WorldWideScience

Sample records for health preventive medicine

  1. [Environment and health: priorities for preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Mikhaylova, R I

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary environmental factors influencing the formation of the environment and public health have been analyzed The increasing chemical pollution of the environment (air water, soil, living environment), and the intensification of the impact of physical factors in the first place, "electromagnetic smog" associated with the widespread use of appliances and computer equipment, cellular threaten public health have been shown. In this connection, there were determined priorities and main directions of research in the platform "Preventive Environment", approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, which is based on the concept of the factor prevention of noninfectious diseases.

  2. Residency education, preventive medicine, and population health care improvement: the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Leadership Preventive Medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tina; Regan-Smith, Martha; Murray, Carolyn; Dysinger, Wayne; Homa, Karen; Johnson, Lisa M; Batalden, Paul B

    2008-04-01

    In 2003, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) inaugurated its Leadership Preventive Medicine residency (DHLPMR), which combines two years of leadership preventive medicine (LPM) training with another DHMC residency. The aim of DHLPMR is to attract and develop physicians who seek to become capable of leading change and improvement of the systems where people and health care meet. The capabilities learned by residents are (1) leadership -- including design and redesign -- of small systems in health care, (2) measurement of illness burden in individuals and populations, (3) measurement of the outcomes of health service interventions, (4) leadership of change for improvement of quality, value, and safety of health care of individuals and populations, and (5) reflection on personal professional practice enabling personal and professional development. The DHLPMR program includes completion of an MPH degree at The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (formerly the Center for Evaluative Clinical Sciences) and a practicum during which the resident leads change to improve health care for a defined population of patients. Residents also complete a longitudinal public health experience in a governmental public health agency. A coach in the resident's home clinical department helps the resident develop his or her practicum proposal, which must then be approved by a practicum review board (PRB). Twelve residents have graduated as of July 2007. Residents have combined anesthesia, family medicine, internal medicine, infectious disease, pain medicine, pathology, psychiatry, pulmonary and critical care medicine, surgery, gastroenterology, geriatric psychiatry, obstetrics-gynecology, and pediatrics with preventive medicine.

  3. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health.

  4. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.

  5. Exploring the foundations of population health and preventive medicine as essential elements for veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Billy E

    2008-09-15

    The evolution of preventive medicine and public health training in professional veterinary medicine curricula is documented. Most veterinary colleges in the US began with a single course in meat hygiene or public health, with a focus on food hygiene issues. These courses laid the foundation for modern veterinary preventive medicine and public health training for veterinary students. Most graduates of veterinary colleges today have extensive training in population health, preventive medicine, and zoonotic diseases.

  6. Adequacy of Training in Preventive Medicine and Public Health: A National Survey of Residency Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David H.; Salive, Marcel E.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 797 preventive medicine residency graduates found that improvements are needed in the curricula for health administration, environmental health, health education, and occupational medicine. Women found their training less adequate than men did in all areas except clinical preventive medicine. Graduates tended to practice ultimately in…

  7. The future of Connected Health in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Stephen O; Ball, Madeleine; Kvedar, Joseph C; Jethwani, Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Over the last decade, Connected Health (CH) has shown great value in the management of chronic disease (CD), but has limited application in preventing these diseases that remain a huge burden to the society. Technological advances have made determination of genetic predisposition to disease possible and have gained wide use in oncology to develop more effective and individualized treatment strategies-Personalized Medicine. There is growing interest in the application of these genetic tests in predicting risk for complex genetic diseases; even, direct-to-consumer tests are increasingly becoming available and affordable. CH has shown great potential in collecting phenotypic data, which can be overlaid on genomic data to deliver a more precise and personalized preventive care that better engages patients. The goal of a CH program that uses genetic data would be to monitor individuals' risk factors and predict the onset of CD. This prediction would be coupled with coaching to delay or prevent the onset of disease. However, the challenge remains that many CDs are due to complex interaction between genes and modifiable environmental risk factors that are still under-studied.

  8. Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-03-01

    Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.

  9. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  10. The emerging role of preventive medicine in health diplomacy after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James D; Price, Owen; West, David F

    2008-02-01

    On October 22, 2005, a preventive medicine team deployed with the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital to assist with earthquake relief efforts in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. These efforts included core field preventive medicine but quickly extended into other efforts. In collaboration with the host nation and other organizations, the preventive medicine team performed additional support for operations outside the U.S. compound, including water and sanitation assessments of camps for internally displaced persons, communicable disease investigation and control, and vaccination programs. Preventive medicine personnel were vital to health diplomacy efforts in this operation, particularly because of security concerns that prevented other U.S. medical assets from leaving the compound. Comparisons with the U.S. responses during other humanitarian operations are made. Preventive medicine missions in health diplomacy will continue to increase. Training and collaborative relationships with other government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development, and with nongovernmental organizations should continue to be developed.

  11. [Health and dietetics in medieval preventive medicine: the health regimen of Peter of Spain (thirteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Dulce O Amarante Dos; Fagundes, Maria Daílza da Conceição

    2010-06-01

    This text is an analysis of a preventive medical work, Liber de conservanda sanitate, composed in the thirteenth century by the Portuguese physician and doctor, Peter of Spain (?1210-1277). His work enables us to look at the conceptions of health and hygiene and understand the social role of university physicians in medieval preventive medicine. The work constantly displays the notion of the balance in corporal health between internal elements, or natural things (complexion, for example), and external ones, or non-natural things (air, sleep, exercise, food, baths, passions of the soul).

  12. An Overview of Federal Concerns in Health Care and Preventive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Improvement of federal effectiveness in the fields of health care and preventive medicine involves pressure by the public directed toward appropriation of monies, as well as their preliminary authorization. (MJB)

  13. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role.

  14. Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  15. History of “health risk” and its place in the development of preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.Е. Shigan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the introduction and development of preventive medicine and the term HEALTH RISK are described. The “risk” definition is related to the works by Max Fasmer and Frank Knight. The development of preventive medicine was also influenced by the works of scientists and physicians of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. Particular attention is paid to the appearance, formation and development of the medical school of Salerno, and the impact of its work and the activities of scientists and teachers on further development of prevention and treatment. The relationship of these two concepts and their history is shown. The author dwells on the prevention development in Russia, paying particular attention to domestic researchers, especially after the victory of the Great October Revolution. Works by N.A. Semashko, Z.P. Soloviev, G.V. Khlopin, A.N. Sysin and F.G. Krotkov played a huge role in the development of preventive medicine in Russia and in the world. The article also represents the prevention medicine development facts in the post-war years – the creation of large schools of medicine, aimed at the prevention of diseases and epidemiological studies of the risk incurred. The article also pays attention to the foundation of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, some areas of its work, especially in relation to research on the health risks. The itegration at mathematical modeling and forecasting with medicine in general and health in particular, as well as the study of the health concepts of risks at individual nosological examples are written.

  16. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned.

  17. Adolescent health in Colombia: basis for a preventive medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents represent 19.6% of the Colombian population; this requires proper medical training to tackle health problems for this group of age. Violent mortality is high in Colombia but external causes are the most common cause of mortality among teenagers around the world. Invulnerability self-consciousness and exploratory behaviors are related to risk factors such as substance consumption (alcohol, 65%, and tobacco, 35,8%), unsafe sexual conducts (unexpected pregnancy, 21%), and lack of emo...

  18. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  19. Preventive Medicine Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George

    1981-01-01

    Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

  20. [Introduction to the Preventive Medicine Program "Prevention 2006-2009" in the Institute of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still a common habit in Poland. Nowadays, it is the way of coping with stress, it is used to become calm. It is also widely accepted by people from various backgrounds included medicine environment. Unfortunately, the number of young people--tobacco addicts is increasing. Survey proceeding in University implementing of the health promotion's program was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students and accomplishing their knowledge and awareness about threats resulting from tobacco smoking. The study was performed among 501 students. They answered questions concerning smoking and knowledge about nicotine dependence. The research touched such questions as conviction about damage caused by smoking, the source of information, causes and effects of smoking, about environment whether they are, the interviewee's smoking preventive activities. Implanting health promotion's program is an interdisciplinary subject which glue together such sciences as medicine, psychology, sociology, social politics and many others.

  1. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents.

  2. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  3. [Development of an instrument for the surveillance of quality indicators in specialized training in Preventive Medicine and Public Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Latasa, Pello; Reques, Laura; Alemán, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of developing an instrument intended for use in assessing satisfaction with the quality of training in preventive medicine and public health for resident physicians. To develop this instrument, the National Survey of Satisfaction with Medical Residency was adapted by an expert panel consisting of 23 resident physicians in preventive medicine and public health belonging to 9 autonomous communities in Spain. The adaptation of the survey to the specialty rotations included new dimensions and items and was evaluated with a 5-point Likert scale. The most important dimensions were planning and the achievement of specific objectives, supervision, delegation of responsibilities, resources and work environment, personal assessment, encouragement, support, and whether the rotation resulted in a publication or research project, etc. The development and utilization of this tool will enable future trainees in preventive medicine and public health to make an informed choice about their training itineraries. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. HealthOmeter”: An Aid in Advancing Preventive Medicine Media Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective wellbeing is an important issue on the preventive medicine and political agenda and for mutual communication, information, and interaction in society and its individuals “requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements…considering both happiness and misery.” The task is difficult, however, due to the great span of parameters and variables of age and gender, settings, socioeconomic conditions, wellness and illness, activities and functions, roles and habits, thoughts and feelings, and experiences and expectations involved over the panorama. HealthOmeter is a clinically tested and validated instrument with design and capacity in distinct coherent chapters to meet the new measurement and interpretation demands both contentwise and operationwise. Over the range of subjective and objective health it enables, in a uniform normalized layout in quintile balance between positive and negative, an all-round self-assessment and counsel in multimedia, preferably computer/mobile app distribution including storage, collation, and follow-up in full integrity and secrecy on the individual and aggregated level.

  5. To your good health: sick bay is big on preventative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Medical facilities available on the Hibernia platform, 300 plus km off the shores of Newfoundland, were described. The sick bay is a modern, up-to-date medical facility, capable of handling any medical or emergency situation that comes along, from a cold right up to a heart attack or serious physical trauma. The unit is staffed by two registered nurses and is available for use of the 280 to 300 personnel on board on a 24-hour basis. A physician is also on call for emergencies around the clock. The sick bay is fully equipped with the latest technology, including a defibrillator, EKG machine, and the usual range of fusion pumps, oxygen and suction apparatus, and most importantly, with a telemedicine system which provides the sick bay staff with instantaneous expert advice from the Health Sciences Centre onshore. Much of the unit`s work consists of preventative medicine, or health promotion activities, but it also has its share of cuts, scrapes, flu, or headache. It has had to deal with a number of more serious incidents, including two separate fractured legs.

  6. Designing a Competency-Based Program in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine for the Professional Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Lloyd A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A five-day workshop was successful in fulfilling its prime objective, development of a competency-based curriculum for veterinary public health and preventive medicine (VPH & PM). The model now may be used to re-evaluate and, where necessary, revise existing curriculums. (LBH)

  7. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  8. City planning as preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change.

  9. Training the Navy Preventive Medicine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoski, Tom

    1977-01-01

    This article gives the history and purpose of the Navy Preventive Medicine Technician (PMT) School, overviews the program's goals, and summarizes the program of study. PMT students receive 26 weeks of intensive didactic and practical instruction in preventive medicine and environmental health. Graduates receive 421/2 semester hours of college…

  10. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    personnel, and higher headquarters for definitive analysis and review of the Occupational Health Program. This tool s h o u l d a i d i n e v a l u a t i...anemia. (e) Diabetes mellitus. (f) Silicosis. (g) Chronic hemodialysis . (h) History of gastrectomy. (i) Chronic undernutrition or weight loss. (11...See the definition of occupa- tional medicine staff in the glossary.) (4) Appoint an individual to act as the industrial hygiene program manager

  11. [Occupational health care as a basis of occupational medicine monitoring in small companies. Common occupational medicine/ergonomic approach to prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schian, H M

    1991-11-01

    Set out from various specific angles, the concept concerning a modern common industrial medicine/safety/ergonomics approach can be fitted into the present legal framework. Adapted according to specific needs, this approach can equally be applied in all areas--health promotion, prevention, cure, rehabilitation. Those involved in the current debate about industrial health policies start out from the premise that industrial medicine could contribute strongly in this respect. While the workmen's compensation scheme, together with the industrial medical profession, is to a considerable extent involved in the subject as a whole on the basis of the industrial safety Act, its competencies are however limited, being in actual fact confined to the field of health maintenance in the occupational context. The examinations they effect in this framework cannot be based on a holistic medical orientation, because our constitution has expressly excluded the private sphere of the individual (self-management domain). Hence, there are very little chances of success for any attempt of changing current health care practice solely via the workmen's compensation administrations. It currently is, rather, the health and pension insurance schemes who hold the potential for influence. The common approach of industrial medicine, safety and ergonomics outlined may be of considerable use also in view of their goals, and holds sufficient justification for their intervening favourably in the ongoing debate about quality and quantity of industrial medical service provision with the ministries in charge.

  12. Faith-based partnerships in graduate medical education: the experience of the Morehouse School of Medicine Public Health/Preventive Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly D; Buckner, Ayanna V; Walker, Carla Durham; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2011-10-01

    Faith-based organizations can be strategic partners in addressing the needs of low-income and underserved individuals and communities. The Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) Public Health/Preventive Medicine Residency Program (PH/PMR) collaborates with faith-based organizations for the purpose of resident education, community engagement, and service. These partners provide guidance for the program's community initiatives and health promotion activities designed to address health inequities. Residents complete a longitudinal community practicum experience with a faith-based organization over the 2-year training period. Residents conduct a community health needs assessment at the organization and design a health intervention that addresses the identified needs. The faith-based community practicum also serves as a vehicle for achieving skills in all eight domains of the Public Health Competencies developed by the Council on Linkages and all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies. The MSM PH/PMR Program has engaged in faith-based partnerships for 7 years. This article discusses the structure of these partnerships, how partners are identified, funding sources for supporting resident projects, and examples of resident health needs assessment and intervention activities. The MSM PH/PMR Program may serve as a model to other residency and fellowship programs that may have an interest in developing partnerships with faith-based organizations.

  13. Managing genetic tests, surveillance, and preventive medicine under a public health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova-Neumann, Lilia; Hoy, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There is a prospect in the medium to long term future of substantial advancements in the understanding of the relationship between disease and genetics. We consider the implications of increased information from genetic tests about predisposition to diseases from the perspective of managing health care provision under a public health insurance scheme. In particular, we consider how such information may potentially improve the targeting of medical surveillance (or prevention) activities to improve the chances of early detection of disease onset. We show that the moral hazard implications inherent in surveillance and prevention decisions that are chosen to be privately rather than socially optimal may be exacerbated by increased information about person-specific predisposition to disease.

  14. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Is There a Role for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive and Promotive Health? An Anthropological Assessment in the Context of U.S. Health Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Nichter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Chronic conditions associated with lifestyle and modifiable behaviors are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act offers an historic opportunity to consider novel approaches to addressing the nation's public health concerns. We adopt an anticipatory anthropological perspective to consider lifestyle behavior change as common ground shared by practitioners of both biomedicine and common forms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). At issue is whether CAM practitioners might play a more proactive and publicly endorsed role in delivering preventive and promotive health services to address these needs. Recognizing that this is a contentious issue, we consider two constructive roles for engaged medical anthropologists: (1) as culture brokers helping to facilitate interprofessional communities of preventive and promotive health practice and (2) in collaboration with health service researchers developing patient-near evaluations of preventive and promotive health services on patient well-being and behavior change.

  16. Toward an Educated Health Consumer: Mass Communication and Quality in Medical Care. Fogarty International Series on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine. Volume 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Carter L.

    Focus in this preventive medicine monograph for health professionals is on consumer health education and the current and potential effects of mass communication on the quality of medical care. Following an introduction, the content is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 covers the state of the art in consumer health education and discusses three…

  17. From space medicine to preventive and personalized health care on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    The experience of human spaceflight has taught us that aging can be modulated, accelerated and decelerated. This is also confirmed by a number of experiments on animal models. However in order to be effective in managing aging and maintaining quality of life, a new approach needs to be adopted, one that many today call functional medicine or anti-aging medicine that in its essence is very similar to the medical approach provided to the astronauts by space agencies. Space medicine therefore can become a vehicle for the promotion of a new way of doing medicine on Earth.

  18. [Co-author and keyword networks and their clustering appearance in preventive medicine fields in Korea: analysis of papers in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 1991~2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge structure and its effect factor by analysis of co-author and keyword networks in Korea's preventive medicine sector. The data was extracted from 873 papers listed in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and was transformed into a co-author and keyword matrix where the existence of a 'link' was judged by impact factors calculated by the weight value of the role and rate of author participation. Research achievement was dependent upon the author's status and networking index, as analyzed by neighborhood degree, multidimensional scaling, correspondence analysis, and multiple regression. Co-author networks developed as randomness network in the center of a few high-productivity researchers. In particular, closeness centrality was more developed than degree centrality. Also, power law distribution was discovered in impact factor and research productivity by college affiliation. In multiple regression, the effect of the author's role was significant in both the impact factor calculated by the participatory rate and the number of listed articles. However, the number of listed articles varied by sex. This study shows that the small world phenomenon exists in co-author and keyword networks in a journal, as in citation networks. However, the differentiation of knowledge structure in the field of preventive medicine was relatively restricted by specialization.

  19. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education: Competency and Curriculum Development for Preventive Medicine and Other Specialty Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2015-11-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS's Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine's dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site's competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees' work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine training.

  20. Safety: Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

  1. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques.

  2. Integrative Medicine in a Preventive Medicine Residency: A Program for the Urban Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Jonathan P B; Gergen Barnett, Katherine A; Gardiner, Paula; Saper, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    The Preventive Medicine Residency Program collaborated with the Department of Family Medicine's Program for Integrative Medicine and Health Disparities at Boston Medical Center to create a new rotation for preventive medicine residents starting in autumn 2012. Residents participated in integrative medicine group visits and consults, completed an online curriculum in dietary supplements, and participated in seminars all in the context of an urban safety net hospital. This collaboration was made possible by a federal Health Resources and Services Administration grant for integrative medicine in preventive medicine residencies and helped meet a need of the program to increase residents' exposure to clinical preventive medicine and integrative health clinical skills and principles. The collaboration has resulted in a required rotation for all residents that continues after the grant period and has fostered additional collaborations related to integrative medicine across the programs.

  3. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, P<=0.01 for all the balance features. For the youth, the balance state of females was better than that of the males. But this sexual difference disappeared for the middle-aged and elderly group. Second, a double-blind randomized trial was carried out to study the influences of Shengyi capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which

  4. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.

  5. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships—involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies—are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.

  6. Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idler, Nadja; Huber, Johanna; von Mutius, Sabine; Welbergen, Lena; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) medical school, the pilot project "MeMPE Summer University - An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion" was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE) completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance. Methods: The project was evaluated by students using pre- and post-project questionnaires (26 and 57 items, evaluated on a Five-level Likert scale of 1="fully agree" to 5="fully disagree"). The evaluation interviews of the instruction participants were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Results: Questionnaire response rate was 100 %. In pre/post comparison, the students reported an improvement in factual knowledge (pre median=3.0; post median=2.0; pmotivation to participate in the project again. Conclusion: The MeMPE Summer University can serve as an example of best practice for interprofessional communication of prevention and health-promotion topics in theory and practice. The evaluation results show that the project enjoyed a high level of acceptance among students and instructors, and that it should be conducted in a revised version again in 2016.

  7. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education: Implementation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dee; Trask, Jennifer; Sandvold, Irene; Amr, Sania; Chaudry, Sajida S; Debay, Marc

    2015-11-01

    In September 2012, the Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 preventive medicine residency programs to participate in a 2-year project aimed at incorporating integrative medicine (IM) into their residency training programs. The grantees were asked to incorporate competencies for IM into their respective preventive medicine residency curricula and to provide for faculty development in IM. The analysis conducted in 2014-2015 used the following evidence to assess residency programs' achievements and challenges in implementation: progress and performance measures reports, curriculum mapping of program activities to IM competencies, records of webinar participation, and post-project individual semi-structured phone interviews with the 12 grantee project leaders. Key findings are: (1) IM activities offered to residents increased by 50% during the 2 years; (2) Accessing IM resources already in existence at local grantee sites was the primary facilitator of moving the integration of IM into preventive medicine residencies forward; (3) Among all activities offered residents, rotations were perceived by grantees as by far the most valuable contributor to acquiring IM competencies; (4) Online training was considered a greater contributor to preventive medicine residents' medical knowledge in IM than faculty lectures or courses; (5) Faculty were offered a rich variety of opportunities for professional development in IM, but some programs lacked a system to ensure faculty participation; and (6) Perceived lack of evidence for IM was a barrier to full program implementation at some sites. Grantees expect implemented programs to continue post-funding, but with decreased intensity owing to perceived faculty and curriculum time constraints.

  8. Longevity health sciences and mental health as future medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Sorin; Riga, Dan; Mihailescu, Alexandra; Motoc, Daniela; Mos, Liana; Schneider, Francisc

    2010-06-01

    Longevity health sciences and mental health are fields of public health and of preventive and integrative medicine. The antagonism between health construction and human pathology is substantiated by two opposite fundamental pathways: the health-longevity tetrad versus the aging-disease cascade. It is necessary that the current paradigm of contemporary medicine be replaced by the advanced paradigm of future medicine. A societal cost-benefit rate is decisive for health-longevity promotion. This is why the WHO public health strategy keeps forwarding the societal medical target into the global health-longevity field.

  9. Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idler, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich’s Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU medical school, the pilot project “MeMPE Summer University – An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion” was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance.Methods: The project was evaluated by students using pre- and post-project questionnaires (26 and 57 items, evaluated on a Five-level Likert scale of 1=“fully agree” to 5=“fully disagree”. The evaluation interviews of the instruction participants were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Mayring’s qualitative content analysis.Results: Questionnaire response rate was 100 %. In pre/post comparison, the students reported an improvement in factual knowledge (pre median=3.0; post median=2.0; p<0.0001, in scientific work (pre median=3.0; post median=1.0; p<0.0001 and in interprofessional work (pre median=2.0; post median=1.0; p=0.024. In 18 interviews, the instructors largely expressed their motivation to participate in the project again.Conclusion: The MeMPE Summer University can serve as an example of best practice for interprofessional communication of prevention and health-promotion topics in theory and practice. The evaluation results show that the project enjoyed a high level of acceptance among students and instructors, and that it should be conducted in a revised version again in 2016.

  10. Teaching Prevention in Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for including prevention in the clinical medicine clerkship. Summarizes current guidelines, presents examples of curricula in several medical schools, and proposes a future direction that stresses integrating teaching preventive medicine into internal medicine clerkships and across the entire four-year medical curriculum. (DB)

  11. Preventive and Community Medicine in Primary Care. Teaching of Preventive Medicine Vol. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, William H., Ed.

    This monograph is the result of a conference on the role of preventive and community medicine in primary medical care and education. The following six papers were presented at the conference: (1) Roles of Departments of Preventive Medicine; (2) Competency-Based Objectives in Preventive Medicine for the Family Physician; (3) Preventive Medicine…

  12. 预防医学在社区卫生服务中的运用探讨%On the Preventive Medicine in the Community Health Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐尔洪•尼牙孜

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨预防医学在社区卫生服务中的运用效果。方法:将该地区的社区卫生服务工作分成两个阶段,对两个阶段居民对环境卫生、食品卫生、劳动卫生、心理卫生等相关知识的掌握、年家庭食物中毒发生例数以及对社区卫生服务工作的满意度情况进行比较。结果:第二阶段的居民相关知识掌握、年家庭食物中毒发生例数、社区卫生服务工作满意度明显优于第一阶段,均具有显著性差异,P<0.05,有统计学意义。结论:预防医学在社区卫生服务中具有重要地位,可显著提高社区居民的健康水平,应继续扩大预防医学在卫生服务中的应用范围,提高人民预防疾病发生的意识。%  Objective] Study on preventive medicine in the community health service. [Method] the community health services of the region can be divided into two phase, it compared the number of food poisoning cases in the family, the satisfaction of community health service work, and the related knowledge of residents in two phase from the following aspacts:sanitation,food hygiene,labor health and mental health etc.[Result] Knowledge of the second phase of the residents, the annual household food poisoning number, and the community health service job satisfaction was significantly better than the first phase, has significant difference, P<0.05, and has statistical significance. [Conclusion] Preventive Medicine has an important position in the community health service,can significantly improve the level of health of the community, we should continue expand the scope of application of preventive medicine in health services, and improve the awareness of the people's prevention of disease.

  13. Health-promoting and disease-preventive potential ofTrianthema portulacastrumLinn. (Gadabani)-An Indian medicinal and dietary plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Yamaki; Kalyan C Nagulapalli Venkata; Animesh Mandal; Piyali Bhattacharyya; Anupam Bishayee

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 80% of the world population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare need.Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (family: Aizoaceae) is a smal perennial weed found in the Americas, Africa, India, and other regions of the world. This plant is used extensively in Indian traditional medicines and is also consumed as a vegetable throughout Asia for its perceived health beneifts. Phytochemical analysis ofT. portulacastrum reveals the presence of alkaloids, lfavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. Emerging studies demonstrate that crude extracts as wel as bioactive phytoconstituents ofT. portulacastrum exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-infective, analgesic, and anti-inlfammatory activities. A growing number of in vitro andin vivo studies demonstrate various biological and pharmacological activities, including prevention and amelioration of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, infectious diseases and cancer. This review aims to present and analyze available literature to understand the ful potential ofT. portulacastrum in health promotion and disease prevention. Current limitations and future directions of research on this medicinal and dietary plant are also criticaly discussed.

  14. [Preventive geriatrics vs anti-aging medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnitski, A N; Prashchayeu, K I; Trofimova, S V; Birjukova, I V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the main modern ideas of the new interdisciplinary direction at the junction of aesthetic medicine, geriatrics and valeology - preventive geriatrics, or the anti-aging medicine. Describes its purpose, namely effective individual programs of prevention of the development and progression of chronic diseases and age-related conditions; the overview of the diagnostic methods used in preventive geriatrics, individualized prevention programs with proven efficacy is given. Substantiates the importance of preventive geriatrics (anti-aging medicine) as a discipline with its own scientific methodological tools, points of application, and presents prospects of scientific study.

  15. Preventive Medicine 2000: Changing Contexts and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Alicia M.; Marantz, Paul; Taylor, Margaret H.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 142 U.S. and Canadian medical schools compared medical school curricula since 1991, especially in schools moving to the new interdisciplinary format. Thirty- five schools had retained preventive medicine teaching as a separate course; 25 schools integrated preventive medicine concepts into many courses; and 10 schools appeared to have…

  16. Polypills: essential medicines for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-04-15

    In 1977, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed its first Model List of Essential Medicines to guide countries in the creation of national formularies and policies for access, quality, and use of essential medicines as part of achieving the right to health. In 2012, the WHO announced its goal of reducing the number of premature deaths (List of Essential Medicines to include polypill therapy for secondary CVD prevention. In July 2013, the updated 18th Model List of Essential Medicines was released without inclusion of polypill therapy for secondary CVD prevention. In this article, we argue that polypill therapy meets the criteria for essential medicines and that inclusion in the Model List of Essential Medicines will facilitate its access and has the potential to avoid a few million premature deaths and related morbidity from CVD at low cost.

  17. [Future of scientific research on preventive medicine in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Sul

    2006-03-01

    The Korean Society of Preventive Medicine has undergone continuous development, after overcoming the difficult early years, in the 59 years since its establishment in 1947. It has repeatedly upgraded its quality and quantity of research with the first journal edition in 1968 and the continuous increase in publication numbers, scientific articles, joint research projects, intra-field exchanges and participation in various international scientific activities. In the future, we should gather a more extensive collection of opinions regarding the introduction of clinical preventive medicine specialists and prepare for the establishment of a training program for clinical specialists into a preventive medicine residency course. Moreover, we should raise interest in the importance of protecting individual information and maintaining medicine ethics. It's impossible to develop academic activities without cooperation. We need such cooperation with basic medical approaches across a wide range of fields. Furthermore, we should strengthen our cooperation with aspects of clinical and drug epidemiology in many fields including public health, statistics, and dietetics. Finally, we should raise the level of international cooperation with many countries, including North Korea, to prevent diseases and promote health. Preventive medicine is a science in which practice is as important as theory. We must aim to nurture preventive medicine specialists who practice in many areas of society with the goal of preventing diseases, promoting health, improving fertility, and securing healthy elderly life for individuals and the entire population. To this end, we will endeavor to promote both theoretical and practical components of academic development.

  18. [DGSMP - Interdisciplinarity to Advance Social Medicine and Prevention of Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis.

  19. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  20. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective: To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods: Training included didactics (six sessions/year, distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results: A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01. Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76% compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11. Conclusion: Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits.

  1. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Petraro, Paul V.; Via, Christina; Ullah, Saif; Lim, Lionel; Wild, Dorothea; Kennedy, Mary; Phillips, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating). Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods Training included didactics (six sessions/year), distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01). Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76%) compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11). Conclusion Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits. PMID:27507540

  2. Society for Health Psychology (APA Division 38) and Society of Behavioral Medicine joint position statement on the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Wilson, Dawn K; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-06-01

    Beginning in January 2018, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) plans to cover the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), also referred to as Medicare DPP. The American Psychological Association Society for Health Psychology (SfHP) and the Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) reviewed the proposed plan. SfHP and SBM are in support of the CMS decision to cover DPP for Medicare beneficiaries but have a significant concern that aspects of the proposal will limit the public health impact. Concerns include the emphasis on weight outcomes to determine continued coverage and the lack of details regarding requirements for coaches. SfHP and SBM are in strong support of modifications to the proposal that would remove the minimum weight loss stipulation to determine coverage and to specify type and qualifications of "coaches."

  3. Application of Natural Ingredients to Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Junko

    2017-01-01

     The super-aging society in Japan is currently experiencing growing demand for treatments that improve health and longevity. To develop new high-functional foods and search for pharmaceutical candidates among foods and natural products, it is necessary to promote organic collaboration among researchers in pharmacy, medicine, nutrition, and other fields to encourage joint utilization of their technologies. Recently, attempts have been made to use numerous foods and natural products to prevent or treat diseases based on scientific evidence. We have been endeavoring to develop preventive medicines from foods and natural ingredients by engaging in relevant activities such as screening these substances to determine the structures of their effective ingredients, verifying pharmacological activities, and conducting clinical trials. In this study, the effectiveness of Goishi tea (postfermented tea) and Flos Lonicerae (Japanese honeysuckle) for metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders, respectively, was explored. Multicomponent foods and natural ingredients have diverse effects produced by the actions of individual components as well as the interactions among different components. Additionally, when using natural ingredients and similar materials, it is necessary to consider the different extraction efficiencies of various methods and their absorption, deposition, metabolism, and excretion after consumption. The influence of intestinal bacteria and other factors is also critical. In our study, the administration of Goishi tea and Flos Lonicerae in animal models of disease demonstrated high functionality. Based on these findings, we plan to conduct further investigations, including clinical studies in human participants, focusing on the potential usefulness of Goishi tea and Flos Lonicerae as functional foods.

  4. The Current Emphasis on Preventive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saward, Ernest; Sorensen, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    This is a discussion of preventive medicine. Included is a historical background, a discussion of improving the environment, moderating self-imposed risks, changing consumer expectations, recommendations, and conclusions. (BB)

  5. Educação sanitária e medicina preventiva Health education and preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Maria Lucchesi

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentados programas de atividades educativas, sanitárias e cursos desenvolvidos desde setembro de 1967, com o fito de melhorar os padrões de saúde e alimentação de parte da população do município de Santo André, São Paulo. Os cursos têm sido ministrados às normalistas e às mães de instrução primária, residentes em zonas afastadas do Centro urbano. As alunas dos Cursos já estão pondo em prática os ensinamentos recebidos, divulgando conhecimentos de Educação Sanitária, de Agricultura e de Educação Alimentar em todos os Estabelecimentos de Ensino primário de Santo André, num total de 80 unidades com 54.000 alunos matriculados. Conclui-se que através de cursos dessa natureza é possível conseguir a participação de uma população para sanar possíveis problemas advindos da falta de conhecimento de medidas de saneamento, práticas agrícolas e de uma alimentação bem orientada. Trabalhos desta natureza só são votados a êxito quando houver participação conjunta de elementos técnicos dos setôres administrativos municipais, estaduais, federais, particulares e da própria comunidade trabalhada.This work will be accomplished through educational and sanitary activities, and courses developed since September 1967, with the purpose of improving health and nourishment standards. These courses are being given to 2nd and 3rd grades from "Escolas Normais", and to mothers of primary educational level, who live in the suburbs. More advanced students, in the 1st grade of high-school are already applying the education received, about Health Education, Agriculture, and Food Education in all primary schools establishments in Santo André (80 units with 54000 students. We conclude, by stating that attending courses of this sort, it is possible, to obtain participation of the population, in preventing problems which may arise from the lack of knowledge on sanitation, agricultural practices and well oriented nourshment

  6. Personalized medicine and stroke prevention: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joosup; Thrift, Amanda G; Nelson, Mark R; Bladin, Christopher F; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    There are many recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the prevention of stroke, and an ongoing challenge is to improve their uptake. Personalized medicine is seen as a possible solution to this challenge. Although the use of genetic information to guide health care could be considered as the apex of personalized medicine, genetics is not yet routinely used to guide prevention of stroke. Currently personalized aspects of prevention of stroke include tailoring interventions based on global risk, the utilization of individualized management plans within a model of organized care, and patient education. In this review we discuss the progress made in these aspects of prevention of stroke and present a case study to illustrate the issues faced by health care providers and patients with stroke that could be overcome with a personalized approach to the prevention of stroke.

  7. Personalized medicine and stroke prevention: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joosup; Thrift, Amanda G; Nelson, Mark R; Bladin, Christopher F; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    There are many recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the prevention of stroke, and an ongoing challenge is to improve their uptake. Personalized medicine is seen as a possible solution to this challenge. Although the use of genetic information to guide health care could be considered as the apex of personalized medicine, genetics is not yet routinely used to guide prevention of stroke. Currently personalized aspects of prevention of stroke include tailoring interventions based on global risk, the utilization of individualized management plans within a model of organized care, and patient education. In this review we discuss the progress made in these aspects of prevention of stroke and present a case study to illustrate the issues faced by health care providers and patients with stroke that could be overcome with a personalized approach to the prevention of stroke. PMID:26664130

  8. The Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine's Recommendations for Postgraduate Education in Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Terence R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Detailed recommendations for integrating preventive medicine into residency education and the continuum of medical care are outlined, with the goal of putting the patient's health rather than disease process into the forefront of primary care. Suggestions are based on a guide assessing the effectiveness of 169 types of preventive intervention.…

  9. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available.

  10. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  11. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention.

  12. Preventive Medicine May Be Hazardous to Your Pocketbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Stuart O.

    1976-01-01

    Preventive medicine is a powerful and useful strategy for the efficient use of our health resources, but its areas of applicability must be selected carefully, with full consideration given to the factors which are specific to a particular test applied to a particular individual or group of individuals. (Author/RK)

  13. Public Health Genomics education in post-graduate schools of hygiene and preventive medicine: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuale, Carolina; Leoncini, Emanuele; Mazzucco, Walter; Marzuillo, Carolina; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-10-10

    The relevance of Public Health Genomics (PHG) education among public health specialists has been recently acknowledged by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the prevalence of post-graduate public health schools for medical doctors which offer PHG training in Italy. The directors of the 33 Italian public health schools were interviewed for the presence of a PHG course in place. We stratified by geographical area (North, Centre and South) of the schools. We performed comparisons of categorical data using the chi-squared test. The response rate was 73% (24/33 schools). Among respondents, 15 schools (63%) reported to have at least one dedicated course in place, while nine (38%) did not, with a significant geographic difference. Results showed a good implementation of courses in PHG discipline in Italian post-graduate public health schools. However further harmonization of the training programs of schools in public health at EU level is needed.

  14. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns.

  15. Genomics, medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Trbovich

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health genomics unifies the scientific disciplines of genetics and public health. Public health genomics aims to facilitate the transfer of newly acquired knowledge in genetic and molecular biology into classical medicine, to evaluate the currently available genetic tests, and to educate both the medical community and the general population about advancements in molecular and cell biology of medical interest. Due to various factors, the application of new genetic discoveries in classical medicine and the evaluation of the current genetic clinical tests occur at relatively slow paste. The challenge of public health genomics is to create the most effective modus for coexistence of new molecular and cell biology discoveries and classical medical techniques in applied medicine. The ultimate goal is to accomplish a truly individualized medical therapy.

  16. Personalised medicine in asthma: from curative to preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Laurent; Ouksel, Hakima; Belleguic, Chantal; Le Guen, Yannick; Germaud, Patrick; Desfleurs, Emilie; Leroyer, Christophe; Magnan, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The concept of asthma has changed substantially in recent years. Asthma is now recognised as a heterogeneous entity that is complex to treat. The subdivision of asthma, provided by "cluster" analyses, has revealed various groups of asthma patients who share phenotypic features. These phenotypes underlie the need for personalised asthma therapy because, in contrast to the previous approach, treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. Determination of the patient's asthma phenotype is therefore essential but sometimes challenging, particularly in elderly patients with a multitude of comorbidities and a complex exposure history. This review first describes the various asthma phenotypes, some of which were defined empirically and others through cluster analysis, and then discusses personalisation of the patient's diagnosis and therapy, addressing in particular biological therapies and patient education. This personalised approach to curative medicine should make way in the coming years for personalised preventive and predictive medicine, focused on subjects at risk who are not yet ill, with the aim of preventing asthma before it occurs. The concept of personalised preventive medicine may seem a long way off, but is it really? Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. Probiotics for preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules.

  18. Does Sports Medicine Fit in the New Health Care Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C C

    1985-01-01

    Physicians are being forced to compete for their share of a changing health care market. Two traditional concerns of sports medicine-fitness and preventive care-may help some physicians keep their practice healthy.

  19. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 96-107 ... obesity. Specific criteria for MetS developed by. 19 of hypertension. .... Triglycerides 150 mg/dL or more or on Christians 329 (96.2%); and lower grade income.

  20. [Preventive medicine in times of a rapid epidemiologic transition in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Han

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the foundation of the Korean Society for Preventive Medicine in 1947, members of the Society had made remarkable contributions to the public health development and national health promotion. They had played key roles in establishing national health system, improving environmental hygiene, controlling infectious and chronic diseases, promoting family planning, improving industrial and environmental health, and developing health service management. However, the Society had less actively responded to the changes in health service needs of the population that were caused by a rapid epidemiologic transition in last a few decades. Early detection and treatment of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases and risk reduction by the life style modification are major approaches to the contemporary national health problems and they are the core contents of preventive medicine. The author proposed to develop the clinical preventive medicine specialist who will have additional training in clinical medicine for health screening and life style modification to the current preventive medicine training program and thus will be able to provide comprehensive preventive medical services. Another area that the Society may take the initiative is training preventive medicine specialist in the disaster, including bioterrorism, preparedness and management. The Society should be more active in proposing health policy and health service program and also participate collectively in a large scale health research project of the government. These approaches may not only contribute more effectively to the national health promotion but also improve the identity of the Society.

  1. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Cook, Jill L; Derman, Wayne; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-09-01

    The protection of an athlete's health and preventing injuries and illnesses in sport are top priorities for the IOC and its Medical Commission. The IOC therefore partners with selected research centres around the world and supports research in the field of sports medicine. This has enabled the IOC to develop an international network of expert scientists and clinicians in sports injury and disease prevention research. The IOC wants to promote injury and disease prevention and the improvement of physical health of the athlete by: (1) establishing long-term research programmes on injury and disease prevention (including studies on basic epidemiology, risk factors, injury mechanisms and intervention), (2) fostering collaborative relationships with individuals, institutions and organisations to improve athletes' health, (3) implementing and collaborating with applied, ongoing and novel research and development within the framework and long-term strategy of the IOC and (4) setting up knowledge translation mechanisms to share scientific research results with the field throughout the Olympic Movement and sports community and converting these results into concrete actions to protect the health of the athletes. In 2009, the IOC also identified four research centres that had an established track record in research, educational and clinical activities to achieve these ambitions: (1) the Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Australia; (2) the Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre (SIPRC), Canada; (3) the Clinical Sport and Exercise Medicine Research (CSEM), South Africa and (4) the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC), Norway. This paper highlights the work carried out by these four IOC Centres of Excellence over the past 6 years and their contribution to the world of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A Comparative Study on Cancer Prevention Principles Between Iranian Traditional Medicine and Classic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad Masoud; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah) are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava), body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A'raz-e-Nafsani). The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  3. A comparative study on cancer prevention principles between Iranian traditional medicine and classic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Zeinalian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava, body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A′raz-e-Nafsani. The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  4. Why is preventive medicine exempted from ethical constraints?

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1990-01-01

    It is a paradox that medical experimentation on individuals, whether patients or healthy volunteers, is now controlled by strict ethical guidelines, while no such protection exists for whole populations which are subjected to medical interventions in the name of preventive medicine or health promotion. As many such interventions are either of dubious benefit or of uncertain harm-benefit balance, such as mass screening for cancers or for risk factors associated with coronary heart disease, the...

  5. A Graduate Program in Veterinary Preventive Medicine--University of Guelph--1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. R.; Barnum, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A three-semester (12-month) diploma program for veterinarians was begun at the University of Guelph in 1971 that is applicable to veterinarians employed in public health, regulatory veterinary medicine, and animal production medicine, where there is emphasis on preventive medicine. Each student completes a project suitable for seminar presentation…

  6. Implementing the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine's Recommendations into the Undergraduate Medical School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altekruse, Joan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ideas for integrating preventive medicine into the undergraduate medical curriculum include options for curricula in quantitative skills, clinical preventive medicine, primary care rotation, community health services, and independent continuing education. Recommendations are based on a guide assessing the effectiveness of 169 types of preventive…

  7. The prospect of genome-guided preventive medicine: a need and opportunity for genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniel, Julianne M

    2010-08-01

    One of the major anticipated benefits of genomic medicine is the area of preventive medicine. Commercially available genomic profiling is now able to generate risk information for a number of common conditions several of which have recognized preventive guidelines. Similarly, family history assessment affords powerful health risk prediction based on the shared genetic, physical and lifestyle environments within families. Thus, with the ability to help predict disease risk and enable preemptive health plans, genome-guided preventive medicine has the potential to improve population health on an individualized level. To realize this potential, steps to broaden access to accurate genomic health information must be considered. With expertise in genetic science, risk assessment and communication, and a patient-centered practice approach, genetic counselors are poised to play a critical role in facilitating the incorporation of genomic health risks into the burgeoning field of genome-guided preventive medicine.

  8. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji

    2013-08-12

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.

  9. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  10. [What are the competencies that public health physician should have today? A proposal for a shared training program at three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training schools in Rome (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucaroni, Francesca; Parente, Paolo; Damiani, Gianfranco; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mancinelli, Sandro; Bucci, Roberto; De Vito, Corrado; Maurici, Massimo; De Vito, Elisabetta; Franco, Elisabetta; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    To acquire essential knowledge and skills for Public Health practice, residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine programs should be provided with excellent training. On behalf of the Roman Public Health Academy (ARSP), the authors, representing the three Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency training programs in Rome (Italy) aimed to propose a training program to be shared by the above three schools. Firstly, they performed a scientific literature review to identify the core competencies that a public health specialist should have acquired at the end of training. Ten areas (macro-areas or domains) relevant to Public Health practice were defined. The authors then identified the main characteristics that the proposed training program should have, which include: enhancement of community healthcare services and optimization of local resources to create/strengthen exchange and cooperation networks; possibility to adapt the training proposal to an international setting; adoption of a training approach that can respond effectively to a changing health system; customization of training on the basis of residents' individual abilities and motivations, so that their individual strengths can be enhanced; achievement of educational excellence, in compliance with ethical requirements.

  11. Errors in medicine administration - profile of medicines: knowing and preventing

    OpenAIRE

    Reis,Adriano Max Moreira; Marques, Tatiane Cristina; Opitz,Simone Perufo; Silva,Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; GIMENES, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Teixeira,Thalyta Cardoso Alux; LIMA, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the pharmacological characteristics of medicines involved in administration errors and determine the frequency of errors with potentially dangerous medicines and low therapeutic index, in clinical units of five teaching hospitals, in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric study, descriptive and exploratory, using the non-participant observation technique (during the administration of 4958 doses of medicines) and the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification (ATC). RESULTS:...

  12. Construction of Traditional Chinese Medicine preventive health care service system in Changning District%上海市长宁区中医预防保健服务体系建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛敏; 江萍; 马恰怡; 朱吉; 朱敏杰; 郑星; 陈戈; 王磊; 陆旻

    2016-01-01

    2011年以来,在国家中医药管理局和上海市卫生和计划生育委员会、上海市中医药发展办公室指导下,长宁区以社区居民中医预防保健服务需求为导向,积极构建完善区域中医预防保健服务体系,全面开展中医预防保健服务,逐步形成融防治一体、多元文化氛围、以中医特色服务为支撑的中医预防保健服务体系,构建了社区居民健康管理服务新模式,为开创中国特色、上海特点的健康城市建设进行了积极、有益的实践。%Under the guidance of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning and Shanghai Municipal Office for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine( TCM) preventive health care service system was started to construct in 2011 in Changning District of Shanghai.The system was residents'needs orien-ted.After five years of effort, TCM preventive health care service system characterized with integration of prevention and treatment, multicultural atmosphere, supported by TCM featured services was formed.The new model of community health management provided a positive and beneficial practice for the Healthy City construction with Chinese and Shanghai characteristics.

  13. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holčík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  14. Global Advances in Health and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Science, technology, and medicine (STM) are not immune to the widespread and persistent crises that have defined the 21st century. We, the editors of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ), a new scholarly medical journal, believe that solutions in healthcare will be ones that accelerate the application of global advances in health and medicine, resulting in improved population-health management, healthcare delivery, and patient outcomes. The journal is focused on solutions in 3 main ...

  15. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  16. Pediatric health, medicine, and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Wainwright

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wainwright1,21Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane and Queensland, Queensland, Australia; 2Queensland Children’s Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaThe idea of children as small adults with health care needs that can be managed by extrapolation from adult studies has now largely been abandoned. We now recognize that adult health and disease are closely linked to childhood factors and the critical and ethical importance of clinical research in pediatrics is increasingly being recognized.  While funding and output from pediatric clinical research continues to lag behind health research in adults, particularly in the area of therapeutics, the last decade has thankfully seen a dramatic increase in the number of pediatric studies and particularly randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs. Since the 1997 Food and Drug Administration (FDA Modernization Act in the United States (US and the subsequent changes in drug registration regulatory systems in the US and Europe, there has been a huge increase in the number of pediatric studies sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. In the United Kingdom, the Medicine for Children’s Research Network was established in 2005 to address the lack of clinical studies in pediatrics. Over the first five years they reported an exciting increase in the number of high quality clinical studies and on their website they have a current portfolio of over 200 pediatric studies, half of which are RCTs and half are sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. Other countries particularly across Europe are also establishing similar programs. 

  17. [Molecular epidemiology in healthcare-associated infections: guidelines of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (SItI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Stefania; Barchitta, Martina; Colotto, Marco; Ianuale, Carolina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Agodi, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are the most frequent and severe complication acquired in healthcare settings and have a significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs. This document is aimed at different health professionals and focuses on the role of molecular epidemiology in the prevention and management of these infections. It describes the role of molecular characterization and of bioinformatics archives, the organizational levels of laboratories, the evidence regarding cost-effectiveness, ethical aspects related to HAI, and highlights some specific peculiarities of Italy. Molecular epidemiology is an indispensable tool and should be part of a multidisciplinary approach in the proper management of HAI.

  18. [Directions for future development of preventive medicine in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Youn

    2006-05-01

    It is the actual state of the medical society in our country that many graduates of medical schools want to be clinicians, and accordingly Korea's medical situation is relatively too focused on curative medicine. However, this situation is changing due to several factors including a growing number of doctors, inappropriate regulations for medical fees, changes in social status of doctors themselves, and excessive competition between doctors. Furthermore, we expect more advances in medical field of Korea since Korean government started to attach great importance to sciences and produced policies to support sciences, and as a result, more and more interest and effort in the fields of basic research including preventive medicine is being attached especially by young doctors as compared against the past. However, decline of clinical medicine fields doesn't always mean bright future for the field of preventive medicine. True future is possible and meaningful only when we prepare for it by ourselves. In other words, as the promising future is closed to one who spares no effort, we shouldn't fear to oppose unknown challenges and simultaneously need to support colleagues who bear such a positive mind. It is the most important thing for our preventive medicine doctors to evaluate the past and the present of preventive medicine and to foster a prospective mind to prepare for the future of preventive medicine. I set forth my several views according to directions for the development of preventive medicine which we already discussed and publicized in the academic circle of preventive medicine. Those directions are recommen dation of clinical preventive medicine, promotion of preventive medicine specialty, fostering the next generations, improving the quality of genetic epidemiologic study, participation in control of environmental pollution and food safety, contribution to chronic disease control, and preparation to role in medical services for unified Korea.

  19. Preventive medicine oversight of splash pads on military installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Lisa Raysby; Perry, Matthew; Browne, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of military installations have installed splash pads that provide fun, recreational water entertainment for Soldiers and their families. The addition of splash pads brings added responsibilities for medical treatment facility preventive medicine oversight and installation facilities maintenance to ensure a safe and healthy environment. Currently, there are no consistent standards or detailed guidance for military installations to follow when installing and maintaining splash pads. The central issues associated with splash pads on military installations are water quality and risk for waterborne illnesses, responsibility for safety and health oversight, and federal energy and water sustainability mandates. This article examines the importance of implementing a standard for design and oversight to ensure the health and safety of Soldiers and their families.

  20. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Prevention and dental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy.

  2. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults : The European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS) statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhöfer, K.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; Alvarez, M. N.; Annweiler, C.; Bernard, P. L.; Beswetherick, N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Bloch, F.; Boddaert, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bousson, V.; Bourdel-Marchasson, I.; Capisizu, A.; Che, H.; Clara, J. G.; Combe, B.; Delignieres, D.; Eklund, P.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.; Freiberger, E.; Gauvain, J. B.; Goswami, N.; Guldemond, N.; Herrero, C.; Joël, M. E.; Jónsdóttir, A. B.; Kemoun, G.; Kiss, I.; Kolk, H.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kutsal, Y. G.; Lauretani, F.; Macijauskienė, J.; Mellingsæter, M.; Morel, J.; Mourey, F.; Nourashemi, F.; Nyakas, C.; Puisieux, F.; Rambourg, P.; Ramírez, A. G.; Rapp, K.; Rolland, Y.; Ryg, J.; Sahota, O.; Snoeijs, S.; Stephan, Y.; Thomas, E.; Todd, C.; Treml, J.; Adachi, R.; Agnusdei, D.; Body, J. J.; Breuil, V.; Bruyère, O.; Burckardt, P.; Cannata-Andia, J. B.; Carey, J.; Chan, D. C.; Chapuis, L.; Chevalley, T.; Cohen-Solal, M.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Dennison, E. M.; Devogelaer, J. P.; Fardellone, P.; Féron, J. M.; Perez, A. D.; Felsenberg, D.; Glueer, C.; Harvey, N.; Hiligsman, M.; Javaid, M. K.; Jörgensen, N. R.; Kendler, D.; Kraenzlin, M.; Laroche, M.; Legrand, E.; Leslie, W. D.; Lespessailles, E.; Lewiecki, E. M.; Nakamura, T.; Papaioannou, A.; Roux, C.; Silverman, S.; Henriquez, M. S.; Thomas, T.; Vasikaran, S.; Watts, N. B.; Weryha, G.; Adachi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest group on falls and fracture prevention of the European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS), in

  3. Preventive medicine in the older patient: A United Kingdom perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive Medicine in the elderly is often regarded as a redundant concept and pre-existing opinions are barriers in the provision of this service. This article explores the concepts of preventive medicine in the elderly from a United Kingdom perspective and examines current trends, opinions and sets out a path for the future. In particular it focusses on the theories of morbidity associated with ageing, economic viability of providing preventive medicine care for the older person and attempts to seek redress for the current situation.

  4. Approach to Health Supporting System Using Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo

    The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.

  5. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Safety Healthy People healthfinder The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Our Work The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) leads efforts to improve ...

  6. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  7. The Effect Analysis Based on the Students’ Health Behavior Intervention in Preventive Medicine Teaching%基于预防医学教学开展大学生健康行为干预的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查临床医学大学生的健康行为情况,在开展预防医学教学的同时实施干预后进行效果评价,为开展大学生健康行为培养工作提供参考。方法对某医专2014级528名临床大学生用自行设计的健康行为问卷进行调查,在开展预防医学教学的同时实施综合性健康行为干预措施1年后进行效果评价。结果干预后临床大学生的有益健康行为发生率提高,常吃早餐发生率由59.7%升至78.5%,经常运动发生率由21.0%升至39.3%,锻炼减肥发生率由13.5%升至47.0%,安全性行为发生率由28.1%升至64.8%;而有害健康行为发生率下降,偏食发生率由52.4%降至20.8%,节食减肥发生率由20.6%降至10.5%,看电视发生率由63.1%降至22.3%,看色情资料发生率由28.2%降至13.2%;干预前后差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论在开展预防医学教学的同时实施健康行为干预对在校大学生的健康行为培养是有效的,应高度重视和加强大学生的健康行为培养工作。%Objective Investigating the behavior of clinical college students in the preventive medicine teaching and evaluating the effect after the intervention in the preventive medicine teaching ,To pro‐vide the reference for cultivating college students’ health behaviors work .Methods Health behavior surveyed in 528 clinical college students at a medical college level 2014 in preventive medicine teaching and implement comprehensive health behavior intervention effect evaluation by year’ s end . Results The incidence rate of college students’ healthy behavior is rises after the clinical intervention .Eating breakfast rate rise to 59 .7% from 78 .5% ,often movement rate rise to 21 .0% from 39 .3% ,rise to 13 .5% from 47 .0% incidence of exercise to lose weight ,safe sex rate rise to 28 .1% from 64 .8% . And harmful behavior incidence decreased

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Prevention of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Ardila Jaimes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Chinese medicine is based on the oriental philosophy developed thousands of years ago, their understanding involves a deep understanding and knowledge of it. Materials and methods: This article seeks to reflect on the philosophy behind Chinese medicine and the role it has played in preventing the disease. Results: Three perspectives related to the philosophical foundations of traditional Chinese medicine and prevention analysis, the rise and popularity of its use in the prevention and the role of science in strengthening the evidence in the therapeutic of Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses. Conclusion: The contribution of TCM to the prevention of diseases can be magnified to the extent that their study will expand and further substantiate its effectiveness.

  9. Persian Traditional Medicine and Ocular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Hasan; Emaratkar, Elham; Hadavand, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM) system pays special attention to disease prevention. In PTM, physicians believe that overeating may cause accumulation of unhealthy substances in the body and diseases called “Emtela.” With respect to ocular health, foods can be categorized as beneficial and harmful. Harmful foods such as beef, geese, eggplant, cauliflower, and cheese can cause reduced vision. Dehydrating foods such as walnut and salty fish and hot foods such as garlic, onion, and pepper can cause dry eye. Food items that have beneficial effects on ocular health include thyme and saffron and fruits such as grape, fig, apple, plum, and berries. PTM stipulates that one should not drink water with meals or immediately afterwards, since drinking cold (icy) water causes difficulty in absorption of nutrients. Gulping water may have harmful effects on the eyes; therefore, PTM physicians recommend drinking water at a suitable temperature. It is not safe to drink water first at the morning. Sleeping right after eating is harmful too. Avicenna believes that sleeping on one’s belly after a full meal is very harmful for the eyes. Galen says that old people need deep and continuous sleep more than others. From the view of PTM, moving eyes in different directions, making delicate expressions, trying to look at delicate and find pictures and reading small letters would remove ocular fatigue. There have been mentions of local medicine for improving vision as well; for instance, fennel extracts, pomegranate juice, and honey which are suitable for vision improvement. Local administration of pomegranate blossoms is suitable for treating inflammatory reactions. PMID:27800504

  10. 高校教师中医养生与心脑血管疾病的预防%Keeping in good health by traditional Chinese medicine and prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for university teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江乐盛; 张敬文; 吴海波

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous deepening of higher education reform, university teachers'health is worrying.Physical examination shows abnormal indicators including blood pressure, blood lipid, electrocardiogram and B ultrasound.It has a high percentage of the num-ber of PE.Many risk factors easily induce cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and seriously endanger the health of teachers.It is critical for prevention from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by diet therapy and medicinal diet of traditional Chinese medicine , and healthy lifestyle including rule of work and rest, emotional accessibility, and regular exercises .%目的:伴随着高等教育改革的不断深化,高校教师的健康令人堪忧。体检显示,其血压、血脂、心电图及B超等多项指标异常占比居高,诸多危险因素极易诱发心脑血管疾病,严重危害教师群体的身体健康。而中医养生所倡导的食疗药膳,加之起居有常、情志畅达及适量运动等健康的生活方式,对预防心脑血管疾病的发生至关重要。

  11. Assimilating Traditional Healing Into Preventive Medicine Residency Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Denece O; Hopkins, L Olivia; Torres, Eliseo; Prasad, Arti

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive cultural competency includes knowledge and awareness of culturally based healing and wellness practices. Healthcare providers should be aware of the individual patient's beliefs, culture, and use of culturally based health practices because patients may adopt such practices for general wellness or as adjunct therapies without the benefit of discussion with their healthcare provider. This article describes the culturally based traditional healing curriculum that has been implemented in the University of New Mexico Public Health and General Preventive Medicine Residency Program in order to fulfill this knowledge necessity. Curricular elements were added in a stepwise manner starting in 2011, with the full content as described implemented starting in 2013. Data were collected annually with evaluation of the full curriculum occurring in 2015. New Mexico has a diverse population base that includes predominantly Hispanic and Native American cultures, making the inclusion of curriculum regarding traditional healing practices very pertinent. Residents at the University of New Mexico were educated through several curricular components about topics such as Curanderismo, the art of Mexican Folk Healing. An innovative approach was used, with a compendium of training methods that included learning directly from traditional healers and participation in healing practices. The incorporation of this residency curriculum resulted in a means to produce physicians well trained in approaching patient care and population health with knowledge of culturally based health practices in order to facilitate healthy patients and communities.

  12. Locating global health in social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues.

  13. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam; Tybjerg, Karin; Whiteley, Louise;

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based in the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking if cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the wellbeing of their visitors, we instead...... focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize peoples’ multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture......, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. We suggest that museums are an ideal site for doing so, and can thereby contribute to public engagement with medicine that acknowledges multiplicity on both sides. The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine...

  14. Preventing the Decline of Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Samuel O.

    1992-01-01

    This discussion of traditional academic medicine's resistance to changes in practice, technology, and finances looks at three current problems in medical education and two in biomedical research. Solutions are proposed, based on redefinition of the relationship between universities and medical schools and expansion of the conventional narrow focus…

  15. [Allergies in occupational health. Prevention aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Iñiguez de la Torre, M V Ramírez; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, A A; Terradillos García, M J

    2012-04-01

    The concern in all countries of occupational health has led to the study of occupational risk factors and their impact on health. But maintaining the health of workers is increasingly complex, especially in occupational allergic diseases, which have increased in parallel with the increased use in industries of potentially irritating chemicals or allergens, leading to skin or respiratory sensitization. Diseases arising from these immunological substances are classified by Spanish Legislation as occupational diseases, as set out in Royal Decree 1299/2006, of November 10, 2006 (Group 1, Group 4 and Group 5). The most important ones in occupational medicine are allergic respiratory diseases and dermatological allergic diseases, although there are other allergies of interest, such as those involving mucous membranes (allergic eye diseases). A joint collaboration between the different medical disciplines involved to improve prevention at work is highly desirable.

  16. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    infection prevention and control programmes for the protection of patients, patient care givers and healthcare ... laundry, pharmacy etc where there is exposure to a .... unused sterile swabs (10) and culture media plates ..... patient safety.

  17. Dysphagia Rehabilitation and Prevention of Aspiration Pneumonia : The trial of Integrative Medicine -

    OpenAIRE

    植田, 耕一郎; Ueda, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Dysphagia rehabilitation has made rapid progress for ten years. It has been come into wide use across fields of medical care, health and welfare. Contacting with rehabilitation medicine, it was thought that training was possible for a mouth obstacle. However we have come to the time to reflect about dysphagia rehabilitation. Chronic diseases are increasing in aging society. And integrative medicine is new possibility of dysphagia rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia in the si...

  18. Current Status and Prospect of Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases by Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ To carry out integrative medical prevention and treatment of oral diseases, based on the inheritance and development of traditional medicine as well as the application of modern scientific, technique and medical theory, is of great significance in oral health maintenance. Certain achievements of the integrative traditional Chinese and Western medicine (TCM-WM) have been obtained in the recent several years in clinical and experimental studies and theoretic exploration of oral diseases, which are introduced briefly as follows.

  19. Why utilisation of medicines is a public health interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of medicines exerts important effects on public health and health systems in different ways, including their pharmacological properties, their economic impact on health systems and their impact on the environment. Medicines cause intended therapeutic effects. Medicines are able to treat diseases, slow their progression or prevent their appearance as well as relieve symptoms. This is the reason why physicians prescribe, patients use and governments pay for medicines. Some therapeutic classes of drugs represent important progress in medicine and have dramatically improved the therapeutic approach to several diseases.As an example antiulcer agents have changed a severe disease (with fatal complications, requiring gastric surgical resection, into a disease requiring only the consumption of few pills each day for a short period of time, with a substantial improvement in prognosis and quality of life for patients. Avoiding the surgical intervention of gastric resection, and all of its complications, has resulted in substantial gains for individual patients and public health as well as a substantial reduction in the costs of hospitalisation. For other therapeutic classes the benefits are more limited, while the advantages of their use in everyday practice are less evident.

  20. Preventive Medicine: Safeguards against Virus Liability Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities that provide computer services have become vulnerable to potential lawsuits associated with contraction and spread of computer viruses. Bookstore, library, and computer classroom or laboratory are most susceptible. In addition to protection against legal liability, schools should take specific steps to prevent problems.…

  1. A Military Doctor Pioneer of the Preventive Medicine in Turkey: Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Ceyhan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important turning points in Turkish History of Medicine is the transfer of Western / European medical knowledge to Ottoman medicine in 19th century. This knowledge is mostly transferred by government employed Ottoman citizens and aimed at improving the health status of the Ottoman State’s elites, troops and people. Most important contributions of transferring and popularizing the concepts of microbe and vaccination to Ottoman medicine, concerning both disease and preventive medicine, were made by a military doctor, “Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey”. He served in a large spectrum of military and civilian health services from field medicine to professorship in higher educational institutes and made important contributions for education of modern medicine in Turkish language. He was a part of the Ottoman team visiting Pasteur to learn the rabies vaccine and given credit to be one of the first users of microbiological knowledge and applications in Ottoman Country. He also tried to disseminate the knowledge about health amongst people and wrote more than 50 manuscripts, most of them published as books or newspaper periodicals. He is a figure who made important contributions of the accumulation and distribution of modern medical knowledge, including preventive medicine, in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 347-350

  2. Personal health care of internal medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Palabindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical residents, as part of their job to balance the demands of their work with caring for themselves so as to be mentally, emotionally, and physically sound to stay clinically competent. While regulatory and legislative attempts at limiting medical resident work hours have materialized but have yet to attain passage, there are fairly little data looking into how residents cope up with their demands and yet attend to their own personal health.Anonymous mailed survey.Three hundred and thirty-seven residents from all internal medicine residency programs within United States.We conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire that was sent by e-mail to the program directors of various internal medicine residency programs within the United States, and responses were collected between May 19 and June 21, 2009. Response was well appreciated with total number of participants of 337 with even demographical distribution in gender, residency year, AMG/IMG, age group. Seventy-one percent of the residents felt that they would prefer getting admitted to their own hospital for any acute medical or surgical condition. Of the 216 residents who have had received health care in the past, almost half of them chose their own hospital because of the proximity, while 45% did not choose their own hospital despite proximity. Two out of three residents missed their doctors appointments or cancelled them due to demands of medical training. Only half of the residents have a primary care physician and almost 80% of them did not have their yearly health checkup. Close to 30% held back information regarding their social and sexual history from their provider because of privacy and confidentiality concerns. Eighty percent of residents never received information about barriers that physicians may face in obtaining care for their socially embarrassing conditions. Seventy percent felt that their performance then was suboptimal because of that health condition and also felt

  3. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    For effective malaria control in Nigeria, free or subsidized malaria treatment and rural health insurance scheme ... triggers productive asset sales or high levels of debt,. Cost of malaria ..... November, 2012. Insurance Schemes and promotion/.

  4. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    birth attendants, and if there is a proper division of labour amongst the three tiers of the health system. 3 ... Obstetric. Care,. Traditional. Birth. Attendants,. Maternal. Mortality,. Neonatal ..... interview believed that sudden onset of labor and.

  5. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    Knowledge about andropause is better among older men (p<0.05) but educational status ... erectile dysfunction, changes in mood (depression ... quality of life [Karazindiyanoglu 2008]. represented ... with older patients about sexual health.

  6. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    satisfy the perceived needs of the clients they serve. age (15-45years) is put at .... Table 3: ANC clients' satisfaction of interpersonal relationship with Health .... listening to them, provider understanding their complaints are usually lodged, ...

  7. Health is primary: Family medicine for America's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Pugno, Perry A; Saultz, John W; Tuggy, Michael L; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Hoekzema, Grant S; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Weida, Jane A; Peterson, Lars E; Hughes, Lauren S; Kruse, Jerry E; Puffer, James C

    2014-10-01

    More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to "renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society," some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America's Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). Family Medicine for America's Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of training; technology to support

  8. Preventing the First Cesarean Delivery: Summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.

    2012-01-01

    With over one-third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and non-medical factors leading to the first cesarean were reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for non-medical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of “failed induction” should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed, as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated, and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery is facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health. PMID:23090537

  9. Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D; Mercer, Brian M; Saade, George R

    2012-11-01

    With more than one third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean delivery. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and nonmedical factors leading to the first cesarean delivery was reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean delivery on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean delivery rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for nonmedical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of "failed induction" should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery are facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean delivery with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health.

  10. Preventive medicines: vaccination, prophylaxis of infectious diseases, disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients.

  11. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    availability and affordability of ACTs in Secondary Health Care (SHC) facilities in Lagos State and ... percent (37.5%) of the hospitals did not have the drug in stock at the time of visit and drugs had been out of .... Only one in the community pharmacies as single dose .... funding and international competitive bidding for.

  12. & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE COMMUNITY MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users of the services, desire for more children, fear of side effects and partner's ... It confers important health and potential to control population growth and in the ... number of children, thereby enhance reproductive planning would avert a total of ..... collection of the data. review and recommendation for future policy decision.

  13. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    Breastfeeding is the super food for babies and is sufficient if given exclusively in the ... Approximately 90% of all mothers interviewed had heard about EBF, although with .... formula for proportion was used to estimate a total ..... diseases was one important benefit mentioned in ... and her health are different, he is healthier.

  14. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    western Nigeria to Participate in Community Based Health Insurance. 1. 2 ..... Islam. Others. 159. 225. 3. 41.1. 58.1. 0.8. Marital status. Single. Married. 96. 287. 24.8 ..... services in southeast Nigeria. ... and the poor: evidence from Nigeria",.

  15. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 and optimal use. In Nigeria, despite the The main objective of this study is therefore to .... Islam. Others. 185. 205. 5. 46.8. 51.9. 1.3. Utilization (use) of PHC Services and educational qualifications and of low socio-economic .... other zones except in the south-east region. .... primary health care interventions, the evidence is.

  16. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... of research findings, reviews, theories and information on all aspects of public health. ... health planning and management, health policy, health care financing, public health nutrition, ...

  17. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  18. Environmental and occupational medicine and injury prevention: education and impact, classroom and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar

    2002-01-01

    The core value guiding the work of physicians and health workers, including those in Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology and Medicine and Injury Prevention, is to protect the health of the public, especially its most vulnerable individuals. In these fields, we emphasize teaching the use of epidemiology, the core discipline of public health, as a tool for early detection and prevention of disease and injury, as well as an instrument for hypothesis testing. The classic core topics are toxic and physical exposures and their effects, and strategies for their prevention; emerging issues are child labor, mass violence, and democide. In environmental health, students need to be prepared for the reality that the most important and severe problems are often the most difficult to investigate, solve, and evaluate. The following are some recommendations for producing graduates who are effective in protecting communities from environmental hazards and risks: (1) Teach the precautionary principle and its application; (2) Evaluate programs for teaching environmental and occupational health, medicine and epidemiology in schools of public health by their impact on the WHO health indicators and their impact on measures of ecosystem sustainability; (3) Develop problem-oriented projects and give academic credit for projects with definable public health impact and redefine the role of the health officer as the chief resident for Schools of Public Health and Community Medicine; (4) Teach the abuses of child labor and working conditions of women in the workplace and how to prevent the hazards and risks from the more common types of child work; (5) Upgrade teaching of injury prevention and prevention of deaths from external causes; (6) Teach students to recognize the insensitivity of epidemiology as a tool for early detection of true risk; (7) Teach the importance of context in the use of tests of statistical significance; (8) Teach the epidemiologic importance of short latency

  19. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  20. Disease prevention and health promotion in medical education: reflections from an academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, David; Cebul, Randall D; Masters, Sophia; Nosek, Thomas; Haynie, Robert; Smith, C Kent

    2004-07-01

    It is unclear whether academic health centers are successfully addressing societal needs and expectations by preparing students with knowledge and skills in disease prevention and health promotion. The authors assessed whether students were exposed to key content in these areas and whether they felt this exposure was adequate. All components of the first three years of the Case Western Reserve University (Case) curriculum were examined in 2001 to create a curricular map, using competencies in disease prevention and health promotion identified by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM) as a template to assess the scope of instruction. Case students' United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 subscores in preventive medicine and health maintenance from 1994 to 2000 and graduating seniors' assessment of the adequacy of their training were compared to national data from the Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000 Graduation Questionnaire (GQ). Most content areas identified by ATPM were present in the Case curriculum and were offered frequently in a variety of educational venues over the first three years. USMLE scores increased nationally and at Case from 1994 to 2000 and Case students' perception of training adequacy in preventive medicine and health promotion was comparable to national ratings from the 2000 GQ. Broad and frequent exposure to disease prevention and health promotion core competencies has value, but may not sufficiently prepare students to deliver health-promoting services confidently. Creative curricula highlighting prevention's relevance throughout clinical practice and incorporating formal opportunities to apply knowledge and build experience may result in greater success.

  1. Tibetan medicine: a complementary science of optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J; Blackhall, Leslie J; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2009-08-01

    Traditional medical systems are challenging because their theories and practices strike many conventionally trained physicians and researchers as incomprehensible. Should modern medicine dismiss them as unscientific, view them as sources of alternatives hidden in a matrix of superstition, or regard them as complementary sciences of medicine? We make the latter argument using the example of Tibetan medicine. Tibetan medicine is based on analytic models and methods that are rationally defined, internally coherent, and make testable predictions, meeting current definitions of "science." A ninth century synthesis of Indian, Chinese, Himalayan, and Greco-Persian traditions, Tibetan medicine is the most comprehensive form of Eurasian healthcare and the world's first integrative medicine. Incorporating rigorous systems of meditative self-healing and ascetic self-care from India, it includes a world-class paradigm of mind/body and preventive medicine. Adapting the therapeutic philosophy and contemplative science of Indian Buddhism to the quality of secular life and death, it features the world's most effective systems of positive and palliative healthcare. Based on qualitative theories and intersubjective methods, it involves predictions and therapies shown to be more accurate and effective than those of modern medicine in fields from physiology and pharmacology to neuroscience, mind/body medicine, and positive health. The possibility of complementary sciences follows from the latest view of science as a set of tools--instruments of social activity based on learned agreement in aims and methods--rather than as a monolith of absolute truth. Implications of this pluralistic outlook for medical research and practice are discussed.

  2. Prevention through health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G M

    1992-08-01

    Risk can lead to catastrophe. Risk-management systems are highly effective in preventing the catastrophes of fire, earthquakes, and work-site injuries. No such effective systems are present to prevent health and social problems. A practical, cost-effective system to manage risk in children is being developed by the nonprofit Arizona Health Evaluation and Longevity Planning (HELP) Foundation. Information regarding such risk is collected in the school setting. This voluntary information comes from the administration, the school nurse, physical fitness testing, blood testing by the local hospital, self-esteem instruments, and parent, teacher, and child questionnaires. The HELP Foundation then develops an individual child and class risk profile that is presented to the teacher, school nurse, principal, and parent. Those involved with each child then prioritize, plan, and implement programs and activities to manage the identified risk(s). Risks is tracked throughout the child's school career by periodic reassessment. Evaluation of change in problem outcome will be a natural extension of the process.

  3. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513

  4. THE ROLE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. A STUDY CASE ON THE PRIVATE MEDICINE SECTOR IN ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concerns with respect to healthy life styles, preventive medical approaches, safe environment, and early warning systems represents the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations Organization's so called Decade for Education for Sustainable Development, the European Union's sustainability strategy, the Global Environmental Outlook of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and the ten Principles of the UN Global Compact, all aiming to attain the sustainable global health, which is possible only through collective multilevel efforts for the sake of human wellbeing, equity, livelihood, and worldwide sustainable development and stability. Romania, as an EU Member States, have to take into consideration the fact that health is a precondition for economic growth and sustainable development, and this way, it has to promote the EU common approaches to health policy. Between these approaches, the prevention plays a key role when addressing to the global health challenges such as the pandemics control, and the rising tide of non-communicable diseases. For these purposes, preventive strategies need to include promoting polices that foster a healthy environment, healthy life styles and equitable access to health care and information, so, it is necessary to meet the requests towards sustainable global health. From this perspective, for the empirical research pursued in this paper, we have considered the Global Challenge Index, which focuses on seven global challenges of the new millennium, and on this basis, we have compared Romania with the other EU Member States. Then, we have computed the index for Oradea and its neighbour region, including the framework of a comprehensive analysis of political, economic and social target system. The key issues we have considered in this context were referring to lifestyles, life care and education for lifelong well-being, partnerships for health, institutions and related policy areas, alternative

  5. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  6. Implementing Personalized Medicine in the Academic Health Center

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Recently we at Partners Health Care had a series of articles in the Journal of Personalized Medicine describing how we are going about implementing Personalized Medicine in an academic health care system [1–10].[...

  7. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health.

  8. [Health resorts and development of the health resort medicine in Lithuania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2005-01-01

    Lithuanian health resorts are national resources of this country. Body hardening, health promotion, disease prevention and rehabilitation by means of applying natural factors are linked for centuries with the names of health resorts such as Druskininkai and Birstonas. The effect of natural factors is multiplex and depends on many parameters the study of which in concrete health resorts is indispensable in order to individualize the treatment at the health resorts and avoid undesirable side effects. As the contingent of the patients being referred to the sanatoria is changing--the number of severe patients after acute disorders and traumas is increasing constantly--the need of such studies becomes relevant. However, after renewal of independence of Lithuania in 1990, the policy of health resort development on the national scale has not been carried out yet. Besides, the number of localities that aim for becoming health resorts is increasing, however, such localities often do not meet the required criteria. The article reviews the status of health resorts and their localities together with their regulations in Lithuania, their development, specificity, the effects of the health resort natural factors (climatotherapy, balneotherapy, pelotherapy) on the healthy body and patients. The data are presented on the development of research studies concerning health resorts and main trends of health resort medicine: health promotion, prevention of disorders, early health resort rehabilitation, health resort tourism, treatment and health resort etiology. Possibilities of revival of studies concerning the effects of health resort factors on the rehabilities are discussed.

  9. Translational Health: The Next Generation of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    integral component of a genotyping study into the genetics of diabetic nephropathy , MAESTRA continues to be developed in the laboratory as part of...Projects focused on cancer, diabetes , and other health issues that could be coordinated to move these systematic treatment and disease prevention...accurate predictions as to appropriate courses of treatment . Leveraging these technologies in combination represents a significant step toward

  10. Transformation and trends in preventive and social medicine education at the undergraduate level in a Brazilian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.

  11. HERD HEALTH DEFINITION AND STRATEGIES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VETERINARY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE PROGRAMS SALUD DE HATO DEFINICIÓN Y ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE PROGRAMAS DE MEDICINA VETERINARIA PREVENTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Varon, Jorge Luis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of a herd health program for food animals is the maintenance of animal health and production at the most efficient level that provides competitive economic returns to the farmer. Some equally important secondary objectives include providing animal welfare, ensuring the product’s quality, minimization of pollution of the environment by animal wastes, the prevention of zoonoses, and the avoidance of contaminants and residues in animal products. Targets of performance need to be considered when establishing a production medicine management program. In a herd health program, the actual levels of efficiency are compared to the objectives previously set; the difference corresponds to sub optimal production problems. Using an oriented problem-solving approach to adequately identify health issues that may negatively impact the production system, it is possible to implement the necessary corrective actions to health problems. The reasons for failure are then identified, recommendations for improvement are made and performance is monitored to assess the effectiveness of the action taken. Veterinary epidemiology has become a very important quantitative tool to assess and follow herd health programs. The objectives of the present paper are to discuss some of the basic principles of herd health, and to present a practical approach to use epidemiological tools for herd health problem investigations.El objetivo principal de un programa de Salud de hato en animales de producción es el mantenimiento de la salud animal y la producción en el nivel más eficiente que ofrezca rentabilidad económica competitiva al productor. Algunos objetivos secundarios igualmente importante, incluyen proporcionar bienestar animal, garantizar la calidad de los productos producidos, minimizar el impacto medio ambiental generado por los residuos de origen animal, la prevención de las enfermedades zoonóticas y disminución de la presentación de

  12. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT....

  14. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  15. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  16. Perspectives on advancing preventative medicine through vaccinology at the comparative veterinary, human and conservation medicine interface: not missing the opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Peter L; Nara, DeAnna; Chaudhuri, Ray; Lin, George; Tobin, Greg

    2008-11-18

    Vaccination has historically and remains one of the most cost-effective and safest forms of medicine today. Along with basic understanding of germ theory and sanitation, vaccination, over the past 50 years, has transformed lives and economies in both rich and poor countries by its direct impact on human and animal life--resulting in the eradication of small pox, huge reductions in the burden of previously common human and animal diseases such as polio, typhoid, measles in human medicine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, screwworm and hog cholera and the verge of eradicating brucellosis, tuberculosis, and pseudorabies in veterinary medicine. In addition vaccination along with other animal production changes has provided the ability to produce otherwise unaffordable animal protein and animal health worldwide. The landscape however on which vaccinology was discovered and applied over the past 200 years, even in the past 10 years has and is undergoing continuous change. For vaccination as a public health tool to have its greatest impacts in human and veterinary medicine, these great medical sciences will have to come together, policy-relevant science for sustainable conservation in developing and developed countries needs to become the norm and address poverty (including lack of basic health care) in communities affected by conservation, and to consider costs and benefits (perceived or not) affecting the well-being of all stakeholders, from the local to the multinational. The need to return to and/or develop new education-based models for turning the tide from the heavily return-on-investment therapeutic era of the last century into one where the investment into the preventative sciences and medicine lead to sustainable cultural and cost-effective public health and economic changes of the future is never more evident than today. The new complex problems of the new millennium will require new educational models that train para- and

  17. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine′s other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely.

  18. The application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge-Liang; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Qing; Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Military medicine has had a long history in China since the emergence of the war. Chinese medicine, especially Chinese herbs, was widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of diseases in the military for hundreds of years. However, the use of Chinese medicine in military health service has never been well studied. In this article, we briefly summarize the application status of Chinese herbal medicine in military health service in China, putting particular emphasis on special military environment, in an attempt to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and military health service and promote the quality of health service for the military and maintain world peace.

  19. 家庭医生开展中医预防保健服务的做法和作用%The method and role of the family doctors in development of prevention and health care services of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于中医治未病理论,以体质辨识为抓手,在家庭医生责任制模式中引入中医预防保健服务功能,推进社区中医预防保健服务的开展。方法:在现有家庭医生责任制模式中,建立中医预防保健服务的管理、宣传和健康管理机制,为签约居民开展体质辨识,根据辨识结果将人群分为未病、欲病和已病3种,提供不同的中医健康管理服务。结果:初步形成家庭医生责任制模式中中医预防保健服务的运行方法,形成家庭医生、社区护士和中医师分工合作机制。结论:中医预防保健服务符合经济、适用、有效、覆盖面广的社区卫生服务要求,与家庭医生责任制结合将进一步完善社区卫生服务中心的服务内涵,符合社区卫生改革发展的方向。%Objective:Based on the theory of prevention of disease with traditional Chinese medicine, and the physical identiifcation as the starting point, prevention and health care services of traditional Chinese medicine were introduced into the family doctors responsibility system to give impetus to the development of prevention and health care service of traditional Chinese medicine in community. Methods: In the current family doctors responsibility system model, the mechanism of management, advocacy and health management of prevention and health care services of traditional Chinese medicine were established for the residents who signed the contracts to carry out the physical identification. According to the results of recognition, the population was divided into three groups that was not ill, would be ill, and had been ill and different health managements of traditional Chinese medicine were provided. Results:The operative method of prevention and health care services of traditional Chinese medicine was initially established in the family doctors responsibility system which formed the mechanism of sharing out the work and cooperating

  20. Preventing texting while driving: a statement of the American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Kevin M; Lowe, Andrea L; Harvey, Bart J; Leiva, Daniel F; Malik, Aaqib; Matthews, Sarah; Suh, Ryung

    2014-11-01

    The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) is providing a set of recommendations designed to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with distractions due to texting while driving. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 12% of all fatal crashes involving at least one distracted driver are estimated to be related to cell phone use while driving. Given the combination of visual, manual, and cognitive distractions posed by texting, this is an issue of major public health concern for communities. Therefore, the ACPM feels it is timely to discuss this issue and provide the following recommendations: 1. Encourage state legislatures to develop and pass legislation banning texting while driving, while simultaneously implementing comprehensive and dedicated law enforcement strategies including penalties for these violations. Legislatures should establish a public awareness campaign regarding the dangers of texting while driving as an integral part of this legislation. 2. Promote further research into the design and evaluation of educational tools regarding texting while driving that can be incorporated into the issuance of driver’s licenses. 3. Provide primary care providers with the appropriate tools to educate patients of all ages. 4. Conduct additional studies investigating the risks associated with cell phone usage while driving, particularly texting, with motor vehicle crashes.

  1. Comparison of Patient Health History Questionnaires Used in General Internal and Family Medicine, Integrative Medicine, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Justin G R; Shapiro, Martin F

    2017-05-01

    Health history questionnaires (HHQs) are a set of self-administered questions completed by patients prior to a clinical encounter. Despite widespread use, minimal research has evaluated the content of HHQs used in general internal medicine and family medicine (GIM/FM), integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; chiropractic, naturopathic, and Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM]) clinics. Integrative medicine and CAM claim greater emphasis on well-being than does GIM/FM. This study investigated whether integrative medicine and CAM clinics' HHQs include more well-being content and otherwise differ from GIM/FM HHQs. HHQs were obtained from GIM/FM (n = 9), integrative medicine (n = 11), naturopathic medicine (n = 5), chiropractic (n = 4), and TCM (n = 7) clinics in California. HHQs were coded for presence of medical history (chief complaint, past medical history, social history, family history, surgeries, hospitalizations, medications, allergies, review of systems), health maintenance procedures (immunization, screenings), and well-being components (nutrition, exercise, stress, sleep, spirituality). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of well-being components was 1.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4) compared with 4.0 (SD, 1.1) for integrative medicine (p medicine (p = 0.04), 2.0 (SD, 1.4) for chiropractic (p = 0.54), and 2.0 (SD, 1.5) for TCM (p = 0.47). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of medical history components was 6.4 (SD, 1.9) compared with 8.3 (SD, 1.2) for integrative medicine (p = 0.01), 9.0 (SD, 0) for naturopathic medicine (p = 0.01), 7.1 (SD, 2.8) for chiropractic (p = 0.58), and 7.1 (SD, 1.7) for TCM (p = 0.41). Integrative and naturopathic medicine HHQs included significantly more well-being and medical history components than did GIM/FM HHQs. Further investigation is warranted to determine the optimal HHQ content to support the clinical and preventive

  2. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed.

  3. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  4. The new holism: P4 systems medicine and the medicalization of health and life itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn; Getz, Linn

    2016-06-01

    The emerging concept of systems medicine (or 'P4 medicine'-predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) is at the vanguard of the post-genomic movement towards 'precision medicine'. It is the medical application of systems biology, the biological study of wholes. Of particular interest, P4 systems medicine is currently promised as a revolutionary new biomedical approach that is holistic rather than reductionist. This article analyzes its concept of holism, both with regard to methods and conceptualization of health and disease. Rather than representing a medical holism associated with basic humanistic ideas, we find a technoscientific holism resulting from altered technological and theoretical circumstances in biology. We argue that this holism, which is aimed at disease prevention and health optimization, points towards an expanded form of medicalization, which we call 'holistic medicalization': Each person's whole life process is defined in biomedical, technoscientific terms as quantifiable and controllable and underlain a regime of medical control that is holistic in that it is all-encompassing. It is directed at all levels of functioning, from the molecular to the social, continual throughout life and aimed at managing the whole continuum from cure of disease to optimization of health. We argue that this medicalization is a very concrete materialization of a broader trend in medicine and society, which we call 'the medicalization of health and life itself'. We explicate this holistic medicalization, discuss potential harms and conclude by calling for preventive measures aimed at avoiding eventual harmful effects of overmedicalization in systems medicine (quaternary prevention).

  5. The right to preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The right to health care is a right to care that (a) is not too costly to the provider, considering the benefits it conveys, and (b) is effective in bringing about the level of health needed for a good human life, not necessarily the best health possible. These considerations suggest that, where possible, society has an obligation to provide preventive health care, which is both low cost and effective, and that health care regulations should promote citizens' engagement in reasonable preventive health care practices.

  6. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals. RESULTS: In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level. CONCLUSION: Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis with Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-ling; FENG Yu-xiong; PENG Yong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,laboratory reports,medication rules,formulating principles,and research methods are summarized and analyzed,including single herb,compound herbs,and the problems in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis(OP)within the past decade.With widely recognized efficacy,satisfying achievements have been achieved in preventing and treating OP with Chinese herbal medicines(CHM).However,due to the complex constituents,the pharmacological activities and mechanism of CHM are not clear yet,and there is no unified standard on the diagnosis and syndrome differentiation of OP and the efficacy evaluation of CHM in the treatment.Accordingly,the research in the future should focus on the pharmacology and standardization of CHM in treating OP.

  8. Preventive medicine: self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students at the Medical University of Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, Livia; Rieder, Anita; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Prevention and health promotion are gaining importance in modern medical curricula. Aim of this study was to evaluate the self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students towards health promotion and prevention. In 2012, at the Medical University of Vienna, 27% of the 633 fourth-year medical students (50.3% male and 49.7% female; mean age: 24 years) completed a questionnaire. Results show a high assessment of prevention in most respondents. Knowledge gaps were detected on occupational health and mother-child pass examinations. However, almost all students reported sufficient knowledge on screening and risk assessment of developing cardiovascular diseases. Almost all respondents estimated to be able to identify risky behaviours. Overall, estimation towards prevention of tomorrow's physicians is very positive. However, only 40% believed to have been adequately trained on preventive medicine so far. Relevant preventive aspects were added to the medical curriculum in 2012-2013 with the new block 'Public Health'.

  9. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine.

  10. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn’s disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care. PMID:27678347

  11. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine-person-centred medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; Alivia, Mauro; Guadagni, Paola

    2012-11-06

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM), an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs.

  12. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE FRACTURE PREVENTION STRATEGY IN OLDER ADULTS: THE EUROPEAN UNION GERIATRIC MEDICINE SOCIETY (EUGMS) STATEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAIN, H.; MASUD, T.; DARGENT-MOLINA, P.; MARTIN, F.C.; ROSENDAHL, E.; VAN DER VELDE, N.; BOUSQUET, J.; BENETOS, A.; COOPER, C.; KANIS, J.A.; REGINSTER, J.Y.; RIZZOLI, R.; CORTET, B.; BARBAGALLO, M.; DREINHÖFER, K.E.; VELLAS, B.; MAGGI, S.; STRANDBERG, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27273355

  14. National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is an academic center tasked with leading federal, and coordinating national, efforts to develop...

  15. Preventive Adolescent Health Care in Family Practice: A Program Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Knishkowy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice–based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12—18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57% of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.

  16. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health: Frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm. Accessed July 25, 2016. Aug. 03, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/mens-health/art-20047764 . ...

  17. Optimization of preventive health care facility locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care programs can save lives and contribute to a better quality of life by diagnosing serious medical conditions early. The Preventive Health Care Facility Location (PHCFL problem is to identify optimal locations for preventive health care facilities so as to maximize participation. When identifying locations for preventive health care facilities, we need to consider the characteristics of the preventive health care services. First, people should have more flexibility to select service locations. Second, each preventive health care facility needs to have a minimum number of clients in order to retain accreditation. Results This paper presents a new methodology for solving the PHCFL problem. In order to capture the characteristics of preventive health care services, we define a new accessibility measurement that combines the two-step floating catchment area method, distance factor, and the Huff-based competitive model. We assume that the accessibility of preventive health care services is a major determinant for participation in the service. Based on the new accessibility measurement, the PHCFL problem is formalized as a bi-objective model based on efficiency and coverage. The bi-objective model is solved using the Interchange algorithm. In order to accelerate the solving process, we implement the Interchange algorithm by building two new data structures, which captures the spatial structure of the PHCFL problem. In addition, in order to measure the spatial barrier between clients and preventive health care facilities accurately and dynamically, this paper estimates travelling distance and travelling time by calling the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API. Conclusions Experiments based on a real application for the Alberta breast cancer screening program show that our work can increase the accessibility of breast cancer screening services in the province.

  18. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womble, R.

    2010-04-02

    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  19. Saúde e dietética na medicina preventiva medieval: o regimento de saúde de Pedro Hispano (século XIII Health and dietetics in medieval preventive medicine: the health regimen of Peter of Spain (thirteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce O. Amarante dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa o Livro sobre a conservação da saúde, obra médica preventiva, composta no século XIII pelo físico/médico português Pedro Hispano (?1210-1277, que nos permite observar as concepções de saúde e higiene e compreender o papel social dos físicos universitários na medicina preventiva medieval. A obra mostra sempre a noção de equilíbrio na saúde corporal entre os elementos internos, as coisas naturais (compleição, por exemplo, e os externos, as coisas não naturais (ar, sono, exercício, alimentos, banhos, paixões da alma.This text is an analysis of a preventive medical work, Liber de conservanda sanitate, composed in the thirteenth century by the Portuguese physician and doctor, Peter of Spain (?1210-1277. His work enables us to look at the conceptions of health and hygiene and understand the social role of university physicians in medieval preventive medicine. The work constantly displays the notion of the balance in corporal health between internal elements, or natural things (complexion, for example, and external ones, or non-natural things (air, sleep, exercise, food, baths, passions of the soul.

  20. Religion, spirituality, health and medicine: Why should Indian physicians care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2007-01-01

    Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific li

  1. Religion, spirituality, health and medicine: Why should Indian physicians care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2007-01-01

    Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific

  2. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  3. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  4. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  5. Powerful connections for public health: the National Library of Medicine and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B L; Ruffin, A B; Cahn, M A; Rambo, N

    1999-11-01

    As incorporated in Healthy People 2010 objectives, data and information systems and a skilled workforce are 2 of the critical components of the public health infrastructure. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) are important resources for improving Internet access and providing related training to the public health workforce and to those in training for public health careers. The NLM and the NN/LM have joined forces with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, the National Association of County and City Health Officials, and the Public Health Foundation. The goal of this collaboration is to improve electronic resources useful in public health practice and increase awareness of them, to train public health professionals to use electronic information services, and to help public health agencies obtain the equipment and Internet connections needed to use these services effectively. The databases, outreach programs, and connection grants available to public health professionals from the NLM, and the training and ongoing support available from the NN/LM for accessing these programs and services, are described.

  6. Obesity Genes, Personalized Medicine, and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The personalized medicine movement-also known as precision medicine and personalized genomics-has embraced the belief that genetic risk information can be used to motivate healthier choices and meaningful behaviour change. While a genuinely exciting area of research, there are numerous policy issues associated with a focus on the use of genetic risk information to personalize approaches to obesity prevention.

  7. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  8. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    and vegetables: 4 - 5 of each/day; • Eat cold water fish ( salmon , halibut, scallops,tuna, mackerel,cod, shrimp, snapper, and sardines) ≥ 2x...Oats • Soy • Brown rice • Wheat • Cold-water fish Dietary Supplements • Glucosamine/Chondroitin sulfate • Vitamins C and E • Selenium...Omega-3 Fatty Acids • Calcium and Vitamin D • Coenzyme Q10 • Capsaicin Cream (chili peppers) Summary Musculoskeletal health requires: • A

  9. Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-03-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient

  10. Human factors and error prevention in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleetman, Anthony; Sanusi, Seliat; Dale, Trevor; Brace, Samantha

    2012-05-01

    Emergency departments are one of the highest risk areas in health care. Emergency physicians have to assemble and manage unrehearsed multidisciplinary teams with little notice and manage critically ill patients. With greater emphasis on management and leadership skills, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of human factors in making changes to improve patient safety. Non-clinical skills are required to achieve this in an information-poor environment and to minimise the risk of errors. Training in these non-clinical skills is a mandatory component in other high-risk industries, such as aviation and, needs to be part of an emergency physician's skill set. Therefore, there remains an educational gap that we need to fill before an emergency physician is equipped to function as a team leader and manager. This review will examine the lessons from aviation and how these are applicable to emergency medicine. Solutions to averting errors are discussed and the need for formal human factors training in emergency medicine.

  11. Flexible technologies and smart clothing for citizen medicine, home healthcare, and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Fabrice; Schmitt, Pierre Michael; Gehin, Claudine; Delhomme, Georges; McAdams, Eric; Dittmar, André

    2005-09-01

    Improvement of the quality and efficiency of healthcare in medicine, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more and more important for patients and society at large. As many technologies (micro technologies, telecommunication, low-power design, new textiles, and flexible sensors) are now available, new user-friendly devices can be developed to enhance the comfort and security of the patient. As clothes and textiles are in direct contact with about 90% of the skin surface, smart sensors and smart clothes with noninvasive sensors are an attractive solution for home-based and ambulatory health monitoring. Moreover, wearable devices or smart homes with exosensors are also potential solutions. All these systems can provide a safe and comfortable environment for home healthcare, illness prevention, and citizen medicine.

  12. A Hierarchy of Medicine: Health Strategies of Elder Khmer Refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise C.

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses ways Khmer refugee elders utilize traditional herbal medicine with Western biomedicine in the treatment and prevention of illnesses. Methods include semi-structured and informal interviews with elders and family members, semi-structured interviews with local health care providers and Khmer physicians, and participant…

  13. Health need and the use of alternative medicine among adults who do not use conventional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahin, Richard L; Dahlhamer, James M; Stussman, Barbara J

    2010-07-29

    We hypothesize that a substantial portion of individuals who forgo conventional care in a given year turn to some form of alternative medicine. This study also examines whether individuals who use only alternative medicine will differ substantially in health and sociodemographic status from individuals using neither alternative medicine nor conventional care in a given year. To identify those factors that predict alternative medicine use in those not using conventional care, we employed the socio-behavioral model of healthcare utilization. The current study is a cross-sectional regression analysis using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Data were collected in-person from 31,044 adults throughout the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 19.3% of adults (38.3 million) did not use conventional care in a 12 month period, although 39.5% of these individuals (14.7 million) reported having one or more problems with their health. Of those not using conventional care, 24.8% (9.5 million) used alternative medicine. Users of alternative medicine had more health needs and were more likely to delay conventional care because of both cost and non-cost factors compared to those not using alternative medicine. While individual predisposing factors (gender, education) were positively associated with alternative medicine use, enabling factors (poverty status, insurance coverage) were not. We found that a quarter of individuals who forgo conventional care in a given year turn towards alternative medicine. Our study suggests that the potential determinants of using only alternative medicine are multifactorial. Future research is needed to examine the decision process behind an individual's choice to use alternative medicine but not conventional medicine and the clinical outcomes of this choice.

  14. Health complaints and use of medicines among adolescents in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmanin Ellul R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self-reported health complaints and the use of medicines among adolescents in Malta.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey self-reported health complaints, the use and the sources of medicines that had been accessed, during the preceding 3 months among adolescents attending secondary schools in Malta. A stratified random sample design generated a sample size of 514 students. The health complaints and use of medicines that were investigated included ear problems/hay fever/cold/cough, headache, skin problems, sport injuries, indigestion/diarrhoea/constipation, eye problems and menstrual pain (for girls. The use of vitamins and antibiotics was also investigated. Results: A total of 477 students participated in the final data collection. Correct information was submitted by 474 students, (aged 14-16 years, who formed the analytical sample, of which 53.8% were girls. The students reported a mean number of 2.70 (SD = 1.39 out of a total of 7 health complaints and 90.3% reported using at least 1 medicine during the preceding 3 months. The community pharmacy was cited as the most commonly accessed source for most of the medicines that were investigated. A proportion of 24.3% of the students had taken at least 1 medicine without adult guidance during the preceding 3 months. Almost 10% of those who had taken antibiotics, had accessed them from the home medicine cabinet.Conclusion: A high proportion of adolescents in Malta reported the use of medicines to alleviate the symptoms of common health complaints. This result is concordant with previous research carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia and Kuwait. A considerable proportion of students in this study had obtained medicines without adult guidance and accessed antibiotics from the home medicine cabinet. This highlights the importance of carefully designed education programs for adolescents that will integrate information about the proper use

  15. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  16. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means.

  17. Comprehensive and Alternative Medicine in Preventing Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    TITLE: Comprehensive and Alternative Medicine in Preventing Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer J. Hu...and Alternative Medicine in Preventing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Radiotherapy-Induced Adverse Skin Reactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0493 5c... alternative medicine with anti-inflamm atory properties, Calendula officinalis and Ching Wan Hung, in RT -induced EASRs. W e have tested two animal m

  18. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  19. Brigadier General James Stevens Simmons (1890-1954), Medical Corps, United States Army: a career in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-02-01

    James Simmons began his career in the US Army as a laboratory officer and his assignments progressed into tropical medicine research. His interests and work evolved into preventive medicine (PM, as the Army termed public health), and he took both a PhD and a Doctorate in Public Health. As the Army's leading PM officer he was appointed head of PM in 1940 and guided the Army's PM effort through World War II. His responsibility ran from gas masks through healthy nutrition and occupational health to an enormous variety of diseases; by the war's end, the breadth and importance of PM was reflected in the Preventive Medicine Division, having fully one-sixth of all military personnel at the Surgeon General's Office. Simmons used his strong professional credentials to tap into civilian medicine for expertise the Army lacked and he established organizations that survive to this day. After retirement, he sought to expand the field of public health and raise another generation of public health physicians.

  20. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  1. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Despite the substantial proportion of adolescents use medicine for common health problems, prevalence of medicine use among adolescents with migrant background have rarely been documented, and the causal pathway continue to be poorly understood. The aim was to examine whether there are migrant...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School......-aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...

  2. The conceptualisation of health and disease in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Stefan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of health, as well as the concept of disease, is central in veterinary medicine. However, the definitions "health" and "disease" are not generally acknowledged by veterinarians. The aim of this study was to examine how the concepts "health" and "disease" are defined in veterinary textbooks. Methods Veterinary textbooks in several disciplines were investigated, but only textbooks with explicit definitions of the concepts were selected for examination. Results Eighty out of the 500 relevant books within veterinary medicine were written for non-veterinarians. Eight percent of the books had an explicit definition of health and/or disease. More frequently, textbooks written for non veterinarians did have definitions of health or disease, compared to textbooks written for professionals. A division of health definitions in five different categories was suggested, namely: 1. Health as normality, 2. Health as biological function, 3. Health as homeostasis, 4. Health as physical and psychological well-being and 5. Health as productivity including reproduction. Conclusion Few veterinary textbooks had any health or disease definition at all. Furthermore, explicit definitions of health stated by the authors seemed to have little impact on how health and disease are handled within the profession. Veterinary medicine would probably gain from theoretical discussions about health and disease.

  3. Will the introduction of the National Broadband Network change the face of preventive medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pietrzak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging of the Australian population will increase the demand and provision of health services. Older Australians are significant users of healthcare, which is in disproportion to their number .1 A large proportion of health utilisation is devoted to managing chronic diseases,2 many of which are to a certain degree preventable. Some of the diseases are linked to unhealthy lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, lack of physical activity and excess body weight. In some cases, the progress of the chronic diseases may be slowed and serious consequences (i.e. hospitalisations, moving to nursing home can be avoided or significantly delayed by timely access to care and/or good disease management.3 Thus, preventive measures may ease the burden on the overloaded healthcare system and decrease the health expenditure. There is considerable potential for internet-based solutions to play an increasing role in the provision of health services. Their role in the area of preventive medicine is less defined. There are two key factors that may revolutionise the delivery of health services in Australia in the immediate future. The first is the National Broadband Network (NBN rollout, delivering high-speed broadband fibre-optic connection to 93% of the Australian population, with the rest having access to wireless and satellite internet. The other is the recently announced health system reform, which will include the introduction and development of e-Health applications. At present, major metropolitan institutions are linked by fast internet connections. The introduction of the NBN will not greatly change the way they operate. However, many rural and remote areas currently lack fast and reliable internet connections and it is these areas which will most likely benefit from the “communication revolution”. The development of fast, cheap and reliable internet connections will allow good quality two-way interactive communication and will

  4. Prevention Programs for Refugee Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.

    Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…

  5. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Turki N; Afify AAM; AlAteeq M

    2016-01-01

    Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are lim...

  7. The detection and prevention of errors in laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2010-03-01

    The last few decades have seen a significant decrease in the rates of analytical errors in clinical laboratories. Evidence demonstrates that pre- and post-analytical steps of the total testing process (TTP) are more error-prone than the analytical phase. Most errors are identified in pre-pre-analytic and post-post-analytic steps outside of the laboratory. In a patient-centred approach to the delivery of health-care services, there is the need to investigate, in the TTP, any possible defect that may have a negative impact on the patient. In the interests of patients, any direct or indirect negative consequence related to a laboratory test must be considered, irrespective of which step is involved and whether the error depends on a laboratory professional (e.g. calibration/testing error) or non-laboratory operator (e.g. inappropriate test request, error in patient identification and/or blood collection). Patient misidentification and problems communicating results, which affect the delivery of diagnostic services, are recognized as the main goals for quality improvement. International initiatives aim at improving these aspects. Grading laboratory errors on the basis of their seriousness should help identify priorities for quality improvement and encourage a focus on corrective/preventive actions. It is important to consider not only the actual patient harm sustained but also the potential worst-case outcome if such an error were to reoccur. The most important lessons we have learned are that system theory also applies to laboratory testing and that errors and injuries can be prevented by redesigning systems that render it difficult for all health-care professionals to make mistakes.

  8. Public health and precision medicine share a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithinathan, Asokan G; Asokan, Vanitha

    2016-12-16

    The advances made in genomics and molecular tools aid public health programs in the investigation of outbreaks and control of diseases by taking advantage of the precision medicine. Precision medicine means "segregating the individuals into subpopulations who vary in their disease susceptibility and response to a precise treatment" and not merely designing of drugs or creation of medical devices. By 2017, the United Kingdom 100,000 Genomes Project is expected to sequence 100,000 genomes from 70,000 patients. Similarly, the Precision Medicine Initiative of the United States plans to increase population-based genome sequencing and link it with clinical data. A national cohort of around 1 million people is to be established in the long term, to investigate the genetic and environmental determinants of health and disease, and further integrated to their electronic health records that are optional. Precision public health can be seen as administering the right intervention to the needy population at an appropriate time. Precision medicine originates from a wet-lab while evidence based medicine is nurtured in a clinic. Linking the quintessential basic science research and clinical practice is necessary. In addition, new technologies to employ and analyze data in an integrated and dynamic way are essential for public health and precision medicine. The transition from evidence-based approach in public health to genomic approach to individuals with a paradigm shift of a "reactive" medicine to a more "proactive" and personalized health care may sound exceptional. However, a population perspective is needed for the precision medicine to succeed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  10. Treatment of the Man: Galen's Preventive Medicine in the De Sanitate Tuenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, John M

    2016-01-01

    Ideally in Galen's model of preventive medicine, the patient does not become a patient at all but remains a healthy person able to maintain his or her health without need of either medicines or other therapies. This chapter is divided into four sections, Galen's ideal patient; less than ideal patients; patients in old age; and patients whose nature is inclined to a bad mixture of humours, and so in need of medication. In all four categories, even those where medical recommendations such as blood-letting are recommended, Galen offers an option based on hygieine, or the art of maintaining good health. Galen's aim in de sanitate tuenda is to ensure that a well-educated person can lead a healthy life by learning what does harm and what benefits him or her. The chapter explores the extent to which the patient can really be independent of the doctor, and the interesting balance between nature and urban life which constitutes good health in Galenic thought.

  11. Evidence-based medicine in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gordon B

    2011-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates a national comparative outcomes research project agenda. Comparative effectiveness research includes both clinical trials and observational studies and is facilitated by electronic health records. A national network of electronic health records will create a vast electronic data "warehouse" with exponential growth of observational data. High-quality associations will identify research topics for pragmatic clinical trials, and systematic reviews of clinical trials will provide optimal evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. Thus, health care reform will provide a robust environment for comparative effectiveness research, systematic reviews, and evidence-based medicine, and implementation of evidence-based medicine should lead to improved quality of care.

  12. General Report & Recommendations in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine 2012: White Paper of the European Association of Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubnitschaja Olga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is the collective product of word-leading experts working in the branches of integrative medicine by predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM under the coordination of the European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. The general report has been prepared as the consortium document proposed at the EPMA World Congress 2011 which took place in Bonn, Germany. This forum analyzed the overall deficits and trends relevant for the top-science and daily practice in PPPM focused on the patient. Follow-up consultations resulted in a package of recommendations for consideration by research units, educators, healthcare industry, policy-makers, and funding bodies to cover the current knowledge deficit in the field and to introduce integrative approaches for advanced diagnostics, targeted prevention, treatments tailored to the person and cost-effective healthcare.

  13. All Health Is Global Health, All Medicine Is Social Medicine: Integrating the Social Sciences Into the Preclinical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer; Greene, Jeremy A; Farmer, Paul E; Jones, David S

    2016-05-01

    As physicians work to achieve optimal health outcomes for their patients, they often struggle to address the issues that arise outside the clinic. Social, economic, and political factors influence patients' burden of disease, access to treatment, and health outcomes. This challenge has motivated recent calls for increased attention to the social determinants of health. At the same time, advocates have called for increased attention to global health. Each year, more U.S. medical students participate in global health experiences. Yet, the global health training that is available varies widely. The discipline of social medicine, which attends to the social determinants of disease, social meanings of disease, and social responses to disease, offers a solution to both challenges. The analyses and techniques of social medicine provide an invaluable toolkit for providing health care in the United States and abroad.In 2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new course, required for all first-year students, that teaches social medicine in a way that integrates global health. In this article, the authors argue for the importance of including social medicine and global health in the preclinical curriculum; describe Harvard Medical School's innovative, integrated approach to teaching these disciplines, which can be used at other medical schools; and explore the barriers that educators may face in implementing such a curriculum, including resistance from students. Such a course can equip medical students with the knowledge and tools that they will need to address complex health problems in the United States and abroad.

  14. [Analysis of prevention of diseases in travellers on the basis of latest results in travel medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2008-09-07

    When we survey the possibilities of prevention in travel medicine, it is soon detected that the "classical" or "infectology-oriented" approach of prevention (vaccination - chemoprophylaxis - pretravel advice) cannot respond to all peritravel medical problems. These newly arisen challenges require a new, complex outlook for travel medicine, mainly in the field of prevention, treatment and management of travel-related illnesses. Although travellers are still exposed to various infectious diseases, which are mostly preventable by the primary prevention methods (biomedical prophylaxis), the majority of travellers suffer from non-infectious diseases and fall ill or suffer accident by other, travel-relating factors. Moreover, the predominant destination is Europe for an average Hungarian traveller. The travellers, whose destination is not any tropical or developing country, i.e. adventure travellers, people in extreme sports, chronic patients all require same-level peritravel (prevention-oriented) advice, too. Thus besides vaccination, helmets, salt-tablets, medical kit, mobile oxygenator must belong to a travel doctors' arsenal. We also have to mention the travellers' acute illness/accident abroad, travellers who require repatriation, and also the appropriate travel insurance policy which should be worked out following evidence-based medical considerations. The above-mentioned complex task requires not only a broad-spectrum, multidisciplinary knowledge, but an appropriate co-operation between the travel medicine physician, the general practitioner of the patient, and the doctor of the insurance company. But, above all, we have to redefine the topic of travel medicine, its subspecialties and role in the three-level (primary, secondary and tertiary) prevention. We have to redefine the different prevention levels and the used methods relating to the different subdisciplines of travel medicine. Upon the recent scientific researches, we can lay down four topics of travel

  15. Personalized medicine: evidence of normativity in its quantitative definition of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn; Getz, Linn

    2016-10-01

    Systems medicine, which is based on computational modelling of biological systems, is emerging as an increasingly prominent part of the personalized medicine movement. It is often promoted as 'P4 medicine' (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). In this article, we test promises made by some of its proponents that systems medicine will be able to develop a scientific, quantitative metric for wellness that will eliminate the purported vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness-that is, normativity-of previous health definitions. We do so by examining the most concrete and relevant evidence for such a metric available: a patent that describes a systems medicine method for assessing health and disease. We find that although systems medicine is promoted as heralding an era of transformative scientific objectivity, its definition of health seems at present still normatively based. As such, we argue that it will be open to influence from various stakeholders and that its purported objectivity may conceal important scientific, philosophical, and political issues. We also argue that this is an example of a general trend within biomedicine to create overly hopeful visions and expectations for the future.

  16. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  17. Traditional Asian folklore medicines in sexual health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lim Huat Chye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is one of the important health problems affecting man and his partner. Recently, many treatments have evolved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or sexual health. Of the available treatments several are pharmacologically proven and tested medications. However, in Asia, there are significant users of unproven medications for sexual health. These medications are traditionally used by the folklore living in the countryside. These untested medications may have a profound effect on the body system and their interactions with other medications may be harmful. However, comprehensive accounts of such medications are unavailable. This paper descriptively highlights the common medications used for sexual health in Asia.

  18. Right to health, essential medicines, and lawsuits for access to medicines--a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Peláez, Claudia Marcela; Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Leite, Silvana Nair; Rossi Buenaventura, Francisco; Farias, Mareni Rocha

    2014-11-01

    Despite countries' efforts to ensure access to essential medicines, some people do not have their needs met, and often resort to the Judiciary to get access to the medicines they need. This phenomenon, known as "judicialization of access to medicines", has aroused the academia's interest in law, health and social fields. In this context, this scoping study investigates, through qualitative thematic analysis, the approach to judicialization of access to medicines (normative or social) and its possible impacts (positive or negative) described in articles published in scientific journals indexed in the main health databases prior to July 2012. 65 of 384 papers met the inclusion criteria of focusing on lawsuits for access to medicines or judicialization of access to medicines as a phenomenon; empiric studies, review articles or theoretical discussions, written in English, Portuguese or Spanish; most of them were about Brazil, Colombia and England. Results show that judicialization is a complex phenomenon that involves technical-scientific, legal and social aspects. The judicialization impacts mentioned have changed over time. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the emphasis of positive impacts predominated both on the normative and social approaches, having as main reference the movements that claimed from the States the guarantee of access to HIV/AIDS treatment. In the mid-2000s, however, there was an emphasis of the negative effects of judicial intervention, when lawsuits for access to medicines became a problem in some countries. Few studies used the social approach to judicialization. For this reason, there is not enough information about whether lawsuits for access to medicines are related to a real recognition of the right to health as an exercise of citizenship. Such aspects need to be further studied.

  19. Medicinal Uses of Punica Granatum And Its Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has been used for thousands of years to cure a wide range of diseases across different cultures and civilizations. It has great nutritional values and numerous health benefits. Pomegranates as a Treatment for Cancer, Osteoarthritis and Other Diseases. The pomegranate has been used in natural and holistic medicine to treat sore throats, coughs, urinary infections, digestive disorders, skin disorders, arthritis, and to expel tapeworms. However, modern research suggests that pomegranates might be useful in treating such serious conditions as prostate cancer, skin cancer, osteoarthritis, and diabetes. Studies also show that pomegranate seeds might help rid the digestive system of fats. Clinical research shows that pomegranates, when part of a healthy diet, might help prevent heart disease, heart attacks and strokes. This is because pomegranates have the potential to thin the blood, increase blood flow to the heart, reduce blood pressure, reduce plaque in the arteries, and reduce bad cholesterol while increasing good cholesterol. A decoction of seed is used to treat syphilis. Juice used to treat jaundice and diarrhoea. Juice of flower is used to treat nose bleeds. The fruit pulp and the seed are stomachic. Dried, pulverized flower buds are employed as a remedy for bronchitis.

  20. Effectiveness of preventive medicine education and its determinants among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Shirin; Zawahir, Mohamed Shukry; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering

  1. Undergraduate Training in Companion Animal Preventive Medicine at Louisiana State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech-Nielsen, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The veterinary curriculum at the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine has developed an undergraduate professional training program in companion animal preventive medicine--a new area of specialization--as a field of clinical practice. Curricula for years three and four are described. (Author/MLW)

  2. Perspective: Prospective health care and the role of academic medicine: lead, follow, or get out of the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyderman, Ralph; Yoediono, Ziggy

    2008-08-01

    The authors contend that the crisis facing the U.S. health care system is in large part a consequence of that system's disease-oriented, reactive, and sporadic approach to care, and they suggest that a prospective approach to health care, which emphasizes personalized medicine and strategic health planning, would be a more rational way to prevent disease and maximize health. During recent years, personalized, predictive, preventive, and participatory medicine--that is, prospective care--has been receiving increasing attention as a solution to the U.S. health care crisis. Advocacy has been mainly from industry, government, large employers, and private insurers. However, academic medicine, as a whole, has not played a leading role in this movement. The authors believe that academic medicine has the opportunity and responsibility to play a far greater role in the conception and development of better models to deliver health care. In doing so, it could lead the transformation of today's dysfunctional system of medical care to that of a prospective approach that emphasizes personalization, prediction, prevention, and patient participation. Absent contributing to improving how care is delivered, academic medicine's leadership in our nation's health will be bypassed.

  3. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2014-01-01

    -aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School...... and 456 migrants. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the independent effect of school cluster. Results: Immigrant girls reported the highest past-month prevalence of medicine use for the four ailments included in the analysis...

  4. Training Experiences of Family Medicine Residents on Behavioral Health Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Brieler, Jay; Jacobs, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Although accreditation guidelines for residency in family medicine include behavioral health curriculum, little is known about resident learning activities in real world training. Our study explored residents' perceptions about and exposure to specific activities during their behavioral health rotations. Family medicine residents (N=84) recruited via faculty list serves completed a survey about their experiences during behavioral health rotations. The survey included quantitative Likert scale questions, along with open-ended questions on which a qualitative content analysis was performed. Open-ended responses indicated that many residents receive constructive observation and collaboration opportunities during their training month. However, residents wanted more time to practice behavioral health skills beyond the rotation, more practice in psychotherapy skills, and additional education on medication management. Most residents (62%) received either limited or no training in couples or family therapy during their behavioral health rotation. Residents who reported more behavioral health knowledge gain during the rotation also reported higher self-perceived competency using Motivational Interviewing (M=3.82, P<.01). While family medicine as a discipline is based on the biopsychosocial model of care, residents reported deficits in education about family systems. Residents desire additional opportunities to learn psychotherapy techniques and practice counseling skills. Family medicine residency programs and faculty may consider supplementing their core behavioral curriculum to include these content areas.

  5. [Biological safety of nanomaterials: the opportunity and challenge of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-09-01

    Nanotechnology, as a newly arisen technology, does not only benefit people, but also become one of the inevitable threats to public health due to the widely application of nanomaterials. The safety evaluation of nanomaterials has become one of the hottest research topics in the 21st century, which provides opportunities and challenges in the field of preventive medicine once in a blue moon. Although the history of development in the safety assessment of nanomaterials is just over twenty years, the achievements could not be underestimated. This paper summarized the research of nano biological, predicted the directions for future research, and proposed several recommendations, based on which, we hope it can promote the sustainable development safety in China.

  6. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  7. National pathways for suicide prevention and health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K; Vannoy, Steven

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force (RPTF) released a series of Aspirational Goals (AGs) to decrease suicide deaths and attempts. The RPTF asked experts to summarize what was known about particular AGs and to propose research pathways that would help reach them. This manuscript describes what is known about the benefits of access to health care (AG8) and continuity of care (AG9) for individuals at risk for suicide. Research pathways are proposed to address limitations in current knowledge, particularly in U.S. healthcare-based research. Using a three-step process, the expert panel reviewed available literature from electronic databases. For two AGs, the experts summarized the current state of knowledge, determined breakthroughs needed to advance the field, and developed a series of research pathways to achieve prevention goals. Several components of healthcare provision have been found to be associated with reduced suicide ideation, and in some cases they mitigated suicide deaths. Randomized trials are needed to provide more definitive evidence. Breakthroughs that support more comprehensive patient data collection (e.g., real-time surveillance, death record linkage, and patient registries) would facilitate the steps needed to establish research infrastructure so that various interventions could be tested efficiently within various systems of care. Short-term research should examine strategies within the current healthcare systems, and long-term research should investigate models that redesign the health system to prioritize suicide prevention. Evidence exists to support optimism regarding future suicide prevention, but knowledge is limited. Future research is needed on U.S. healthcare services and system enhancements to determine which of these approaches can provide empirical evidence for reducing suicide. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Preventive screening of women who use complementary and alternative medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Lois; Tyree, Patrick T; Lafferty, William E

    2009-08-01

    Many women use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Although CAM use has been associated with reductions in conventionally recommended pediatric preventive care (e.g., vaccination), little is known about associations between CAM use and receipt of recommended preventive screening in women. Using Washington State insurance data from 2000 to 2003, the authors generated clustered logistic regression models, examining associations between provider-based CAM use and receipt of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, breast cancer, and cervical cancer: (1) contrasting women who used CAM providers only (alternative use) and women who used both conventional and CAM providers (complementary use) with women who used conventional care only and (2) testing associations between screening and use of four specific CAM provider types-naturopathic physicians, chiropractors, massage therapists, and acupuncturists. Both alternative and complementary use was associated with reduced Chlamydia screening. Cancer screening increased with complementary use but decreased with alternative use of CAM. Use of naturopathy was associated with decreased mammography, whereas all four CAM therapies were positively associated with Papanicolaou testing. When used in conjunction with conventional care, use of provider-based CAM may signal high interest in various types of health-promoting behavior, including cancer screening. Negative associations between CAM and Chlamydia screening and between naturopathy and mammography require additional study. Interventions with CAM providers and their patients, aimed at improving rates of conventionally recommended screening, might encourage greater focus on preventive care, an important task when CAM providers serve as women's only contact with the healthcare system.

  9. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  10. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as "medicine in health resorts" (or "health resort medicine"). Health resort medicine includes "all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation". Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called hydrotherapy

  11. Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-quan Ling; Xiao-qiang Yue; Chen Ling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM has been increasingly used in the last decades and become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating cancer. We believe that TCM possesses advantages over Western medicine in specific aspects at a certain stage of cancer treatment. Here we summarize the advantages of TCM from three aspects: preventing tumorigenesis; attenuating toxicity and enhancing the treatment effect; and reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  12. [Evidence-based medicine and individualized health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Ping

    2009-06-01

    In 21st century, clinical medicine moves toward a model of individualized health care. The development of the individualized model is based on the research findings of human genomics project including genotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as the new health care model, that is, biological-psychological-social-environmental-spiritual. It reflects the idea of patient-centered care, and corresponds to the traditional practice of Chinese medicine, which addressed the individualized therapy on the basis of symptom pattern differentiation. However, the era of evidence-based medicine affords new meanings of individualized health care and promotes the research on the practice. The practice based on evidence would happen upon the integration of external research evidence, the expertise and experience of practitioners, and the value and preference of patients, so the decision of health care will be conscientious, explicit and judicious. This assay describes the meanings of individualized health care in different medical contexts, the characteristics of individualized practice in Chinese medicine, and proposals for further research in practice.

  13. Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisai, Kezia

    2016-12-01

    This article frames the intersections of medicine and humanities as intrinsic to understanding the practice of health care in Africa. Central to this manuscript, which draws on empirical findings on the interplay between HIV and AIDS and alternative medicine in Zimbabwe is the realisation that very limited research has been undertaken to examine 'HIV/AIDS patient behaviour' with respect to choice of therapy on the continent [Bene, M. & Darkoh, M. B. K. (2014). The Constraints of Antiretroviral Uptake in Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 167-177. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.972057 ; Chavunduka, G. (1998). Professionalisation of Traditional Medicine in Zimbabwe, Harare, Jongwe Printers; O'Brien, S. & Broom, A. (2014). HIV in (and out of) the Clinic: Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Spiritual Healing in Harare. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 94-104. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.938102 ]. As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions about alternative therapies including herbal remedies, traditional healing and faith healing are made. The paper unpacks the realities around how people living with HIV and AIDS - who span different age groups and profess various religious backgrounds, faced with an insurmountable health challenge against a background of limited resources and no cure for the virus - often experience shifts in health-seeking behaviour. Grappling with seemingly simple questions about 'when, where and how to seek medical attention', the paper provides pointers to therapy choices and health-seeking behaviour; and it serves as a route into deeper and intense healthcare practice explorations. In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously with those social aspects of HIV and AIDS which call for an integrated approach to healthcare practice in Africa. If combined, medicine and the humanities

  14. Availability of essential medicines: A primary health care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Rohit; Vinay, M; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Manohar, V S; Chandrasekhar, N

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the availability of the essential medicines to the people of Kunijarla, Khammam district, AP. This was done in two steps: 1) Comparison of PHC-EML (primary health care essential medicines list) with AP-EML (Andhra Pradesh essential medicines list) and NEML (National essential medicines list); and 2) Assessment of availability of the listed medicines in adequate quantity to meet the needs of people of kunijarla. Results showed that the PHC-EML is on par with AP-EML and NEML. The hospital has 100% availability of the listed medicines; however, there was a need for certain add-on drugs like phenytoin tablets, valproic acid, and activated charcoal since they were prescribed frequently and were not included in PHC-EML. All the drugs which were listed in PHC-EML were being used and none were considered as non-utility supply. Suggestions were given for the revision of PHC-EML according to the criteria for identifying medicines for inclusion in the revised list which was mentioned in NEML.

  15. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health: Part VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this article, which concludes the series, the author presents an overview of the earlier parts, contending that physicians must be aware of, and respond to, cultural factors in our increasingly pluralistic society in order to provide optimum health care for a variety of patients. PMID:21248990

  16. Personalized medicine: risk prediction, targeted therapies and mobile health technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F; Markus, Hugh S; Leslie, R David; Topol, Eric J

    2014-02-28

    Personalized medicine is increasingly being employed across many areas of clinical practice, as genes associated with specific diseases are discovered and targeted therapies are developed. Mobile apps are also beginning to be used in medicine with the aim of providing a personalized approach to disease management. In some areas of medicine, patient-tailored risk prediction and treatment are applied routinely in the clinic, whereas in other fields, more work is required to translate scientific advances into individualized treatment. In this forum article, we asked specialists in oncology, neurology, endocrinology and mobile health technology to discuss where we are in terms of personalized medicine, and address their visions for the future and the challenges that remain in their respective fields.

  17. Marxist functionalism in medicine: a critique of the work of Vicente Navarro on health and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, A

    1984-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the writings of Vicente Navarro dealing with health and medicine. Following a statement of criticisms these are examined in detail with reference to sources. The paper concludes with a review of Navarro's writing on Chile which is seen as an example of how a specific brand of deterministic functionalism can be reinforced by a particular political experience.

  18. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  19. Family medicine in undergraduate medical curriculum: a cost-effective approach to health care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Saima P

    2010-01-01

    Shifa College of Medicine introduced a two-week rotation in Family Medicine for their third-year medical students in 2008. The purpose of this study was to determine what impact it made on students and how many would consider becoming Family Physicians in future. A questionnaire-based prospective study conducted at Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad during academic year 2008. A total of 46 students rotated in Family Medicine throughout the academic year-2008. Fifteen students were aware of Family Medicine as a specialty prior to starting their rotation, and only 3 expressed an interest to pursue Family Medicine as a future career. At the start of the rotation only 15 students were able to give correct definition of Family Medicine and on questioning whether it should be a part of the undergraduate curriculum, only 24 answered yes while the rest were unsure. After the rotation, a significant number of students (37%; p definition of Family Medicine as a humanistic approach of medicine with aim to prevent, treat and rehabilitate. About its utility in the undergraduate curriculum, 44 (96%) students believed it should be a regular feature in their curriculum, while 30 (65%) students agreed that their outlook towards patient care had changed. When asked what they learnt most during the rotation, students quoted empathy and development of communication skills. Family medicine rotation as part of undergraduate medical curriculum may help in fostering an interest among medical students in this newly emerging subspecialty which could have a profound effect on delivery of quality health care in this country.

  20. A Family Medicine Health Technology Strategy for Achieving the Triple Aim for US Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Bazemore, Andrew W; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Weida, Thomas J; Krist, Alex H; Dulin, Michael F; Biagioli, Frances E

    2015-09-01

    Health information technology (health IT) and health technology, more broadly, offer tremendous promise for connecting, synthesizing, and sharing information critical to improving health care delivery, reducing health system costs, and achieving personal and community health. While efforts to spur adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) among US practices and hospitals have been highly successful, aspirations for effective data exchanges and translation of data into measureable improvements in health outcomes remain largely unrealized. There are shining examples of health enhancement through new technologies, and the discipline of family medicine is well poised to take advantage of these innovations to improve patient and population health. The Future of Family Medicine led to important family medicine health IT initiatives over the past decade. For example, the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Center for Health Information Technology and the Robert Graham Center provided important leadership for informing health IT policy and standard-setting, such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services EHR incentives programs (often referred to as "meaningful use."). As we move forward, there is a need for a new and more comprehensive family medicine strategy for technology. To inform the Family Medicine for America's Health (FMAHealth) initiative, this paper explores strategies and tactics that family medicine could pursue to improve the utility of technology for primary care and to help primary care become a leader in rapid development, testing, and implementation of new technologies. These strategies were also designed with a broader stakeholder audience in mind, intending to reach beyond the work being done by FMAHealth. Specific suggestions include: a shared primary care health IT center, meaningful primary care quality measures and capacity to assess/report them, increased primary care technology research, a national family medicine registry

  1. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-08-02

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online.

  2. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Managed care, consumerism, preventive medicine: does a causal connection exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John A; Xie, Yang

    2006-07-01

    Managed care plans, and HMOs in particular, have long touted that their emphasis is on preventive care, to avoid expensive illness later in life. However, few articles in the contemporary literature adequately address this claim. The available evidence seems to support that HMOs do, in fact, provide greater access to preventive services, but the limitations of this research are substantial. This article discusses the scientific evidence on the relationships between managed care arrangements and the implications for preventive care in the current era, emphasizing consumer choices and less-restrictive plan structures.

  4. Medicine and health care: implications for health sciences library practice.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The American health care system is experiencing a period of unprecedented change. This paper identifies and discusses the major changes in patient care, research, control of the health care system, and medical education, and their implications for health sciences librarians. These changes have resulted in new demands for effective information delivery and a broader health sciences library clientele. There are both challenges and opportunities for health sciences librarians as they respond to ...

  5. Postneoliberal Public Health Care Reforms: Neoliberalism, Social Medicine, and Persistent Health Inequalities in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Several Latin American countries are implementing a suite of so-called "postneoliberal" social and political economic policies to counter neoliberal models that emerged in the 1980s. This article considers the influence of postneoliberalism on public health discourses, policies, institutions, and practices in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Social medicine and neoliberal public health models are antecedents of postneoliberal public health care models. Postneoliberal public health governance models neither fully incorporate social medicine nor completely reject neoliberal models. Postneoliberal reforms may provide an alternative means of reducing health inequalities and improving population health.

  6. A Military Doctor Pioneer of the Preventive Medicine in Turkey: Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan Ceyhan

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important turning points in Turkish History of Medicine is the transfer of Western / European medical knowledge to Ottoman medicine in 19th century. This knowledge is mostly transferred by government employed Ottoman citizens and aimed at improving the health status of the Ottoman State’s elites, troops and people. Most important contributions of transferring and popularizing the concepts of microbe and vaccination to Ottoman medicine, concerning both disease and preventi...

  7. Cross-cultural medicine and diverse health beliefs. Ethiopians abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodes, R

    1997-01-01

    A large number of Ethiopians reside abroad as refugees, immigrants, or students. To provide adequate care, physicians must understand their beliefs about health and medicine. To Ethiopians, health is an equilibrium between the body and the outside. Excess sun is believed to cause mitch ("sunstroke"), leading to skin disease. Blowing winds are thought to cause pain wherever they hit. Sexually transmitted disease is attributed to urinating under a full moon. People with buda, "evil eye," are sa...

  8. Global AIDS medicines in East African health institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hardon; H. Dilger

    2011-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we follow the journey of global AIDS medicines into diverse health facilities in East Africa, which for decades have been subjected to neoliberal reform processes and increasing fragmentation. The introduction explores the multifaceted and multidirectional

  9. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as “medicine in health resorts” (or “health resort medicine”). Health resort medicine includes “all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation”. Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called

  10. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-12-01

    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies

  11. Assessing the UN High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines Report in Light of the Right to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Forman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to medicines is the lynchpin to realizing a range of human rights, public health and development imperatives. However, without strong policy action to increase access to affordable medicines, there is little hope of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals or of realizing the human right to health. Access to medicines is a fundamental element of the right to health, and the majority of states are bound by core obligations in this regard. Accordingly, states must ensure that this critical human rights, public health and development interest is appropriately prioritized against inadequate resource allocations and competing private or trade interests. This is an imperative which we have argued should have framed the deliberations of the UN High Level Panel on Access to Medicines, convened to propose solutions to the “policy incoherence” between international human rights, trade rules and public health that is impeding access to medicines and the right to health for millions. In this article we explore interpretations in international human rights law regarding state duties towards medicines that should have guided these deliberations, and which were presented by the first author in a submission to the panel. We argue that at least two clear right to health duties support the High Level Panel’s recommendations: (1 the duty to prevent unreasonably high costs for medicines from denying large segments of the population their rights to health; and (2 the core obligation to provide essential medicines. Consequently, we explore three areas of action implied by these duties: (1 consistent implementation of human rights impact assessment; (2 institutionalizing the Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities in law and policy; (3 making permanent the waiver of TRIPS for least developed countries (LDC, and waiving the application of TRIPS to essential medicines in low and middle-income countries. Finally, we

  12. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health Part I: Multicultural Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Culturally sensitive health care is not a matter of simple formulas or prescriptions that provide a single definitive answer: rather, it requires understanding of the principles on which health care is based and the manner in which culture may influence those principles. This series of six articles will examine influences that ethnic and cultural background may have on health and health care. Part I outlines the development, importance and relevance of multicultural health care. The author stresses the importance of understanding community needs, cultures and beliefs; the active interest and participation of the patient in his or her own health care; the importance of a good physician-patient relationship; and the benefit of an open-minded approach by physicians and other health-care workers to the delivery of health-care services. PMID:21253247

  13. Application of principles of space medicine to health monitoring of the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman М. Baevsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the health of astronauts based on the assessment of the functional state of the body within the realms of norm and pathology. The area of functional states qualifies as the yellow score of health on a notional scale "traffic light of health": Modern medicine is particularly interested in studying the health of the yellow score, because of the preventative measures that could still be taken before making contact with the healthcare system. This method has been used in a study of a group of people (mean age >70 during their stay at a resort in northern Ontario. Data were obtained by a spectral analysis of HRV. High-frequency oscillations (HF,%, indicating the increased activity of the parasympathetic system, which protects the body from stress was significantly increased. Centralization of control of autonomic functions (IC was decreased as well as heart rate. All these changes indicate growth of functional reserves, aimed at increasing protection against stress’ effect due to environmental factors. This research shows that the method based on space medicine assessment in health can be successfully utilized within various fields of physiology and medicine, particularly in gerontological practice to dynamically monitor and research ways to improve the health of the elderly.

  14. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  15. The Role of Nurses in Community Awareness and Preventive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh M. Fooladi

    2015-10-01

    as a theoretical framework within that community should be considered to help explain how communities address adversity.2 In a British study, researchers established the importance of the role of nursing in preventive health when nurses added significant improvement to reduce the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle aged patients. Nurses, compared to other healthcare providers, were able to provide health screening and doubled the recorded blood pressure, quadrupled identification of smoking habit, and increased documented weight related issues by fivefold in a primary care setting.3 Community health nursing theory addresses collective concepts of nursing domains in an attempt to rectify environmental, resiliency, and community abilities for healthcare issues among diverse population and avoids simple groupings of aggregates. Conceptual frameworks are introduced to help urban and rural communities implement preventative measures for health and wellbeing of residents through rural-based community health nursing programs.1,4 With this awareness, Iranian nurses in any practice area will find a golden opportunity to encourage, motivate, inform and guide the public to consider health screening, annual check-ups, childhood and adult immunizations and offer health education to patients across the lifespan. The role of nursing does not begin or end in a hospital-based or clinical facility. It is important to remember “Once a nurse, Always a nurse”, which means a nurse can guide and educate the public every minute and in all places, for the mere fact that medicine does NOT. Community health is a major part of nursing profession as Sarah, who graduated from a baccalaureate nursing program 5 years ago, demonstrates her role as a spiritual journey with a firm belief to bring health awareness through motivation. Her usual day begins by telling a 45 year-old male cashier in a supermarket to go for a prostate cancer screening; a 50 year-old woman sitting in

  16. Ecosystem services and preventive medicine a natural connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece L. Jennings; Claire K. Larson; Lincoln R. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Modern public health challenges require inter- disciplinary solutions that integrate knowl- edge of  human behavior and its complex relationship with the physical environment. Historically, this discourse was dominated by studies  of hazards and other negative health consequences associated with human–environment interactions.  However, growing evidence1 suggests that...

  17. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care ... health care visit in the past 12 months. Marriage was associated with greater likelihood of a health ...

  18. [Citation analysis of the Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine from 2001 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Li

    2005-11-01

    To study the information absorbency of Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine and its half-citing life, to find out the core journals and characteristics of literature requested by scientists, and to analyze the trend of preventive medicine research. The citation analysis was used to analyze the references cited in 766 articles in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine from 2001-2004. 505 (65.93%) of 766 articles have the 4 708 references, and the self-citation rate was 3.97%. The average number of references per paper was 6.15, and the maximum of references in one paper was 39. Main types of citations were from journals (87.43%) and the books (9.98%). The Price Index was 45.20%, and the self-citation rate was 3.97%. The percent of citations from the high-ranked 22 journals were 26.51%. The publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine have received more concerns than those from other major journals in medicine. Periodical and English literature were mostly used by the preventive researcher. Moreover, the articles published in the journal were able to keep closely along with the advances of the subject research.

  19. Benefits of comprehensive reproductive health education in family medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagle, Melissa; Prine, Linda; Goodman, Susan

    2008-03-01

    Given the high prevalence of unintended pregnancy and early pregnancy failure, family physicians frequently encounter these clinical problems. Early abortion care and miscarriage management are within the scope of family medicine, yet few family medicine residency programs' curricula routinely include training in these skills. Comprehensive reproductive health education for family physicians could benefit patients by improving access to safe care for unintended pregnancy and early pregnancy loss and by improving continuity of care, especially for rural and low-income women. By promoting reflection on conflicts between personal beliefs and responsibility to patients, training in options counseling and abortion care fosters patient-centered care and informed decision making. Managing pregnancy loss and termination also improves skills in patient-centered counseling and primary care gynecology. Multiple studies document the feasibility and success of several training models for abortion and miscarriage management in family medicine. Incorporating comprehensive reproductive health care into family medicine residency training enables family physicians to provide a full range of reproductive health services.

  20. It is not on Medicines that Protecting-health Depend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Han-ping

    2003-01-01

    @@ What should people depend on for pursuing the health and longevity? It is first on one's own efforts according to my viewpoint, such as rationalizing daily diet, making an appropriate exercises and a mental balance, giving up smoking while moderating liquor, etc. Then one turns to the medical measure for help if necessary. Even though in this case it is not imperative to select medicinal simply, because acupuncture therapy,as well as Tuina one, both called "alternative medicine" in Western medical sector, is also able to play an important role in protecting health and treating illness. This is what expected to be expressed by this paper, in the light of the therapies' properties of efficiency in treating disorder as well as in protecting health, while no complicated toxicity and other side-effects, therefore they are called "green-therapy" and deeply concerned by medical scientists and the publics in the world, especially when the drug-evil runs wild worldwide.

  1. Dignitary medicine: adapting prehospital, preventive, tactical and travel medicine to new populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Roger A; Callaway, David W; Connor, Bradley A; Haughton, Brian P; Mechem, C Crawford

    2012-09-01

    Dignitary Protection Medicine (DPM) is a new area of medical expertise that incorporates elements of virtually all medical and surgical specialties, drawing heavily from travel, tactical and expedition medicine. The fundamentals of DPM stem from the experiences of White House, State Department and other physicians who have traveled extensively with dignitaries. Furthermore, increased international travel of business executives and political dignitaries has mandated a need for proficiency in this realm. We sought to define the requisite knowledge base and skill sets that form the foundation of this new area of specialization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Podiatric sports medicine. Evaluation and prevention of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G M

    1984-08-01

    It has been estimated that 70 per cent of all athletic injuries affect the lower extremity. These injuries are more often caused by overuse than by acute trauma. The treatment for overuse injuries is rest, which relieves the symptoms, but prevention is the better answer.

  3. The principles of Health Technology Assessment in laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giorgio; Belfiore, Patrizia; D'Amora, Maurizio; Liguori, Renato; Plebani, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multi-professional and multidisciplinary evaluation approach designed to assess health technology in the broadest sense of the term, from its instruments to the rearranging of its organizational structures. It is by now an established methodology at national and international levels that involves several medical disciplines thanks to its versatility. Laboratory medicine is one of these disciplines. Such specialization was subjected, in recent years, to deep changes even from an organizational standpoint, in order to meet the health needs of the population, making them as effective and cost-effective as possible. In this regard, HTA was the tool used to assess implications in different areas.

  4. The Determinants of Choosing Traditional Korean Medicine or Conventional Medicine: Findings from the Korea Health Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Heon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify key factors that determine a person’s decision to seek treatment from traditional Korean medicine (TKM instead of conventional medicine through analysis of nationally representative data from Korea, where a dual healthcare system exists. The analysis is based on episodic data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel. The main dependent variable is the selection between TKM and conventional medicine. We used a multiple logistic regression model to identify the determinants of TKM while controlling for clustered error. Approximately 5% of all doctor’s visits were characterized as TKM services. Urban residents were 1.441 times more likely to use TKM than rural residents P=0.001. The probability of choosing TKM over conventional medicine for a range of conditions compared to the reference condition (gastrointestinal disease was as follows: circulatory system diseases (OR 5.267, P<0.001, nervous system diseases (OR 12.054, P<0.001, musculoskeletal system diseases (OR 20.579, P<0.001, and neoplasms (OR 0.209, P=0.004. Certain diseases are significantly more likely to be treated by TKM than by conventional medicine. This suggests that many people view TKM as being additionally effective for specific diseases, particularly musculoskeletal disorders.

  5. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health Part II: Multicultural Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this second article of a series, the author develops the concept of health-related beliefs as belonging to one of three classifications: beliefs in “nature” or natural causation of health and illness; beliefs relating to the “self” as affecting health; and beliefs in the effects of supernatural forces on the health of individuals. He goes on to discuss beliefs in the first category and to show how physicians, by recognizing and respecting their patients' views on these matters, can improve the doctor-patient relationship and increase patient compliance. PMID:21253116

  6. Indigenous narratives of health: (re)placing folk-medicine within Irish health histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2015-03-01

    With the increased acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within society, new research reflects deeper folk health histories beyond formal medical spaces. The contested relationships between formal and informal medicine have deep provenance and as scientific medicine began to professionalise in the 19th century, lay health knowledges were simultaneously absorbed and disempowered (Porter 1997). In particular, the 'medical gaze' and the responses of informal medicine to this gaze were framed around themes of power, regulation, authenticity and narrative reputation. These responses were emplaced and mobile; enacted within multiple settings by multiple agents and structures over time. The work is drawn from secondary material from Ireland, which identify more indigenous narratives of health and act as potential sources for medical humanities. While assumptions have been made as to the place of folk-medicine being essentially rural, evidence will be presented which shows a more complex network of health beliefs and practices. The narratives of informal practice and folk-medicine drawn from evidence from Ireland point to more fluid and hybrid relations with formal medicine and suggest that the complementary nature of the two models reflected wider cultural debates and models of belief (Del Casino Jnr., Health & Place 10:59-73, 2004).

  7. [Cell phones: health risks and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.

  8. The Value of Continued Followup in a Preventive Medicine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafana, C.; Mockbee, J.

    1970-01-01

    Continued monitoring of hypertension and cholesterol levels in NASA employees by regularly scheduled medical examinations prevents an increase in employee disability and cardiovascular mortality rates. Adequate therapeutic control for younger hypertensive employees is demonstrated by records on mortality and heart diseases over a period of 28 months. It confirmed the importance of systolic blood pressure as diagnostic tool for the inherent risk factor. The prevalence of additional coronary risk factors among employees with hypercholesterolemia is considerably less than in employees with hypertension.

  9. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  10. The in-service examination score as a predictor of success on the American Board of Preventive Medicine certification examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedno, Sheryl A; Soltis, Michele A; Mancuso, James D; Burnett, Daniel G; Mallon, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    To date, there has been no study correlating the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) in-service exam (ISE) with the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) certification exam. To validate the ACPM ISE as a predictor of success on the ABPM certification exam. ISE and ABPM certification exam scores were standardized by year using z-scores. The correlation between practicum year ISE scores and certification exam scores for military preventive medicine residencies in the National Capital and Washington State areas (core component only) was analyzed. A multivariable linear regression model included adjustments for age, gender, Master of Public Health grade point average (GPA), prior specialty board certification, and board deferral ≥1 year after graduation. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2011. Performance on the ISE was correlated with performance on the ABPM certification core exam (r=0.61, pPerformance on the ISE was still significant after adjusting for relevant demographic and educational variables (pGPA (p=0.001) and board deferral (p=0.04) in the linear regression model. Performance on the ISE is moderately correlated with performance on the board certification core exam, and this correlation remained significant after adjustment in the linear regression model. These results serve to validate the ISE as a means for program directors to identify residents at academic risk and as encouragement for residents to take the certification exam as soon as possible after graduation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Integrative medicine selects best practice from public health and biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin′s blood supply. This has long featured in the university′s research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k no (w harm as a key to good practice.

  12. Pediatric vaccination and vaccine-preventable disease acquisition: associations with care by complementary and alternative medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Lois; Tyree, Patrick T; Huebner, Colleen E; Lafferty, William E

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated provider-based complementary/alternative medicine use and its association with receipt of recommended vaccinations by children aged 1-2 years and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease by children aged 1-17 years. Results were based on logistic regression analysis of insurance claims for pediatric enrollees covered by two insurance companies in Washington State during 2000-2003. Primary exposures were use of chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture, or massage practitioner services by pediatric enrollees or members of their immediate families. Outcomes included receipt by children aged 1-2 years of four vaccine combinations (or their component vaccines) covering seven diseases, and acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases by enrollees aged 1-17 years. Children were significantly less likely to receive each of the four recommended vaccinations if they saw a naturopathic physician. Children who saw chiropractors were significantly less likely to receive each of three of the recommended vaccinations. Children aged 1-17 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a vaccine-preventable disease if they received naturopathic care. Use of provider-based complementary/alternative medicine by other family members was not independently associated with early childhood vaccination status or disease acquisition. Pediatric use of complementary/alternative medicine in Washington State was significantly associated with reduced adherence to recommended pediatric vaccination schedules and with acquisition of vaccine-preventable disease. Interventions enlisting the participation of complementary/alternative medicine providers in immunization awareness and promotional activities could improve adherence rates and assist in efforts to improve public health.

  13. Airline pilot disability: economic impact of an airline preventive medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R; Gullett, C C

    1982-04-01

    The current economic crisis facing most major United States airlines has forced a close examination of airline-sponsored activities. The effectiveness of one airline's pilot preventive medicine program was estimated by comparing disability experience of its pilots against the experience of a larger population of airline pilots. The preventive medicine program at the studied airline was shown to reduce disability experience by one-third, while saving the airline better than $6 million annually. This program yielded the airline better than a 6-1 return on investment during the years studied.

  14. Preventive Screening of Women Who Use Complementary and Alternative Medicine Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Patrick T.; Lafferty, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Many women use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Although CAM use has been associated with reductions in conventionally recommended pediatric preventive care (e.g., vaccination), little is known about associations between CAM use and receipt of recommended preventive screening in women. Methods Using Washington State insurance data from 2000 to 2003, the authors generated clustered logistic regression models, examining associations between provider-based CAM use and receipt of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, breast cancer, and cervical cancer: (1) contrasting women who used CAM providers only (alternative use) and women who used both conventional and CAM providers (complementary use) with women who used conventional care only and (2) testing associations between screening and use of four specific CAM provider types—naturopathic physicians, chiropractors, massage therapists, and acupuncturists. Results Both alternative and complementary use was associated with reduced Chlamydia screening. Cancer screening increased with complementary use but decreased with alternative use of CAM. Use of naturopathy was associated with decreased mammography, whereas all four CAM therapies were positively associated with Papanicolaou testing. Conclusions When used in conjunction with conventional care, use of provider-based CAM may signal high interest in various types of health-promoting behavior, including cancer screening. Negative associations between CAM and Chlamydia screening and between naturopathy and mammography require additional study. Interventions with CAM providers and their patients, aimed at improving rates of conventionally recommended screening, might encourage greater focus on preventive care, an important task when CAM providers serve as women's only contact with the healthcare system. PMID:19630554

  15. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  16. Infrastructure for Personalized Medicine at Partners HealthCare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Weiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Partners HealthCare Personalized Medicine (PPM is a center within the Partners HealthCare system (founded by Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital whose mission is to utilize genetics and genomics to improve the care of patients in a cost effective manner. PPM consists of five interconnected components: (1 Laboratory for Molecular Medicine (LMM, a CLIA laboratory performing genetic testing for patients world-wide; (2 Translational Genomics Core (TGC, a core laboratory providing genomic platforms for Partners investigators; (3 Partners Biobank, a biobank of samples (DNA, plasma and serum for 50,000 Consented Partners patients; (4 Biobank Portal, an IT infrastructure and viewer to bring together genotypes, samples, phenotypes (validated diagnoses, radiology, and clinical chemistry from the electronic medical record to Partners investigators. These components are united by (5 a common IT system that brings researchers, clinicians, and patients together for optimal research and patient care.

  17. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  18. Massive open online courses on health and medicine: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Williams, Shirley Ann

    2014-08-14

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have become immensely popular in a short span of time. However, there is very little research exploring MOOCs in the discipline of health and medicine. We aim to provide a review of MOOCs related to health and medicine offered by various MOOC platforms in 2013, by analyzing and comparing the various offerings, their target audience, typical length of course, and credentials offered. We also discuss opportunities and challenges presented by MOOCs in health and medicine. Health and medicine-related MOOCs were gathered using several methods to ensure the richness and completeness of data. Identified MOOC platform websites were used to gather the lists of offerings. In parallel, these MOOC platforms were contacted to access official data on their offerings. Two MOOC aggregator sites (Class Central and MOOC List) were also consulted to gather data on MOOC offerings. Eligibility criteria were defined to concentrate on the courses that were offered in 2013 and primarily on the subject of health and medicine. All language translations in this paper were done using Google Translate. The search identified 225 courses, of which 98 were eligible for the review. Over half (58%, 57/98) of the MOOCs considered were offered on the Coursera platform, and 94% (92/98) of all the MOOCs were offered in English. Universities offered 90 MOOCs, and the John Hopkins University offered the largest number of MOOCs (12/90). Only three MOOCs were offered by developing countries (China, West Indies, and Saudi Arabia). The duration of MOOCs varied from 3-20 weeks with an average length of 6.7 weeks. On average, MOOCs expected a participant to work on the material for 4.2 hours a week. Verified certificates were offered by 14 MOOCs, while three others offered other professional recognition. The review presents evidence to suggest that MOOCs can be used as a way to provide continuous medical education. It also shows the potential of MOOCs as a means of

  19. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Turki N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting.Objective: To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data.Results: A total 123 health care workers (45.6% experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5% and nonphysical violence (99.2%, including verbal violence (94.3% and intimidation (22.0%. Offenders were patients (71.5% in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%, or both (3.3%. Almost half (48.0% of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence.Conclusion: Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care

  20. [Consequences of the judicialization of health policies: the cost of medicines for mucopolysaccharidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzes expenditures backed by court rulings to ensure the public provision of medicines for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a rare disease that requires high-cost drugs not covered by the Brazilian government's policy for pharmaceutical care and which have disputed clinical efficacy. The methodology included a review of files from 196 court rulings ordering the Brazilian Ministry of Health to provide the medicines, in addition to Ministry of Health administrative records. According to the analysis, the "judicialization" of the health system subjected the Brazilian government to a monopoly in the distribution of medicines and consequently the loss of its capacity to manage drug purchases. The study also indicates that the imposition of immediate, individualized purchases prevents obtaining economies of scale with planned procurement of larger amounts of the medication, besides causing logistic difficulties in controlling the amounts consumed and stored. In conclusion, litigation results from the lack of a clear policy in the health system for rare diseases in general, thereby leading to excessive expenditures for MPS treatment.

  1. Traditional/alternative medicines and the right to health: Key elements for a convention on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandolo, Tshimungu; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Chastonay, Philippe

    2013-06-14

    Little has been done to investigate and promote the importance of non-conventional medicines (NCMs) in the realization of the right to health, yet all over the world people regularly resort to NCMs to secure healing or to prevent or mitigate the occurrence of a wide range of morbidities. This study aims to elucidate the theoretical framework of the role of NCMs in realizing the right to health, to identify the potential manifestations and causes of violations of the right to health in their practice, and to propose the practice of NCMs that could be included in a Framework Convention on Global Health. We use both the documentary analysis and the violation of rights approaches. Through a non-directive review of the literature, we have tried to clarify the concepts and uniqueness of NCMs. We have also tried to unveil the challenges facing NCMs in a context where conventional medicines assume extensive power. The human rights approach has enabled us to bring to light the potential challenges to the rights of the various stakeholders that NCMs create. We argue that NCMs can contribute to realizing the right to health through their availability, accessibility, acceptability, and relative quality. The Framework Convention on Global Health could contribute to the effective realization of this right by integrating basic principles to ensure the recognition, protection, promotion, and conservation of NCMs-at least of those NCMs that have shown evidence of efficacy-as well as catalyzing increased international cooperation in this area.

  2. Are electronic health records ready for genomic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuner, Maren T; de Vries, Han; Kim, Benjamin; Meili, Robin C; Olmstead, Sarah H; Teleki, Stephanie

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this project was to assess genetic/genomic content in electronic health records. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants. Questions addressed documentation, organization, display, decision support and security of family history and genetic test information, and challenges and opportunities relating to integrating genetic/genomics content in electronic health records. There were 56 participants: 10 electronic health record specialists, 18 primary care clinicians, 16 medical geneticists, and 12 genetic counselors. Few clinicians felt their electronic record met their current genetic/genomic medicine needs. Barriers to integration were mostly related to problems with family history data collection, documentation, and organization. Lack of demand for genetics content and privacy concerns were also mentioned as challenges. Data elements and functionality requirements that clinicians see include: pedigree drawing; clinical decision support for familial risk assessment and genetic testing indications; a patient portal for patient-entered data; and standards for data elements, terminology, structure, interoperability, and clinical decision support rules. Although most said that there is little impact of genetics/genomics on electronic records today, many stated genetics/genomics would be a driver of content in the next 5-10 years. Electronic health records have the potential to enable clinical integration of genetic/genomic medicine and improve delivery of personalized health care; however, structured and standardized data elements and functionality requirements are needed.

  3. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  4. An analysis of application of health informatics in Traditional Medicine: A review of four Traditional Medicine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Abdullah, Noraswaliza

    2015-11-01

    This paper shall first investigate the informatics areas and applications of the four Traditional Medicine systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine and Traditional Malay Medicine. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The literature was sourced from four databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Explore, Proquest and Google scholar. The search term used was "Traditional Medicine", "informatics", "informatics infrastructure", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Ayurveda", "traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine", and "traditional malay medicine". A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms. Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Traditional Chinese Medicine differentiates itself from other Traditional Medicine systems with documented ISO Standards to support the standardization of TCM. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient. Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine. Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its

  5. Social network analysis. Review of general concepts and use in preventive veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, B; Perez, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2009-05-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory have been used widely in sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology and medicine. Social network analysis and graph theory provide a conceptual framework to study contact patterns and to identify units of analysis that are frequently or intensely connected within the network. Social network analysis has been used in human epidemiology as a tool to explore the potential transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and syphilis. In preventive veterinary medicine, SNA is an approach that offers benefits for exploring the nature and extent of the contacts between animals or farms, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of the potential risk for disease spread in a susceptible population. Social network analysis, however, has been applied only recently in preventive veterinary medicine, therefore the characteristics of the technique and the potential benefits of its use remain unknown for an important section of the international veterinary medicine community. The objectives of this paper were to review the concepts and theoretical aspects underlying the use of SNA and graph theory, with particular emphasis on their application to the study of infectious diseases of animals. The paper includes a review of recent applications of SNA in preventive veterinary medicine and a discussion of the potential uses and limitations of this methodology for the study of animal diseases.

  6. [Recognizing prevention and treatment of burn sepsis with the concept of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, J N

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.

  7. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-05-30

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.

  8. FOULING PREVENTION WITH FLUIDIZED PARTICLES IN EVAPORATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE EXTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyan Liu; Xiulun Li; Ruitai Lin; Wanda Nie; Rucheng Zhang; Ningsheng Ling

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation shows that comparing with the evaporation of vapor-liquid two-phase flow boiling system, heat transfer is enhanced by adding proper inert solid particles into the traditional Chinese medicine liquid which is under evaporation. As a result, fouling prevention effects are evident in such three-phase flow boiling evaporator.

  9. Integrating occupational health services and occupational prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, L; Deitchman, S; Dervin, K

    2001-09-01

    Despite the human and monetary costs of occupational injury and illness, occupational health care has focused more on treatment than prevention, and prevention is not part of many clinical occupational health practices. This represents a failure of occupational health care to meet the health care needs of the working patients. MEDLINE searches were conducted for literature on occupational medical treatment and the prevention of occupational injury and illness were reviewed to for linkages between prevention and treatment. Policy discussions which identify examples of programs that integrated prevention and treatment were included. Although examples of the integration of clinical and preventive occupational health services exist, there are challenges and barriers to such integration. These include inaction by clinicians who do not recognize their potential role in prevention; the absence of a relationship between the clinician and an employer willing to participate in prevention; economic disincentives against prevention; and the absence of tools that evaluate clinicians on their performance in prevention. Research is needed to improve and promote clinical occupational health preventive services. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Mentoring in Medicine Program Encourages Careers in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo: Mentoring in Medicine At a Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) event, a possible future medical professional gets the chance to model a lab coat with a MIM mentor. Photo: Mentoring in Medicine To Find Out More Mentoring in Medicine www. ...

  11. [The citation analysis of the publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2000-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiang-zheng; Xue, Ai-hua; You, Su-ning; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Pei-zhen

    2008-06-01

    To carry out the citation analysis of publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine (CJPM) among the preventive medicine authors and analyze the impact of this magazine in preventive medicine domain. Using Chinese scientific periodical literature evaluation and statistical analysis system (V1.0), the citation status of all CJPM publications in 2000-2005 was analyzed, the analysis covered 21 columns, including the review, editorial and original article, the data were collected up to November, 2007. From 2000 to 2005, CJPM had more than 30 columns and carried 1196 articles and 92. 89% (1111/1196) articles were from 21 main columns. During 2003 to 2005, the impact factors of CJPM were 0. 897, 1.011 and 0. 891 respectively. Among 21 main columns, the citation frequency of six columns including original article, editorial, review, courses, discussion and case report were higher than 80%. In five columns (original article, editorial, report, review and academic trends), the average citation frequency of individual articles was more than 4 times. The citation frequency of 20 authors was higher than 20 times and these authors were from medical schools, teaching hospitals, centers of diseases control and the research institutes. The individual citation frequency of 17 articles was more than 20 times and the individual citation frequency of three articles was more than 50 times. 34.9% of the citations of the 2000-2005 CJPM articles were from the top 20 journals, and the self-citation rate was 4. 85%. The publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine are most frequently cited, which indicated that those publications have high quality, this journal has a great effect in preventive medicine field of China.

  12. Multiculturalism, Medicine, and Health Part III: Health Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Supernatural beliefs relate to a Power or powers considered beyond nature. Persons who wish to draw upon the power of supernatural forces often attempt to do so through prayers, ceremonies, or special acknowledgement. While some physicians feel uncomfortable at times with beliefs that differ from their own, the chaplaincy system, in place in most hospitals, is evidence that health-care systems can comfortably accommodate supernatural beliefs. We must make an effort to understand and accommodate supernatural beliefs other than the Judaeo-Christian tradition and to acknowledge their importance to other cultural groups. A more accepting approach will improve physician-patient relationships. PMID:20469489

  13. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Hanley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health

  14. Gene-Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Hiroto

    2017-01-30

    The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene-environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  15. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  16. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013-2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. We searched for mental health primary prevention themes in: (1) three major journals of psychiatry and social sciences during the years 2001-2012; (2) university graduate programs in psychology, social work and medicine in leading universities for the academic year of 2011-2012; and (3) doctoral and master's theses approved in psychology and social work departments in five universities between the years 2007-2012. We used a liberal definition of primary prevention to guide the above identification of themes, including those related to theory, methods or research information of direct or indirect application in practice. Of the 934 articles published in the three journals, 7.2%, n = 67, addressed primary prevention. Of the 899 courses in the 19 graduate programs 5.2%, n = 47, elective courses addressed primary prevention. Of the 1960 approved doctoral and master's theses 6.2%, n = 123, addressed primary prevention. Only 11 (4.7%) articles, 5 (0.6%) courses, and 5 (0.3%) doctoral and master's theses addressed primary prevention directly. The psychiatric reform currently implemented in Israel and WHO CMHAP call for novel policies and course of action in all levels of prevention, including primary prevention. Yet, the latter is rarely a component of mental health education and research activities. The baseline we drew could serve to evaluate future progress in the field.

  17. Health Promotion/Disease Prevention: New Directions for Geriatric Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkoff, Sue; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…

  18. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    including pelvic inflammatory disease , chronic pelvic pain, future infertility, and increased risk for HIV. Moreover, identifying, treating, and counseling...that impact military performance and readiness. Finally, this research has direct implications for health promotion and disease prevention education...strategies designed to reach military men and women early in their careers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Health Promotion; Disease Prevention; Education and

  19. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  20. National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations With Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E

    2017-10-01

    Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  2. XI Congress of Latin American Social Medicine & Collective Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Torres Tovar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American Medical Association (ALAMES will be hosting the 11th Congress of Latin American Social Medicine and Collective Health from November 17-21 in Bogota Colombia. This meeting will coincide with the 25th Anniversary of the founding of ALAMES and its theme is the role health in the Latin American political and social agenda. Below we present an abridged version of the planning document for the conference. The complete version is available in Spanish in Medicina Social. More information can also be found on the ALAMES website (www.alames.org The Editors The 11th Latin American Congress of Social Medicine and Collective Health is both a convocation and a celebration. It’s a convocation to create bold and innovative alternatives to the profound crisis of neoliberal globalization, a crisis that is only beginning. The response to this crisis cannot be limited to the socialization of the losses incurred by the speculators. Now is the moment for proposing and bringing about a true change in global direction..

  3. Indian folklore medicine in managing men's health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Balasubramanian, K; Ansari, A S

    2016-10-01

    India is a home for a large variety of plants with remarkable medicinal and pharmacological value. Traditional medicine in the form of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani has used many of these plants since ancient days for treating and curing various ailments of the body. When it comes to issues related to reproductive health, people still hesitate to discuss and/or accept it openly and hence look for alternate and natural remedies. The various tribal populations distributed across different parts of the country still use these plant extracts in various formulations for maintenance of good health. The medical utilities of several of these plants have been documented; however, there are many more, whose potential is yet to be explored. This review discusses the role of various plants grown in the Indian subcontinent that have been widely used in maintaining various aspects of reproductive health in men such as infertility, aphrodisiac, contraception, libido, sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract cancers as well as in treating chronic disorders.

  4. Use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedke, Mari Ângela; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias; Manenti, Euler Roberto Fernandes; Henn, Ruth Liane; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Nunes, Marcelo Felipe; da Motta, Monique Adriane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To analyze if the demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with the use of medicines for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS : In this cohort study, we included 138 patients with acute coronary syndrome, aged 30 years or more and of both sexes. The data were collected at the time of hospital discharge, and after six and twelve months. The outcome of the study was the simultaneous use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome: platelet antiaggregant, beta-blockers, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. The independent variables were: sex, age, education in years of attending, monthly income in tertiles and percutaneous coronary intervention. We described the prevalence of use of each group of medicines with their 95% confidence intervals, as well as the simultaneous use of the four medicines, in all analyzed periods. In the crude analysis, we verified the outcome with the independent variables for each period through the Chi-square test. The adjusted analysis was carried out using Poisson Regression. RESULTS : More than a third of patients (36.2%; 95%CI 28.2;44.3) had the four medicines prescribed at the same time, at the moment of discharge. We did not observe any differences in the prevalence of use in comparison with the two follow-up periods. The most prescribed class of medicines during discharge was platelet antiaggregant (91.3%). In the crude analysis, the demographic and socioeconomic variables were not associated to the outcome in any of the three periods. CONCLUSIONS : The prevalence of simultaneous use of medicines at discharge and in the follow-ups pointed to the under-utilization of this therapy in clinical practice. Intervention strategies are needed to improve the quality of care given to patients that extend beyond the hospital discharge, a critical point of transition

  5. Use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ângela Gaedke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To analyze if the demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with the use of medicines for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS : In this cohort study, we included 138 patients with acute coronary syndrome, aged 30 years or more and of both sexes. The data were collected at the time of hospital discharge, and after six and twelve months. The outcome of the study was the simultaneous use of medicines recommended for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome: platelet antiaggregant, beta-blockers, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. The independent variables were: sex, age, education in years of attending, monthly income in tertiles and percutaneous coronary intervention. We described the prevalence of use of each group of medicines with their 95% confidence intervals, as well as the simultaneous use of the four medicines, in all analyzed periods. In the crude analysis, we verified the outcome with the independent variables for each period through the Chi-square test. The adjusted analysis was carried out using Poisson Regression. RESULTS : More than a third of patients (36.2%; 95%CI 28.2;44.3 had the four medicines prescribed at the same time, at the moment of discharge. We did not observe any differences in the prevalence of use in comparison with the two follow-up periods. The most prescribed class of medicines during discharge was platelet antiaggregant (91.3%. In the crude analysis, the demographic and socioeconomic variables were not associated to the outcome in any of the three periods. CONCLUSIONS : The prevalence of simultaneous use of medicines at discharge and in the follow-ups pointed to the under-utilization of this therapy in clinical practice. Intervention strategies are needed to improve the quality of care given to patients that extend beyond the hospital discharge, a critical

  6. Virtues and values in medicine revisited: individual and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon; Upshur, Ross

    2014-10-01

    In response to the call from an international panel for 'much needed rethinking' about the goals and purposes of the education of healthcare professionals, we suggest that there must be an explicit account of the virtues and values that will inform healthcare practice in the 21st century. We propose that a renewed emphasis is needed on reviving the well-honed clinical skills and humanistic attributes in medicine as crucial for optimum affordable (and sustainable) care of individual patients. Analogous virtues should be linked to the quest for improving the health of whole populations, nationally and globally.

  7. Adolescent mental health: a review of preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, C; Coverdale, J; Battaglia, J

    1992-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, adolescents represent the only age group in the United States whose health status has not improved significantly. In this population, major health problems that are becoming increasingly important in regard to preventive intervention include substance abuse, depression, teenage pregnancy, and AIDS. Research in adolescent mental health during the past decade has focused on both the etiology and the prevention of problem behaviors. We review the development and application of various preventive intervention approaches in the field of adolescent mental health and discuss implications for future directions.

  8. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low-resource countries: An Ishikawa framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dan N; Bero, Lisa A

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) - essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008-2010. These reports summarized country-wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a "fishbone" (Ishikawa) diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health-system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health-system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. The "fishbone" Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the development of tailored intervention programs to improve and expand the use

  10. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals

  11. Medicine and health information in Galician daily press. The health news in the main Galician newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Carmen Costa Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the health and medicine information published during a week in the four newspapers more spreaded in Galicia. The journalism has the responsibility of informing about health with quality criterions, instead of considering health a superficial, anecdotic and secondary subject. The appearance of the specific sections and the incorporation of the journalists specialized in health to the editorial staffs of the Spanish main generalist newspapers are beginning a process in depth in this way. But what is happening with the press of the autonomous regions? Which is the informative processing of medicine and health information in Galician daily press?, we asked. Descriptive, quantitative and content analysis will make possible to think about the information coverage of this kind of facts for making a diagnostic of the situation and for proposing its necessary improvement.

  12. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine—person-centred medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberti di Sarsina Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM, an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs.

  13. Health Transformation Project and Defensive Medicine Practice among Neurosurgeons in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan Solaroglu; Yusuf Izci; H Gokce Yeter; M Mert Metin; G Evren Keles

    2014-01-01

    Health Transformation Project and Defensive Medicine Practice among Neurosurgeons in Turkey Ihsan Solaroglu1*, Yusuf Izci2, H. Gokce Yeter3, M. Mert Metin3, G. Evren Keles1 1 Koc¸ University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Gulhane Military Medical Academy, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara, Turkey, 3 Koc¸ University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract Background: The term ‘‘Defensive’’ medicine was coined i...

  14. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  15. Conversations in disaster medicine and public health: the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2014-02-01

    Using historical and research examples of disaster and crisis science, I argue here for the professionalization of disaster medicine and public health as a unique and essential discipline in support of global public health security. Questions about clinical competencies of providers and reports of unacceptable practices and the limited scope of guidelines for foreign medical teams have persisted for years. The professionalization movement endorses a standard route to certification through the completion of a competency-based curriculum, demonstrating competency through examination or experience to produce a learning and development portfolio, document competency through the acquisition of experience and added training, and develop professional associations. These programs devise certification criteria for entry, mid-level, and higher level candidates who serve in domestic and global humanitarian crises.

  16. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  17. Integration of herbal medicine in national health care of developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population in developing countries still relies on herbal medicine to ... living with HIV/AIDS use herbal medicine in USA. Funding for ... In USA complementary and alternative medicine ... and regulatory framework, issues pertaining to safety,.

  18. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervosa, than are their straight counterparts. One potential explanation is that gay men identify with the cultural ... know about sexually transmitted diseases. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. http:// ...

  19. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine.

  20. Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dipika; Purohit, Vilok K

    2013-01-01

    Essential Medicine Concept, a major breakthrough in health care, started in 1977 when World Health Organization (WHO) published its first list. Appropriate use of essential medicines is one of the most cost-effective components of modern health care. The selection process has evolved from expert evaluation to evidence-based selection. The first Indian list was published in 1996 and the recent revision with 348 medicines was published in 2011 after 8 years. Health expenditure is less in India as compared to developed countries. India faces a major challenge in providing access to medicines for its 1.2 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines. In the future, countries will face challenges in selecting high-cost medicines for oncology, orphan diseases and other conditions. There is a need to develop strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.

  1. [The role of health regulations in the rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Peñalosa, Mikel Andoni

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk (COFEPRIS by its initials in Spanish) is the state body responsible for transversely regulating various sectors of the Mexican economy, among them health services and inputs. Both cases are related to the rational use of medicines. The pharmaceutical policy of the Mexican Government is to prevent health risks by strengthening the effective and timely access to a market supplied with safe, effective, and quality products at the lowest possible prices. To date, the regulatory mechanisms used by COFEPRIS to ensure access to medicines and quality health services have been effective. With the implemented measures, self-medication has been reduced and medical services provided by pharmaceutical clinics comply with the best practices. Finally, the regulatory framework has been strengthened to fight the illegal drug market and "miracle" products. So far, the present administration has increased seizures of illegal substances and, as of today, all advertising guidelines for health-related products comply with the regulations.

  2. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2016-03-17

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC.

  3. Theory in Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael; Elise, Eifert

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases are a primary concern of health professionals, including Health Educators. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over one half of the adult population in the United States suffer from one or more chronic conditions. Understanding the health risk behaviors that contribute to…

  4. Training Internal Medicine Residents in Social Medicine and Research-Based Health Advocacy: A Novel, In-Depth Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gaurab; Pels, Richard J; Stark, Rachel L; Jain, Priyank; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2017-04-01

    Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum. The course has three major innovations: it has a yearlong longitudinal curriculum, it is required for all residents, and all residents complete a group research-based health advocacy project within the curricular year. The authors describe the structure, content, and goals of this curriculum. Over the last four years (AYs 2012-2015), residents (17/32; 53%) have rated the overall quality of the course highly (mean = 5.2, where 6 = outstanding; standard deviation = 0.64). In each year since the new course has been implemented, all scholarly work from the course has been presented at conferences by 31 resident presenters and/or coauthors. The course seems to enhance the residency program's capacity to recruit high-caliber residents and faculty members. The authors are collecting qualitative and quantitative data on the impact of the course. They will use their findings to advocate for a national health advocacy competency framework. Recommendations about how to initiate or further develop social medicine and health advocacy curricula are offered.

  5. Using the Army Medical Cost Avoidance Model to prioritize preventive medicine initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; McCoskey, Kelsey; Clasing, Jay; Kluchinsky, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    The MCAM's ICD-9 Analysis Tool provides preventive medicine program developers with a powerful tool to demonstrate ROI. Previously disjointed cost components have been brought together in the MCAM to calculate the total medical cost avoided. Users are required to make 4 data entries. In response, the user receives the highly coveted medical cost avoidance that should be realized. The SPHMP example demonstrates how simple it is to use the MCAM to determine the expected ROI.

  6. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 7. Communicable Diseases. Arthropodborne other than Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Personal communication. Harr/ Mo« MD.. Professor of Preventive Media or. Mew Tork Unl- Tcrsltr Coll ’.«« of Medicine, to Henry E. ».elener. M.D., Research...Fierre Jaune. L’Encyelopeclle M&lico- chirurgicale , 2d edition, Paris. 12- 1WÖC.) 362 rnSIJIIMI’AHI.E DISEASES Government, which in turn have

  7. Prevention of oral diseases and oral health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, H C

    1991-06-01

    Research and activities, as promoted in 1989 and 1990, in oral disease prevention and health promotion are summarized. Significant syntheses of research findings have occurred, as a result of planning and workship activities, which will direct oral health promotion in the 1990s. Original research on established and new preventive therapies for dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral mucosal alterations, soft-tissue lesions, precancers and cancers, and trauma are reported, opportunities to prevent oral diseases or maintain oral health through changes in individual behaviors, professional orientation, and social and environmental changes are addressed.

  8. World Health Organization encourages traditional medicine in the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, P

    1979-01-01

    The executive board of WHO (World Health Organization) recently passed a resolution calling on countries 1) to promote the role of traditional practitioners in the health care systems of developing countries and 2) to allocate more financial support for the development of traditional medical systems. The board also urged the medical profession not to undervalue the traditional medical system. WHO recognizes that modern medical care is unavailable to the majority of the world's poor residents and that traditional birth attendants deliver 2/3 of the world's babies. To fulfill the primary health needs of all the world's inhabitants it will be necessary to utilize both the Western and the traditional medical system. In some countries, such as Sri Lanka, India, and China the traditional health system is legally recognized. WHO also advocates utilizing those medicinal plants and remedies used by traditional practitioners to effectively treat their patients. Example of some of these plants are 1) Ammi visnage, a Mediterranean plant, used to treat angina pectoris; 2) Cymbopogan proximus, an Egyptian plant, used to remove urinary tract stones; 3) the root of Combretum, used in Ghana to treat guinea-worm; 4) bitter leaf, a Nigerian plant which kills mouth bacteria; and 5) Desmodium adcendens, Thonningia sanguinea, and Deinbollia pinnata used in various combinations to treat bronchial asthma.

  9. A Consensus-Driven Agenda for Emergency Medicine Firearm Injury Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Fletcher, Jonathan; Alter, Harrison; Barsotti, Christopher; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Betz, Marian E; Carter, Patrick M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Crane, Peter; Fahimi, Jahan; Miller, Matthew J; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Vogel, Jody A; Wintemute, Garen J; Waseem, Muhammad; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-01

    To identify critical emergency medicine-focused firearm injury research questions and develop an evidence-based research agenda. National content experts were recruited to a technical advisory group for the American College of Emergency Physicians Research Committee. Nominal group technique was used to identify research questions by consensus. The technical advisory group decided to focus on 5 widely accepted categorizations of firearm injury. Subgroups conducted literature reviews on each topic and developed preliminary lists of emergency medicine-relevant research questions. In-person meetings and conference calls were held to iteratively refine the extensive list of research questions, following nominal group technique guidelines. Feedback from external stakeholders was reviewed and integrated. Fifty-nine final emergency medicine-relevant research questions were identified, including questions that cut across all firearm injury topics and questions specific to self-directed violence (suicide and attempted suicide), intimate partner violence, peer (nonpartner) violence, mass violence, and unintentional ("accidental") injury. Some questions could be addressed through research conducted in emergency departments; others would require work in other settings. The technical advisory group identified key emergency medicine-relevant firearm injury research questions. Emergency medicine-specific data are limited for most of these questions. Funders and researchers should consider increasing their attention to firearm injury prevention and control, particularly to the questions identified here and in other recently developed research agendas. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention by Design: Construction and Renovation of Health Care Facilities for Patient Safety and Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Russell N

    2016-09-01

    The built environment supports the safe care of patients in health care facilities. Infection preventionists and health care epidemiologists have expertise in prevention and control of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assist with designing and constructing facilities to prevent HAIs. However, design elements are often missing from initial concepts. In addition, there is a large body of evidence that implicates construction and renovation as being associated with clusters of HAIs, many of which are life threatening for select patient populations. This article summarizes known risks and prevention strategies within a framework for patient safety.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low–resource countries: An Ishikawa framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Tran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 – essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia. Methods We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008–2010. These reports summarized country–wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a “fishbone” (Ishikawa diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health–system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Results Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health–system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. Conclusions The “fishbone” Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the

  12. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low–resource countries: An Ishikawa framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dan N.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) – essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia. Methods We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008–2010. These reports summarized country–wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a “fishbone” (Ishikawa) diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health–system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Results Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health–system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. Conclusions The “fishbone” Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the development of

  13. Academic Relationships and Teaching Resources. Fogarty International Center Series on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine, Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan W., Ed.

    The monograph is one of the Fogarty International Center Series on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine, undertaken to: (1) review and evaluate the state of the art of prevention and control of human diseases; (2) identify deficiences in knowledge requiring further research (including analysis of financial resources, preventive techniques, and…

  14. Level of Educational Objectives Achievement in Health and Community Medicine Internship Course; Interns Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Nowadays, the community oriented medicine education model has been mainly noticed. The aim of this study was to survey the interns about achievement to the educational goals confirmed by Health Ministry in health internship and community medicine courses.    Instrument & Methods: In the descriptive cross-sectional study, 56 health internship and community medicine students of one of the military universities of medical sciences in Tehran were studied in 2014 and 2015....

  15. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Into Conventional Health Care System in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways...... through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas...

  16. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers.

  17. PRECISION MEDICINE - The Golden Gate for Detection, Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H; O'Bryant, S E; Castrillo, J I; Ritchie, C; Rojkova, K; Broich, K; Benda, N; Nisticò, R; Frank, R A; Dubois, B; Escott-Price, V; Lista, S

    2016-12-01

    During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy. This approach will likely be based on the success found from more advanced research fields, such as oncology. Precision medicine will require integration and transfertilization across fragmented specialities of medicine and direct reintegration of Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry into a continuum of medical sciences away from the silo approach. Precision medicine is biomarker-guided medicine on systems-levels that takes into account methodological advancements and discoveries of the comprehensive pathophysiological profiles of complex multi-factorial neurodegenerative diseases, such as late-onset sporadic AD. This will allow identifying and characterizing the disease processes at the asymptomatic preclinical stage, where pathophysiological and topographical abnormalities precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. In this respect, the uncharted territory of the AD preclinical stage has become a major research challenge as the field postulates that early biomarker guided customized interventions may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. Clarification and practical operationalization is needed for comprehensive dissection and classification of interacting and converging disease mechanisms, description of genomic and epigenetic drivers, natural history trajectories through space and time, surrogate biomarkers and indicators of risk and progression, as well as considerations about the regulatory, ethical, political and

  18. Essentials of diagnosis and prevention of genetic diseases in the primary health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Surí González

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Programs aimed at preventing genetic diseases reduce their fatal consequences among the population. Therefore, it is important to correctly prepare the medical staff working in the Maternal-Infant Program. Subjects related with these issues are thought since the pre-graduate education, in the second year of Medicine studies and in the postgraduate courses as part of the General Comprehensive Medicine residency within the subject Medical Genetics. The importance of this topic supported the creation of this pamphlet, based on a bibliographical review of the subject related with the implementation of the diagnosis and prevention program for genetic disease within the practice of genetic advising. The objective of this pamphlet is to provide the basic theoretical elements to facilitate the implementation of health actions in the community, which can be further review using the conventional bibliography.

  19. Pressure ulcer prevention: making a difference across a health authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Heidi; Downie, Fiona; McIntyre, Lyn; Peters, Jeremy

    Pressure ulcers (PUs), their cause and prevention have been discussed in the literature for many decades. Their prevention and management has been the core of a tissue viability nurse's daily clinical and strategic workload. The important point to acknowledge is that not all PUs can be prevented but it is believed most of them can and all preventative measures must be implemented and evaluated. Initial efforts focused on establishing a baseline of incidence and prevalence. More recently, the Department of Health has proposed that PUs could be eliminated in 95% of all NHS patients and incentivised the measurement of PUs and other harms by use of the NHS Safety Thermometer through the introduction of a new initiative. A research company was commissioned to explore which communications interventions would be effective in helping health professionals to prevent and treat PUs. A campaign was subsequently set in motion to educate and inform clinical staff on the cause and prevention of PUs.

  20. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  1. Preventive counselling for public health in pharmacies in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedel, Karin; Schlager, Helmut; Dörje, Frank

    2013-02-01

    No overview of preventive health activities conducted by pharmacists in South Germany has been available until now. Moreover, little about the needs of the public is known with regard to pharmacy-based preventive services. To gain an overview of the preventive health services and campaigns carried out by pharmacists in the federal state of Bavaria, and to assess the interest of the public for pharmacy-based preventive care counselling. Pharmacies in the seven Bavarian administrative districts, South Germany. In September 2010, all 3,470 pharmacies in Bavaria were mailed a questionnaire concerning their preventive health activities. The pharmacists were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaire either online or to mail them in. To assess the needs of pharmacy-based preventive health services in the Bavarian population, customers of 50 pharmacies were invited to fill in an anonymous self-completion questionnaire in March 2011. Relevant preventive health services which can be provided by pharmacists in order to meet the customers' needs. 519 of 3,470 pharmacies (15.0 %) took part in the survey. 60.5 % (n = 314) conducted at least one preventive health activity in the past and 51.6 % (n = 268) offering a disease prevention education event at least once a year. As a result of the pharmacists' survey, a ranking list of the most frequent preventive care activities was established. The projects conducted often lacked structured project schedules and evaluations. The survey assessing customer needs was completed by 1,808 customers in 49 of 50 community pharmacies. Pharmacists were identified as the preferred provider in 29 of the 31 preventive care services listed in the questionnaire. A ranking list with the top ten preventive subjects of highest interest was compiled. Pharmacists are active in many different prevention subjects and there is a great interest in pharmacy-based preventive care counselling in the Bavarian population. Very few structured, well

  2. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ... should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices such as unsafe sexual ... an adequate management plan for those who tested positive and vaccination of ...

  3. Preventing Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Chitra D; Perloff, Sarah R; Zuckerman, Jerry M

    2016-12-01

    Patients with tuberculosis (TB) pose a risk to other patients and health care workers, and outbreaks in health care settings occur when appropriate infection control measures are not used. In this article, we discuss strategies to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within health care settings. All health care facilities should have an operational TB infection control plan that emphasizes the use of a hierarchy of controls (administrative, environmental, and personal respiratory protection). We also discuss resources available to clinicians who work in the prevention and investigation of nosocomial transmission of M tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential role of complementary and alternative health care providers in chronic disease prevention and health promotion: an analysis of National Health Interview Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Cheryl; Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard

    2012-01-01

    To make a preliminary assessment of the potential role of the most frequently used licensed or certified United States complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers in chronic disease prevention and health promotion. This was a secondary analysis of the 2007 United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the most recent to include CAM use. The Adult Core Sample, Person and Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine data files were included. NHIS's complete survey design structure (strata, cluster and survey weights) was applied in generating national population estimates for CAM usage. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (8.4%) and massage (8.1%) were most commonly used; acupuncture was used by 1.4% and naturopathy by 0.3% of respondents. Substantial proportions of respondents reported using CAM for wellness and disease prevention, and informed their medical physician of use. Fifty-four percent were overweight or obese, 22.0% physically inactive, and 17.4% smokers; 18.0% reported hypertension, 19.6% high cholesterol, and 9.1% prediabetes or diabetes. CAM users present with risk factors which are priority public health issues. This implies a need to train CAM providers in evidence-based health promotion counseling. CAM encounters may provide opportunities to coordinate health promotion and prevention messages with patients' primary care providers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tailor-made preventive medicine integrating amino acid checkup and its application toward disaster-stricken areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    ICT technologies for healthcare are useful in myriad locations for people with lifestyle-related illnesses and health irregularities. When symptoms turn into actual illnesses, it is difficult for them to be managed, and this situation is relevant for managing the health of victims after large-scale disasters; it is important to keep people healthy to prevent them from acquiring illness. This paper proposes a system of personalized preventive medicine for individuals to maintain their health and receive evidence-based feedback. We introduce general medical checkups, ubiquitous sensing, and plasma amino acid analysis as the system's core components. We evaluate these elements and discuss their applicability toward the disaster-stricken Tohoku area of Japan. This is an initial evaluation, but some functions are being used in the area. There are gaps between research results and actually deployable technologies, but it is important to use and improve the quality of life of victims who are ultimately forced to live in temporary housing for more than five years.

  6. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  7. Knowledge of Emergency Medicine Residents in Relation to Prevention of Tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Derakhshanfar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of emergency medicine residents about the management of patients suspected of having tetanus favoring wounds is very important due to their responsibility for the treatment of such patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this knowledge and making sure of the adequacy of instructions they have received in relation to prevention of tetanus.  Methods: A reliable and reproducible questionnaire was used to evaluate knowledge of all the emergency medicine residents in Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran, Iran, about conditions favoring tetanus (9 questions and proper interventions in such conditions (12 questions. The questionnaires were completed and scored as poor and good. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze data. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, 73 emergency medicine residents were evaluated (45.2% male. Knowledge of 31 (42.5% residents in relation to conditions favoring tetanus and 41 (56.2% residents in correct therapeutic interventions was in good level. The most frequent incorrect answer was related to diabetic ulcers and wounds in patients with sepsis. There was an increase in scores of conditions favoring tetanus (P<0.001 and correct therapeutic interventions (P=0.001 with an increase in educational years. However, age (P=0.64, gender (P=0.31, job experience (P=0.38 and participation in educational courses (P=0.67 had no effect on the knowledge level of emergency medicine residents. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, the knowledge of emergency medicine residents about correct management of patients suspected of tetanus was low, which emphasizes the necessity of providing further instructions on prevention of tetanus in wound management. 

  8. A model of health education and management for osteoporosis prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang; Xu, Xiaowen; Hao, Hongxia; Chen, Liying; Su, Tianjiao; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weifeng; XIE, YUANYUAN; Wang, Tiantian; Yang, Fan; He, Li; Wang, Wenjiao; Fu, Xuemei; Ma, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a chronic disease with no therapeutic cure, affects a growing number of people as the aging population in China rapidly increases. Therefore, developing an evidence-based model of health education and management for osteoporosis prevention is required. In the present study, an osteoporosis club was established, which is a novel model of health education and management for osteoporosis prevention. A unified management of membership was used based on a digitized database. A total ...

  9. Developing Preventive Mental Health Interventions for Refugee Families in Resettlement

    OpenAIRE

    Weine, Stevan Merrill

    2011-01-01

    In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive m...

  10. Yoga and qigong in the psychological prevention of mental health disorders: a conceptual synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Parekh, Sheetal; Glass, Nel

    2010-02-01

    The study proposes to explore two alternative medicine therapies-qigong and yoga for balancing the essential duo of holistic mind-body and consequently offer a solution for stress, uncertainty, anxiety and depression. Qualitative research methods have been used to create a conceptual synthesis of yoga and qigong. It is suggested that an increased sense of control is the interface between these two modalities. This conceptual congruence of qigong and yoga is thought to be a selective, curative method, a prescription for ideal living and a ground of human essence existence. Furthermore, this essence is thought to enhance the mind's self-regulatory processes and prevent mental health disorders. The two alternative therapies can prevent mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression and, minimize mental health disruptions such as stress and poor quality of life. It is suggested that patients and/or clients can benefit from this fusion.

  11. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  12. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  13. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  14. Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine 100th anniversary. Introduction. From hygiene and tropical medicine to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The author reviews the history of the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. In 1912, Dr. Creighton Wellman published a groundbreaking paper entitled "The New Orleans School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene," outlining a clear plan for a new independent school of public health. He became the founding dean of the Tulane School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. Wellman had spent 9 years practicing medicine in Angola and graduated from the London School of Tropical Medicine before launching a career in tropical medicine in the United States. Tulane already had a formal course of hygiene established as early as 1881. The founding of Tulane School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine was made possible by a gift from Samuel Zemurray, who would become the president of the United Fruit Company. In January of 1914, Dr. Wellman abruptly left New Orleans to live in Brazil. The school lost its independence in 1919 and again became part of the School of Medicine until 1967. The school initiated by Dr. Wellman is the foundation on which today's Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine is built.

  15. [Health challenges as the second millenium is ending. Conceptual epidemiology, social pathology, medicine and professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Suárez, M

    1990-01-01

    In this article it is outlined the work of doctor Bustamante in fighting against diseases such as yellow fever, typhus, malaria, and smallpox; and the development and impel that this professional gave to preventive and social medicine is pointed out. It is established that health care professionals currently must not only highly studied and prepared, as they should manage all features related with public health, but also change-men-and-women who are capable to influence future generations, which will be the responsible in relocating men at the equilibrium point concerned to their health. Said equilibrium point is not only modified in its biopsychosocial aspect, but also its essence is deeply affected. This paper is a warning to physicians to fight together in response to humanity, that has set their confidence in them, as the current problem of drugs and dependence to drugs unhinges everything wholeness. To doctor Suarez is intolerable that, in spite of technological advances in the world, yet exist deaths caused by pneumonia or diarrhea. The hazards of the century are frightened: nuclear war and AIDS; but the characteristics that have distinguished human species and allowed its survival and superation are trusted: mental activity, ability of judgement, and consciousness; which are valuable for a deep philosophic discussion that allows us to continue our advance. An enumeration of the medicine achievements in this century is made.

  16. Geographic information systems in public health and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullner, Ross M; Chung, Kyusuk; Croke, Kevin G; Mensah, Edward K

    2004-06-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in public health and medicine. Advances in computer technology, the encouragement of its use by the federal government, and the wide availability of academic and commercial courses on GIS are responsible for its growth. Some view GIS as only a tool for spatial research and policy analysis, while others believe it is part of a larger emerging new science including geography, cartography, geodesy, and remote sensing. The specific advantages and problems of GIS are discussed. The greatest potential of GIS is its ability to clearly show the results of complex analyses through maps. Problems in using GIS include its costs, the need to adequately train staff, the use of appropriate spatial units, and the risk it poses to violating patient confidentiality. Lastly, the fourteen articles in this special issue devoted to GIS are introduced and briefly discussed.

  17. Contributions of Physical Therapists to Primary Preventive Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The limitations of what physical therapists can differ from country to country. In Japan, physical therapists are national licensed health care professionals who can help patients improve or restore their mobility. Most Japanese physical therapists provide care for people in health care facilities, medical-welfare transitional facilities, and welfare facilities for the elderly. Currently, physical therapists are unable to sufficiently contribute to primary preventive health care in Japan. However, there are many health problems that physical therapists could help alleviate. For example, low back pain (LBP) more likely than any other condition prevents people from working; thus, making the establishment of effective measures to prevent and reduce LBP vital. An estimated 20,500,000 Japanese individuals have diabetes mellitus (DM) or are at a high risk of developing the disease. DM commonly accompanies stroke and/or heart disease, and is characterized by complications that result from chronic hyperglycemia. Evidence-based physical therapy is effective for the prevention and treatment of LBP and DM. The Japanese Physical Therapy Association established the Japanese Society of Physical Therapy (JSPT) in June 2013. The JSPT has 12 departmental societies and 10 sections. We believe that the JSPT will advance the study of the potential role of physical therapists in primary preventive health care. In the future, it is expected that Japanese physical therapists will contribute to primary preventive health care.

  18. Human Genome Epidemiology : A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.

    After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.

    This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.

    The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.

  19. Adolescent consent for vaccination: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-10-01

    Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.

  20. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  1. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  2. Fostering innovation in medicine and health care: what must academic health centers do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzau, Victor J; Yoediono, Ziggy; Ellaissi, William F; Cho, Alex H

    2013-10-01

    There is a real need for innovation in health care delivery, as well as in medicine, to address related challenges of access, quality, and affordability through new and creative approaches. Health care environments must foster innovation, not just allowing it but actively encouraging it to happen anywhere and at every level in health care and medicine-from the laboratory, to the operating room, bedside, and clinics. This paper reviews the essential elements and environmental factors important for health-related innovation to flourish in academic health systems.The authors maintain that innovation must be actively cultivated by teaching it, creating "space" for and supporting it, and providing opportunities for its implementation. The authors seek to show the importance of these three fundamental principles and how they can be implemented, highlighting examples from across the country and their own institution.Health innovation cannot be relegated to a second-class status by the urgency of day-to-day operations, patient care, and the requirements of traditional research. Innovation needs to be elevated to a committed endeavor and become a part of an organization's culture, particularly in academic health centers.

  3. 中医手法与人类健康%Traditional Chinese Medicine Technique and Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之虹

    2012-01-01

    中医手法包括针法、灸法、推拿、整骨、刮痧、拔罐、功法、针刀等中医特色诊疗手法.作用机制为通过皮部—络脉—经脉—脏腑这一由表及里的疾病防治网络,达到疏通经络、行气活血的目的,进而发挥平衡阴阳、调整脏腑的功能.中医手法是调理人体“亚健康”状态最适宜的手段,在人类健康产业的发展中发挥巨大的作用.%Traditional Chinese medicine technique is characteristic of TCM diagnosis and treatment practices, include acupuncture, moxibustion, TuiNa, osteopathy, GuaSha, cupping, exercises, needle knife, etc. It's mechanism of action isthrough the disease prevention network from the outside to the inside, which is skin areas - collaterals - meridians - organs, to clear the meridians and transport qi and blood,and thus play a balance of yin and yang, adjust the function of organs. Traditional Chinese medicine technique is the most appropriate means to condition the human body "sub - healthy" state. Traditional Chinese medicine technique will play a major role in the developmet of the human health industry.

  4. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  5. [Actual state of medical activities as "home pharmacy" including preventive medicine in community pharmacy and their regional differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junzo; Ohtsu, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Miwako; Kaiho, Fusao

    2008-12-01

    To determine the "home pharmacy" activities including preventive medicine in community pharmacies and their regional differences, we conducted two questionnaire surveys of pharmacies belonging to the pharmacists' association in four areas, two metropolitan areas (Kita-tama area and Minato-ku in Tokyo) and two rural areas (Ueda-shi in Nagano and Aira-gun in Kagoshima) in 1998 and 2007. The questionnaire consisted of 42 questions including the scale and characteristics of the pharmacy, the offering of information to patients and information collection from patients, and activities related to home care medicine, environmental sanitation, and healthcare. Based on 14 factors in the questionnaire, an index of "Community Medicine Contributed by Home Pharmacies" was evaluated to represent the extent of activity including preventive medicine in pharmacy. The median of the indexes in the four areas rose in 2007, and was the highest in Ueda-shi. However, the increase in the index was found to result from increases in activity related to clinical medicine such as the use of "Medication Notebooks" and the circulation of "Pharmaceutical Instructions" and did not result from increased activity related to preventive medicine. Factors to promote preventive medicine activity are discussed based on the data from Aira-gun where the greatest home care medicine activity occurred and from Ueda-shi where the greatest environmental sanitation and healthcare activities occurred.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Expanding Horizons of Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is this year celebrating 10 years of ... This year, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) celebrates its 10th anniversary. We explore complementary ...

  7. From "one medicine" to "one health" and systemic approaches to health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E; Waltner-Toews, D; Tanner, M

    2011-09-01

    Faced with complex patterns of global change, the inextricable interconnection of humans, pet animals, livestock and wildlife and their social and ecological environment is evident and requires integrated approaches to human and animal health and their respective social and environmental contexts. The history of integrative thinking of human and animal health is briefly reviewed from early historical times, to the foundation of universities in Europe, up to the beginning of comparative medicine at the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, Calvin Schwabe coined the concept of "one medicine". It recognises that there is no difference of paradigm between human and veterinary medicine and both disciplines can contribute to the development of each other. Considering a broader approach to health and well-being of societies, the original concept of "one medicine" was extended to "one health" through practical implementations and careful validations in different settings. Given the global health thinking in recent decades, ecosystem approaches to health have emerged. Based on complex ecological thinking that goes beyond humans and animals, these approaches consider inextricable linkages between ecosystems and health, known as "ecosystem health". Despite these integrative conceptual and methodological developments, large portions of human and animal health thinking and actions still remain in separate disciplinary silos. Evidence for added value of a coherent application of "one health" compared to separated sectorial thinking is, however, now growing. Integrative thinking is increasingly being considered in academic curricula, clinical practice, ministries of health and livestock/agriculture and international organizations. Challenges remain, focusing around key questions such as how does "one health" evolve and what are the elements of a modern theory of health? The close interdependence of humans and animals in their social and ecological context relates to the

  8. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  9. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  10. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  11. National Health Service and Military Medicine in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-07

    medicine. These guidelines, along with creation of a two-year Masters degree (Master of Science in Social Medicine ) were designed to train physicians for...MSc Social Medicine and pass appropriate examinations. It is difficult for one unaccustomed to the system to determine what is really different about a

  12. Aspect on Health Sociology and Social Medicine Reflected in the Studies of Constantin Stanca (1889-1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Constantin Stanca (1889-1969) was the first director of the Institute for the Study and Prevention of Cancer from Cluj between 1929 and 1940 and the founder of the Gynecologic Oncology Surgery Department of this Institute. During his important career in gynecology and surgical oncology, which took place in Cluj and in Bucharest, he was also interested in medical sociology and in social medicine. Our paper presents some of Stanca's objectives in these domains: to increase the health status of women, to prevent gynecological diseases and to improve women's working conditions, especially in factories.

  13. Lessons learned from a 5-year experience with a 4-week experiential quality improvement curriculum in a preventive medicine fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Prathibha; Karlapudi, Sudhakar Prakash

    2009-09-01

    Competency in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) and systems-based practice (SBP) empowers learners with the skills to plan, lead, and execute health care systems improvement efforts. Experiences from several graduate medical education programs describe the implementation of PBLI and SBP curricula as challenging because of lack of adequate curricular time and faculty resources, as well as a perception that PBLI and SBP are not relevant to future careers. A dedicated experiential rotation that requires fellow participation in a specialty-specific quality improvement project (QIP) may address some of these challenges. We describe a retrospective analysis of our 5-year experience with a dedicated 3-week PBLI-SBP experiential curriculum in a preventive medicine fellowship program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Between 2004 and 2008, 19 learners including 7 preventive medicine fellows participated in the rotation. Using just-in-time learning, fellows work together on a relatively complex QIP of community or institutional significance. Since 2004, all 19 learners (100%) participating in this rotation have consistently demonstrated statistically significant increase in their quality improvement knowledge application tool (QIKAT) scores at the end of the rotation. At the end of the rotation, all 19 learners stated that they were either confident or very confident of making a change to improve health care in a local setting. Most of the QIPs resulted in sustainable practice improvements, and resultant solutions have been disseminated beyond the location of the original QIP. A dedicated experiential rotation that requires learner participation in a QIP is one of the effective methods to address the needs of the SBP and PBLI competencies.

  14. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  15. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  16. Innovating in health delivery: The Penn medicine innovation tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwiesch, Christian; Mehta, Shivan J; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-06-01

    Innovation tournaments can drive engagement and value generation by shifting problem-solving towards the end user. In health care, where the frontline workers have the most intimate understanding of patients' experience and the delivery process, encouraging them to generate and develop new approaches is critical to improving health care delivery. In many health care organizations, senior managers and clinicians retain control of innovation. Frontline workers need to be engaged in the innovation process. Penn Medicine launched a system-wide innovation tournament with the goal of improving the patient experience. We set a quantitative goal of receiving 500 ideas and getting at least 1000 employees to participate in the tournament. A secondary goal was to involve various groups of the care process (doctors, nurses, clerical staff, transporters). The tournament was broken up into three phases. During Phase 1, employees were encouraged to submit ideas. Submissions were judged by an expert panel and crowd sourcing based on their potential to improve patient experience and ability to be implemented within 6 months. During Phase 2, the best 200 ideas were pitched during a series of 5 workshops and ten finalists were selected. During Phase 3, the best 10 ideas were presented to and judged by an audience of about 200 interested employees and a judging panel of 15 administrators. Two winners were selected. A total of 1739 ideas were submitted and over 5000 employees participated in the innovation tournament. Patient convenience/amenities (21%) was the top category of submission, with other popular areas including technology optimization (11%), assistance with navigation within UPHS (10%), and improving patient/family centered care (9%) and care delivery models/transitions (9%). A combination of winning and submitted ideas were implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOU Yixin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and the action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in NAFLD has become a new research topic. TCM has achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of NAFLD, with the advantages of specific, flexible, multilevel, and multi-target treatment. This article introduces the role of TCM in improving insulin, regulating lipid metabolism, preventing lipid peroxidation, regulating cytokines, regulating and maintaining the dynamic balance of factors involved in lipid metabolism, and maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora, and analyzes the major problems in TCM research.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE CAREER LADDER 907X0. VOLUME I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventive Medicine Career Ladder, and consisting of 275 tasks grouped under 16 duty categories, was administered to 381 airmen in 14 major air commands. Incumbents of all skill levels completed a background information section and rated on a 7-point scale relative time spent on tasks. The airmen also indicated on a 7-point scale amount of work experience on each task compared with other tasks performed. Job descriptions are presented for 32 groups selected according to background information variables. Included are 8 specialty groups, 10 groups with differing lengths

  19. Gaetano Pieraccini: Public Health giant who created Italian Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bucci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s well known all over the world that Italy is the birthplace of Bernardino Ramazzini  (1633 - 1714, the real founder of occupational medicine, and that Italian doctors had a great importance in scientific and cultural development in occupational medicine. One of the most celebrated of them was Luigi Devoto, Professor of Medical Pathology at Pavia in 1901, who undertook a free course of Occupational medicine, creating in the same year the fortnightly journal "Work" - that became "Occupational medicine" since 1925 - and opening a Labour Clinic in Milan in 1910. In 1907 the first two Italian schools of occupational medicine arose in Milan and in Naples. In 1901 Giulio Yule Giglioli wrote the first systematic treatise about workers’ diseases. In this cultural background Gaetano Pieraccini grew and developed his original cultural approach to the field of occupational medicine, which got from him a new dimension: the Social Medicine.

  20. Capacity of Commune Health Stations in Chi Linh District, Hai Duong Province, for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; Thi My Anh, Bui; Nguyen Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Diem, Dang; Duy Kien, Vu; Bich Phuong, Tran; Quynh Anh, Tran; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-01

    The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study. The findings reported that the main activities of prevention and control of NCDs at commune health stations (CHSs) still focused on information-education-community (IECs), unqualified for providing screening, diagnosis, and treatments of NCDs. The capacity for prevention and control of NCDs in CHSs was inadequate to provide health care services related to prevention and control of NCDs and unmet with the community's demands. In order to ensure the role and implementation of primary care level, there is an urgent need to improve the capacity of CHSs for prevention and control of NCDs, particularly a national budget for NCDs prevention and control, the essential equipment and medicines recommended by the World Health Organization should be provided and available at the CHSs.

  1. The Puerto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (1925-1950): From a Health Department Bulletin to a UPR School of Tropical Medicine Scientific Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl

    2016-12-01

    This essay presents a history of the scientific journal of the University of Puerto Rico, School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University: The Puerto Rico Journal of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. This is the third article in a historical series about the STM, and includes supporting information relevant to the forthcoming articles on the school's scientific endeavors. This article is conceived as a history from the perspective of the literature of journal genre in the field of tropical medicine. The STM scientific journal, precursor of the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, had five main stages. First (1925-1927), originated as an official bulletin of the Health Department (Porto Rico Health Review). Second (1927-1929), became a project of mutual collaboration between the Health Department and the STM, and the publication's title reflected the fields of public health and tropical medicine. Third (1929-1932), acquired a scientific focus as it changed to a quarterly science publication. Fourth (1932-1942), became a fully bilingual journal and acquired its definitive name. Fifth (1942-1950), the final phase in which the first Puerto Rican Director became the principal editor until the Journal's dissolution. The analysis of authorship and the content analysis of the topics of diseases, public health and basic sciences, clarify the history of tropical medicine during the first half of the 20th century in Puerto Rico. The article highlights major symbolic events that delve into the understanding of a collaborative exemplar of the modernity of medical science.

  2. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivia Maksud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, treatment as prevention (TASP and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  3. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  4. Health Promotion Disease Prevention: A Challenge to Allied Health Curriculum Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model curriculum on health promotion and disease prevention for allied health students. Suggested program elements include (1) promoting personal health patterns, (2) fitting health promotion into daily routines, (3) using persuasion, (4) working with support groups and individuals, and (5) serving as a clearinghouse. (CH)

  5. Tomato-A Natural Medicine and Its Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes can make people healthier and decrease the risk of conditions such as cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. People who ate tomatoes regularly have a reduced risk of contracting cancer diseases such as lung, prostate, stomach, cervical, breast, oral, colorectal, esophageal, pancreatic, and many other types of cancer. Some studies show that tomatoes and garlic should be taken together at the same time to have its cancer preventive effects. Whatever it is, we really do not know how or why tomatoes work against cancers. We believe that lycopene and the newly discovered bioflavonoids in tomatoes are responsible as cancer fighting agents. Not only raw tomatoes but also cooked or processed tomato products such as ketchup, sauce, and paste, are counted as good sources of cancer prevention. Tomato is also good for liver health. Tomato has detoxification effect in the body. Probably it is due to the presence of chlorine and sulfur in tomatoes.According to some studies, 51 mg of chlorine and 11 mg of sulfur in 100 grams size of tomato have a vital role in detoxification process. We know that natural chlorine works in stimulating the liver and its function for filtering and detoxifying body wastes. Sulfur in tomatoes protects the liver from cirrhosis, too. Tomato juice is known as good energy drink and for rejuvenating the health of patients on dialysis. Herbalists knew that taking tomatoes and tomato products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases because of lycopene in it.What is your worry when you take too much food that contains animal fat, Butter, cheese, pork, egg, beef, and other fried foods. Take tomato, it will prevent hardening of the arteries. Therefore, tomato can reduce high blood pressure, too. Red ripened tomato is a powerful antioxidant. Vitamin E and lycopene in tomato prevents LDL oxidation effectively. Bean sprouts, cabbage or barley malt contain vitamin E. Tomato is an excellent fruit or vegetable for rapid

  6. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  7. Preventive and promotive medicine in ambulatory clinical practice: a prospective simulated patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Y; Nordin, M; Suleiman, A B

    1995-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which preventive and promotive advice is integrated into the clinical practice of doctors. Using a cross-sectional descriptive survey design, the study compares the performance of doctors in giving healthy lifestyle advice for five clinical conditions, their perceived practice and their rating on the importance of disseminating selected key lifestyle messages. A total of 28 volunteers were trained to simulate the five clinical conditions which required related health advice and to rate the doctors' performance with the use of a prepared checklist. Simulated patient ratings of 343 doctor-patient encounters provided the data on doctors' health promotion efforts for the selected clinical conditions. A post-visit self-administered questionnaire survey of a sub-sample of 100 doctors gave an insight into their opinions and perceived practice. Only in 49% of the instances was a health promotion message given. The doctors' encouraging interest in health education and health promotion and their positive perceptions of their volume of healthy lifestyle counselling were not borne out in actual clinical practice. The results indicate that the extent of preventive and promotive health education in both the public and private health sectors is unacceptably low. The matter needs to be addressed through training programmes as well as the formulation of clear health promotion priorities and strategies in Malaysia.

  8. Contributions of Ernst L. Wynder to chronic disease control worldwide and to preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, John H

    2006-10-01

    Ernst L. Wynder is internationally known for his important discoveries in the field of human chronic disease causation, that is the underlying mechanisms, studied in various animal models, as a foundation for recommendations on the prevention of these diseases. These include coronary heart disease, and the main human cancers including cancer of the lung, caused by traditional smoking habits, and the nutritionally linked cancers, namely cancer of the breast, prostate, colon, pancreas, and urinary bladder. Much of this research was performed in a chronic disease prevention institution--created by Dr. Wynder--the American Health Foundation. There were outreach programs to educate people about proper lifestyles to secure disease prevention, including beginning health education in children.

  9. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  10. Mind the gap: An analysis of foregone health gains from unfunded cancer medicines in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jackie; Laking, George; Strother, Matthew; Wang, Tony; Metcalfe, Scott; Blick, Gary; Pauls, Reinhard; Crausaz, Steffan

    2016-12-01

    Publicly funded cancer medicines listed on the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule were compared with those listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. To quantify the health gains offered by the cancer medicines funded in Australia but not in New Zealand, clinical trial data reporting median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were sought. The differences in the median PFS and OS for the unfunded medicines, relative to the comparator medicine funded in NZ, were then assessed against the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Research Committee (ASCO-CRC) recommended targets for clinically meaningful health gains. Our analysis confirms that, whilst New Zealand funds fewer cancer medicines than Australia, most of the additional medicines funded in Australia do not deliver clinically meaningful health gains as defined by the ASCO-CRC guidance. This suggests that New Zealand is not missing substantive opportunities for improvements to New Zealand's cancer survival rates through additional medicines funding. A policy of funding more new cancer medicines in order to achieve numerical parity with Australia or other countries would not result in substantive health improvement and would cost significantly more, and investing the millions of dollars needed to achieve funding parity with other countries would not represent good value for money in terms of delivering the best health outcomes for all New Zealanders, rather selective funding of new medicines that demonstrate clear clinical benefit and that are cost-effective and affordable is the sensible approach.

  11. PREVENTING SCHOOL SHOOTINGS : A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO GUN VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Edward

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Gun violence in America must be addressed at the highest levels of society. Newtown, Aurora, and Virginia Tech were attacks on the very fabric of America. School shootings represent attacks on our nations future. A public health approach to gun violence focuses on prevention. Public safety professionals, educators and community leaders are squandering opportunities to prevent horrific acts of extreme violence. Preparedness is derived by planning, which is critical to mobil...

  12. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine QPYF as Preventive Treatment for Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ya-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine QPYF has a good effect for treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to test its efficacy to prevent Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Clostridium difficile VPI 10463 after exposure to antimicrobial mixture. QPYF was administered from 7 days prior to Clostridium difficile infection to 20 days after infection, and its effect was compared with no treatment and receiving placebo. The mice were monitored for 20 days and the percent survival, disease activity index, weight loss, colon histopathology, and the levels of toxins in the feces were measured. The expressions of TNF α, MCP-1, NF-κB p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65 in the colon were presented by immunohistochemistry. The survival rate of QPYF group (93.75% was higher than that of model control group (65%. The mice treated with QPYF had a lower weight loss and disease activity index, compared to the mice with placebo. A significantly lower level of histopathology scores, toxins in the feces, and TNF α, MCP-1, NF-κB p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65 were detected for QPYF-treated mice. Traditional Chinese medicine QPYF showed a good preventive effect for CDAD in a mouse model.

  14. Gaetano pieraccini: Public health giant who created Italian social medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bucci; Vittoria Colamesta; Sabina Sernia; Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-01-01

    It’s well known all over the world that Italy is the birthplace of Bernardino Ramazzini  (1633 - 1714), the real founder of occupational medicine, and that Italian doctors had a great importance in scientific and cultural development in occupational medicine. One of the most celebrated of them was Luigi Devoto, Professor of Medical Pathology at Pavia in 1901, who undertook a free course of Occupational medicine, creating in the same year the fortnightly journal "Work" - that became "Occupatio...

  15. Need for and access to health care and medicines: are there gender inequities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Wagner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differences between women and men in political and economic empowerment, education, and health risks are well-documented. Similar gender inequities in access to care and medicines have been hypothesized but evidence is lacking. METHODS: We analyzed 2002 World Health Survey data for 257,922 adult respondents and 80,932 children less than 5 years old from 53 mostly low and middle-income countries. We constructed indicators of need for, access to, and perceptions of care, and we described the number of countries with equal and statistically different proportions of women and men for each indicator. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we estimated effects of gender on our study outcomes, overall and by household poverty. FINDINGS: Women reported significantly more need for care for three of six chronic conditions surveyed, and they were more likely to have at least one of the conditions (OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.38, 1.44]. Among those with reported need for care, there were no consistent differences in access to care between women and men overall (e.g., treatment for all reported chronic conditions, OR 1.00 [0.96, 1.04] or by household poverty. Of concern, access to care for chronic conditions was distressingly low among both men and women in many countries, as was access to preventive services among boys and girls less than 5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: These cross-country results do not suggest a systematic disadvantage of women in access to curative care and medicines for treating selected chronic conditions or acute symptoms, or to preventive services among boys and girls.

  16. Generic medicines: issues and relevance for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Proteesh; Roy, Vandana

    2015-12-01

    Generic medicine is a pharmaceutical product which is bioequivalent to the innovator product in terms of dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, safety, performance characteristics, and intended use. Generic medicines are a cornerstone for providing affordable medicines to patients. The major generic markets in the world include United States of America followed by European Union, Canada, Japan, and Australia. The major suppliers of generic medicines China and India are showing tremendous growth in the generic medicine sector. There are many legal and regulatory issues along with quality concerns associated with the use of the generic products. Lately, bilateral international agreements called free trade agreements, delaying tactics by originator companies like strategic patenting and litigations on generic manufacturers, have been a major setback for the generic medicine industry. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the use of generic medicines. The sustainability of generic medicine sector is crucial for improving access to essential medicines for the worldwide. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. [Strengthen the prevention of occupational trichloroethylene health hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and an important industrial material. It can be absorbed into the body through respiratory tract and skin, and cause occupational hazards. The acute hazard induced by TCE is occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis. Epidemiological data showed that long-term occupational exposure to TCE could also increase the risk of cancer and cause damage to reproductive system and nervous system. Thus, it is of great significance to strengthen the prevention of occupational TCE health hazards. In this paper, the health hazards and preventive measures of TCE are reviewed.

  18. [The role of the German public health service in social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, J

    2005-10-01

    Although the German public health service is mainly concerned with social medical tasks there is too little awareness of the fact that social medicine forms the scientific basis of most actions. As a matter of fact social medicine in public health departments is often reduced to mere medical insurance and expert reports. This is mainly due to the historical development of social medicine in Germany. Among the numerous important social medical tasks of the public health service, this article mainly concentrates on local coordination, health promotion, health care, and social compensation, including subsidiary medical care of certain groups of the population and aspects of infectious disease control with particular attention to measures against AIDS. The further development of both the public health service and social medicine requires a closer cooperation between them.

  19. Developing preventive mental health interventions for refugee families in resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan Merrill

    2011-09-01

    In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training.

  20. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D; Roche, Kathleen M; Chow, Sy-Miin; Schenck, Anna P; Byam, Leslie-Ann

    2016-12-06

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop "Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide" was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report that addressed data systems relevant to suicide prevention efforts through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. During the workshop, experts discussed the evidence and participants commented during open forums. After considering the data from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an independent panel prepared a draft report that was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 5 weeks for public comment. This abridged version of the final report provides a road map for optimizing youth suicide prevention efforts by highlighting strategies for guiding the next decade of research in this area. These strategies include recommendations for improving data systems, enhancing data collection and analysis methods, and strengthening the research and practice community.

  1. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely Fisk Green

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an “identify, inform, and integrate” model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  2. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  3. Health-seeking behaviours and use of traditional Chinese medicine among the British Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Psychology (Health) presents three pieces of work: 1) Systematic Review of Acupuncture as an Intervention for the Alleviation of Chronic Back Pain. 2) Health-Seeking Behaviours and Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among the British Chinese 3) Design of an evaluation to measure outcomes of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinic for a Chinese Health Centre in London's Chinatown. The underlying theme linking these three pieces of work is Traditiona...

  4. A Systematic Review on the Effects of Botanicals on Skeletal Muscle Health in Order to Prevent Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rondanelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence-based medicine regarding the main botanical extracts and their nutraceutical compounds correlated to skeletal muscle health in order to identify novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function and to improve the quality of life of older subjects. This review contains all eligible studies from 2010 to 2015 and included 57 publications. We focused our attention on effects of botanical extracts on growth and health of muscle and divided these effects into five categories: anti-inflammation, muscle damage prevention, antifatigue, muscle atrophy prevention, and muscle regeneration and differentiation.

  5. [[How to Prevent Emotional Burnout Syndrome in Health Professionals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfimova, E V; Elfimov, M A; Berezkin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Working in conditions of physical and psychological overload, occupational hazard makes health workers vulnerable to the development of burnout syndrome. Currently, 67.6% of physicians in Russia suffer from emotional burnout syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a certain symptoms, which have their predictors. Prevention and treatment of emotional burnout syndrome - a complex problem that can be solved with the participation of heads of medical institutions, full- time psychologists and psychotherapists with the direct involvement of health professionals.

  6. Falsified Medicines - Bridging the Gap between Business and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Rasmus; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2016-01-01

    the role of private stakeholders in the EU policymakers’ decision to initiate legislation to combat falsified medicines in 2008. Our results show that the pharmaceutical industry, brand owners in particular, were strong proponents of legislation to combat falsified medicines. Their support was not fueled...

  7. Trends in hospitalised sport/leisure injuries in New South Wales, Australia--implications for the targetting of population-focussed preventive sports medicine efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane

    2011-01-01

    Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meeting information needs in health policy and public health: priorities for the National Library of Medicine and The National Network of Libraries of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B L

    1998-12-01

    Those seeking information in health policy and public health are not as well served as those seeking clinical information. Problems inhibiting access to health policy and public health information include the heterogeneity of professionals seeking the information, the distribution of relevant information across disciplines and information sources, scarcity of synthesized information useful to practitioners, lack of awareness of available services or training in their use, and lack of access to information technology or to knowledgeable librarians and information specialists. Since 1990, the National Library of Medicine and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine have been working to enhance information services in health policy and public health through expanding the coverage of the NLM collection, building new databases, and engaging in targeted outreach and training initiatives directed toward segments of the health policy and public health communities. Progress has been made, but more remains to be done. Recommendations arising from the meeting, Accessing Useful Information: Challenges in Health Policy and Public Health, will help NLM and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine to establish priorities and action plans for the next several years.

  9. On childhood obesity prevention:"Exercise is medicine" vs."exercise is vaccine"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ang; Chen

    2012-01-01

    <正>The most recent report on the obesity epidemic by the U.S. Institute of Medicine(IOM) has painted a bleak picture of reality in the U.S.It reports that two third of adults and almost one third of children are either overweight or obese by any counts of measures.Situations in other countries do not seem optimistic either.According to the World Health Organization (WHO),the numbers of obese children have increased during the last decade to an estimated 35 million in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries

  10. Vital Directions for Health and Health Care: Priorities From a National Academy of Medicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzau, Victor J; McClellan, Mark B; McGinnis, J Michael; Burke, Sheila P; Coye, Molly J; Diaz, Angela; Daschle, Thomas A; Frist, William H; Gaines, Martha; Hamburg, Margaret A; Henney, Jane E; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Leavitt, Michael O; Parker, Ruth M; Sandy, Lewis G; Schaeffer, Leonard D; Steele, Glenn D; Thompson, Pamela; Zerhouni, Elias

    2017-04-11

    Recent discussion has focused on questions related to the repeal and replacement of portions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). However, issues central to the future of health and health care in the United States transcend the ACA provisions receiving the greatest attention. Initiatives directed to certain strategic and infrastructure priorities are vital to achieve better health at lower cost. To review the most salient health challenges and opportunities facing the United States, to identify practical and achievable priorities essential to health progress, and to present policy initiatives critical to the nation's health and fiscal integrity. Qualitative synthesis of 19 National Academy of Medicine-commissioned white papers, with supplemental review and analysis of publicly available data and published research findings. The US health system faces major challenges. Health care costs remain high at $3.2 trillion spent annually, of which an estimated 30% is related to waste, inefficiencies, and excessive prices; health disparities are persistent and worsening; and the health and financial burdens of chronic illness and disability are straining families and communities. Concurrently, promising opportunities and knowledge to achieve change exist. Across the 19 discussion papers examined, 8 crosscutting policy directions were identified as vital to the nation's health and fiscal future, including 4 action priorities and 4 essential infrastructure needs. The action priorities-pay for value, empower people, activate communities, and connect care-recurred across the articles as direct and strategic opportunities to advance a more efficient, equitable, and patient- and community-focused health system. The essential infrastructure needs-measure what matters most, modernize skills, accelerate real-world evidence, and advance science-were the most commonly cited foundational elements to ensure progress. The action priorities and essential infrastructure needs represent major

  11. Using reality mining to improve public health and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Alex; Lazer, David; Brewer, Devon; Heibeck, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    both to individuals and communities. With the aid of data-mining algorithms, these data could shed light on individual patterns of behavior and even on the well-being of communities, creating new ways to improve public health and medicine. To illustrate, consider two examples of how reality mining may benefit individual health care. By taking advantage of special sensors in mobile phones, such as the microphone or the accelerometers built into newer devices such as Apple's iPhone, important diagnostic data can be captured. Clinical pilot data demonstrate that it may be possible to diagnose depression from the way a person talks--a depressed person tends to speak more slowly, a change that speech analysis software on a phone might recognize more readily than friends or family do. Similarly, monitoring a phone's motion sensors can also reveal small changes in gait, which could be an early indicator of ailments such as Parkinson's disease. Within the next few years reality mining will become more common, thanks in part to the proliferation and increasing sophistication of mobile phones. Many handheld devices now have the processing power of low-end desktop computers, and they can also collect more varied data, due to components such as GPS chips that track location. The Chief Technology Officer of EMC, a large digital storage company, estimates that this sort of personal sensor data will balloon from 10% of all stored information to 90% within the next decade. While the promise of reality mining is great, the idea of collecting so much personal information naturally raises many questions about privacy. It is crucial that behavior-logging technology not be forced on anyone. But legal statutes are lagging behind data collection capabilities, making it particularly important to begin discussing how the technology will and should be used. Therefore, an additional focus of this chapter will be the development of a legal and ethical framework concerning the data used by reality

  12. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah

    2016-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.

  13. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  14. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  15. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the monk

    doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists and counsellors. All the ... received training on the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. .... final year medical students recruited from the .... Table III: Factors affecting knowledge of the National PMTCT Guidelines (No. of health workers=270).

  16. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  17. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  18. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?"…

  19. [Perceptions of veterinary medicine students about acting in the public health area: a study based on Fleck's idea of "thought style"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuetzenreiter, Márcia Regina; Zylbersztajn, Arden

    2008-12-01

    As part of a case study conducted in the undergraduate course of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), Brazil, freshmen and senior students were interviewed for identifying how they perceive their activities as refers to Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Public Health. Taking the ideas of Ludwik Fleck as a theoretical framework, a correspondence was established among the different fields of activity in Veterinary Medicine and the variations in "thought styles", a key idea in Fleck's epistemology, allowing for the definition of analytical categories. It was verified that the teaching in the field of veterinary medicine leads to a thought style giving little importance to collective and preventive concepts. In the end of the article, we emphasize the importance of integration between the different fields of actions of the profession for a better professional education based on the National Guidelines and Bases for Education of 19965.

  20. A Path to Implement Precision Child Health Cardiovascular Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin Touma

    2017-06-01

    the path toward precision child health cardiovascular medicine.

  1. Towards health in all policies for childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Kremers, Stef P J; Gubbels, Jessica S; Raat, Hein; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-01-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  2. Towards Health in All Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marie Hendriks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.

  3. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatmentof hepatocarcinoma: From bench to bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played apositive role in the management of hepatocarcinoma.Hepatocarcinoma patients may present Qi-stagnation,damp-heat, blood stasis, Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and other TCM syndromes (Zheng). Modern treatmentssuch as surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)and high intensity focus ultrasound treatment wouldinfluence the manifestation of TCM syndromes. Herbswith traditional efficacy of tonifying Qi, blood and Yin,soothing liver-Qi stagnation, clearing heat and detoxifyingand dissolving stasis, have been demonstrated to bepotent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. TCM hasbeen widely used in all aspects of integrative therapyin hepatocarcinoma, including surgical resection, livertransplantation, TACE, local ablative therapies and evenas monotherapy for middle-advanced stage hepatocarcinoma.Clinical practices have confirmed that TCMis effective to alleviate clinical symptoms, improvequality of life and immune function, prevent recurrenceand metastasis, delay tumor progression, and prolongsurvival time in hepatocarcinoma patients. The effectivemechanism of TCM against hepatocarcinoma is relatedto inducing apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis and cellsenescence, arresting cell cycle, regulating immunefunction, inhibiting metastasis and angiogenesis, reversingdrug resistance and enhancing effects of chemotherapy.Along with the progress of research in this field, TCMwill contribute more to the prevention and treatment ofhepatocarcinoma.

  5. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...

  6. Personalised medicine: Priority setting and opportunity costs in European public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    “Personalised medicine” is currently attracting considerable attention and raising high hopes and expectations in modern medicine. The term “personalised medicine” denotes the use of genetic or other biomarker information, and it does not focus on a more personal patient-doctor relationship. Furthermore, personalised medicine is associated with ethical problems like priority setting and opportunity costs in solidarity-based public health care systems. Personalised medicine provides modern,...

  7. Current healthcare in Bulgaria: time for predictive diagnostics and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter V

    2010-12-01

    Since 1990 Bulgaria gradually moved from monopolistic to market regulated economy and healthcare. In 2007 the country became member of the European Union and started to adopt EU legislations. However, significant gaps between the average European and Bulgarian level of social, health and economic efficiency remain to be narrowed. The major challenge is the demographic situation, where recent trends give alarming signals. Plans for reformation include transition towards out-patient palliative healthcare centers for the aging population as well as reduction of the costs with new electronic system of health insurance. The favorable location of the country at the Black Sea coast gives opportunities for medical tourism, which can provide quality health service for foreign customers. Finally, national platforms on prevention of major non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, cancer and diabetes, must be established as coordinated actions for the health and wellness of next generations.

  8. The Traditional Iranian Medicine Point of View on Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rezaeizadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nTraditional Iranian Medicine (TIM or Persian Medicine consists of the sum total of all the knowledge and practices used in diagnosis, prevention and elimination of diseases in Persia from ancient times to present. It is based entirely on practical experience and observations passed down from generation to generation."nTraditional medicine has the advantage of being considered as part of the culture therefore, bypassing cultural issues that may affect the practice of medicine. On the other hand, it can be used in conjunction with and as an aid to the conventional medicine. Development and promotion of traditional medicine could be considered as respect and honor to the culture and heritage of the people all around the world.

  9. Status and Prospect in Preventing and Treating HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang

    2006-01-01

    @@ AIDS, as a viral infectious disease, is extremely rapid in transmission, severe in progress, serious in prognosis so that no other disease can be compared with it in the past. Accordingly,the need of prevention and treatment of AIDS has become more and more urgent.In the National Meeting on Exchange of Experience of Demonstration Area for Comprehensive Prevention and Treatment of AIDS recently held in Henan Province, Wang Long-de,the director of office of the Working Committee of AIDS Prevention and Treatment of the State Department and the Vice-minister of Health, said that until August 2005, there has been 132 545 cases of HIV carrier. Of the 30 158 cases infected with AIDS in China, 7 643 cases have already died.

  10. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test th...

  11. Perceptions of Personalized Medicine in an Academic Health System: Educational Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Katsanis, Sara Huston; Minear, Mollie A; Yang, Nancy; Rakhra-Burris, Tejinder; Reeves, Jason W; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Ann Simmons, Leigh

    Prior reports demonstrate that personalized medicine implementation in clinical care is lacking. Given the program focus at Duke University on personalized medicine, we assessed health care providers' perspectives on their preparation and educational needs to effectively integrate personalized medicine tools and applications into their clinical practices. Data from 78 health care providers who participated in a larger study of personalized and precision medicine at Duke University were analyzed using Qualtrics (descriptive statistics). Individuals age 18 years and older were recruited for the larger study through broad email contacts across the university and health system. All participants completed an online 35-question survey that was developed, pilot-tested, and administered by a team of interdisciplinary researchers and clinicians at the Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine. Overall, providers reported being ill-equipped to implement personalized medicine in clinical practice. Many respondents identified educational resources as critical for strengthening personalized medicine implementation in both research and clinical practice. Responses did not differ significantly between specialists and primary providers or by years since completion of the medical degree. Survey findings support prior calls for provider and patient education in personalized medicine. Respondents identified focus areas in training, education, and research for improving personalized medicine uptake. Given respondents' emphasis on educational needs, now may be an ideal time to address these needs in clinical training and public education programs.

  12. 76 FR 16776 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice... Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service... for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public ] Health...

  13. 75 FR 38099 - Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health... Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health, as directed by Executive Order 13544....

  14. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies for today's physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Attonito, Jennifer; Saxena, Anshul; Nair, Rakesh Ravikumaran; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of preventable diseases in both developed and developing countries could be strategically controlled by effectively implementing existing health promotion and disease prevention (HPDP) interventions. An important juncture for the implementation of risk-reduction strategies is the point of interaction between health care providers and patients during their scheduled visits. This article targets strategies for physicians to effectively implement HPDP interventions in a clinical setting. The factors that improve delivery of HPDP interventions are discussed briefly. We subsequently introduce and discuss the conceptual framework for enhanced patient education, which is based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills model and the health belief model. The article also describes an adapted patient-practitioner collaborative model for HPDP. This adapted model may serve as a blueprint for physicians to effectively execute HPDP interventions during clinical encounters. The recommended models and our conceptual frameworks could have limitations which need to be field tested.

  15. Moldy buildings, health of their occupants and fungal prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihinova, D; Pieckova, E

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are important biological pollutants in the indoor environment, they are spread generally: on building materials, carpets, ceiling tiles, insulations, any surfaces, wallpapers, or in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Molds are able to grow on any materials, as long as moisture and oxygen are available. Exposure to fungi in indoor environments (esp. in water-damaged buildings) can cause adverse health effects, such as allergy, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonia, mucous membrane irritation, different toxic effects, or even mycoses (in immunocompromised individuals) - alone or in combination. As serious adverse health effects could be caused antifungal prevention is an absolute need.This review article summarizes the occurrence of fungi in the indoor environment of buildings and their contribution to occupants´ health problems, and preventive measures against molds (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 48).

  16. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  17. Environmental and Occupational Health Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Wexler

    2004-01-01

    @@ For nearly forty years,the National Library of Medicine' s(NLM)Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program(TEHIP) has been a signifcant leader in organizing and providing public access to an extensive storehouse of environmental, occupational medicine, and toxicological information through its online databases.

  18. Justiciability of the Right to Health: access to medicines - the South African and Indian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sellin (Jennifer)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that the share of people lacking access to essential medicines worldwide is around 1.7 billon, approximately one-third of the world’s population. Lack of access to essential medicines is an especially serious problem for patients in developin

  19. Can medicine be aesthetic? Disentangling beauty and health in elective surgeries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes tensions between aesthetics and health in medicine. The blurring of distinctions between reconstructive and cosmetic procedures, and the linking of plastic surgery with other medical treatments, have added to the legitimacy of an emerging "aesthetic medicine." As cosmetic surge

  20. HIV/AIDS Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases) Children Approved Antiretroviral Drugs Used for Pediatric Treatment of HIV Infection (Food and Drug Administration) Patient Handouts FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (AIDSinfo) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get HIV/AIDS ...

  1. 76 FR 26300 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy. Public participation during the Web meeting is limited. Members of... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  2. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  3. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.:Arecaceae):In health promotion and disease prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManishaDebMandal; ShyamapadaMandal

    2011-01-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as‘Kalpavriksha’ (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  4. 中医养生学与现代康复%Therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine and modern rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤凤珍

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Traditional medicine and modem medicine are considered as twomain medic al systems and exist cooperately in our countrylong-term. The formation of traditional nedicine goes back to ancienttimes. The author thinks that extent the principle and method ofmodem rehabilitation are similar on some extent with therapy ofhealth preserving of traditional Chinese medicine. The later mainlystudy the contents of building body and preventing disease in order toprolong the time of life. It is essential of bringing into play thetherapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine forbuilding the system of modem rehalbilitation having Chinese charac-teristics. Through developing and popularizing the therapy of healthpreserving of traditional Chinese medicine, the development of mod-ern rehabilitation can be accelerated.

  5. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  6. The Regulation of Medicines in Croatia - a Contribution to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Martinac, A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory system for medicinal products includes the existence of a legislative framework and a medicines agency as the regulatory body. The legislative framework for medicinal products has been amended several times so as to align it with the EU acquis communautaire, where medicinal products represent one of the best regulated and aligned areas. For the purpose of regulating the Croatian medicines market, the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices was established in 2003 to implement the procedure of granting marketing authorisation for medicinal products, to supervise the adverse reactions of medicinal products, to conduct laboratory tests of the quality of medicines and vaccines sampled from the market, to issue licences for the manufacture and distribution of medicinal products, to monitor medicine consumption, and to inform about medicines and promote their rational use. Medical devices are regulated under a special act, and the Agency conducts entries into the register in that field and carries out vigilance over medical devices. In this way, products intended for health care on the Croatian market are of the appropriate quality, safety and efficacy, and are under the constant supervision of the competent body that assesses their risk-to-benefit ratio. Upon accession of the Republic of Croatia to full membership in the European Union, the Agency will be included in the European authorisation procedures for medicines, such as the centralised procedure in the European Medicines Agency (EMA, and above all, the mutual recognition procedure and decentralised procedure in which the role of the agencies of EU Member States is greater. This article gives an overview of the most important regulatory activities in the field of medicinal products, and the readiness of the Agency to function in the future integrated European regulatory area.

  7. UTILIZATION OF PANCHAKARMA IN HEALTH CARE: PREVENTIVE, NUTRITIVE AND CURATIVE TREATMENT OF DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Divya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Ayurveda in global scenario is because of its holistic approach towards positive life style. Ayurveda is a science of life, which is continuously developing as a result of various discussions and researches from ancient time onwards. It gives equal importance to preventive and curative aspects of diseases. Panchakarma therapy is an integral part of Ayurveda (Indian Medical System. Panchakarma is a term used to symbolize five medical procedures for internal purification of body. It helps in detoxifying and rejuvenating body by simple techniques that can be done easily applied in outdoor practice. Failure of contemporary medicines in the prevention of major health burdens force us to revert back for the original detoxifying naturopathy. Panchakarma is an effective therapy in managing autoimmune, neurological, psychiatric and musculo-skeletal diseases of chronic and metabolic origin. In the current scenario, these unique procedures are widely practiced by physicians in India and many other countries globally for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.

  8. A Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Knowledge among Health Educators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ping; Priestley, Jennifer Lewis; Johnson, Roy D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular among U.S. health care consumers, but no study has examined how much health educators know about CAM. Purpose: To examine the knowledge of basic CAM concepts and common CAM therapies among health educators in the U.S. Methods: An online survey was conducted among 1,299 health…

  9. Theories and Practice in Prevention and Treatment Principles in Relation to Chinese Herbal Medicine and Bone Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu 徐红; David LAWSON

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a world wide problem that is increasing in significance as the global population both increases and ages. While osteoporosis has been extensively studied in recent years, the utilization of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine for the prevention and treatment of this condition have seldom been examined in the Western world. This paper reviews the theories and the literature that relate to prevention and treatment of bone loss at the time of menopause according to the principles of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Practical developments in these areas are also illustrated in this paper based on the authors' research findings in recent studies.

  10. [Cardiovascular Prevention: Acceptance of Enhanced Occupational Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckwenn, M; Theisel, N; Mücke, M; Steudel, H

    2016-06-17

    Background: To date, prevention efforts of company medical officers and general practitioners are largely independent of each other. In a comprehensive model of healthcare management including both sets of doctors, the company doctor should determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in the employees of the company. In case increased risk is detected, there should be exchange of information between the 2 professional groups so that common preventive interventions can be decided upon. Aim: The aim of this pilot study was to determine how well cardiovascular risk assessment is accepted by employees of a midsize company and where prevention is needed. Materials and Methods: In a company with 660 employees, risk analysis was conducted among staff in the context of regular preventive measures. In addition to risk factors, primary care, agreement with an interdisciplinary exchange of information and motivation for health promotion activities were investigated. Results: 204 employees (4 females only) were examined. The average age of the participants was 42.9±10.3 years. In 27% (n=55), an increased overall risk was present. Employees with risk requiring medical intervention were under the care of primary care physician and most of them (70%) agreed to the transfer of information to these physicians. In the survey itself, employees showed sufficient motivation (VAS 6.4±2.8) for workplace health promotion. Conclusion: The examined company agreed to implementing further health promoting activities. Due to demographic changes, new concepts for effective prevention are needed. The high acceptance of the proposed prevention framework should motivate implementation of this concept. As a next step, studies must be conducted to examine the effectiveness of screening for risk carried out by company medical officers.

  11. Comparing dental and pharmacy students′ perceptions on public health and preventive health care course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Mandiracioglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services.

  12. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  13. 基于中医养生理论的健康管理思路%Health management thought based on health theory of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林欣潮; 苏惠萍; 练毅刚; 杨巧慧; 苏光明; 张文征

    2015-01-01

    Health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine has a long history, and alms to carry out preventive treatment of diseases.After two thousand years of development, health preserving has now become a completely developed Chinese style health management system, which could provide general practice.The treatment methods of Chinese medicine are multiple and effective, however, due to the incomplete developed system of existed Chinese medicine treatment methods, there is no way to proceed overall arrangements, and hardly present the advantages of Chinese medicine treatment methods, so that the development of Chinese medicine health management has been limited. The health management center of Dongzhimen hospital integrates multiple Chinese medicine treatment methods, combines with Chinese medicine health assessment, and establishes “four seasons-seven regimens” Chinese medicine treatment platform by using modern information management technologies.According to four seasons-spring, summer, autumn and winter, the seven regimens-spirit regimen, qi regimen, exercise regimen, living regimen, physiotherapy regimen, food regimen and medication regimen are carried out, thus to provide individual, comprehensive and multi-angled dynamic health care of Chinese medicine, and to realize integrative Chinese medicine treatment of hospital, community and family.This platform could avoid the disadvantages of attaching importance to treatment and despising prevention; attaching importance to practice and despising theory; attaching importance to physiology and despising psychology; attaching importance to results and despising process; attaching importance to external management and despising self-management; attaching importance to warning and despising self-conscience.%中医养生以“治未病”为主旨,渊源深远,经过两千多年的实践升华,已经成为全方位多角度的具有中国特色的健康管理系统,具有全科医疗的本质。中医养治

  14. Mental Health Workers’ Views About Their Suicide Prevention Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle. The survey comprised standardised measures of anxiety and burnout as well as a questionnaire developed for this study concerning perceptions and attitudes to suicide and suicide prevention.ResultsFactor analysis of 12 retained items of the questionnaire identified three factors: 1 preventability beliefs (beliefs about suicide being always and/or permanently preventable; 2 associated distress (stress/anxiety about managing suicidal behaviour; and 3 the prevention role (covering views about personal roles and responsibilities in preventing suicidal behaviours. Analysis of these factors found that many MH workers experience an elevation of stress/anxiety in relation to their role in managing suicidal behaviours. This distress was associated with the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Measures showed adverse responses were higher for outpatient than inpatient workers; for those who had received generic training in suicide prevention: and for those who had experienced a workplace related client suicide.ConclusionThere is a need for the development of appropriate self-care strategies to alleviate stress in MH workers exposed to suicide.

  15. ['Translational medicine as a way from fundamental biomedical science to public health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatova, O M; Medvedeva, N V; Archakov, A I; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-01-01

    Increasing distance between practical public health services and collecting of theoretical information in the field of biomedical researches reflects the necessity of professional contact between clinicians and scientists in many areas associated with medicine for active carrying over ("translation") of the modern basic researches in which mechanisms of basic metabolic processes and possibilities of their correction are detected, to effective medical help to individual patient, i.e., personified medicine. Such approach was called transmitting medicine. Examples of the personified medicine in which biomedical researches together with the anamnesis morbi of individual patient that are responsible for treatment strategy including doses and regimens are discussed.

  16. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... recommendations and advise the Council on lifestyle-based chronic disease prevention and management, integrative... list of national priorities on health promotion and disease prevention to address lifestyle behavior... centers that exist to promote healthy behavior and reduce disease risk (including eliminating programs...

  17. Data-as-a-Service Platform for Delivering Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine: Concept and Structure of the DAPHNE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Bailador Del Pozo, Gonzalo; Andrés, Javier; Lobstein, Tim; Manco, Melania; Lewy, Hadas; Bergman, Einat; O'Callaghan, David; Doherty, Gavin; Kudrautseva, Olga; Palomares, Angel; Ram, Roni; Olmo, Alberto

    2016-12-09

    Overweight and obesity is related to many health problems and diseases. The current obesity epidemic, which is a major health problem, is closely related to a lack of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, and increased energy intake; with evidence to show increasing incidence of these issues in the younger population. Tackling obesity and its comorbid conditions requires a holistic approach encompassing attention on physical activity, healthy diet, and behavioral activation in order to enable and maintain meaningful and long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. The objective of the Data-as-a-Service Platform for Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine (DAPHNE) project is to develop a breakthrough information communications technology (ICT) platform for tracking health, weight, physical activity, diet, lifestyle, and psychological components within health care systems, whereby the platform and clinical support is linked. The DAPHNE platform aims to deliver personalized guidance services for lifestyle management to the citizen/patient by means of (1) advanced sensors and mobile phone apps to acquire and store continuous/real-time data on lifestyle aspects, behavior, and surrounding environment; (2) individual models to monitor their health and fitness status; (3) intelligent data processing for the recognition of behavioral trends; and (4) specific services for personalized guidance on healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. It is well known that weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are particularly difficult. This tool will address some of the issues found with conventional treatment/advice in that it will collect data in real time, thereby reducing reliability issues known with recalling events once they have passed and will also allow adjustment of behavior through timely support and recommendations sent through the platform without the necessity of formal one-to-one visits between patient and clinician. Patient motivation

  18. Improving the prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary health care: the model for prevention study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Nerida; Davey, Rachel C; Cochrane, Thomas; Williams, Lauren T; Clancy, Tanya

    2014-07-09

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, and accounted for nearly 31% of all deaths in Australia in 2011. The primary health care sector is at the frontline for addressing CVD, however, an evidence-to-practice gap exists in CVD risk assessment and management. General practice plays a key role in CVD risk assessment and management, but this sector cannot provide ongoing lifestyle change support in isolation. Community-based lifestyle modification services and programs provided outside the general practice setting have a key role in supporting and sustaining health behavior change. Fostering linkages between the health sector and community-based lifestyle services, and creating sustainable systems that support these sectors is important. The objective of the study Model for Prevention (MoFoP) is to take a case study approach to examine a CVD risk reduction intervention in primary health care, with the aim of identifying the key elements required for an effective and sustainable approach to coordinate CVD risk reduction across the health and community sectors. These elements will be used to consider a new systems-based model for the prevention of CVD that informs future practice. The MoFoP study will use a mixed methods approach, comprising two complementary research elements: (1) a case study, and (2) a pre/post quasi-experimental design. The case study will consider the organizations and systems involved in a CVD risk reduction intervention as a single case. The pre/post experimental design will be used for HeartLink, the intervention being tested, where a single cohort of patients between 45 and 74 years of age (or between 35 and 74 years of age if Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) considered to be at high risk for a CVD event will be recruited through general practice, provided with enhanced usual care and additional health behavior change support. A range of quantitative and qualitative data will be collected. This will include

  19. Towards medicines regulatory authorities' quality performance improvement: value for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejović, Gordana; Filipović, Jovan; Tasić, Ljiljana; Marinković, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the possibility of implementing total quality management (TQM) principles in national medicines regulatory authorities in Europe to achieve all public health objectives. Bearing in mind that medicines regulation is a governmental function that serves societal objectives to protect and promote public health, measuring the effective achievement of quality objectives related to public health is of utmost importance. A generic TQM model for meeting public health objectives was developed and was tested on 10 European national medicines regulatory authorities with different regulatory performances. Participating national medicines regulatory authorities recognised all TQM factors of the proposed model in implemented systems with different degrees of understanding. An analysis of responses was performed within the framework of two established criteria-the regulatory authority's category and size. The value of the paper is twofold. First, the new generic TQM model proposes to integrate four public health objectives with six TQM factors. Second, national medicines regulatory authorities were analysed as public organisations and health authorities to develop a proper tool for assessing their regulatory performance. The paper emphasises the importance of designing an adequate approach to performance measurement of quality management systems in medicines regulatory authorities that will support their public service missions.

  20. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for addiction medicine: From neurophysiological markers to cognitive rehabilitation and relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation. Recent studies on newly detoxified alcoholic patients have shown that by using the appropriate tasks to index these cognitive functions with event-related potentials (ERPs), it is possible to discriminate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers. These preliminary data suggest that the ERP technique has great clinical potential for preventing relapse in alcohol-dependent patients, as well as for addictive states in general. Indeed, ERPs may help to identify patients highly vulnerable to relapse and allow the development of individually adapted cognitive rehabilitation programs. The implementation of this combined approach requires an intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. The potential pitfalls and limitations of this approach are also discussed.

  1. Society of behavioral medicine supports increasing HPV vaccination uptake: an urgent opportunity for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caryn E; Dykens, J Andrew; Brewer, Noel T; Buscemi, Joanna; Watson, Karriem; Comer-Hagans, DeLawnia; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Fitzgibbon, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage remains low in the USA. The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the goals outlined by Healthy People 2020, the President's Cancer Panel, and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee to increase vaccination coverage among both males and females. SBM makes the following recommendations in support of efforts to reduce structural and other barriers to HPV vaccination services in order to increase rates of series completion. We encourage legislators and other policymakers to improve administration authority, insurance coverage, and reimbursement rates to healthcare providers who make the HPV vaccine available to adolescents; provide instrumental support to fund the development of school curricula on HPV vaccination; and increase public awareness that HPV vaccination can prevent cancer. We urge healthcare providers and healthcare systems to increase the strength, quality, and consistency of HPV vaccination recommendations for all eligible patients; to treat HPV vaccination as a routine preventive service; employ culturally appropriate communication strategies in clinical settings to educate eligible patients, parents, and guardians about the importance, effectiveness, and safety of HPV vaccination; and to strengthen and better coordinate the use of electronic medical records and immunization information systems.

  2. Educating veterinarians for careers in free-ranging wildlife medicine and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, J.A.K.; Hamilton, G.E.; Dierauf, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the field of zoological medicine has seen an expansive broadening into the arenas of free-ranging wildlife, conservation medicine, and ecosystem health. During the spring/summer of 2005, we prepared and disseminated a survey designed to identify training and educational needs for individuals entering the wildlife medicine and ecosystem health fields. Our data revealed that few wildlife veterinarians believe that the training they received in veterinary school adequately prepared them to acquire and succeed in their field. Wildlife veterinarians and their employers ranked mentorship with an experienced wildlife veterinarian, training in leadership and communication, courses and externships in wildlife health, and additional formal training beyond the veterinary degree as important in preparation for success. Employers, wildlife veterinarians, and job seekers alike reported that understanding and maintaining ecosystem health is a key component of the wildlife veterinarian's job description, as it is critical to protecting animal health, including human health. Today's wildlife veterinarians are a new type of transdisciplinary professional; they practice medicine in their communities and hold titles in every level of government and academia. It is time that we integrate ecosystem health into our curricula to nurture and enhance an expansive way of looking at veterinary medicine and to ensure that veterinary graduates are prepared to excel in this new and complex world, in which the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and people are interdependent.

  3. Mobile Health, a Key Factor Enhancing Disease Prevention Campaigns: Looking for Evidences in Kidney Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roque Matias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level. Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour. Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016. Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP. The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs. Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General

  4. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programmes of Veterinary Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén

    2017-04-19

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  6. National Library of Medicine Guide to Finding Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Might I Get Services at a Health Sciences Library? What Other Federal Sites Have Health Information? How Do I Evaluate Information that I Find? ... research studies. Information in Other Languages includes health information on ... college, university, health sciences, or another library. A library near you may: ...

  7. Multiculturalism, Medicine and Health Part V: Community Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the author examines multicultural health issues from a community perspective, dealing with relationships between cultural communities and health-care systems in terms of: hospitals and health-care institutions, family and social supports, social norms, and community-health programs. PMID:21248882

  8. Personal health technology: A new era in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C; Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide yet the majority of related risk factors are largely preventable (primary prevention [PP]) and effectively treatable (secondary prevention [SP]) with healthy lifestyle behaviors. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) offers a unique approach to personal health and CVD prevention, as these mediums are relatively affordable, approachable, and accessible. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of ICT-driven personal health technologies and their potential role in promoting and supporting self-care behaviors for PP and SP of CVD. In this review, we focus on technological interventions that have been successful at supporting positive behavior change in order to determine which tools, resources, and methods are most appropriate for delivering interventions geared towards CVD prevention. We conducted a literature search from a range of sources including scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles indexed in PubMed and CINAHL, gray literature, and reputable websites and other Internet-based media. A synthesis of existing literature indicates that the overall efficacy of ICT-driven personal health technologies is largely determined by: 1) the educational resources provided and the extent to which the relayed information is customized or individually tailored; and 2) the degree of self-monitoring and levels of personalized feedback or other interactions (e.g. interpersonal communications). We conclude that virtually all the technological tools and resources identified (e.g. Internet-based communications including websites, weblogs and wikis, mobile devices and applications, social media, and wearable monitors) can be strategically leveraged to enhance self-care behaviors for CVD risk reduction and SP but further research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and long-term maintainability.

  9. Global health diplomacy for obesity prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-07-01

    To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.

  10. 76 FR 58007 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  11. 76 FR 67731 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  12. 78 FR 48877 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  13. 78 FR 14798 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... ] Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  14. 78 FR 38345 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  15. 78 FR 69853 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  16. 77 FR 15372 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  17. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults.

  18. Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

  19. Optimizing the Primary Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes in Primary Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style

  20. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG Xin-en

    2016-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and com...

  1. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  3. Diabetes prevention: global health policy and perspectives from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Michael; Buysschaert, Martin; Schwarz, Peter EH; Albright, Ann; Narayan, KM Venkat; Yach, Derek

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases are a growing public health challenge globally. An estimated 285 million people, corresponding to 6.4% of the world’s adult population, has diabetes, which is expected to reach 552 million by the International Diabetes Federation in 2030. A much larger segment of the world’s population, approximating 79 million individuals in the USA alone, has prediabetes. Globally, a relatively small percentage of those with diabetes or prediabetes are diagnosed with the potential for developing chronic complications. To address this epidemic, governments, in concert with the private sector, need to set policies that promote healthy nutritional and agricultural policies, favor modifications in the environment that encourage greater physical activity and make prevention affordable for all citizens at high risk. The public health sector has the charge of translating evidence-based findings into practical, accessible and cost-effective programs and monitoring the process to continuously improve prevention initiatives. The clinical sector has the formidable challenge of screening and identifying those at high risk and referring them to accredited intervention programs. There is a need to explore additional cost-effective interventions that are customized to meet individual needs that can be offered at the community and clinical levels. Thus, all three sectors, government, public health and clinical, each have a critical role in this process and by working in a partnership, ought to create the necessary synergies essential for making substantial forays in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:26339296

  4. Can medicine be aesthetic? Disentangling beauty and health in elective surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes tensions between aesthetics and health in medicine. The blurring of distinctions between reconstructive and cosmetic procedures, and the linking of plastic surgery with other medical treatments, have added to the legitimacy of an emerging "aesthetic medicine." As cosmetic surgeries become linked to other medical procedures with perceived greater medical necessity, health and aesthetics become entangled. One consequence is that medical needs are magnified while perceptions of the risks of surgery are minimized. Drawing on ethnographic work on plastic surgery, as well as other studies of obstetrics and cosmetic surgery, I illustrate this entanglement of health and aesthetics within the field of women's reproductive health care in Brazil. I argue that while it would be difficult to wholly disentangle aesthetics and health, analysis of how risk-benefit calculations are made in clinical practice offers a useful critical strategy for illuminating ethical problems posed by aesthetic medicine.

  5. Behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M

    2013-04-01

    This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.

  6. Origins and Evolution of Social Medicine and Contemporary Social Medicine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Social medicine is recognized as one of medical specialties in many countries. However, social medicine has never been formally introduced to Korea, presumably because the term and its principles were not accepted for some years in the past in American medicine, which has strongly influenced Korean medicine. This paper describes the origins and evolution of social medicine and briefly discusses contemporary social medicine in Korea. Social medicine was initiated in France and Germany in 1848. Since then, it has expanded globally and developed in diverse ways. Included in core principles of social medicine is that social and economic conditions have important effects on health and disease, and that these relationships must be subjected to scientific investigation. The term ‘social medicine’ is rarely used in Korea, but many of its subject matters are incorporated into preventive medicine which, besides prevention, deals with population health that is inescapably social. However, the Korean preventive medicine directs little attention to the basic concepts and principles of social medicine, upon which systematic development of social medicine can be based. Thus, it is necessary to supplement the social medicine contents of preventive medicine through formalizing the linkages between the two fields. One way of doing so would be to change the title of ‘preventive medicine’ course in medical colleges to ‘preventive and social medicine,’ as in many other countries, and to adjust the course contents accordingly. PMID:28605888

  7. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  8. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  9. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Thomford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level.

  10. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

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    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  11. Integrated Database And Knowledge Base For Genomic Prospective Cohort Study In Tohoku Medical Megabank Toward Personalized Prevention And Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, Soichi; Takai, Takako; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nagaie, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project is a national project to revitalization of the disaster area in the Tohoku region by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and have conducted large-scale prospective genome-cohort study. Along with prospective genome-cohort study, we have developed integrated database and knowledge base which will be key database for realizing personalized prevention and medicine.

  12. [Martin Heidegger, beneficence, health, and evidence based medicine--contemplations regarding ethics and complementary and alternative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbaum, Menachem; Gropp, Cornelius

    2015-03-01

    Beneficence is considered a core principle of medical ethics. Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is used almost synonymously with beneficence and has become the gold standard of efficiency of conventional medicine. Conventional modern medicine and EBM in particular are based on what Heidegger called calculative thinking, whereas complementary medicine (CM) is often based on contemplative thinking according to Heidegger's distinction of different thinking processes. A central issue of beneficence is the striving for health and wellbeing. EBM is little concerned directly with wellbeing, though it does claim to aim at improving quality of life by correcting pathological processes and conditions like infectious diseases, ischemic heart disease but also hypertension and hyperlipidemia. On the other hand, wellbeing is central to therapeutic efforts of CM. Scientific methods to gauge results of EBM are quantitative and based on calculative thinking, while results of treatments with CM are expressed in a qualitative way and based on meditative thinking. In order to maximize beneficence it seems important and feasible to use both approaches, by combining EBM and CM in the best interest of the individual patient.

  13. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

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    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  14. Occupational skin diseases: a successful model for multidisciplinary networking in preventive medicine

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    John, Swen Malte

    2008-10-01

    outpatient dermatological and educational intervention seminars (secondary individual prevention, SIP are offered to affected employees. We recently demonstrated the sustainability of the SIP approach in hairdressing for periods of up to 10 years.For those cases of OD, in which the abovementioned outpatient prevention measures are not sufficiently successful, specific interdisciplinary inpatient prevention measures have been developed (tertiary individual prevention, or TIP. TIP represents the ultima ratio within the hierarchical prevention concept of the Osnabrück Model. TIP comprises 2–3 weeks of inpatient dermatological diagnostics and treatment as well as intensive health-related pedagogic and psychological counseling. Subsequent to this, 3 consecutive weeks of outpatient treatment are given by a local dermatologist. Each patient remains on sick-leave for a total of 6 weeks to allow full barrier recovery. A total of 764 out of 1164 (66% TIP patients treated in our university, followed-up regularly by a local dermatologist for up to 1 year, were successful in remaining in their respective (risk- professions as assessed by questionnaire 1 year after discharge.Recently obtained SIP and TIP data reveal that there are reliable, evidence-based options for multidisciplinary prevention and patient management of OD, using a combined approach by a network of clinics, practices and statutory social insurance bodies. A multicentre study, which aims to further standardize TIP and evaluate sustainability of prevention in more depth (3-year dermatological follow-up of 1000 OD patients is currently being conducted in Germany.

  15. Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: tensions and controversies in the field.

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    Hughes, Benjamin; Joshi, Indra; Wareham, Jonathan

    2008-08-06

    The term Web 2.0 became popular following the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004; however, there are difficulties in its application to health and medicine. Principally, the definition published by O'Reilly is criticized for being too amorphous, where other authors claim that Web 2.0 does not really exist. Despite this skepticism, the online community using Web 2.0 tools for health continues to grow, and the term Medicine 2.0 has entered popular nomenclature. This paper aims to establish a clear definition for Medicine 2.0 and delineate literature that is specific to the field. In addition, we propose a framework for categorizing the existing Medicine 2.0 literature and identify key research themes, underdeveloped research areas, as well as the underlying tensions or controversies in Medicine 2.0's diverse interest groups. In the first phase, we employ a thematic analysis of online definitions, that is, the most important linked papers, websites, or blogs in the Medicine 2.0 community itself. In a second phase, this definition is then applied across a series of academic papers to review Medicine 2.0's core literature base, delineating it from a wider concept of eHealth. The terms Medicine 2.0 and Health 2.0 were found to be very similar and subsume five major salient themes: (1) the participants involved (doctors, patients, etc); (2) its impact on both traditional and collaborative practices in medicine; (3) its ability to provide personalized health care; (4) its ability to promote ongoing medical education; and (5) its associated method- and tool-related issues, such as potential inaccuracy in enduser-generated content. In comparing definitions of Medicine 2.0 to eHealth, key distinctions are made by the collaborative nature of Medicine 2.0 and its emphasis on personalized health care. However, other elements such as health or medical education remain common for both categories. In addition, this emphasis on personalized health care is not a salient theme

  16. Preventative Therapeutics: A Study of Risk and Prevention in Australian Mental Health

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    Andrew McLachlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.

  17. Private medicine and the privatisation of health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C D

    1988-01-01

    Health services in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) are provided by a mixture of public and private providers and institutions. Estimates of total health-related expenditure for 1985 range between 5.3% and 5.9% of gross national product (GNP), divided on approximately a 55:45 basis between public and private sectors. Basic preventive and curative services are provided by a hospital- and clinic-based public system. The public system does not adequately serve the rural areas and African tribal bantustans, and racial discrimination and/or segregation are obvious in its organisation and funding. The public sector's strength is the provision of state-subsidised care to many citizens who are unable to afford private medicine. The vast majority of hospitals are operated on a non-profit basis by government, industries, and voluntary agencies. Excluding hospitals that receive state subsidies, private investor-owned hospitals control about 10% of all hospital beds in the RSA. One-third of these investor-owned beds are held by state-dependent contractors providing long-term care. Two-thirds are wholly independent. Growth has been rapid in the independent hospital sector, and major corporations have entered the market. In 1985, over 85% of the white population was privately insured by a variety of prepayment programmes, including those organised through parastatal corporations and government departments. Despite major enrollment growth in the preceding decade, only 8% of blacks held private insurance by 1985; their coverage also tended to be less comprehensive. Faced with deficit financing, a sluggish economy, complaints from its white constituency about taxation levels, and pressure from private sector interest groups, the Nationalist government has endorsed the concept of privatisation of health care. Exponents of privatisation claim that it will permit differentiation by income to supplant discrimination by race. However, the direct links between disposable income and

  18. Health systems challenges in cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi

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    Fresier C. Maseko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, very few women have undergone screening and the incidence of cervical cancer is on the increase as is the case in most developing countries. We aimed at exploring and documenting health system gaps responsible for the poor performance of the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. Design: The study was carried out in 14 randomly selected districts of the 29 districts of Malawi. All cervical cancer service providers in these districts were invited to participate. Two semi-structured questionnaires were used, one for the district cervical cancer coordinators and the other for the service providers. The themes of both questionnaires were based on World Health Organization (WHO health system frameworks. A checklist was also developed to audit medical supplies and equipment in the cervical cancer screening facilities. The two questionnaires together with the medical supplies and equipment checklist were piloted in Chikwawa district before being used as data collection tools in the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using STATA and qualitative in NVIVO. Results: Forty-one service providers from 21 health facilities and 9 district coordinators participated in the study. Our findings show numerous health system challenges mainly in areas of health workforce and essential medical products and technologies. Seven out of the 21 health facilities provided both screening and treatment. Results showed challenges in the management of the cervical cancer program at district level; inadequate service providers who are poorly supervised; lack of basic equipment and stock-outs of basic medical supplies in some health facilities; and inadequate funding of the program. In most of the health facilities, services providers were not aware of the policy which govern their work and that they did not have standards and guidelines for cervical

  19. Health systems challenges in cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Fresier C; Chirwa, Maureen L; Muula, Adamson S

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in sub-Saharan Africa. In Malawi, very few women have undergone screening and the incidence of cervical cancer is on the increase as is the case in most developing countries. We aimed at exploring and documenting health system gaps responsible for the poor performance of the cervical cancer prevention program in Malawi. The study was carried out in 14 randomly selected districts of the 29 districts of Malawi. All cervical cancer service providers in these districts were invited to participate. Two semi-structured questionnaires were used, one for the district cervical cancer coordinators and the other for the service providers. The themes of both questionnaires were based on World Health Organization (WHO) health system frameworks. A checklist was also developed to audit medical supplies and equipment in the cervical cancer screening facilities. The two questionnaires together with the medical supplies and equipment checklist were piloted in Chikwawa district before being used as data collection tools in the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using STATA and qualitative in NVIVO. Forty-one service providers from 21 health facilities and 9 district coordinators participated in the study. Our findings show numerous health system challenges mainly in areas of health workforce and essential medical products and technologies. Seven out of the 21 health facilities provided both screening and treatment. RESULTS showed challenges in the management of the cervical cancer program at district level; inadequate service providers who are poorly supervised; lack of basic equipment and stock-outs of basic medical supplies in some health facilities; and inadequate funding of the program. In most of the health facilities, services providers were not aware of the policy which govern their work and that they did not have standards and guidelines for cervical cancer screening and treatment. Numerous health

  20. Ethics in health care: the practice of defensive medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nurses and 100 hospital administrators in the USA found ... Ethics CPD Supplement: Ethics in health care: confidentiality and information technologies. S7 .... Health Care. News. 2003;3(2). 4. Fienberg S. A view on medical malpractice.