; Tate, Deborah F.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether overweight or obese employees who achieve clinically significant weight loss of 5% or greater have reduced medical expenditures, absenteeism, presenteeism, and/or improved Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL). Methods The sample analyzed combines data from full-time overweight or obese employees who took part in one of the WAY to Health weight loss studies: one that took place in 17 community colleges (935 employees) and another in 12 universities (933), all in North Carolina. The estimations are performed using non-linear difference-in-difference models where groups are identified by whether the employee achieved a 5% or greater weight loss (treated) or not (control) and the treatment variable indicates pre- and post-weight loss intervention. The outcomes analyzed are the average quarterly (90 days) amount of medical claims paid by the health insurer, number of days missed at work during the past month, Stanford Presenteeism Scale SPS-6 and the EQ-5D-3L measure of HRQOL. Results We find statistical evidence supporting that 5% or greater weight loss prevents deterioration in EQ-5D-3L scores by 0.026 points (p-value: 0.03) and reduces both absenteeism by 0.258 days per month (p-value: 0.093) and the likelihood of showing low presenteeism (Stanford SPS-6 score between 7 and 9) by 2.9 percentage points (p-value: 0.083). No reduction in medical expenditures was observed. Conclusions Clinically significant weight loss among overweight or obese employees prevents short term deterioration in HRQOL and there is some evidence that employee productivity is increased. We find no evidence of a quick return on investment from reduced medical expenditures, although this may occur over longer periods. PMID:23632594

  17. Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-11-01

    The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other's performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO's Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.

  18. Current status on health sciences research productivity pertaining to Angola up to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Ferreira, Albano V L

    2015-07-01

    Health research driven by the healthcare demands of the population can provide an informative evidence base to support decision-making processes on health policies, programmes, and practices. This paper surveyed the production of scientific research concerning health in Angola, specifically to access the publication rate over time, the main research topics and scientific fields, and the contribution of Angolan researchers and institutions. The study focused on data collected in a retrospective literature search in Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) as of June 8, 2014, with the keyword "Angola" and on content information in correspondent publications deposited in PubMed. BVS generated 1,029 hits, 74.6 % of which were deposited in PubMed where 301 abstracts were described. From 1979 to 2003, there were 62 publications and in 2004-2013 the quantity increased four-fold (n = 232); malaria was the most frequent topic (n = 42). Angola was the country with the largest number of publications, taking into account the primary affiliation of the first author (n = 45). Universities, institutes, or research centres accounted for 65 % of the publications and in descending order Portugal, Brazil, and the United States of America occupied the three first positions. Epidemiology was by far the most frequent field of research (n = 165). The number of publications has increased steadily over the past 10 years, with predominance on malaria topics. Angola was the country with the largest number of major affiliations of the first author, but the contribution of Angolan institutions was relatively low, indicating a need to reinforce academic research institutions in the country.

  19. The iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire: A Standardized Instrument for Measuring and Valuing Health-Related Productivity Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)