Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise
In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.
Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A
Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger.
Freston, James W.
Focus is on the place of pharmacology as a faculty and discipline in the education of health professionals, particularly pharmacists. Curriculum concerns are addressed, and the projections of Abraham Flexner in 1910 are reviewed. The need for the development of clinical pharmacy is emphasized. (LBH)
Wheeler, Amanda; Fowler, Jane; Hattingh, Laetitia
Current mental health policy in Australia recognizes that ongoing mental health workforce development is crucial to mental health care reform. Community pharmacy staff are well placed to assist people with mental illness living in the community; however, staff require the knowledge and skills to do this competently and effectively. This article presents the systematic planning and development process and content of an education and training program for community pharmacy staff, using a program planning approach called intervention mapping. The intervention mapping framework was used to guide development of an online continuing education program. Interviews with mental health consumers and carers (n = 285) and key stakeholders (n = 15), and a survey of pharmacy staff (n = 504) informed the needs assessment. Program objectives were identified specifying required attitudes, knowledge, skills, and confidence. These objectives were aligned with an education technique and delivery strategy. This was followed by development of an education program and comprehensive evaluation plan. The program was piloted face to face with 24 participants and then translated into an online program comprising eight 30-minute modules for pharmacists, 4 of which were also used for support staff. The evaluation plan provided for online participants (n ≅ 500) to be randomized into intervention (immediate access) or control groups (delayed training access). It included pre- and posttraining questionnaires and a reflective learning questionnaire for pharmacy staff and telephone interviews post pharmacy visit for consumers and carers. An online education program was developed to address mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and skills required by pharmacy staff to work effectively with mental health consumers and carers. Intervention mapping provides a systematic and rigorous approach that can be used to develop a quality continuing education program for the health workforce
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Meyers, Rachel S; Costello-Curtin, Jennifer
To implement an educational program to improve pediatric content knowledge and confidence in providing pediatric care among health-system pharmacists. Pharmacists were asked to voluntarily participate in this prospective, observational education program. A demographic assessment, pre- and post-intervention confidence assessments, and pre- and post-lecture competency assessments were conducted to evaluate the program. Five of the 6 confidence scores improved from the preintervention to the postintervention stage. Test scores for 2 of the 8 postlecture tests improved significantly, and the average test scores for all postlecture tests combined were significantly higher than those for the prelecture tests. This study demonstrated significant improvements in both confidence and competence in pediatric pharmacotherapy among health-system pharmacists following implementation of a pediatric pharmacy education program.
Cisneros, Robert M; Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A; McPherson, Charles E; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B
To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants' advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies.
Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.
Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.
Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…
Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Note
Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T; Tran, Linh
To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions. A hands-on educational program was developed in conjunction with local middle school administrators and staff for URM 7th grade students. The program was designed to be hands-on and focus on pharmacy and PA laboratory skills. A discussion component was included, allowing participants to interact personally with pharmacy and PA students and faculty members. Students' responses to survey questions about interest in health care careers and knowledge about health professions were compared before and after 2 separate offerings of the program. After the program, significant increases were seen in participants' understanding of the pharmacy and PA professions. An increased percentage of participants reported interest in health care careers after the program than before the program. Introducing middle school-aged URM students to the pharmacy and PA professions through a hands-on educational program increased interest in, and knowledge of, these professions.
Javadi, Mohammadreza; Kargar, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Rashidian, Arash; Torkamandi, Hassan; Sarayani, Amir
Pharmacists are routinely providing reproductive health counseling in community pharmacies, but studies have revealed significant deficits in their competencies. Therefore, continuing pharmacy education (CPE) could be utilized as a valuable modality to upgrade pharmacists' capabilities. A randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of CPE meetings (lecture based vs. workshop based) on contraception and male sexual dysfunctions. Sixty pharmacists were recruited for each CPE meeting. Small group training using simulated patients was employed in the workshop-based CPE. Study outcomes were declarative/procedural knowledge, attitudes, and satisfaction of the participants. Data were collected pre-CPE, post-CPE, and 2 months afterward and were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. Results showed that lecture-based CPE was more successful in improving pharmacists' knowledge post-CPE (p < .001). In contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the lecture-based group at follow-up (p = .002), whereas the workshop-based group maintained their knowledge over time (p = 1.00). Knowledge scores of both groups were significantly higher at follow-up in comparison with pre-CPE (p < .01). No significant differences were observed regarding satisfaction and attitudes scores between groups. In conclusion, an interactive workshop might not be superior to lecture-based training for improving pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes in a 1-day CPE meeting. © The Author(s) 2013.
Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.
Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was
Cave, Julie; And Others
This instructor's manual consists of materials for use in presenting a course in the occupational area of pharmacy aide. Included in the first part of the guide are a program master sequence; a master listing of instructional materials, equipment, and supplies; an overview of the competency-based vocational education (CBVE) system; and guidelines…
Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire
To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.
Poirier, Suzanne; And Others
Images drawn from popular media as well as professional stereotypes impede the integration of the pharmacist into the health care team. A course at the College of Pharmacy at the University of Illinois at Chicago, designed to study stereotypes, is described. (Author/MLW)
Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U
An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available The concept of development is ubiquitous throughout higher education. Development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and clinical reasoning are noted as important outcomes in higher education, including health professions education. In this era of widening scrutiny, demonstration of this outcome within programmatic assessment is becoming increasingly important. Programmatic assessment of critical thinking is complicated because of its multiple definitions, array of theoretical frameworks, and variety of measurement instruments. Additionally, recent guidelines and standards for pharmacy education have affirmed “habits of mind,” which are not new to education and encompass analytical critical thinking. In this paper, we sought to provide: 1 an overview of various critical thinking measurement instruments with their different associated critical thinking definitions, 2 a background and framework for thinking using the Dimensions of Learning model, 3 implications and applications for assessing cognitive development (critical and complex thinking within the context of pharmacy education, and 4 specific suggestions for assessment in pharmacy education. Type: Idea Paper
The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...
This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy.
McGuire, Christine H.; And Others
The evolution, present status, future directions, and external forces affecting health professions education are reviewed in this 25 chapter book. Guidelines are set forth for sound practices and policies for innovative and responsive health care. The authors assess how major economic, social, political, demographic, and technological changes are…
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
D. Todd Bess
Full Text Available A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners, but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. The mock Board of Pharmacy meeting engages the students in a way that lectures alone often fail to achieve with some initial evidence of successful student learning. Utilizing this teaching format as a law education tool challenges the status quo of pharmacy education and may serve as an impetus and catalyst for future innovations. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents, and royalties. Dr. Wang’s time was partly supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG040146 and R01AG049696. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Type: Idea Paper
Keith A. Wilson; Yvonne Perrie
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the profession moves from a focus upon preparation and supply of medicines to a clinical patient-facing role. While an understanding of the science related to medicines remains core to pharmacy education, the changes in practice ...
Leach, Caitlin; Layson-Wolf, Cherokee
1) To measure the general perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacy residents toward transgender patients and health; 2) to identify gaps in didactic education regarding transgender health care among residents; and 3) to evaluate residents' level of support for pharmacists receiving education in transgender health care. This study was a cross-sectional survey delivered online. Community residency directors were e-mailed a cover letter and a 34-question online survey. The directors were asked to forward the survey to their residents for completion within 4 weeks. Responses were anonymous with no identifiers collected on the survey. Survey responses used a combination of open-response, multiple-choice, and Likert-scale questions aimed at gathering respondents' demographic information, perceptions of managing transgender patients and the need for receiving additional education in transgender health care. Overall, the results of the survey indicated that community pharmacy residents support integrating transgender health management into pharmacy education and recognize that the overwhelming barriers to care for these patients include discrimination and lack of provider knowledge. Significant findings include: 82.7% of community residents think that community pharmacists play an important role in providing care for transgender patients; 98.2% think that they have a responsibility to treat transgender patients; and 71.4% were not educated about transgender patient issues in pharmacy school. Only 36.2% of community residents felt confident in their ability to treat transgender patients. Community pharmacy residents list discrimination and lack of provider knowledge as the major barriers to care for transgender patients. Residents do not feel confident in their ability to treat and manage transgender patients. The majority of residents were not educated about transgender patient issues while in pharmacy school and think that community pharmacists need more education
Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T.; Tran, Linh
Objective. To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions.
Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa
Social media is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. It has significant potential as a health communication and educational tool, and may provide a medium for the delivery of health-related services. This systematic review aimed to investigate the use of social media in professional pharmacy practice and pharmacy education, and includes an evaluation of the research designs utilized. Medline, Embase, PubMed, IPA, and CINAHL databases were broadly searched for peer-reviewed research studies about pharmacy and social media (SM). The search was restricted to years 2000 to June 2013, with no other restrictions applied. Key words used were within three concept areas: "social media" and "pharmacist or student" and "pharmacy." Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. SM was broadly addressed as a general concept in 3 of the 24 studies. The other 21 studies investigated/used specific SM tools. Fourteen of those addressed social networking sites (SNS), four wikis, two blogs, and one Twitter. The studies' foci were to describe SM use (n = 17 studies) by pharmacist, pharmacy educators, and pharmacy students and investigate usage related topics (such as e-professionalism and student-educator boundary issues); or the use of SM as an educational tool in pharmacy education (n = 7). Pharmacy students were the subject of 12 studies, pharmacists of six, and faculty members and administrators of four. Survey methods were used in 17 studies, alone or with an additional method; focus groups were used in two; interviews in one; and direct observation of social media activity in seven. Results showed that SM in general and SNS in particular were used mainly for personal reasons. Wikis, Facebook, and Twitter were used as educational tools in pharmacy education with positive feedback from students. Research investigating the use of SM in the practice of pharmacy is growing; however, it is predominantly descriptive in nature with no controlled studies identified. Although some
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union. PMID:28970446
Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed
Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.
Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine
Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.
Cain, Jeff; Piascik, Peggy
Serious gaming is the use of game principles for the purposes of learning, skill acquisition, and training. Higher education is beginning to incorporate serious gaming into curricula, and health professions education is the most common area for serious game use. Advantages of serious gaming in pharmacy education include authentic, situated learning without risk of patient consequences, collaborative learning, ability to challenge students of all performance levels, high student motivation with increased time on task, immediate feedback, ability to learn from mistakes without becoming discouraged, and potential for behavior and attitude change. Development of quality games for pharmacy education requires content expertise as well as expertise in the science and design of gaming. When well done, serious gaming provides a valuable additional tool for pharmacy education.
Olin, Bernie R.
The root cause of most chronic diseases in America is self-inflicted through an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet, insufficient exercise, inability to maintain a healthy weight, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Americans' ability to adhere to healthy lifestyles appears to be declining.1,2 The pharmacy profession, while positioned to provide an answer to this problem, has done little. In addition, academic pharmacy's primary focus is on drugs and diseases with limited instruction in the area of wellness. It is time for pharmacy education to step up and take a leadership role in enhancing the wellness of Americans. PMID:20585430
Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L
Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.
Motycka, Carol A.; St. Onge, Erin L.; Williams, Jennifer
Objective: To better understand the technology being used today in pharmacy education through a review of the current methodologies being employed at various institutions. Also, to discuss the benefits and difficulties of asynchronous and synchronous methodologies, which are being utilized at both traditional and distance education campuses.…
Rose, Renee L.; Ried, L. Douglas; Brazeau, Gayle
Self-assessment is an important skill necessary for continued development of a health care professional from student pharmacist throughout their professional career. This paper reviews the literature on student and practitioner self-assessment and whether this skill can be improved upon. Although self-assessment appears to be a skill that can be improved, both students and professionals continue to have difficulty with accurate self-assessment. Experts' external assessment of students should remain the primary method of testing skills and knowledge until self-assessment strategies improve. While self-assessment is important to lifelong learning, external assessment is also important for practitioners' continuing professional development. PMID:20798800
Cain, Jeff; Piascik, Peggy
Serious gaming is the use of game principles for the purposes of learning, skill acquisition, and training. Higher education is beginning to incorporate serious gaming into curricula, and health professions education is the most common area for serious game use. Advantages of serious gaming in pharmacy education include authentic, situated learning without risk of patient consequences, collaborative learning, ability to challenge students of all performance levels, high student motivation wit...
Baia, Patricia; Strang, Aimee F
Objective. To investigate motives of pharmacy educators who pursue pedagogical knowledge through professional development programs and to develop a model of motivation to inform future development. Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used to study both qualitative and quantitative data. Written narratives, postmodule quizzes, and survey data were collected during a 5-year period (2010-2014) from pharmacy educators who participated in an online professional development program titled Helping Educators Learn Pedagogy (HELP). Grounded theory was used to create a model of motivation for why pharmacy educators might pursue pedagogical knowledge. Results. Participants reported being driven intrinsically by a passion for their own learning (self-centered motivation) and by the need to improve student learning (student-centered motivation) and extrinsically by program design, funding, and administrator encouragement. Conclusion. A new model of pharmacy educator motivation to pursue pedagogy knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge Acquisition Theory (PKAT), emerged as a blended intrinsic and extrinsic model, which may have value in developing future professional development programs.
Hilliard, N.L.; Pickett, M.; Thaxton, P.; Norenberg, J.P.; Wittstrom, K.; Rhodes, B.
Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem
Petkova, Valentina B
There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients' disease management, medication compliance and from there patients' quality of life. To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general practitioner's visits and hospitalizations are expected. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The sample consisted of 43 individuals, with different stages of arthritis (aged 15 - 71), attending pharmacies - intervention group; and 43 individuals - control group. A 4-month education was conducted on the following topics: what causes arthritis and what are the factors that can intensify it; pain management and physical activities; self-management and prevention; pharmacotherapy and possible adverse drug reactions. Patient's health-related quality of life was assessed in the beginning and at the end of the survey. PARAMETERS ASSESSED DURING THE FOUR STAGES OF THE PROGRAM WERE: frequency of severe pain, frequency of general practitioner's visits, frequency of urgent medical aid calls, compliance with therapy, satisfaction with pharmacy services. Improvement in patients' health-related quality of life was observed and also: decrease in the severity of patients' pain, decrease in the physician's visits, and increase in satisfaction overall care. Positive results from the educational approach in pharmacy conditions were demonstrated. These consequences have a potential to increase arthritis patient's quality of life.
Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.
Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael
To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.
Asiri, Yousif A
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective.
Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M
The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students.
Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed
Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for
Full Text Available There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients’ disease management, medication compliance and from there patients’ quality of life.Objective: To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general practitioner’s visits and hospitalizations are expected.Methods: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The sample consisted of 43 individuals, with different stages of arthritis (aged 15 - 71, attending pharmacies – intervention group; and 43 individuals – control group. A 4-month education was conducted on the following topics: what causes arthritis and what are the factors that can intensify it; pain management and physical activities; self-management and prevention; pharmacotherapy and possible adverse drug reactions. Patient's health-related quality of life was assessed in the beginning and at the end of the survey. Results: Parameters assessed during the four stages of the program were: frequency of severe pain, frequency of general practitioner’s visits, frequency of urgent medical aid calls, compliance with therapy, satisfaction with pharmacy services. Improvement in patients’ health-related quality of life was observed and also: decrease in the severity of patients’ pain, decrease in the physician’s visits, and increase in satisfaction overall care.Conclusions: Positive results from the educational approach in pharmacy conditions were demonstrated. These consequences have a potential to increase arthritis patient’s quality of life.
Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar
Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community.
Rim, Matthew H; Thomas, Karen C; Chandramouli, Jane; Barrus, Stephanie A; Nickman, Nancy A
The implementation and quality assessment of a pharmacy services call center (PSCC) for outpatient pharmacies and specialty pharmacy services within an academic health system are described. Prolonged wait times in outpatient pharmacies or hold times on the phone affect the ability of pharmacies to capture and retain prescriptions. To support outpatient pharmacy operations and improve quality, a PSCC was developed to centralize handling of all outpatient and specialty pharmacy calls. The purpose of the PSCC was to improve the quality of pharmacy telephone services by (1) decreasing the call abandonment rate, (2) improving the speed of answer, (3) increasing first-call resolution, (4) centralizing all specialty pharmacy and prior authorization calls, (5) increasing labor efficiency and pharmacy capacities, (6) implementing a quality evaluation program, and (7) improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The PSCC centralized pharmacy calls from 9 pharmacy locations, 2 outpatient clinics, and a specialty pharmacy. Since implementation, the PSCC has achieved and maintained program goals, including improved abandonment rate, speed of answer, and first-call resolution. A centralized 24-7 support line for specialty pharmacy patients was also successfully established. A quality calibration program was implemented to ensure service quality and excellent patient experience. Additional ongoing evaluations measure the impact of the PSCC on improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The design and implementation of the PSCC have significantly improved the health system's patient experiences, efficiency, and quality. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gelayee, Dessalegn Asmelashe; Mekonnen, Gashaw Binega
Globally, undergraduate pharmacy education comprises practice programs aimed to address different competencies. This study was intended to investigate pharmacy students' provision of health promotion (HP) counseling services during a community pharmacy clerkship in Northwest Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on fifty one fifth-year pharmacy students immediately after completion of a 2-week community pharmacy clerkship. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Relationship between variables was examined using Pearson's Chi-square test of independence, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The mean number of HP counseling service types delivered during the clerkship was 6.3 ± 2.8 out of 12. It is positively correlated with the number of HP counseling service types delivered in students' previous training (rho =0.437, p = 0.001). Nearly half (n = 25, 49%) of the students were actively-involved (i.e delivered ≥ 7 types of HP counseling service types) in the service and those who were well involved in previous training are more likely to do the same during the clerkship (X 2 = 4.581, p = 0.032). The main barriers perceived to hinder health promotion service were clients' lack of time and interest as well as absence of a guideline for health promotion service. Community pharmacy clerkship is a good opportunity for pharmacy students to develop health promotion counseling skill. Clerkship performance can best be improved through successful exposures to similar activities in previous courses and students shall be encouraged to carry out self-assessments of their health promotion counseling practice against standards set for the clerkship.
Young, Anita M.
Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…
Sánchez, Alina M
In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
In 2003, Meijo University has developed a new program to train students in master's degree in the field of clinical practice. This new curriculum has three big pillars of educational goal: Problem-Based Learning (PBL), communication skill and clinical pharmacy practice training. Before exposing students to clinical training, they must learn first how to solve various patients' problems through PBL and enhance their communication skill. To provide a clinical environment, education and training, the Faculty of Pharmacy cooperated with the School of Medicine of Fujita Health University. Master's students together with other members of the healthcare team observe patient's disease state and most especially monitor pharmacotherapy. At first, students will be trained for a month at the pharmacy division and experience one week-nursing job. Next, they will be trained at the clinical divisions such as General Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Respiratory Medicine, Hematology, Chemotherapy, Gastroenterological Surgery, Psychiatry, and Emergency Unit. Students rotate three-month training on four clinical divisions during one year. The head physicians of the medical department hold concurrent post as professors and share responsibility with the pharmacy faculty in training the students. To have its venue where students, faculty and physicians conduct their discussion on clinical cases, a pharmacy satellite seminar class room was set up at Fujita Health University hospital. Through this, pharmacy students and faculty had more opportunities to exchange knowledge on medicine and pharmacy. Master's students are expected to acquire professionalism, ethical knowledge and pharmaceutical care skills through the clinical pharmacy practice program.
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings
Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a standard educational module on pharmacy students' inhaler technique .... found in the market next to a checklist showing its technique steps). ... educational strategies in this area. To ensure.
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Chiu, Yen-Lin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Mao, Pili Chih-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Although Internet-based learning is widely used to improve health professionals' knowledge and skills, the self-regulated learning (SRL) activities of online continuing education in pharmacy are seldom discussed. The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between pharmacists' Internet self-efficacy (ISE) and their SRL in online continuing education. A total of 164 in-service pharmacists in Taiwan were surveyed with the Internet Self-Efficacy Survey, including basic ISE (B-ISE), advanced ISE (A-ISE) and professional ISE (P-ISE), as well as the Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire consisting of preparatory SRL (P-SRL) and enactment SRL (E-SRL). Results of a 1-by-3 (educational levels: junior college versus bachelor versus master) analysis of variance and a 1-by-4 (institutions: community-based versus hospital versus clinic versus company) analysis of variance revealed that there were differences in ISE and SRL among different education levels and working institutions. The hierarchical regression analyses indicated that B-ISE and P-ISE were significant predictors of P-SRL, whereas P-ISE was a critical predictor of E-SRL. Moreover, the interaction of P-ISE × age was linked to E-SRL, implying that P-ISE has a stronger influence on E-SRL for older pharmacists than for younger pharmacists. However, the interactions between age and ISE (A-ISE, B-ISE, and P-ISE) were not related to P-SRL. This study highlighted the importance of ISE and age for increasing pharmacists' SRL in online continuing education.
DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne
To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.
Jennifer L. Rodis
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration. Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed. Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty. Type: Case Study
Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.
Mospan, Cortney M
To encourage the academy to pursue innovative management education strategies within pharmacy curricula and highlight these experiences in a scholarly dialogue. Management has often been a dreaded, dry, and often neglected aspect of pharmacy curricula. With the release of Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Educational Outcomes 2013 as well as Entry-Level Competencies Needed for Community Pharmacy Practice by National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) Foundation, National Community Pharmacists Association (NCPA), and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) in 2012, managerial skills have seen a new emphasis in pharmacy education. Further, management has greater emphasis within ACPE "Standards 2016" through adoption of CAPE Educational Outcomes 2013 into the standards. Previous literature has shown success of innovative learning strategies in management education such as active learning, use of popular television shows, and emotional intelligence. The academy must build a more extensive scholarly body of work highlighting successful educational strategies to engage pharmacy students in an often-dreaded subject through applying the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sawalha, Ansam F
Improving pharmacy education requires continuous research to optimize education and consequently pharmacy practice. The goal of this study is to assess national and international contributions to pharmacy education research and present results in comparative bibliometric format. Search strategy based on journal name and specific keywords pertaining to pharmacy education were used to retrieve the worldwide literature in pharmacy education using Scopus database during the period from 2000 to 2016. Bibliometric indicators were presented as top 10 list of countries, institutions and authors. VOSviewer was used to visualize international collaboration, while ArcMap10.1 software was used for geographical mapping of publications. A total of 5363 documents, mostly as research articles (4027; 75.1%), were retrieved. A noticeable increase in publications was seen from 2007 to 2011. The USA contributed to more than half (53.6%) of worldwide research output. Saudi Arabia had the highest percentage of international authors representing international collaboration. There was an increase in multi-authored publications with time. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education (AJPE) ranked first (2822, 52.6%) while the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) had the largest research output with 141 (2.6%) publications. The vast majority of highly cited articles were published in AJPE, and highly cited topics included the use of social media in pharmacy education and the multi-professional learning experience. Pharmacy education research is gaining momentum and is addressing various fields in education. Research in pharmacy education should be encouraged, particularly in developing countries, where education and practice are still lagging behind. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.
Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...
Hoover, Matthew J; Jung, Rose; Jacobs, David M; Peeters, Michael J
To evaluate and compare the reliability and validity of educational testing reported in pharmacy education journals to medical education literature. Descriptions of validity evidence sources (content, construct, criterion, and reliability) were extracted from articles that reported educational testing of learners' knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Using educational testing, the findings of 108 pharmacy education articles were compared to the findings of 198 medical education articles. For pharmacy educational testing, 14 articles (13%) reported more than 1 validity evidence source while 83 articles (77%) reported 1 validity evidence source and 11 articles (10%) did not have evidence. Among validity evidence sources, content validity was reported most frequently. Compared with pharmacy education literature, more medical education articles reported both validity and reliability (59%; particles in pharmacy education compared to medical education, validity, and reliability reporting were limited in the pharmacy education literature.
Bofí Martínez, Patricia; García Jiménez, Emilio; Martínez Martínez, Fernando
To compare health education (HE) and drug therapy monitoring (DTM) interventions in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Randomised experimental studys: 100 patients per group. Playa-Miramar pharmacy (Valencia, Spain). March 2010-November 2011. Patients with one or more CVRF detected based on medication they were taking or questions they asked when drugs were dispensed. Patients were assigned to one of the two groups (HE or DTM) using a random number table. 100 patients by group were included. Six months of DTM (DTMG) or health education (HEG) per patient. The primary variables were modifiable CVRF: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, obesity and low physical activity. Secondary variables were non modifiable CVRF (age, sex, cardiovascular disease), heart rate, body mass index, waist measurement, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, body fat, treatment compliance. The differences in the reduction percentages were statistically greater in DTMG than in HEG for the following variables: systolic pressure 5.40% (p=0.001); heart rate 2.95%(p=0.015); weight 2.00% (p=0.002); BMI 2.24% (p=0.003); fasting glucose 8.65% (p=0.004); total cholesterol 6.45% (p=0.002); waist measurement 1.85% (p=0.010); and waist-to-height ratio 1.66% (p=0.002). Triglycerides and body fat were reduced by 12.78% (p<0.001) and 1.84% (p<0.001) more, respectively, in DTMG. These differences were not statistically significant. The reduction percentages were generally higher for all variables in DTMG except diastolic blood pressure, which decreased by 4.7% (P<.001) more in HEG because the baseline values were higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Okoro, Olihe N; Odedina, Folakemi T; Reams, Romonia R; Smith, W Thomas
To evaluate the level of competency and knowledge about health disparities among third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 2 Florida public colleges of pharmacy and to explore the demographic correlates of these variables. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to collect data from participants. The students had low health-disparities knowledge and moderate skills in dealing with sociocultural issues and cross-cultural encounters. Speaking a language(s) other than English and having exposure to cultural-competency instruction were the demographic variables found to be most significantly associated with clinical cultural competency and/or knowledge of health disparities. Clinical cultural competency and health-disparities instruction may not be adequately incorporated into the pharmacy school curricula in the institutions studied. Relevant education and training are necessary to enhance cultural competency among pharmacy students.
Blash, Anthony; Saltsman, Connie L; Steil, Condit
Upon completion of their post-graduate training, pharmacy informatics residents need to be prepared to interact with clinical and technology experts in the new healthcare environment. This study describes pharmacy informatics residency programs within the United States. Preliminary information for all pharmacy informatics residency programs was accessed from program webpages. An email was sent out to programs asking them to respond to a six-item questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed to elicit information on attributes of the program, behaviors of the preceptors and residents, and attitudes of the residency directors. Of 22 pharmacy informatics residencies identified, nineteen (86%) participated. Twenty (91%) were second post-graduate year (PGY2) residencies. Ten (45%) were accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), while eight (36%) were candidates for accreditation. Hospital (17/22, 77%) and administrative offices (3/22, 14%) were the predominant training sites for pharmacy informatics residents. Large institutions were the predominant training environment for the pharmacy informatics resident, with 19 of 22 (86%) institutions reporting a licensed bed count of 500 or more. The median (range) number of informatics preceptors at a site was six to eight. Regarding barriers to pharmacy informatics residency education, residency directors reported that residents did not feel prepared based on the limited availability of curricular offerings. In the United States, relatively few residencies are explicitly focused on pharmacy informatics. Most of these are accredited and hospital affiliated, especially with large institutions (>500 beds). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2013; 12 (6): 1107-1112 ... Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts .... National Institute of Medical and Dental .... There is no clinical.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M
Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Chesson, Melissa M; Harris, Elaine C; Ryan, Gina J
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912
Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie
This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.
Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels.
Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area.
Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi
The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
Lumbreras, Blanca; Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Bosch, Félix
To identify public health core competencies and contents in pharmacy degrees at a meeting of public health lecturers in pharmacy degrees from various public and private universities. The first Meeting of the Forum of University Teaching Staff in Pharmacy Degrees was held at the Faculty of Medicine in the Complutense University, Madrid, Spain on the 19(th) and 20(th) of November 2013. The meeting was attended by 17 lecturers. Participants brought their own teaching programs and were given two previous studies on public health competencies for analysis of public health contents and competencies in pharmacy degrees. Working groups were formed and the results were shared. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the following functions: "Assessment of the population's health needs" and "Developing health policies". The final program included basic contents organized into 8 units: Concept of Public Health, Demography, Epidemiological Method, Environment and Health, Food Safety, Epidemiology of Major Health Problems, Health Promotion and Education, and Health Planning and Management. Representation of almost all the Spanish Pharmacy Faculties and the consensus reached in the description of competences and program contents will greatly improve the quality of teaching in this area. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rider, Katherine; Kaya, Hatice; Jha, Vinayak; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
Accreditation guidelines in the USA suggest that experiential sites for pharmacy students should demonstrate 'a strong commitment to health promotion and illness prevention'; however, most community pharmacies sell tobacco products. This study aimed to determine the proportion of students rotating through advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites where tobacco is sold and experiential education directors' perception regarding the sales of tobacco in APPE sites. A brief survey was distributed by mail to experiential education directors at US pharmacy schools. The survey characterized the proportion of students who rotate at practice sites where tobacco is sold, directors' perceptions of tobacco sales in experiential sites, and the number of hours of tobacco education in their pharmacy curricula. Directors (n = 81; 63%) estimated that 69% of students rotate through sites where tobacco is sold. If given the opportunity to choose between two potential sites, where one sells tobacco and the other does not, 40% of directors would be unlikely to choose a site that sold tobacco. With respect to tobacco sales, pharmacy schools are largely noncompliant with guidelines and resolutions of professional organizations. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Kristina, Susi Ari; Yulianto, Yulianto; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo
Objective: To implement a new health promotion course as part of pharmacy public health practices and to identify pharmacy students' knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to what was learned through this. Method: A total of 119 fifth-year pharmacy students undertook a new health promotion course in a pharmacy school in…
Guimarães Morais JA
Full Text Available A survey of quality assurance (QA systems in European faculties of pharmacy was carried out under the auspices of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy PHARMINE consortium. A questionnaire based on the quality criteria of the International Pharmaceutical Federation and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (USA was sent out to European faculties. Replies were obtained from 28 countries. Just above half has a working QA system. QA scores were high concerning matters such as complete curriculum and training, use of European Credit Transfer System, students’ representation and promotion of professional behavior. QA scores were low concerning matters such as evaluation of achievement of mission and goals, and financial resources. The PHARMINE consortium now has a basis upon which to elaborate and promote QA in European pharmacy faculties.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126 was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results: The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%, lack of pharmacist time (83.3%, organizational obstacles (82.6%, and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%. Conclusion: Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University
Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B
Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients' quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. To investigate pharmacy students' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists' physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Pharmacy students' attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also
Conclusion: Standard educational training may not be the most appropriate method of teaching students the correct use of inhalers. Clearly, there is a practice element missing which needs to be addressed in a feasible way. Keywords: Inhaler technique, Pharmacy education, Hands-on training, Training barrier ...
Bird, Matthew L; Dunn, Rebecca L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Burton, Michael E; Britton, Mark L; St Cyr, Mark B
The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described. Pursuant to a 1998 joint operating agreement, the medical center and pharmacy school have achieved a high degree of collaboration on a wide range of educational and clinical initiatives. The close relationship has conferred a number of benefits on both institutions, including (1) expanded experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students, (2) joint faculty and staff funding arrangements that have facilitated the development and accreditation of OU pharmacy residency programs, and (3) patient care initiatives that have increased awareness of pharmacists' important contributions in areas such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, and core measures compliance. In addition to the formal integration of the college of pharmacy into the OUMC organizational structure, ongoing teamwork by clinicians and administrators at the two institutions has strengthened the 14-year partnership while helping to identify creative solutions to evolving communications, technology, and reimbursement challenges. Potential growth opportunities include the expansion of pharmacy services into additional service areas and greater involvement by OU pharmacy school faculty in the training of medical, nursing, and allied health professionals. A large for-profit academic medical center and a college of pharmacy developed a successful collaboration that is mutually beneficial and provides increased clinical, educational, and scholarly opportunities, advancing the mission of both institutions.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
Full Text Available Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE, supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education.
Farnsworth, Norman R.
The visit to the PCR by a herbal pharmacology study group during June 1-26, 1976 is reported. Although the primary purpose was not to study pharmacy and pharmaceutical education, the group observed many activities related to pharmacy, visiting several hospital and community pharmacies as well as one college of pharmacy. (LBH)
Strand, Mark A; Tellers, Jackie; Patterson, Alan; Ross, Alex; Palombi, Laura
It is known that pharmacists are currently contributing to public health; however, the extent of this contribution as reported in the literature has not been examined. Investigating the ways that pharmacists are currently participating in public health is critical for the profession of pharmacy, pharmacy educators, and the public health community. The purpose of this study was to determine the reported contributions of pharmacy to each of the ten essential services of public health, and which of the five core competencies of public health were most frequently utilized in those contributions. A PubMed search was used to extract references that included both the words pharmacy and services in the title or abstract, and the words public health in any part of the document. A total of 247 references were extracted and categorized into the essential services and core competencies. The essential services Inform, Educate, and Empower, and Link to/Provide Care were more frequently represented in the literature, and the core competency of Health Policy and Administration was most frequently utilized. To further contribute to and integrate their contributions within population health, pharmacists must consider ways to strategically contribute to the essential services of public health and seek to increase competency in public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Fox, Brent
To discuss opportunities and challenges for pharmacists' use of social media to affect health care. Not applicable. Evolutions in social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) are beginning to alter the way society communicates. These new applications promote openness, user-generated content, social networking, and collaboration. The technologies, along with patient behaviors and desires, are stimulating a move toward more open and transparent access to health information. Although social media applications can reach large audiences, they offer message-tailoring capabilities that can effectively target specific populations. Another powerful aspect of social media is that they facilitate the organization of people and distribution of content-two necessary components of public health services. Although implementing health interventions via social media poses challenges, several examples exist that display the potential for pharmacists to use social media in health initiatives. Pharmacists have long played a role in educating patients on matters influencing health care. Social media offer several unique features that may be used to advance the role of pharmacy in health care initiatives. Public familiarity with social media, the economical nature of using social media, and the ability to disseminate information rapidly through social media make these new applications ideal for pharmacists wanting to provide innovative health care on both an individual and public level.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods: A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results: Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004 and 72% (2005 of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health.Conclusion: There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden.
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.
Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Goel, P K; Bates, J; Makhulo, J; Dondi, N; Sutoto; Adi, D; Ferraz-Tabor, L; Hogan, R
Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these
Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Taylor, Denise; Branford, Dave
Objective. To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients. Method. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates. Results. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues. Conclusion. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues. PMID:24052650
Rutter, Paul; Taylor, Denise; Branford, Dave
To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues.
The current state of pharmacy education in Bangladesh and identification of the current gaps in terms of manpower development for the pharmaceutical sector are described in this paper. Information for the preparation of this paper was obtained from documents and interviews of stakeholders drawn from regulatory, ...
Wallman, Andy; Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a "communicator" of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important.
St. Onge, Erin L.; Hoehn, Katie
Social media sites are widely used among professional students and may offer an alternative means of communication for professors to utilize within their courses. Social media site usage has been characterized within healthcare education, however, data is lacking on its use within pharmacy programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate social…
Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a “communicator” of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important. PMID:23519011
Full Text Available Objective: To present an overview of comic books as an educational tool and discuss the use of comic books in pharmacy education. Literature Identification: This research is comprised of a narrative literature review and critical analysis of the information retrieved. Key words included: comic(s, graphic novels, and pharmacy education. News articles, dissertations, theses, books, and scholarly articles from peer reviewed journals were selected and reviewed for inclusion in this article. Results: Comics have been used as a pedagogical tool to motivate students to read, help them remember the content, and make the whole learning process fun. They have been used as supplemental readings in biochemistry, physics, and business ethics. Comic books have been used in educating patients about the challenges of dialysis, promoting health, and informing consumers about diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Conclusion: In today’s media rich environment, comic books could be a visually interactive and innovative educational tool. Pharmacy faculty could use comic books or graphic novels as stand-alone texts or as part of a larger curriculum. Comic books could help students learn pharmacy-relevant content while enjoying the reading. Conflict of Interest The author declares no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties Type: Review
Catherine Santanello, PhD; Lakesha M Butler, PharmD, BCPS; Radhika Devraj, PhD
Objectives: 1) To describe the development of a health literacy video tailored for pharmacy students. 2) To compare the use of a health literacy video as an instructional method to a previously used health literacy instructional strategy by using both and: a) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their ability to communicate with low health literacy patients and b) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their overall understanding of the role of health literacy in a pharmacy settin...
Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y
The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Prisco, Jennifer L; Hritcko, Philip M; Feret, Brett; Yorra, Mark L; Todd, Noreen E; Kim Tanzer; Basile, Cathy; Bonaceto, Kara; Morelli, Rita; Carace, Nicole; Szumita, Andrew
To compare and contrast experiential education perceptions of pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) and doctor of pharmacy students in their last year of the curriculum for residency application considerations. The New England Regional Departments of Experiential Education (NERDEE) consortium developed a 17-question survey to assess residency factors, including those related to experiential education. The survey was dispersed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students from six colleges/schools of pharmacy and RPDs nationwide. Students have different values on experiential preferences compared to RPDs. Sample findings include internal medicine and specialty clinical elective experiences prior to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear were extremely important to important for students, while RPDs viewed these experiences as somewhat important at best (p hinder a successful postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency match. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L
Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.
Padiyara, Rosalyn S.; Schommer, Jon C.
Objective To compare didactic migraine education in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States with the Headache Consortium's evidence-based migraine treatment recommendations. Methods A self-administered survey instrument was mailed to all 90 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) approved PharmD programs in the United States. Results Seventy-seven programs responded (86%) and 69 useable survey instruments were analyzed. Fifty-five percent of programs discussed the Consortium's guidelines, 49% discussed the selection of nonprescription versus prescription agents, 45% recommended a butalbital-containing product as migraine treatment, and 20% educated students about tools for assessing migraine-related debilitation. At least 50% of programs taught information consistent with the remaining Consortium recommendations. Conclusion Approximately half of the PharmD programs teach concepts about migraine headache treatment consistent with the US Headache Consortium's recommendations. PMID:20221355
Kelsch, Michael P; Werremeyer, Amy B
To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference. Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills. The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University.
Nguyen, Elizabeth; Chen, Timothy F; O'Reilly, Claire L
Contact with mental health consumers has shown to be a promising strategy to address mental health stigma, particularly in the context of pharmacy education. This research aimed to compare the effectiveness of a direct (face-to-face) contact intervention with an indirect (film based) contact intervention in reducing the mental health stigma of pharmacy students. A two-group, non-randomized, comparative study was conducted with third year pharmacy students (n = 198) allocated to the direct contact arm and fourth year pharmacy students (n = 278) allocated to the indirect contact arm. Baseline and immediate post-intervention data were collected using a validated 39 item survey instrument to assess the impact of the interventions on mental health stigma as well as attitudes towards providing mental health pharmaceutical services. Participants in the direct contact group showed a significant improvement in 37 out of 39 survey items and participants in the indirect contact group showed a significant improvement in 27 out of 39 items (P direct contact had a stronger impact than indirect contact for 22 items (P interventions was equivalent. Both indirect and direct contact may positively impact mental health stigma. While the strength of the stigma-change process may be heightened by face-to-face interactions, the largely positive impact of indirect contact suggests that stigma reduction may depend less on the medium of contact but more on the transcendent messages contributed by the consumers facilitating the contact experience.
Iwanowicz, Susan L; Marciniak, Macary Weck; Zeolla, Mario M
Community pharmacists are a valuable information resource for patients and other healthcare providers. The advent of new information technology, most notably the Internet, coupled with the rapid availability of new healthcare information, has fueled this demand. Pharmacy students must receive training that enables them to meet this need. Community advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) provide an excellent opportunity for students to develop and master drug information skills in a real-world setting. Preceptors must ensure that students are familiar with drug information resources and can efficiently identify the most useful resource for a given topic. Students must also be trained to assess the quality of resources and use this information to effectively respond to drug or health information inquiries. This article will discuss key aspects of providing drug information in the community pharmacy setting and can serve as a guide and resource for APPE preceptors.
Oqua, Dorothy; Agu, Kenneth Anene; Isah, Mohammed Alfa; Onoh, Obialunamma U; Iyaji, Paul G; Wutoh, Anthony K; King, Rosalyn C
The use of medicines is an essential component of many public health programs (PHPs). Medicines are important not only for their capacity to treat and prevent diseases. The public confidence in healthcare system is inevitably linked to their confidence in the availability of safe and effective medicines and the measures for ensuring their rational use. However, pharmacy services component receives little or no attention in most public health programs in developing countries. This article describes the strategies, lessons learnt, and some accomplishments of Howard University Pharmacists and Continuing Education (HU-PACE) Centre towards improving hospital pharmacy practice through PHP in Nigeria. In a cross-sectional survey, 60 hospital pharmacies were randomly selected from 184 GHAIN-supported health facilities. The assessment was conducted at baseline and repeated after at least 12 months post-intervention using a study-specific instrument. Interventions included engagement of stakeholders; provision of standards for infrastructural upgrade; development of curricula and modules for training of pharmacy personnel; provision of job aids and tools amongst others. A follow-up hands-on skill enhancement based on identified gaps was conducted. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics. All reported p-values were 2-tailed at 95% confidence interval. The mean duration of service provision at post-intervention assessment was 24.39 (95% CI, 21.70-27.08) months. About 16.7% of pharmacies reported been trained in HIV care at pre-intervention compared to 83.3% at post-intervention. The proportion of pharmacies with audio-visual privacy for patient counseling increased significantly from 30.9% at pre-intervention to 81.4% at post-intervention. Filled prescriptions were cross-checked by pharmacist (61.9%) and pharmacy technician (23.8%) before dispensing at pre-intervention compared to pharmacist (93.1%) and pharmacy technician (6.9%) at post intervention. 40.0% of
Full Text Available Chronotherapy involves altering the timing of medication administration in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to improve the overall control of disease and to minimise treatment side effects. Training on chronotherapy requires students to map different topics learnt in earlier years of their professional degree and apply these concepts clinically. This requires strategic educational design. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate an educational intervention focusing on the application of chronotherapy for final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. An educational intervention utilizing multiple learning strategies for enhancing chronotherapy related awareness was designed and implemented in the final year undergraduate pharmacy cohort at the University of Sydney Australia (2013. A custom-designed questionnaire measuring awareness about (13 items scored 0 or 1, and attitudes (12 items scored on a Likert scale of 1–5 towards chronotherapy was administered pre and post intervention to evaluate its impact. The pre-intervention mean total awareness and attitude scores were 6.5 ± 2.0 (score range 0–13 and 47.4 ± 6.9 (score range 12–60 respectively. The mean total post-intervention scores were significantly higher for total awareness (10.1 ± 1.9 and attitude (54.0 ± 6.0. Carefully designed educational interventions utilising pedagogic principles for pharmacy students can improve awareness of and enhance positive attitudes toward pharmacists’ roles in optimizing drug therapy using chronotherapy.
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
In this paper, the foundation of the 74 Japanese pharmacy schools was reviewed. From the early Meiji era until the beginning World War II, 21 schools including Tokyo University were established. After the war, the new four-year university system was introduced from America, and the above 21 schools became universities and 25 universities were newly founded. In 2006, clinical pharmacy was introduced from America, and the six-year undergraduate system began. This system was divided into 2 groups, 1) 6 year system of clinical pharmacy plus 4 years doctor course and 2) 4 years system of pharmaceutical sciences and a master degree lasting 2 years plus a 3 year doctor course. These two systems started in 2006. The students of clinical pharmacy course must take the 22 weeks of clerkships in a community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy. The graduates (8,446) in 2015 March took the National License Examination for pharmacist, and the pass rate was 72.65%. The entrance into pharmacy school is not easy; however, the passing of the National License Examination is more difficult. The aim of pharmacy education should be to foster pharmacists with a deeper understanding of society and with richer humanity for the patient. To achieve this, what needs to be included in the curriculum are the subjects of the human social pharmacy, such as philosophy of pharmacy, ethics, religions, history of pharmacy, pharmaceutical affairs law, economics, management, and social pharmacy. The inclusion of such subjects needs to be implemented in the near future. Of course, the study of pharmaceutical sciences is a life-long endeavor.
O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra
To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques.
Utsumi, Miho; Hirano, Sachi; Fujii, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to highlight concerns with the current pharmacy practice program and suggest aspects for improvement. A further aim of the study was to enhance the educational effects of the program, from the students' point of view. We surveyed 1,607 pharmacy students in Japan who had completed the pharmacy practice program in either 2010 or 2011. The students completed a self-descriptive questionnaire comprising 48 questions examining their experience of the pharmacy practice program. For community pharmacy practice, four factors were extracted through exploratory analysis: "satisfactory learning (pharmacy)," "support system of the university," "creation and clarification of the training plan," and "dialogue with patients." When comparing the mean values for each of the four factors between 2011 and 2012, the 2012 group scored significantly higher (p programs. From the results of McNemar's test, from 2011 to 2012, there was a significant decrease in the number of students who were unable to experience "charge system of patients" at neither hospitals nor pharmacies (p program introduced some initiatives. Furthermore, conducting training at multiple facilities deepens student learning and assists with the correction of problems, such as the disparities within the teaching system and learning content at each of the training facilities.
Robles, Janie; Gutierrez, Ashley; Seifert, Charles F
Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. Thirty-three children, aged 8-11 years, in Bailey County, Texas, were enrolled in the study. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, blood pressure, waist circumference, and a diet preferences and activities knowledge survey were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study participants completed a twice weekly physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise over weeks 1-4 with no intervention during weeks 5-12. Thirty-one (94%) of the 33 children, predominately Hispanic girls, completed the program. Body mass index (-0.30 (95% confidence interval, -0.44 to -0.17); P = Positive survey results at 3 months indicated a decrease in fried/sweet foods; increase in exercise; decreases in video games and computer use; and a change in knowledge regarding the selection of the most healthy food group servings per day. In this pharmacy health-care directed pilot study, participants had a reduction of body mass index, body mass index percentile, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and improvement in certain survey results at the end of 12 weeks despite no further intervention after 4 weeks.
Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Adams, Alex J; Jacobs, David M; Percival, Kelly M; Tallman, Gregory B
Health care professionals must continually identify collaborative ways to combat antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA)-waived point-of-care (POC) testing (POCT) services for infectious disease conducted in community pharmacies provide a means for pharmacists to collaborate with prescribers and/or public health officials combating antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. To provide a comprehensive literature review that explores the potential for pharmacists to collaborate with public health professionals and prescribers using pharmacy-based CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Comprehensive literature review. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for manuscripts and meeting abstracts for the following key words: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All relevant manuscripts and meeting abstracts utilizing POCT in community pharmacies for infectious disease were reviewed. Information regarding the most contemporary evidence regarding CLIA-waived POC infectious diseases tests for infectious diseases and their use in community pharmacies was synthesized to highlight and identify opportunities to develop future collaborations using community pharmacy-based models for such services. Evidence demonstrates that pharmacists in collaboration with other health care professionals can leverage their knowledge and accessibility to provide CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Testing for influenza may augment health departments' surveillance efforts, help promote rationale antiviral use, and avoid unnecessary antimicrobial therapy. Services for human immunodeficiency virus infection raise infection status awareness, increase access to health care, and facilitate linkage to appropriate care. Testing for group A streptococcal pharyngitis may curb inappropriate
Monaghan, Michael S; Cain, Jeff J; Malone, Patrick M; Chapman, Tracy A; Walters, Ryan W; Thompson, David C; Riedl, Steven T
To develop a searchable database of educational technologies used at schools and colleges of pharmacy. A cross-sectional survey design was used to determine what educational technologies were being used and to identify an individual at each institution who could serve as an information resource for peer-to-peer questions. Eighty-nine survey instruments were returned for a response rate of 75.4%. The resulting data illustrated the almost ubiquitous presence of educational technology. The most frequently used technology was course management systems and the least frequently used technology was microblogging. Educational technology use is trending toward fee-based products for enterprise-level applications and free, open-source products for collaboration and presentation. Educational technology is allowing educators to restructure classroom time for something other than simple transmission of factual information and to adopt an evidence-based approach to instructional innovation and reform.
Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R
Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.
Cain, Jeff; Fox, Brent I
New types of social Internet applications (often referred to as Web 2.0) are becoming increasingly popular within higher education environments. Although developed primarily for entertainment and social communication within the general population, applications such as blogs, social video sites, and virtual worlds are being adopted by higher education institutions. These newer applications differ from standard Web sites in that they involve the users in creating and distributing information, hence effectively changing how the Web is used for knowledge generation and dispersion. Although Web 2.0 applications offer exciting new ways to teach, they should not be the core of instructional planning, but rather selected only after learning objectives and instructional strategies have been identified. This paper provides an overview of prominent Web 2.0 applications, explains how they are being used within education environments, and elaborates on some of the potential opportunities and challenges that these applications present.
Fox, Brent I.
New types of social Internet applications (often referred to as Web 2.0) are becoming increasingly popular within higher education environments. Although developed primarily for entertainment and social communication within the general population, applications such as blogs, social video sites, and virtual worlds are being adopted by higher education institutions. These newer applications differ from standard Web sites in that they involve the users in creating and distributing information, hence effectively changing how the Web is used for knowledge generation and dispersion. Although Web 2.0 applications offer exciting new ways to teach, they should not be the core of instructional planning, but rather selected only after learning objectives and instructional strategies have been identified. This paper provides an overview of prominent Web 2.0 applications, explains how they are being used within education environments, and elaborates on some of the potential opportunities and challenges that these applications present. PMID:19960079
Memon, Aamir Raoof; Ali, Bahadur; Kiyani, Mubin Mustafa; Ahmed, Imran; Memon, Attiq-Ur-Rehman; Feroz, Jam
To assess and compare the perceptions of the educational environment between physiotherapy and pharmacy students in a public-sector medical university. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences for Women, Nawabshah, Pakistan, and comprised undergraduate physiotherapy and pharmacy students. The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure questionnaire was used to assess the perceptions of students about their educational environment. Global and subscale scores were computed and compared between the respondents. Pphysiotherapy students, the mean global score was 124.9±14.0 while it was 131.7±18.9 for pharmacy students (p=0.16). The domain scores were comparable for both specialties (p>0.05). There was no significance difference in the global and domain scores for preclinical and clinical years in the students (p>0.05). However, in the physiotherapy students, the global and domain scores for Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure were significantly lower in clinical than preclinical students (pstudents' social self-perception (p>0.05). Students were overall positive about their educational environment.
Full Text Available The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy, and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used.
Full Text Available Sherilyn KD HouleSchool of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, CanadaAbstract: Rates of international travel are increasing annually, with particular growth observed in travel to Southeast Asia and to emerging economies. While all patients traveling across geographic regions are recommended to receive a pre-travel consultation to consider their individual risks, many do not, or receive care and recommendations that are not consistent with current evidence-based guidelines. As experts in drug therapy, and given the largely preventive nature of most travel health recommendations, pharmacists are well suited to help address this need. Pharmacists generally possess a high degree of knowledge and confidence with more commonly observed travel health topics in community practice such as travelers’ diarrhea; however, training in more specialized travel health topics such as travel vaccinations and traveling at altitude has generally been lacking from pharmacy curricula. Pharmacists with an interest in providing pre-travel consultations are encouraged to pursue additional training in this specialty and to consider Certificate in Travel Health designation from the International Society of Travel Medicine. Future roles for pharmacists to include the prescribing of medications and vaccines for travel and the in-pharmacy administration of travel vaccinations may improve patient access to pre-travel consultations and recommended preventive measures, improving the health of travelers and potentially reducing the burden of communicable disease worldwide. Pharmacists providing travel care to patients are also reminded to consider noninfectious risks of illness and injury abroad and to counsel patients on strategies to minimize these risks in addition to providing drug and vaccine recommendations.Keywords: pharmacist, community pharmacy, travel, vaccination
Bindoff, Ivan; Ling, Tristan; Bereznicki, Luke; Westbury, Juanita; Chalmers, Leanne; Peterson, Gregory; Ollington, Robert
To provide a computer-based learning method for pharmacy practice that is as effective as paper-based scenarios, but more engaging and less labor-intensive. We developed a flexible and customizable computer simulation of community pharmacy. Using it, the students would be able to work through scenarios which encapsulate the entirety of a patient presentation. We compared the traditional paper-based teaching method to our computer-based approach using equivalent scenarios. The paper-based group had 2 tutors while the computer group had none. Both groups were given a prescenario and postscenario clinical knowledge quiz and survey. Students in the computer-based group had generally greater improvements in their clinical knowledge score, and third-year students using the computer-based method also showed more improvements in history taking and counseling competencies. Third-year students also found the simulation fun and engaging. Our simulation of community pharmacy provided an educational experience as effective as the paper-based alternative, despite the lack of a human tutor.
Jiménez, F J; Monsanto, H A
Increase the awareness about the importance of Diabetes mellitus (DM) management and assess the educational and monitoring needs of patients visiting a community pharmacy in Puerto Rico. A community service activity focusing on DM was held in a community pharmacy. The educational and monitoring needs of the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. Glucose tests were conducted in the pharmacy by medical technologists. Educational activities consisted of presentations and printed materials. Two-thirds of the fasting people had blood glucose levels higher than 140 mg/dl. Seventy-nine percent of the patients with diabetes were not aware of the glycosilated hemoglobin test. Most of the patients were interested in learning more about how to manage their condition. A greater understanding is needed among patients with DM that blood glucose control decreases diabetes related complications. Community pharmacists are in an excellent position to collaborate with other health professionals in screening, monitoring and educating patients with DM to prevent long-term complications.
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
In the past decade, various health care programs have implemented diverse types of peer-assisted learning (PAL) programs, in particularly peer teaching (PT), due to their reported benefits for students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught), teachers, and educational institutes. Unfortunately, peer teaching is still under-recognized in pharmacy programs worldwide when compared to other health care programs. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the published literature centered on formal PT programs that are implemented in pharmacy schools. In addition, this review focuses on the methodologies adopted for peer teacher recruitment and training as well as the benefits gained by students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught). The rationales behind PT implementation are recapitulated as well. Finally, a simple scheme for successful implementation of PT activity is provided to serve as a groundwork for educators. Pre-defined key terms were used to search for experimental peer teaching activities in pharmacy schools between January 2000 and June 2016. Titles were selected based on pre-set eligibility criteria. Only complete research articles with clear design and evaluation sections were included in this review. Studies about inter-professional peer teaching activities between pharmacy students and other healthcare professions were also included. Six relevant educational research articles containing peer teaching activities were included. A lot of variety exists between different pharmacy courses implementing PT, the format/setting of PT, how peer teachers are selected, and how training and evaluation are implemented. The studies reviewed confirmed that PT was well received by most of the students and had a positive impact on their learning outcome. These findings cannot be generalized due to the insufficient number of studies published beside their methodological limitations and inadequate descriptions of the PT format
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
Background: There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. Objectives: To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. Material and Methods: The final year students o...
Calis, S; Oner, F; Kas, S; Hincal, A A
Pharmaceutical biotechnology is developing rapidly both in academic institutions and in the biopharmaceutical industry. For this reason, FIP Special Interest Group of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology decided to develop a questionnaire concerning pharmaceutical biotechnology education. After preliminary studies were completed, questionnaires were sent to the leading scientists in academia and research directors or senior managers of various Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Companies in order to gather their views about how to create a satisfactory program. The objectives of this study were as follows: -To review all of the graduate and undergraduate courses which are presently available worldwide on pharmaceutical biotechnology in Faculties of Pharmacy. -To review all of the text books, references and scientific sources available worldwide in the area of pharmaceutical biotechnology. When replying to the questionnaires, the respondents were asked to consider the present status of pharmaceutical biotechnology education in academia and future learning needs in collaboration with the biotechnology industry. The data from various pharmacy faculties and biotechnology industry representatives from Asia, Europe and America were evaluated and the outcome of the survey showed that educational efforts in training qualified staff in the rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical biotechnology is promising. Part of the results of this questionnaire study have already been presented at the 57th International Congress of FIP Vancouver, Canada in 1997.
Kufel, Wesley D; Jeffres, Meghan N; MacDougall, Conan; Cho, Jonathan C; Marx, Ashley H; Williams, Dennis M
Pharmacists are key members of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) teams. It is unknown if and how US colleges and schools of pharmacy incorporate AS into their Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. This study was a cross-sectional, multicentre, electronic survey distributed to infectious diseases faculty or department chairs of 137 accredited and candidate-status PharmD programmes. One hundred and sixteen programmes participated, representing an 84.7% response rate. AS education was integrated into the required didactic, elective didactic and experiential education components of the curricula in 79 (68.1%), 43 (37.1%) and 97 (83.6%) PharmD programmes, respectively. The most common AS topics in required and elective didactic curricula were AS definitions, principles and purpose (98.7% and 86.0%) and the pharmacist's role in AS (93.7% and 83.7%). In the required and elective didactic curricula, lecture (93.7% and 86.0%) and case-based instruction (57.0% and 83.7%) were the most common instructional methods. For experiential education, the pharmacist's role in AS (96.9%), de-escalation of antimicrobials (96.9%) and antimicrobial dose optimization (95.9%) were the most common AS topics. PharmD programmes employing a faculty member who specializes in AS were more likely to offer AS experiential education than programmes without AS faculty (88.1% versus 71.9%, P = 0.049). Integration of AS education in US PharmD curricula is variable and there are considerable differences in the AS activities and topics delivered. PharmD programmes should attempt to expose students to AS education to prepare future pharmacists for AS practice. Efforts should be made to incorporate interprofessional collaboration into AS education.
Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking.
Poirier, Suzanne; Mrtek, Robert G.
An undergraduate professional elective course emphasizing the study of literary and fine arts works portraying pharmacy and pharmacists, developed to give pharmacy students a variety of experiences with role perceptions, is described. Students examine, discuss, and critique fiction, drama, music, the visual arts, and other creative works. (MSE)
Islam, Mohammed A; Khan, Seher A; Talukder, Rahmat M
The purpose of the present study was to assess the current status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs. A survey instrument was developed and distributed through SurveyMonkey to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Biological Sciences section members of 132 PharmD programs. Survey items focused on soliciting qualitative and quantitative information on the delivery of physiology curricular contents and faculty perceptions of physiology education. A total of 114 programs responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 86%. Out of 114 schools/colleges, 61 programs (54%) offered standalone physiology courses, and 53 programs (46%) offered physiology integrated with other courses. When integrated, the average contact hours for physiology contents were significantly reduced compared with standalone courses (30 vs. 84 h, P US PharmD programs remains. The reduction of physiology contents is evident when physiology is taught as a component of integrated courses. Given current trends that favor integrated curricula, these data suggest that additional collaboration among basic and clinical science faculty is required to ensure that physiology contents are balanced and not underemphasized in a PharmD curriculum. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to the students. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is time saving with lower costs compared to traditional methods. It can be self-paced, it is suitable for distance learning and it is flexible. It is a great learning style for continuing education and students can independently solve their problems but it has its disadvantages too. Thereby, blended learning (combination of conventional and virtual education is being used worldwide and has improved knowledge, skills and confidence of pharmacy students.The aim of this study is to review, discuss and introduce different methods of virtual learning for pharmacy students.Google scholar, Pubmed and Scupus databases were searched for topics related to virtual, electronic and blended learning and different styles like computer simulators, virtual practice environment technology, virtual mentor, virtual patient, 3D simulators, etc. are discussed in this article.Our review on different studies on these areas shows that the students are highly satisfied withvirtual and blended types of learning.
Wright, Eric A; Brown, Bonnie; Gettig, Jacob; Martello, Jay L; McClendon, Katie S; Smith, Kelly M; Teeters, Janet; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Wegrzyn, Nicole; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R
Recommendations for the development and support of teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) experiences within postgraduate pharmacy training programs are discussed. Recent attention has turned toward meeting teaching- and learning-related educational outcomes through a programmatic process during the first or second year of postgraduate education. These programs are usually coordinated by schools and colleges of pharmacy and often referred to as "teaching certificate programs," though no national standards or regulation of these programs currently exists. In an effort to describe the landscape of these programs and to develop a framework for their basic design and content, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Pharmacy Practice Section's Task Force on Student Engagement and Involvement, with input from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, reviewed evidence from the literature and conference proceedings and considered author experience and expertise over a two-year period. The members of the task force created and reached consensus on a policy statement and 12 recommendations to guide the development of best practices of TLC programs. The recommendations address topics such as the value of TLC programs, program content, teaching and learning experiences, feedback for participants, the development of a teaching portfolio, the provision of adequate resources for TLC programs, programmatic assessment and improvement, program transparency, and accreditation. TLC programs provide postgraduate participants with valuable knowledge and skills in teaching applicable to the practitioner and academician. Postgraduate programs should be transparent to candidates and seek to ensure the best experiences for participants through systematic program implementation and assessments. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. Methods: We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. Thirty-three children, aged 8–11 years, in Bailey County, Texas, were enrolled in the study. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, blood pressure, waist circumference, and a diet preferences and activities knowledge survey were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study participants completed a twice weekly physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise over weeks 1–4 with no intervention during weeks 5–12. Results: Thirty-one (94% of the 33 children, predominately Hispanic girls, completed the program. Body mass index (−0.30 (95% confidence interval, −0.44 to −0.17; P = <0.0001, body mass index percentile (−2.75 (95% confidence interval, −4.89 to −0.62; P = 0.0026, systolic blood pressure (−1.9 (95% confidence interval, −2.9 to −0.9; P = <0.0001, and waist circumference (−0.47 (95% confidence interval, −0.85 to −0.10; P = <0.0001 mean change decreased between baseline and week 12 with no intervention for 8 weeks. Positive survey results at 3 months indicated a decrease in fried/sweet foods; increase in exercise; decreases in video games and computer use; and a change in knowledge regarding the selection of the most healthy food group servings per day. Conclusion: In this pharmacy health-care directed pilot study, participants had a reduction of body mass index, body mass index percentile, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and improvement in certain survey results at the
Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John
The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients
Journal of Optometric Education, 1995
The Argus Commission, asked to examine the interface between academic pharmacy and education programs in dentistry, optometry, and podiatry, envisioned a primary health care team and considered mechanisms for encouraging development of such teams and reducing competition. Its conclusions and recommendations are summarized here. (MSE)
Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J
Mental health-related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole.
Full Text Available Objective: Mental health–related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. Methods: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. Conclusion: The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole.
Full Text Available Implementation of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE is a time-consuming, complicated process, which requires agreement on the tasks of a pharmacist, commitment, institutional stability, and a goal-directed developmental perspective of all stakeholders involved. In this article the main steps in the development of a fully-developed competency-based pharmacy curriculum (bachelor, master are described and tips are given for a successful implementation. After the choice for entering into CBPE is made and a competency framework is adopted (step 1, intended learning outcomes are defined (step 2, followed by analyzing the required developmental trajectory (step 3 and the selection of appropriate assessment methods (step 4. Designing the teaching-learning environment involves the selection of learning activities, student experiences, and instructional methods (step 5. Finally, an iterative process of evaluation and adjustment of individual courses, and the curriculum as a whole, is entered (step 6. Successful implementation of CBPE requires a system of effective quality management and continuous professional development as a teacher. In this article suggestions for the organization of CBPE and references to more detailed literature are given, hoping to facilitate the implementation of CBPE.
Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo
Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Medina, Melissa S.
Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities) to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities) is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges. PMID:28970425
Melissa S. Medina
Full Text Available Competency-based Education (CBE is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges.
The first pharmacy college affiliated to University of Khartoum was established in (1963) with intake of only twenty students per year. This policy of admission continued with no substantial annual increase in the number of students enrolled in the college of pharmacy. However, after the revolution of higher education in the ...
Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and
This review focuses on the relationship between theoretical knowledge and professional practice within pharmacy education. The discussion takes two different approaches to examine the selected literature. The first approach is concerned with how curriculum changes may potentially contribute to the improvement of professional practice. This…
Ellis, Robert A.; Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter
This article reports on research into the student experience of enquiry in two tasks in a university pharmacy course. Students were required to investigate through a field trip how a community pharmacy operated to meet customer needs and the requirements of the Health System in which it operated. Students were also required to investigate…
Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy guidelines for required and elective instructional content concerning substance abuse for pharmacy students is presented. Recommended required content includes psychosocial aspects of drug use; pharmacology and toxicology; identification, intervention, and treatment of addiction; and legal issues.…
Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE has been recognised internationally as a way to improve healthcare professional interactions and team working in order to enhance patient care. Since pharmacists are increasingly part of multi-professional healthcare teams and are expanding their clinical roles, many pharmacy regulators have stipulated IPE must be included in educational curricula. This study aimed to examine how different Schools of Pharmacy (SOPs in the UK implement IPE within their pharmacy course. Information about IPE was mainly obtained through interviews with staff from various SOPs. Nine telephone interviews were conducted which were analysed using a thematic analysis approach in order to derive common categories. These were identified as students, activities, barriers and facilitators and benefits of IPE. It was found that teaching methods used for IPE varied across SOPs. No standard strategy to deliver IPE was identified. Students were thought to value the IPE experience, especially the interaction with other professionals. The main barriers to implementing IPE arose from limited financial and organisational support. In general, many SOPs in the UK are undertaking IPE but challenges remain in establishing it as a routine part of the course, something which seems to echo difficulties in implementation of IPE both nationally and internationally.
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Patten, Scott B; Remillard, Alfred; Phillips, Leslie; Modgill, Geeta; Szeto, Andrew Ch; Kassam, Aliya; Gardner, David M
A strategy for reducing mental illness-related stigma in health-profession students is to include contact-based sessions in their educational curricula. In such sessions students are able to interact socially with a person that has a mental illness. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a multi-centre study of pharmacy students. The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites. Because it was necessary that all students receive the contact-based sessions, the students were randomized either to an early or late intervention, with the late intervention group not having participated in the contact-based education at the time when the primary outcome was assessed. The primary outcome, stigma, was assessed using an attitudes scale called the Opening Minds Survey for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). We initially confirmed that outcomes were homogeneous across study centres, centre by group interaction, p = 0.76. The results were pooled across the three study centres. A significant reduction in stigma was observed in association with the contact-based sessions (mean change 4.3 versus 1.5, t=2.1, p=0.04). The effect size (Cohen's d) was 0.45. A similar reduction was seen in the control group when they later received the intervention. Contact-based education is an effective method of reducing stigma during pharmacy education. These results add to a growing literature confirming the effectiveness of contact-based strategies for stigma reduction in health profession trainees.
Patten Scott B
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strategy for reducing mental illness-related stigma in health-profession students is to include contact-based sessions in their educational curricula. In such sessions students are able to interact socially with a person that has a mental illness. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a multi-centre study of pharmacy students. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites. Because it was necessary that all students receive the contact-based sessions, the students were randomized either to an early or late intervention, with the late intervention group not having participated in the contact-based education at the time when the primary outcome was assessed. The primary outcome, stigma, was assessed using an attitudes scale called the Opening Minds Survey for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. Results We initially confirmed that outcomes were homogeneous across study centres, centre by group interaction, p = 0.76. The results were pooled across the three study centres. A significant reduction in stigma was observed in association with the contact-based sessions (mean change 4.3 versus 1.5, t=2.1, p=0.04. The effect size (Cohen’s d was 0.45. A similar reduction was seen in the control group when they later received the intervention. Conclusions Contact-based education is an effective method of reducing stigma during pharmacy education. These results add to a growing literature confirming the effectiveness of contact-based strategies for stigma reduction in health profession trainees.
Methodology: Fifty two pharmacy and chemist shops were selected using simple random number sampling technique from 120 registered pharmacy and chemist shops in Jos Metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire, examining the screening practice of the sales persons was interviewer administered to all the sales ...
Nasution, Azizah; Sulaiman, SA. Syed; Shafie, A.A
Objectives This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia. Methods A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related probl...
Alonso-Perales, María Del Mar; Lasheras, Berta; Beitia, Guadalupe; Beltrán, Idoia; Marcos, Beatriz; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M
Community pharmacists play an important role in the provision of health promotion services, and community pharmacies are considered as a potentially ideal site for cardiovascular health promotion. Information based on a systematic review of barriers to promoting cardiovascular health in community pharmacy is currently lacking. We have sought to identify the most important barriers to cardiovascular health promotion in the community pharmacy. We have systematically searched PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts for a period of 15 years from 1 April 1998 to 1 April 2013, contacted subject experts and hand-searched bibliographies. We have included peer-reviewed articles, with English abstracts in the analysis, if they reported community pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers to cardiovascular health promotion activities in a community pharmacy setting. Two reviewers have independently extracted study characteristics and data. We identified 24 studies that satisfy the eligibility criteria. The main barriers to cardiovascular health promotion in the community pharmacy included pharmacist-related factors; practice site factors; financial factors; legal factors; and patient-related factors. This review will help to provide reliable evidence for health promotion practitioners of the barriers to promoting cardiovascular health in the community pharmacy setting. This knowledge is valuable for the improvement of cardiovascular health promotion in this setting and guiding future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wilbur, Kerry; Kelly, Isabelle
Medical care is increasingly complex and must draw upon the distinct, yet complementary skills of various health disciplines. Healthcare student integration through interprofessional education (IPE) activity is considered one way to promote early, and subsequently sustain, the principles of teamwork. However, It has been demonstrated that each profession has distinct profession-based subcultures, or common attitudes, beliefs and values, even among undergraduate students before commencing their training. We sought to evaluate if undergraduate pharmacy and nursing student in the Middle East had similarly formed attitudes and perceptions of each others' roles. Focus group and semi-structured interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy and nursing students enrolled at Qatar University College of Pharmacy and University of Calgary - Qatar Nursing programs. An eight-question topic guide was developed following comprehensive literature review of reports of other interdisciplinary assessments (either quantitative and qualitative). Working theories were drawn by the two primary investigators based on relevant topic characteristics such as expressed roles and purposes for interacting with one other, patients, and physicians, to develop explanatory constructs for the findings and identify patterns in the data. Qualitative analysis of interviews were supported by NVivo10 (©) (QSR International 2013) software. One shared themes across both health professional groups evolved during data analysis: perceptions of collaborative roles. Discipline specific themes included pharmacist knowledge and visibility (nursing students) and nurses as informants and roles in total patient care (pharmacy students). As expected, students with little or no curricular-based structured experiential training yet largely drew upon personal experiences, whereas senior students, who did have some amount of professional context, often mirrored those that have been found in other studies
Steeb, David R; Overman, Robert A; Sleath, Betsy L; Joyner, Pamela U
To assess the characteristics of global experiential and didactic education offerings in the pharmacy curricula. A 2-stage web-based review of US colleges and schools of pharmacy identified country locations of international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE), globally focused didactic courses, and whether these offerings were interprofessional. Schools were contacted to confirm their offerings and were asked about student participation and demand. Sixty-four percent of responding schools confirmed an international APPE offering in 67 different countries with an average graduating class participation of 6.1%. Forty-seven percent of responding schools confirmed a globally focused course offering with an average graduating class participation of 13.1%. Almost two thirds of international APPEs and a majority of courses were designated as interprofessional. Student demand did not outweigh supply for either. Colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States are continuing to develop global education opportunities for students in the classroom and throughout the world.
Harrison, Donald L
To assess the impact of formal education program participation on the attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers toward strategic planning. Cross-sectional study. United States; June 4-July 30, 2004. Nationwide random sample of 1,250 owners/managers of independent community pharmacies. Mailed survey. Strategic planning formal education program participation. Comprehensiveness of strategic planning. Attitudes and perceptions of owners/managers of independent community pharmacies toward strategic planning. A total of 527 (42.1%) usable questionnaires were returned. Only 124 (23.5%) respondents indicated that they participated in a formal strategic planning education program. However, of the 141 (26.85%) respondents who indicated that they had conducted strategic planning for their community pharmacy, 111 (89.5%) had participated in a formal strategic planning education program. A significant association was detected between formal education program participation and the conducting of strategic planning (Pstrategic planning based on program participation (Pstrategic planning rating than those respondents who did not participate in an educational program (Pstrategic planning education program participation and the conducting of strategic planning by owner/managers of independent community pharmacies, and those participating in such programs have significantly different attitudes and perceptions toward the conducting of strategic planning and have a significantly higher comprehensiveness of strategic planning rating.
Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J
The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício
Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.
Clauson, Kevin A; Singh-Franco, Devada; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza; Joseph, Shine; Sandars, John
Social media may offer a means to engage students, facilitate collaborative learning, and tailor educational delivery for diverse learning styles. The purpose of this study is to characterize social media awareness among pharmacy students and determine perceptions toward integrating these tools in education. A 23-item survey was administered to 1st-year students at a multicampus college of pharmacy. Students (95% response rate; N = 196) most commonly used wikis (97%), social networking (91%), and videosharing (84%). Tools reported as never used or unknown included social bookmarking (89%), collaborative writing (84%), and RSS readers (73%). Respondents indicated that educational integration of social media would impact their ability to learn in a positive/very positive manner (75%) and make them feel connected/very connected (68%). Selectively targeting social media for educational integration and instructing pharmacy students how to employ a subset of these tools may be useful in engaging them and encouraging lifelong learning.
Rumm, R; Böcking, W
This article analyses the impact of a potential deregulation Germany's pharmacy market by allowing foreign ownership of pharmacies and removing the limit of the number pharmacies that can be owned by a pharmacist. Based on a mathematical model and empirical values of foreign countries, scenarios for the German market are calculated and the impact on all participants of the health care system analysed. The key outcomes are:- A deregulation would enables the creation of pharmacy chains- In all simulated scenarios the total number of pharmacies would drastically grow- The increased pharmacy density improves patient centred drug care- The competition among pharmacies increases and leads to the closure of many independently owned and operated pharmacies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
It is proposed that literature can contribute to the teaching of human values in pharmaceutical education. Two texts illustrating pertinent issues are examined, and the process and relevance of literature instruction in humanistic education are discussed. Where, when, and why to integrate literature into the pharmacy curriculum are also addressed.…
Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J
Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that
Sandhoff, Brian G; Nies, Leslie K; Olson, Kari L; Nash, James D; Rasmussen, Jon R; Merenich, John A
A clinical pharmacy service for managing the treatment of coronary artery disease in a health maintenance organization is described. Despite the proven benefits of aggressive risk factor modification for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), there remains a treatment gap between consensus- and evidence-based recommendations and their application in patient care. In 1998, Kaiser Permanente of Colorado developed the Clinical Pharmacy Cardiac Risk Service (CPCRS) to focus on the long-term management of patients with CAD to improve clinical outcomes. The primary goals of the CPCRS are to increase the number of CAD patients on lipid-lowering therapy, manage medications shown to decrease the risk of future CAD-related events, assist in the monitoring and control of other diseases that increase cardiovascular risk, provide patient education and recommendations for nonpharmacologic therapy, and act as a CAD information resource for physicians and other health care providers. Using an electronic medical record and tracking database, the service works in close collaboration with primary care physicians, cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitation nurses, and other health care providers to reduce cardiac risk in the CAD population. Particular attention is given to dyslipidemia, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco cessation. Treatment with evidence-based regimens is initiated and adjusted as necessary. Over 11,000 patients are currently being followed by the CPCRS. A clinical pharmacy service in a large health maintenance organization provides cardiac risk reduction for patients with CAD and helps close treatment gaps that may exist for these patients.
Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J
The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strang, Aimee F; Baia, Patricia
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members.
Piascik, Peggy; Bernard, Daphne; Madhavan, Suresh; Sorensen, Todd D; Stoner, Steve C; TenHoeve, Tom
To explore the nature of corporate gifts directed at PharmD programs and pharmacy student activities and the perceptions of administrators about the potential influences of such gifts. A verbally administered survey of administrative officials at 11 US colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted and responses were analyzed. All respondents indicated accepting corporate gifts or sponsorships for student-related activities in the form of money, grants, scholarships, meals, trinkets, and support for special events, and cited many advantages to corporate partner relationships. Approximately half of the respondents believed that real or potential problems could occur from accepting corporate gifts. Forty-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that corporate contributions could influence college or school administration. Sixty-one percent agreed or strongly agreed that donations were likely to influence students. Corporate gifts do influence college and school of administration and students. Policies should be in place to manage this influence appropriately.
The pharmacy profession has for the greater part of four decades been associated with dispensing activities and product reimbursement. This has hindered the ability of pharmacists to evolve their roles in their respective sites of care. Payment reform efforts that create an outcomes marketplace offer an opportunity for professional transformation. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.
Hamilton, Leslie A; Franks, Andrea; Heidel, R Eric; McDonough, Sharon L K; Suda, Katie J
Objective. To assess student preferences regarding online learning and technology and to evaluate student pharmacists' social media use for educational purposes. Methods. An anonymous 36-question online survey was administered to third-year student pharmacists enrolled in the Drug Information and Clinical Literature Evaluation course. Results. Four hundred thirty-one students completed the survey, yielding a 96% response rate. The majority of students used technology for academic activities, with 90% using smart phones and 91% using laptop computers. Fifty-eight percent of students also used social networking websites to communicate with classmates. Conclusion. Pharmacy students frequently use social media and some online learning methods, which could be a valuable avenue for delivering or supplementing pharmacy curricula. The potential role of social media and online learning in pharmacy education needs to be further explored.
Smith, Michael A; Benedict, Neal
A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction.
Muzyk, Andrew J; Peedin, Emily; Lipetzky, Juliana; Parker, Haley; McEachern, Mark P; Thomas, Kelan
The authors sought to systematically review the quantity and quality of literature describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in US schools of pharmacy and determine the effectiveness of the educational interventions employed. The authors conducted a systematic review of SUDs education studies in US pharmacy schools. All literature database searches were performed on April 30, 2016, in 5 databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase.com, ERIC via FirstSearch, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. The study authors conducted this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines and registered it with PROSPERO, which is an international prospective register of systematic reviews. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42016037443. The study authors created a modified data extraction sheet based on the Best Evidence in Medical Education coding sheet. A Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) score was calculated for included articles. Results: From the 1626 retrieved records, 7 were included in the present review. The studies assessed students' impressions and abilities regarding SUDs pre- and post-intervention. The mean ± SD MERSQI score of the 7 studies was 9.86 ± 1.21 (range: 8-11.5). The included articles assessed pharmacy students at various academic years, with the majority students in either their first or second year of pharmacy school, and described both required and elective courses. The educational interventions varied in design and outcomes measured. Education included nicotine, alcoholism, and SUDs in general. None of the included articles reported on education regarding opioid use disorders. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review demonstrate that teaching pharmacy students about SUDs produces a positive impact in their attitudes and knowledge on this subject.
Ramez M Alkoudmani
Full Text Available Web-based learning and web 2.0 tools which include new online educational technologies (EdTech and social media websites like Facebook® are playing crucial roles nowadays in pharmacy and medical education among millennial learners. Podcasting, webinars, and online learning management systems like Moodle® and other web 2.0 tools have been used in pharmacy and medical education to interactively share knowledge with peers and students. Learners can use laptops, iPads, iPhones, or tablet devices with a stable and good Internet connection to enroll in many online courses. Implementation of novel online EdTech in pharmacy and medical curricula has been noticed in developed countries such as European countries, the US, Canada, and Australia. However, these trends are scarce in the majority of Arabic language speaking countries (ALSC, where traditional and didactic educational methods are still being used with some exceptions seen in Palestine, Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE, and Qatar. Although these new trends are promising to push pharmacy and medical education forward, major barriers regarding adaptation of E-learning and new online EdTech in Arab states have been reported such as higher connectivity costs, information communication technology (ICT problems, language barriers, wars and political conflicts, poor education, financial problems, and lack of qualified ICT-savvy educators. More research efforts are encouraged to study the effectiveness and proper use of web-based learning and emerging online EdTech in pharmacy education not only in ALSC but also in developing and developed countries.
Chaitin, Chava; Velasquez, Jaimie; Khanfar, Nile M; Chassange, Stephanie; Perez Torres, Rennie; Loan Pham, Ngoc; Rodriguez, Martha M; Hale, Genevieve M
The American Diabetes Association announced in 2012 that 86 million Americans were diagnosed with prediabetes compared to 79 million in 2010. Prediabetes + Me (PreDiaMe) is an innovative educational programme developed by pharmacy students at Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, which provides collaborative interprofessional care for patients with prediabetes. A literature review using EBSCOhost, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases searching the terms education, health services, interprofessional team, and prediabetes was conducted. Human studies published in English between 2006 and 2016 were included. Investigators interviewed a community pharmacist and a consultant pharmacist certified in diabetes education. Based on these interviews and the literature found, PreDiaMe was created to unite healthcare professionals through a three-step community outreach programme. The goal of PreDiaMe is to identify patients at risk of prediabetes, to decrease the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), to reduce healthcare costs, and to improve the quality of life for patients with prediabetes. PreDiaMe benefits patients with prediabetes, the healthcare system, and pedagogy as it aims to decrease in the prevalence and economic burden and increase health outcomes of patients with prediabetes while being used as a tool to provide integrative education in health professional programmes.
Full Text Available Objectives: ‘Self Care’ cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this initiative.Methods: Ten cards were developed for the Irish healthcare setting and trialed as a proof of concept study. The pilot study ran in ten community pharmacies in the greater Cork area for a six-month period. Using a mixed methods approach (Questionnaires & focus group staff and patient reactions to the initiative were obtained. Concurrent to the pilot study, readability scores of cards (Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, SMOG methods and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM health literacy screening tool was administered to a sample of patients.Results: 88.7% of patient respondents (n=53 liked the concept of the ‘Self Care’ cards and 83% of respondents agreed that the use of the card was beneficial to their understanding of their ailment. Focus groups with Pharmacy staff highlighted the importance of appropriate training for the future development of this initiative. An emerging theme from designing the cards was health literacy. The pilot ‘Self Care’ cards were pitched at too high a literacy level for the general Irish public to understand as determined by readability score methods. It was found that 19.1% of a sample population (n=199 was deemed to have low health literacy skills.Conclusion: The ‘Self Care’ initiative has the potential to be Pharmacy’s contribution to health education in Ireland. The initiative needs to be cognizant of the health literacy framework that equates the skills of individuals to the demands placed upon them.
Desselle, Shane P; Hoh, Ryan; Holmes, Erin R; Gill, Amanpreet; Zamora, Lemuel
The roles of pharmacy technicians are increasingly prominent given pharmacy's transition to patient-centered activities and evolving scopes of practice in many U.S. states and throughout the world. The aims of this study were to assess U.S. pharmacy technicians' self-efficacies for and attitudes toward performing current and emerging roles in hospital and in community pharmacy and to identify factors related to pharmacy technician self-efficacies in these roles. A total of 5000 pharmacy technicians from 8 U.S. states were sent an electronic survey eliciting data on current involvement, self-efficacies, and attitudes for practicing in an expansive list of practice activities. The 8 states from which the sample was drawn were selected from a stratified randomized procedure using U.S. Census Bureau geographically defined regions. Pre-notification and response reminders were employed. Data were analyzed descriptively and with univariate, inferential tests, as appropriate, to determine associations with commitment, practice environment, experience level, and other variables. Of the 612 participants who responded, 494 were currently working as a technician and not enrolled in a PharmD program of study. Participants reported various activities in which they were highly engaged. Overall, attitudes toward performing most of the activities and self-efficacies were quite favorable, even for those activities in which technicians were currently less involved. There were some notable differences between technicians practicing in community versus hospital settings. Years of experience, profession commitment, and advanced employee ranking were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy, overall. This initial examination of pharmacy technician self-efficacies identified areas that along with other factors could help employers with further expanding technician practice activities and vocational institutions with considerations for education and development of these key members
Irie, Tetsumi; Nitta, Atsumi; Akaike, Akinori
Simulated/standardized patient-based (SP) education and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial education become a powerful tool to heighten the pharmacy students' will to learn in order to cultivate the responsibility to contribute to public health and welfare as a clinical professional and to facilitate students' competences to solve problems by themselves. What this program is trying to do is: 1) to establish the system to train, educate and supply SP who are effective in the training and education of pharmacy students in close cooperation with the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals; 2) to improve the quality of the current PBL tutorial education and thereby establish it as an advanced education program in the education of senior students. We carried out the questionnaire to National University Corporation which establishes a school of pharmacy, as to the training and education of SP. The analysis of the answers to the questionnaire revealed the present status of SP in the Pharmaceutical Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Pharmaceutical Common Achievement Test, and the existence of the problems on how to standardize SP as well as how to cover such expenses. Furthermore, the activity of the first year consisted of the exchange and sharing of information regarding the existing method of training and education of SP and PBL tutorial education and the identification of the problems to be solved in order to improve the quality of the educational program.
Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hattingh, H Laetitia; Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Wheeler, Amanda J
Australian general practitioners primarily treat mental health problems by prescribing medication dispensed by community pharmacists. Pharmacists therefore have regular interactions with mental health consumers and carers. This narrative review explored the potential role of community pharmacy in mental health services. Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, Emerald, PsycINFO, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and IPA were utilised. The Cochrane Library as well as grey literature and "lay" search engines such as GoogleScholar were also searched. Four systematic reviews and ten community pharmacy randomised controlled trials were identified. Various relevant reviews outlining the impact of community pharmacy based disease state or medicines management services were also identified. International studies involving professional service interventions for mental health consumers could be contextualised for the Australian setting. Australian studies of pharmacy professional services for chronic physical health conditions provided further guidance for the expansion of community pharmacy mental health professional services.
Tavares, Marilia P; Foster, Angel M
Dedicated progestin-only emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) have been available with a prescription in Brazil since 1999. However, utilization of emergency contraception has been limited. We conducted a mystery client study at retail pharmacies in three regions to assess current availability. Using a predetermined client profile, we approached a random sample of chain and independent pharmacies in urban areas in the southeastern, northeastern and central-west regions. We documented product availability, price and the client-pharmacy representative interaction at each site. We analyzed these data with descriptive statistics and for content and themes. We visited 122 pharmacies in early 2016. All but three pharmacies (97.5%) had ECPs in stock at the time of the interaction and offered our client the medication without a prescription. In general, pharmacy representatives did not ask questions or provide our client with information about emergency contraception. When prompted, over one third of the pharmacy representatives (37.7%) inaccurately reported that levonorgestrel ECPs could only be used immediately or within 12, 24 or 48h from the time of intercourse. Despite the current regulatory status, our findings suggest that progestin-only ECPs are widely available without a prescription. Additional efforts to ensure that women have up-to-date and medically accurate information about progestin-only ECPs appear warranted. Our findings suggest that more work needs to be done to align national regulatory policies with international standards and evidence-based practices. The Zika virus epidemic has shined a spotlight on the importance of providing timely access to emergency contraception in Latin America. This public health emergency offers a window of opportunity to advance national policies and practices to ensure that Brazilian women have access to a full range of reproductive health services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of skilled pharmaceutical workforce in the African region, and this is partly due to a limited number of prospective students entering the profession. An understanding of the factors that influence the choice of pharmacy as a career is needed to attract highly motivated and skilled individuals into the profession. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess pharmacy students’ motivation to study pharmacy, their attitude and future career intentions in Sierra Leone. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled at the College of Medicine, and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS – USL was carried out between May and June 2015. Descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square and Fisher exact two-tailed tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Close to a quarter (24.3% of pharmacy students surveyed chose pharmacy as their preferred major. The choice of pharmacy as a preferred major was common among first-year students, (p=0.001, those who were married (p<0.001 and have had pharmacy practice experience (p<0.001. Motivation for choosing pharmacy was assessed based on three domains (education, personal and career-related factors.Students cited a subject teacher at school ̸ College (66.7% as the most education-related influence, while friends and family members (61.1% was the major personal-related factor. Also, students considered the desire for self-employment in a healthcare related job (27.8%, and excellent career opportunities (27.8% as the major career-related factors that influenced their choice of pharmacy as a preferred major. Medicine was the first choice of study among the majority (95% of students that chose pharmacy as a second choice when seeking admission into the university. Pharmacy students demonstrated a positive attitude toward the profession, and considered drug manufacturing (47.3% and hospital pharmacy (43
Batra, Peter; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate pharmacy staff perspectives of a 2-year pharmacy intervention aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy in 18- to 30-year-old women. Pharmacy staff completed a 48-item, self-administered paper survey consisting of scaled and open-ended questions. 55 community pharmacies in 12 Iowa counties. All pharmacy staff participated, including pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and other pharmacy employees. Online continuing education (CE) training was made available to all pharmacy staff. Promotional materials including posters, brochures, and shelf talkers were displayed in all of the pharmacies. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to displaying posters, brochures, and shelf talkers in their pharmacies and providing contraceptive information and counseling to patients/customers. A total of 192 (43% return rate) pharmacy staff responded. Only 44% of respondents consistently provided contraceptive information and counseling, yet more than 90% felt that talking with patients/customers about contraceptives was easy, and more than 50% could do so privately. The study showed increased pharmacy staff desire to make this topic a priority. Community pharmacy staff can play a key role in educating and counseling young adult women about contraceptive health and pregnancy planning. This study indicates that staff are comfortable providing this service and that patients/customers are open to receiving guidance from pharmacists. However, pharmacy staff are missing additional opportunities to provide information and counseling. There is also a need for greater attention to provision of nonprescription contraceptive education.
King, Amber E; Egras, Amy M
To design, deliver, and evaluate the impact of a required course on student knowledge acquisition and ability to evaluate contemporary public health issues. A 2-credit course was implemented using asynchronous, online delivery. Learning activities included literature retrieval and assessment, analytic writing, quizzes, and creation of a group wiki evaluating a current public health issue. Course topics included health care reform, social determinants of health, health disparities, evidence-based medicine, end-of-life care, patient safety, and research ethics. Strong student performance on assessments indicated an ability to use higher-order cognitive domains. Online delivery provided students with the flexibility to complete assignments at their convenience, allowed participation by all students, and encouraged self-directed learning. Completion of a required, online, asynchronous course with a public health focus allowed pharmacy students to increase their knowledge of and ability to evaluate contemporary ethical, social, cultural, and governmental issues affecting pharmacy practice.
Hess, Karl M; Dai, Chih-Wei; Garner, Brian; Law, Anandi V
To describe the acceptance and refusal rates of travel-related vaccine and medication recommendations in a pharmacist-run travel health clinic, to evaluate the change in patient understanding of travel-related issues, to determine patient satisfaction with this clinic, and to determine factors influencing both patient acceptance and satisfaction. Southern California (Claremont) between July 2007 and October 2008. Hendricks Pharmacy is an independently owned community pharmacy that is part of the Good Neighbor Pharmacy Provider Network. The pharmacy offers a range of services including home delivery, compounding, and blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol screenings. Comprehensive pharmacist-run travel health clinic. Patient acceptance and refusal rates of pharmacist-made recommendations, changes in patient understanding of travel-related issues resulting from pharmacist counseling, and patient satisfaction with this travel health clinic. In a sample of 283 patients, overall patient acceptance of pharmacist-made recommendations was 84.7%. The primary reason for patient refusal of a recommendation was self-perceived low risk for infection. A subsample of patients (n = 82) completing a patient satisfaction survey found that 96% were satisfied with their overall visit. Patient satisfaction with the clinic and pharmacist services was correlated with overall patient acceptance. The high rate of patient acceptance and satisfaction with this clinic supports adoption of pharmacists as nontraditional providers of travel health services.
Carlos Adriano Santos Souza
Full Text Available The current reality of hospitals increasingly require professionals qualified to assume roles that require high levels of technical and scientific knowledge. The supervised internship in hospital pharmacy aims to train future professionals with critical awareness and ability to understand the reality and act on it. This study consists of an report of the experience of students supervised III internship of the graduate course in Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe. Initially the students made visits in the fields of pharmacy, warehouse, intensive care unit (ICU, emergency care to make the diagnosis of both situational and physical aspects of the information relating to medicines by nursing professionals. Later lectures were held, they were directed to health professionals and administrative staff of the pharmacy. From the results we observed that implement continuing education was of great importance to the quality of pharmacy professionals / warehouse and nursing staff, in which participants were able to actively interact with pharmacists and interns. This interaction reflected in increased communication and more concrete understanding of the multidisciplinary team.
Shibata, Keita; Ichikawa, Koichi; Kurata, Naomi
Anti-doping activities are carried out on a global scale. Based on these activities, the specialty of "sports pharmacist," which entails a deeper comprehension of doping, use of supplements, and appropriate drug use for athletes, was established in 2009 in Japan. It is difficult to say whether the education on doping is adequate for pharmacy students who will be eligible to become sports pharmacists. It is also unclear how well these students understand doping. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate pharmacy students' current knowledge of appropriate drug use, doping and use of supplements, and to explore the need for further education on these topics. A questionnaire survey was conducted from July 3rd to August 2nd in 2014 at Showa University in Japan. A total of 406 respondents (2nd- to 6th-year students) were assessed as eligible. Group comparison was used to compare those who had attended a lecture about doping and those who had not. Most of the students only knew the word doping and had not attended a lecture on the subject, but 72% of them expressed a desire to attend one. Over half did not know that the most common doping violation in Japan is unintentional doping, and were unfamiliar with certain past cases of doping. In addition, 41% did not know that over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements might contain prohibited substances, and 87% were unaware that names of prohibited substances might not appear on the ingredient labels of dietary supplements. In contrast, attending a lecture on doping was effective in facilitating the acquisition of all these types of knowledge. It is important to provide more opportunities for appropriate education of pharmacy students on the topic of doping, given that interest exists and attending a lecture on the topic appears to be useful. More education about doping for pharmacy students would be as effective for anti-doping activities as is education of athletes.
Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Train, Brian C; Rudolph, Michael J; Gillette, Chris
Faculty motivations to use active learning have been limited to surveys evaluating faculty perceptions within active learning studies. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the relationship between faculty intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and demographic variables and the extent of active learning use in the classroom. An online survey was administered to individual faculty members at 137 colleges and schools of pharmacy across the United States. The survey assessed intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, active learning strategies, classroom time dedicated to active learning, and faculty development resources. Bivariate associations and multivariable stepwise linear regression were used to analyze the results. In total, 979 faculty members completed the questionnaire (23.6% response rate). All motivation variables were significantly correlated with percent active learning use (p active learning methods used in the last year (r = 0.259, p active learning use. Our results suggest that faculty members who are intrinsically motivated to use active learning are more likely to dedicate additional class time to active learning. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation may be positively associated with encouraging faculty members to attend active learning workshops and supporting faculty to use various active learning strategies in the classroom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garza, Kimberly B; Westrick, Salisa C; Teeter, Benjamin S; Stevenson, T Lynn
To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (pshopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004). Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes.
Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika
Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia
Pharmacy cost-saving programs often aim to reduce costs for members and payers by encouraging use of lower-tier or generic medications and lower-cost sales channels. In 2010, a national U.S. health plan began a novel pharmacy program directed at reducing pharmacy expenditures for targeted medications, including pregabalin. The program provided multiple options to avoid higher cost sharing: use mail order pharmacy or switch to a lower-cost alternative medication via mail order or retail. Members who did not choose any option eventually paid the full retail cost of pregabalin. To evaluate the impact of the pharmacy program on pregabalin and alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization. This retrospective analysis of claims data included adult commercial health plan members with a retail claim for pregabalin in the first 13 months of the pharmacy program (identification [ID] period: February 1, 2010-February 28, 2011). Members whose benefit plan included the pharmacy program were assigned to the program cohort; all others were assigned to the nonprogram cohort. The program cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period and after the program start; the nonprogram cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period. All members were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre- and post-index and had at least 1 inpatient claim or ≥ 2 ambulatory visit claims for a pregabalin-indicated condition. Cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 with logistic regression on demographic and pre-index characteristics, including mail order and pregabalin use, comorbidity, health care costs, and health care utilization. Pregabalin, gabapentin and other alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization were measured. The program cohort was also divided into 2 groups: members who changed to gabapentin post-index and those who did not. A difference-in-differences (Di
Zhou, Jiyin; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Xu, Rufu; Zhang, Zuo; Zeng, Shengya; Qian, Guisheng
This review provides a critical overview of problem-based learning (PBL) practices in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL has yet to be widely applied in pharmaceutical education in China. The results of those studies that have been conducted are published in Chinese and thus may not be easily accessible to international researchers. Therefore, this meta-analysis was carried out to review the effectiveness of PBL. Databases were searched for studies in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently performed the study identification and data extraction. A meta-analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3 software. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis revealed that PBL had a positive association with higher theoretical scores (SMD = 1.17, 95% CI [0.77, 11.57], P methods are superior to conventional teaching methods in improving students' learning interest, independent analysis skills, scope of knowledge, self-study, team spirit, and oral expression. This meta-analysis indicates that PBL pedagogy is superior to traditional lecture-based teaching in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL methods could be an optional, supplementary method of pharmaceutical teaching in China. However, Chinese pharmacy colleges and universities should revise PBL curricula according to their own needs, which would maximize the effectiveness of PBL.
Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo
The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.
DiVall, Margarita V; Alston, Greg L; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M; Kelley, Katherine A; Murphy, Nanci L; Schlesselman, Lauren S; Stowe, Cindy D; Szilagyi, Julianna E
This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student's ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member's ability to become an effective educator.
Leite, Silvana Nair; Manzini, Fernanda; Álvares, Juliana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Costa, Ediná Alves; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mário; Farias, Mareni Rocha
To characterize the infrastructure of the primary health care pharmacies of the Brazilian Unified Health System, aiming at humanizing the offered services. This is a cross-sectional study, of quantitative approach, from data obtained in the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Information on 1,175 pharmacies/dispensing units were gathered from direct observation and assessment of dispensing units installations conducted by trained researchers who used a standardized form. The analyzed variables refer to the physical structure of pharmacies or medicine dispensing units of the health units under research. The pharmacy area was greater than 14 m2 in 40.3% of the sampled units, highlighting those from Midwest (56.9%) and Southeast (56.2%) regions and those of Northeast, with only 23.3%. About 80.2% units had waiting rooms with chairs for patients, 31.8% of them had dispensing areas inferior to 5m2, while in 46.2% these areas were superior to 10m2. Bars were found in service counters in 23.8% of health units, thus separating the patient from the professional; 44.1% had internet access. In most units, the area of medicine storage had no refrigerator or freezer for their exclusive storage and 13.7% had a specific room for pharmaceutical consultation. Aiming at achieving care humanization and improving working conditions for professionals, the structuring of the environment of pharmacy services is necessary. This would contribute to the better qualification of pharmacy services, comprising more than medicine delivery. Data on the Northeast region indicated less favorable conditions to the development of adequate dispensing services. Based on the panorama pointed out, we suggest the expansion of stimulus concerning the physical structure of pharmaceutical services, considering regional specificities.
Croker, Anne; Smith, Tony; Fisher, Karin; Littlejohns, Sonja
Similar to other professions, pharmacy educators use workplace learning opportunities to prepare students for collaborative practice. Thus, collaborative relationships between educators of different professions are important for planning, implementing and evaluating interprofessional learning strategies and role modelling interprofessional collaboration within and across university and workplace settings. However, there is a paucity of research exploring educators' interprofessional relationships. Using collaborative dialogical inquiry we explored the nature of educators' interprofessional relationships in a co-located setting. Data from interprofessional focus groups and semi-structured interviews were interpreted to identify themes that transcended the participants' professional affiliations. Educators' interprofessional collaborative relationships involved the development and interweaving of five interpersonal behaviours: being inclusive of other professions; developing interpersonal connections with colleagues from other professions; bringing a sense of own profession in relation to other professions; giving and receiving respect to other professions; and being learner-centred for students' collaborative practice . Pharmacy educators, like other educators, need to ensure that interprofessional relationships are founded on positive experiences rather than vested in professional interests.
Collins, Andrea; Broeseker, Amy; Cunningham, Jill; Cortes, Cyndi; Beall, Jennifer; Bigham, Amy; Chang, Jongwha
Interprofessional education (IPE) continues to gain traction worldwide. Challenges integrating IPE into health profession programmes include finding convenient times, meeting spaces, and level-appropriate assignments for each profession. This article describes the implementation of a 21-month prospective cohort study pilot programme for the Master of Science in nursing family nurse practitioner (FNP) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at a private university in the United States. This IPE experience utilised a blended approach for the learning activities; these students had initial and final sessions where they met face-to-face, with asynchronous online activities between these two sessions. The online assignments, discussions, and quizzes during the pilot programme involved topics such as antimicrobial stewardship, hormone replacement therapy, human papilloma virus vaccination, prenatal counselling, emergency contraception, and effects of the Affordable Care Act on practice. The results suggested that the FNP students held more favourable attitudes about online IPE and that the PharmD students reported having a clearer understanding of their own roles and those of the other participating healthcare students. However, the students also reported wanting more face-to-face interaction during their online IPE experience. Implications from this study suggest that effective online IPE can be supported by ensuring educational parity between students regarding the various topics discussed and a consistent approach of the required involvement for all student groups is needed. In addition, given the students desire for more face-to-face interaction, it may be beneficial to offer online IPE activities for a shorter time period. It is anticipated that this study may inform other programmes that are exploring innovative approaches to provide IPE to promote effective collaboration in patient care.
Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jee, Samuel D; Willis, Sarah C
In Great Britain (GB), pharmacy technicians (PTs) are registered professionals, with their education and training regulated; little is known about this or the learning environment in which it takes place. This study aimed to profile recently registered pre-registration trainee pharmacy technicians (PTPTs) in GB and capture views on PTPTs' training experiences, focussing on differences in community and hospital settings. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14, following university ethics approval. One-to-one, semi-structured telephone interviews with face-to-face and distance education providers, and hospital and community pharmacy employers of PTPTs explored views on education delivery, work-based learning, and assessment. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed thematically and findings informed design of a census survey of all 1457 recently registered PTs, investigating satisfaction with various aspects of their training. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). Six-hundred and forty-six questionnaires were returned (response rate 44.3%), 632 were usable. Three-quarters (75.9%) of respondents had trained in community; the majority (88.0%) were female, the average age was 35.26 ± 10.22. Those based in hospitals were more satisfied with their training: hospital trainees worked in larger teams and tended to be better supported, they had more study time, and were more likely to complete their training in the intended two-year period. Interviews with staff in 17 Further Education colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organisations confirmed survey findings and offered explanations into why differences in training experiences may exist. This study has identified differences between PTPTs' work-based experiences in hospital and community pharmacy. Perceiving PTPTs as 'apprentices' vs. 'employees' may define how their training is managed by employers
Heaton, Lisa J; Swigart, Kimberly; McNelis, Gavin; Milgrom, Peter; Downing, Donald F
Individuals with mental illness face an increased risk of oral disease compared with those without mental illness. The goals of this study were to examine the self-reported oral health and dental access of individuals filling psychotropic medication prescriptions and to determine whether pharmacy patients would choose to speak with a pharmacist about their oral health if given the option to do so. Pharmacists across 6 community pharmacies within a local chain identified and surveyed adult patients filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Surveys included questions about oral health, dry mouth, and dental care utilization. Six community pharmacy locations. Adults (≥18 years of age) filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Not applicable. Self-reported oral health, dental utilization, desire to discuss oral health with a pharmacist. Participants (N = 178) filling prescriptions were mostly (65.9%) female with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 14.3, range 19-82 years). One in 4 (24.9%) said their mouths "always" or "frequently" felt dry; these individuals were significantly more likely to have last seen a dentist for emergency (rather than routine) treatment (P oral health as significantly worse (P oral health; they reported poorer oral health than those who opted not to speak with a pharmacist (P oral health than patients without dry mouth. Although dry mouth and poor oral health were common in this sample of individuals taking psychotropic medications, this did not consistently translate into seeking information regarding oral health. Future research will focus on pharmacist-initiated oral health interventions with high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brownlie, Kay; Schneider, Carl; Culliford, Roger; Fox, Chris; Boukouvalas, Alexis; Willan, Cathy; Maidment, Ian D
Medication discrepancies are common when patients cross organisational boundaries. However, little is known about the frequency of discrepancies within mental health and the efficacy of interventions to reduce discrepancies. To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-led reconciliation service on medication discrepancies on admissions to a secondary care mental health trust. In-patient mental health services. Prospective evaluation of pharmacy technician led medication reconciliation for admissions to a UK Mental Health NHS Trust. From March to June 2012 information on any unintentional discrepancies (dose, frequency and name of medication); patient demographics;and type and cause of the discrepancy was collected. The potential for harm was assessed based on two scenarios; the discrepancy was continued into primary care, and the discrepancy was corrected during admission. Logistic regression identified factors associated with discrepancies. Mean number of discrepancies per admission corrected by the pharmacy technician. Unintentional medication discrepancies occurred in 212 of 377 admissions (56.2 %). Discrepancies involving 569 medicines (mean 1.5 medicines per admission) were corrected.The most common discrepancy was omission(n = 464). Severity was assessed for 114 discrepancies. If the discrepancy was corrected within 16 days the potential harm was minor in 71 (62.3 %) cases and moderate in 43(37.7 %) cases whereas if the discrepancy was not corrected the potential harm was minor in 27 (23.7 %) cases and moderate in 87 (76.3 %) cases. Discrepancies were associated with both age and number of medications; the stronger association was age. Medication discrepancies are common within mental health services with potentially significant consequences for patients.Trained pharmacy technicians are able to reduce the frequency of discrepancies, improving safety.
Nornoo, Adwoa O.; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha
Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students? scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking.
Full Text Available Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs. The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15 open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68% recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84% recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31% recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we
Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace
Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some
Sando, Karen R; Elliott, Jennifer; Stanton, Melonie L; Doty, Randell
To implement and evaluate the use of a situated-learning experience to prepare second-year pharmacy students to conduct medication history interviews in preparation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at ambulatory clinic sites. Second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (n=200) used the Medication Mysteries Infinite Case Tool, a game-like educational tool in which groups of 3 students assumed the roles of pharmacist, patient, and observer and rolled a die and drew cards to determine the drugs, patient personality, medication problems, and other variables that guided a medication history taking session. After the laboratory session, faculty members assessed students' medication history-taking skills. One hundred sixteen (58%) and 78 (39%) of 200 students achieved excellence or competence, respectively, on the final assessment. Two weeks after the assessment, 53 of 200 (26.5%) students completed a survey instrument. The respondents indicated that their self-confidence in conducting medical history taking significantly improved following completion of the learning experience. Using the Medication Mysteries Infinite Case Tool increased students' confidence and skills in conducting medication history taking prior to their clinical IPPE experience.
Ellinger, Lara Kathryn; Trapskin, Philip J; Black, Raymond; Kotis, Despina; Alexander, Earnest
Leadership succession planning is crucial to the continuity of the comprehensive vision of the hospital pharmacy department. Leadership development is arguably the main component of training and preparing pharmacists to assume managerial positions. Succession planning begins with a review of the organizational chart in the context of the institution's strategic plan. Then career ladders are developed and key positions that require succession plans are identified. Employee profiles and talent inventory should be performed for all employees to identify education, talent, and experience, as well as areas that need improvement. Employees should set objective goals that align with the department's strategic plan, and management should work collaboratively with employees on how to achieve their goals within a certain timeframe. The succession planning process is dynamic and evolving, and periodic assessments should be conducted to determine how improvements can be made. Succession planning can serve as a marker for the success of hospital pharmacy departments.
Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years
Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E
The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public
Ferguson Jill S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews
Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jee, Samuel D; Willis, Sarah C
To enable pharmacists to become increasingly patient-centered, clinical professionals, they need to work with suitably trained and competent support staff; pharmacy technicians (PTs) may be the most appropriate to take on additional roles and responsibilities. However, clarity on PT roles, particularly in community pharmacy, is lacking, and pharmacists may be reluctant to delegate due to concerns over PTs' competence. This paper aims to explore the fitness for purpose of PT education and training in Great Britain. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with face-to-face and distance education providers; and different types of community (n = 16) and hospital pharmacy (n = 15) employers. Interviews explored views on education delivery, work-based learning and assessment, and quality assurance; they were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Interviews informed a questionnaire that was piloted and distributed (with reminders) to all 1457 recently registered PTs. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). University ethics approval was obtained. Staff in 17 Further Education (FE) colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organizations were interviewed. Participants from different sectors, education providers and employing organizations questioned whether standards met current practice requirements. Certain topics were considered as redundant or over-taught whereas others, such as professionalism (attitudes, behaviors), were perceived to be lacking. Hospital interviewees felt that PT education and training lacked clinical detail, whereas many community interviewees felt that requirements for PTs were more advanced than required. Various comments suggested that PTs' roles in community pharmacy were not clearly defined or sufficiently different from other support staff. In order to define appropriate and up
Bryant, Jennifer E; Richard, Craig A H
To describe pharmacy students' use of mobile devices in a basic health science laboratory and to report the students' perceptions on how solving cases with their mobile devices influenced their attitudes, abilities, and view on the use of mobile devices as tools for pharmacists. First-year pharmacy students utilized mobile devices to solve clinical case studies in a basic health sciences laboratory. A pre-survey and two post-surveys were administered to assess the students' comfort, awareness, use, and perceptions on the use of their mobile devices and apps. The pre-survey and first post-survey each had a response rate of 99%, and the second post-survey had a response rate of 100%. In comparing the pre-survey and first post-survey data, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of students that agreed or strongly agreed that they were more comfortable utilizing their mobile device (p = 0.025), they were more aware of apps for pharmacists (p mobile devices, to be more aware of apps that can be useful for pharmacists, and to be more agreeable with mobile device utilization by pharmacists in improving patient care. In addition, the second post-survey also demonstrated that 84% of students responded that using their mobile devices to solve the cases influenced them to either use their mobile device in a clinical setting for a clinical and/or pharmacy-related purpose for the first time or to use it more frequently for this purpose. The use of mobile devices to solve clinical cases in a first-year basic health science laboratory course was perceived as beneficial by students and influenced them to utilize their mobile device even more in a pharmacy practice setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Charlene M; Soin, Herpreet K; Einarson, Thomas R
Research in statistical methods is essential for maintenance of high quality of the published literature. To update previous reports of the types and frequencies of statistical terms and procedures in research studies of selected professional pharmacy journals. We obtained all research articles published in 2001 in 6 journals: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy, and Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Two independent reviewers identified and recorded descriptive and inferential statistical terms/procedures found in the methods, results, and discussion sections of each article. Results were determined by tallying the total number of times, as well as the percentage, that each statistical term or procedure appeared in the articles. One hundred forty-four articles were included. Ninety-eight percent employed descriptive statistics; of these, 28% used only descriptive statistics. The most common descriptive statistical terms were percentage (90%), mean (74%), standard deviation (58%), and range (46%). Sixty-nine percent of the articles used inferential statistics, the most frequent being chi(2) (33%), Student's t-test (26%), Pearson's correlation coefficient r (18%), ANOVA (14%), and logistic regression (11%). Statistical terms and procedures were found in nearly all of the research articles published in pharmacy journals. Thus, pharmacy education should aim to provide current and future pharmacists with an understanding of the common statistical terms and procedures identified to facilitate the appropriate appraisal and consequential utilization of the information available in research articles.
Ang, Hui-Gek; Pua, Yong-Hao; Subari, Nur Azah
Mandatory Continuing Professional Education (CPE) for the renewal of pharmacists' practising certificate was implemented in Singapore in 2008 OBJECTIVE: To study pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes about the impact of mandatory CPE in Singapore. Singapore. Internet-based questionnaire survey, conducted between May and June 2011. Pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes toward mandatory CPE and the perceived difficulty in fulfilling the CPE requirements. The overall survey response rate was 52 % (840/1,609). Of the respondents, 32 % were non-practising, 49 % were practising in patient care areas, and 19 % were practising in non-patient care areas. More than half the pharmacists agreed that mandatory CPE (1) enhanced or increased their knowledge base and skills (70 %; 95 % CI 67-73 %), (2) motivated them to continually learn (64 %; 95 % CI, 60-67 %), and (3) motivated them to reflect on their professional practice or work (58 %; 95 % CI, 54-61 %). Mandatory CPE was not perceived to enhance or increase employability. Non-practising pharmacists appeared to have the greatest difficulty meeting the CPE requirements. In general, pharmacists value mandatory CPE more for positive professional reasons than for employability reasons. The survey results may serve as useful baseline data for future studies of pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes toward CPE in Singapore.
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne
Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.
Frail, Caitlin K; Cooper, Susan; Gallagher, Tim; Sarkis, Josh; Topor, Laura; Bruzek, Richard J
To assess the impact of a health plan and community pharmacy partnership to improve blood pressure control. A midwestern health plan and a regional community pharmacy chain. Health plan members with a hypertension diagnosis and attributed to the pharmacy chain based on prescription claims were invited to participate. Interested patients enrolled in the program at their pharmacies and were assigned a "smart card" for use with a blood pressure kiosk in the pharmacy. When the card was used at the kiosk, individual patient readings were linked directly to their electronic pharmacy record and an online patient portal. Pharmacists intervened with patients and prescribers as necessary to address adherence issues and adjust therapy as needed. Before and after blood pressure readings were assessed to determine the impact of patient self-monitoring and pharmacist intervention for patients with 1) uncontrolled blood pressure at first reading and 2) multiple readings throughout the pilot period. Fifty-six of 276 eligible patients (20%) were enrolled in the program. Fourteen patients qualified for before and after assessments, having uncontrolled blood pressure on initial reading and multiple readings throughout the pilot. These patients demonstrated a mean reduction in systolic blood pressure of 12 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 8 mm Hg. Nine of 16 eligible pharmacy locations enrolled patients at their sites. Challenges faced in the initiative included gaining adequate pharmacist and patient engagement. The pilot demonstrated promising early results in a model that has potential to improve blood pressure monitoring and management in a community pharmacy setting. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists are under pressure to provide patient centered care within increasingly culturally diverse settings. Pharmacy schools play an important role in educating learners regarding culture and its impact on patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if a novel cultural competency learning activity, which involved students from two culturally and ethnically different pharmacy schools learning together using videoconference education activities, improved: (1 student knowledge and confidence pertaining to cultural competency concepts, (2 attitudes and perceptions towards being a culturally competent pharmacist, and (3 academic performance related to cultural competency case studies. Methods: Pharmacy students from Qatar University in Doha, Qatar (n=25 and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada (n=85 participated in a cultural competency activity comprised of small group work on a patient case study, followed by tutorial discussions. Some Canadian students (n=31/85 worked collaboratively (via video conference with the students from Qatar. The evaluation used a convergent mixed methods design comprised of: (1 a pre and post session survey measuring student knowledge and confidence; (2 pre and post session student self-reflections; and, (3 student academic performance on care plans and an observed structured clinical exam (OSCE. Results: The survey identified small but statistically significant (p<0.05 improvements in knowledge and confidence with respect to 11 of the 12 questionnaire items in the students from Canada and 2 of the 12 items in the students from Qatar. The self-reflections found that 44.4% (n=36/81 of students who completed the pre and post reflective questions reported a change in knowledge and attitudes regarding cultural competency, but a reason for the change was not evident. Student grades on the cultural competency care plans and the OSCE were not different between the
Schrader, Susan L; Brechtelsbauer, David; Heins, Jodi; Holland, Peter; Schroeder, Pamela A
Interdisciplinary education among health professions has been recommended, and related evaluation can be found in the literature. However questions remain on how effective interdisciplinary education is and what impact it has. The objective of this study was to determine changes in student attitudes and perceptions upon completion of a 5-week interdisciplinary palliative care seminar. Pre-test and post-test instruments were administered at three five-week Interdisciplinary Palliative Care Seminars in Sioux Falls, SD during 2009-2010. The central hypotheses were that, at the conclusion of the seminar, students will have greater familiarity with their role in a team and more understanding of the roles of other disciplines in palliative care, and will identify positive contributions to professional practice and patient care using the team approach. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Participating students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, and chaplaincy (N = 88) completed surveys. Quantitative data suggest that interdisciplinary education enhances students' understanding of their discipline and the work of other disciplines. Data show students perceive the team approach as enhancing patient outcomes, goal setting, and communication among colleagues. Qualitative data reinforced the importance of interdisciplinary education while revealing strains among disciplines in hierarchy and valuing. Playing one's part in the team strengthens students' confidence and comfort in interdisciplinary settings. Yet, the hazard of experiencing the limitations of teamwork in action must be acknowledged for some.
Tang, Derek H; Warholak, Terri L; Slack, Marion K; Malone, Daniel C; Gau, Churn-Shiouh
To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To determine the most beneficial way of education we designed a pilot study in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.
Sera, Leah; Wheeler, Erin
Gamification is the use of game mechanics to promote engagement and enjoyment of problem-solving in non-game situations. Gamification has been used widely in recent years in industry and academia as a tool for training and education. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), review the use of digital games in health professional education, and provide suggestions for future use in pharmacy curricula. Many examples of game-based learning in pharmacy and other health professional curricula have been published, however the body of literature on DGBL is less developed. Overall, evaluations of these techniques show that students find them engaging and enjoyable. A recent meta-analysis of studies comparing DGBL to non-game based learning in primary, secondary, post-secondary education found that DGBL significantly enhances learning. Challenges to implementing game-based learning are financial, cultural, and technological. Many areas of the pharmacy curriculum could be appropriate for digital gamification. With more students entering pharmacy school familiar with video games and game-based living the time has come for pharmacy educators to explore how these instructional technologies could benefit a new generation of pharmacy students. As serious games are developed and researched in pharmacy curricula, test scores, student confidence in knowledge and skills, and retention of knowledge and skills are all outcomes that, if published, will help advance the adoption of DGBL into the pharmacy school classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bailey, James E; Surbhi, Satya; Bell, Paula C; Jones, Angel M; Rashed, Sahar; Ugwueke, Michael O
To describe the design, implementation, and early experience of the SafeMed program, which uses certified pharmacy technicians in a novel expanded role as community health workers (CPhT-CHWs) to improve transitions of care. A large nonprofit health care system serving the major medically underserved areas and geographic hotspots for readmissions in Memphis, TN. The SafeMed program is a care transitions program with an emphasis on medication management designed to use low-cost health workers to improve transitions of care from hospital to home for superutilizing patients with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. CPhT-CHWs were given primary responsibility for patient outreach after hospital discharge with the use of home visits and telephone follow-up. SafeMed program CPhT-CHWs served as pharmacist extenders, obtaining medication histories, assisting in medication reconciliation and identification of potential drug therapy problems (DTPs), and reinforcing medication education previously provided by the pharmacist per protocol. CPhT-CHW training included patient communication skills, motivational interviewing, medication history taking, teach-back techniques, drug disposal practices, and basic disease management. Some CPhT-CHWs experienced difficulties adjusting to an expanded scope of practice. Nonetheless, once the Tennessee Board of Pharmacy affirmed that envisioned SafeMed CPhT-CHW roles were consistent with Board rules, additional responsibilities were added for CPhT-CHWs to enhance their effectiveness. Patient outreach teams including CPhT-CHWs achieved increases in home visit and telephone follow-up rates and were successful in helping identify potential DTPs. The early experience of the SafeMed program demonstrates that CPhT-CHWs are well suited for novel expanded roles to improve care transitions for superutilizing populations. CPhT-CHWs can identify and report potential DTPs to the pharmacist to help target medication therapy management. Critical
McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Fowler, Jane L; Mihala, Gabor; Wheeler, Amanda J
Mental illness is a worldwide health priority. As medication is commonly used to treat mental illness, community pharmacy staff is well placed to assist consumers. To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted, community pharmacy medication support service for mental health consumers. Pharmacists and pharmacy support staff in three Australian states were trained to deliver a flexible, goal-oriented medication support service for adults with mental illness over 3-6 months. Consumer-related outcome measures included perceptions of illness and health-related quality of life, medication beliefs, treatment satisfaction and medication adherence. Fifty-five of 100 trained pharmacies completed the intervention with 295 of the 418 recruited consumers (70.6% completion rate); 51.2% of consumers received two or more follow-ups. Significant improvements were reported by consumers for overall perceptions of illness (p Consumers also reported an increase in medication adherence (p = 0.005). A community pharmacy mental health medication support service that is goal-oriented, flexible and individualised, improved consumer outcomes across various measures. While further research into the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of such a service is warranted, this intervention could easily be adapted to other contexts.
Full Text Available Introduction: Satisfaction of the students as educational institutions’ customers plays a major role in the performance and activities of the university. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of satisfaction of pharmacy students and their educational status in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014. Methods: 48 pharmacy students at 9th to 11th semesters participated in this cross-sectional study. The students' satisfaction was evaluated in 14 different domains. Various fields related to basic and specialized training, educational space, communications, groups' performance, facilities and teaching space were investigated. Data were collected using a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by experts, and its reliability has already been proven by Cronbach's alpha test. For comparing scores between bimodal variables, Mann-Whitney U test was used, and for comparisons between multimodal variables, Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The collected data were coded and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS.17. Results: The moderate students’ satisfaction with the entire fields was 70.8%, with women's satisfaction more than men’s. Students' satisfaction with the effectiveness of the education system and whether training is to increase the professional capabilities was 82.9%. Average students' satisfaction with the facilities such as laboratories, library and electronic sources was 77.1%. Conclusion: The overall satisfaction of pharmacy students with the School of Pharmacy was assessed as moderate. Thus, doing some actions to increase the level of satisfaction is necessary.
Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P
Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.
Koster, Ellen S.; Philbert, Daphne; Blom, Lyda; Bouvy, Marcel L.
Objective: To date, routine use of health literacy assessment in clinical settings is limited. The objective of this study was to explore if community pharmacy staff can identify patients with limited health literacy, how they identify patients and how they support patients to improve medication
Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.
Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Bois, Denis; Vallée, Marc; Racine, Marie-Claude; Bonnici, André
To establish a consensual and coherent ranking of healthcare programmes that involve the presence of ward-based and clinic-based clinical pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. This descriptive study was derived from a structured dialogue (Delphi technique) among directors of pharmacy department. We established a quantitative profile of healthcare programmes at five sites that involved the provision of ward-based and clinic-based pharmaceutical care. A summary table of evidence established a unique quality rating per inpatient (clinic-based) or outpatient (ward-based) healthcare programme. Each director rated the perceived impact of pharmaceutical care per inpatient or outpatient healthcare programme on three fields: health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. They agreed by consensus on the final ranking of healthcare programmes. A ranking was assigned for each of the 18 healthcare programmes for outpatient care and the 17 healthcare programmes for inpatient care involving the presence of pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. There was a good correlation between ranking based on data from a 2007-2008 Canadian report on hospital pharmacy practice and the ranking proposed by directors of pharmacy department. Given the often limited human and financial resources, managers should consider the best evidence available on a profession's impact to plan healthcare services within an organization. Data are few on ranking healthcare programmes in order to prioritize which healthcare programme would mostly benefit from the delivery of pharmaceutical care by ward-based and clinic-based pharmacists. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Hill, John D; Williams, Jonathan P; Barnes, Julie F; Greenlee, Katie M; Cardiology, Bcps-Aq; Leonard, Mandy C
The development of a pharmacy resident rotation to expand decentralized clinical pharmacy services is described. In an effort to align with the initiatives proposed within the ASHP Practice Advancement Initiative, the department of pharmacy at Cleveland Clinic, a 1,400-bed academic, tertiary acute care medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, established a goal to provide decentralized clinical pharmacy services for 100% of patient care units within the hospital. Patient care units that previously had no decentralized pharmacy services were evaluated to identify opportunities for expansion. Metrics analyzed included number of medication orders verified per hour, number of pharmacy dosing consultations, and number of patient discharge counseling sessions. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of this service and potential resident learning opportunities. A learning experience description was drafted, and feedback was solicited regarding the development of educational components utilized throughout the rotation. Pharmacists who were providing services to similar patient populations were identified to serve as preceptors. Staff pharmacists were deployed to previously uncovered patient care units, with pharmacy residents providing decentralized services on previously covered areas. A rotating preceptor schedule was developed based on geographic proximity and clinical expertise. An initial postimplementation assessment of this resident-driven service revealed that pharmacy residents provided a comparable level of pharmacy services to that of staff pharmacists. Feedback collected from nurses, physicians, and pharmacy staff also supported residents' ability to operate sufficiently in this role to optimize patient care. A learning experience developed for pharmacy residents in a large medical center enabled the expansion of decentralized clinical services without requiring additional pharmacist full-time equivalents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of
Gidman, Wendy; Day, Jennie; Hassell, Karen; Payne, Katherine
Recent UK government policy has placed community pharmacists at the frontline of health care delivery in order to improve patient access. Community pharmacy has been beset by recruitment and retention problems which potentially threaten health service delivery. This is largely a consequence of an increased demand for pharmacists. Additionally, the proportion of female pharmacists in the profession has risen. Consequently, interrupted career patterns and part-time working practices have increased, shrinking the pool of available workers. This study aimed to examine the importance of factors influencing female community pharmacists' work patterns. Q methodology was used in a sample of 40 female UK-based community pharmacists. Nine distinct factors emerged from a factor analysis of Q sorts: fulfilled pharmacists; family first or pharmacy shelved; low stress altruist; permanent part-time employees; focused on free time and finances; pressurized modernizers; wandering wage slaves; overloaded and under resourced for the new contract; and pin money part-timers. Female community pharmacists often worked below their potential and part-time at a practitioner level in response to a combination of domestic commitments and intensifying work place pressures. Family-friendly flexible work environments, adequate staffing levels and improved management support, might be more effective in increasing workforce participation than enhanced salary levels in this group of workers.
Sabato, Leah A; Barone, Caroline; McKinney, Kathryn
The influence of targeted strategies implemented to increase member engagement on a social media page of a professional pharmacy organization was studied. The Ohio Society of Health-System Pharmacists (OSHP) implemented posting strategies to increase member engagement with its social media page in late 2013. Data were collected retrospectively for a nine-month period in 2013 (preimplementation) and a matching nine-month period in 2014 (postimplementation). The primary endpoint was reach (as provided by the social media website). Data regarding reach were reported to OSHP page administrators on a weekly basis. Posts during the study period were characterized by the day of week, time of day, type of post, and corresponding reach. Continuous variables were represented using means and standard deviations or medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs); categorical data were represented by percentages. The total reach of posts during the nine-month study period increased postimplementation, from 10,826 to 32,338. Further, the median reach per post on the OSHP Facebook page was higher postimplementation (214; IQR, 107-380) versus preimplementation (152; IQR, 89-224; p = 0.035). Evening posts had significantly greater reach compared with nonevening posts. The median reach for evening posts was 232 (IQR, 143-378) versus 131 (IQR, 77-200) for nonevening posts (p system pharmacy organization's social media page. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L
To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Díaz de León-Castañeda, Christian; Gutiérrez-Godínez, Jéssica; Colado-Velázquez, Juventino Iii; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo
In Mexico, the Modelo Nacional de Farmacia Hospitalaria (MNFH, or National Hospital Pharmacy Model), published in 2009, mainly aims to promote the provision of clinical pharmacy services in private and public hospitals. However, there is little scientific documentation about the quality of these services. To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions related to the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. A case-study based on a qualitative approach was performed at the pharmaceutical services unit at a public hospital located in Mexico City, which operates under the administrative control of the Ministry of Health. Donabedian's conceptual model was adapted to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacists, physicians and nurses and then transcribed and analyzed via discourse analysis and codification techniques, using the software package Atlas. ti. Limitations in pharmaceutical human resources were identified as the main factor affecting coverage and quality in clinical pharmacy services provision. However, the development in pharmacy staff of technical competences and skills for clinical pharmacy service provision were recognized. Significant improvements in the rational use of medicines were associated with clinical pharmacy services provision. The perception analysis performed in this study suggested that it is necessary to increase pharmacy staff in order to improve interprofessional relationships and the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cerulli, Catherine; Cerulli, Jennifer; Santos, Elizabeth J; Lu, Najii; He, Hua; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; White, Anne Marie; Tu, Xin
To explore whether the health status of intimate partner violence (IPV) victims warrants pharmacies to be portals for public health promotion. Specific objectives included (1) identifying prevalence of IPV including domestic violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in a community sample, (2) describing characteristics and correlates of DV/SA between participants who reported and did not report DV/SA, and (3) exploring whether DV/SA status is related to mental health medication use. Cross sectional. Upstate New York during 2006. English- and Spanish-speaking respondents younger than 65 years of age answering four questions to assess DV/SA. Secondary analysis of a countywide random telephone survey, the 2006 Monroe County Adult Health Survey, which collects prevalence data on health behaviors and health status indicators. To determine whether those reporting DV/SA are at increased odds for mental health medication use, controlling for other sociodemographic- and health-related variables. The survey response rate was 30.3%, with 1,881 respondents meeting inclusion criteria. Those reporting DV/SA were almost twice as likely to use mental health medications. However, when controlling for other variables, only poor mental and physical health were significant in increasing the odds of mental health medication use. The analyses reported here suggest that DV/SA victims in a community sample use mental health medications. When controlling for other variables, survey respondents reported worse physical and mental health. If pharmacies are suitable portals for DV/SA outreach, curricula would need to provide the knowledge and skills needed to take an active role in this public health promotion.
Koehler, Tamara; Brown, Andrew
Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framework. A structured online survey instrument was administered globally using the Survey Monkey platform, designed to address the following topic areas: roles, responsibilities, supervision, education and legislation. The survey was circulated to International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations and a variety of global list serves where pharmaceutical services are discussed. 193 entries from 67 countries and territories were included in the final analysis revealing a vast global variety with respect to the pharmacy support workforce. From no pharmacy technicians or other pharmacy support workforce cadres in Japan, through a variety of cadre interactions with pharmacists, to the autonomous practice of pharmacy support workforce cadres in Malawi. From strictly supervised practice with a focus on supply, through autonomous practice for a variety of responsibilities, to independent practice. From complete supervision for all tasks, through geographical varied supervision, to independent practice. From on the job training, through certificate level vocational courses, to 3-4 year diploma programs. From well-regulated and registered, through part regulation with weak implementation, to completely non-regulated contexts. This paper documents wide differences in supervision requirements, education systems and supportive legislation for pharmacy support workforce cadres globally. A more detailed understanding of specific country practice settings is required if the use of pharmacy
The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...
Mohammad, Annim; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty Bouad
Low health literacy may result in adverse health outcomes for patients and is a problem faced by countries with multi-ethnic demography. For those of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, this problem can be compounded by language barriers such as low English proficiency (LEP). The pharmacy is often the last point of health-care provider contact before patients begin taking their medicines and the first point of care for minor ailments. There is a paucity of data exploring or establishing the needs of this population with respect to general medicine use/health information and pharmacist assistance. This study aimed to investigate the needs of CALD Australians with low or negligible English proficiency, specifically in regards to their understanding of health and medicines and the role of pharmacy in achieving best medicine use outcomes for this population. A qualitative method was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals of CALD backgrounds with a self-reported low or negligible English proficiency. The interviews explored past experiences with medicines use and interaction with health care professionals. A grounded theory approach with the method of constant comparison was undertaken for analyzing the data. Interviews were conducted until there was a saturation of themes. Thirty-one interviews were conducted, and data analyses identified themes relating to medicine use of CALD community members which were broadly categorized into: (1) health information, (2) interactions with health care professionals, (3) social networks and (4) perceptions and beliefs influencing health-related behavior. In CALD communities there are significant barriers to patient understanding and optimal use of medicines. There is significant potential for pharmacy to facilitate in addressing these issues as currently pharmacy is largely playing the role of dispenser of medicines. Whilst timely access of medicines is being ensured, there seems
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called "Ljekaruše" (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A
This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.
Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients' relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of laws and regulations for drug sales.
Eukel, Heidi N; Frenzel, Jeanne E; Cernusca, Dan
Objective. To design an educational game that will increase third-year professional pharmacy students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and to evaluate their perceived value of the game. Methods. Faculty members created an innovative educational game, the diabetes escape room. An authentic escape room gaming environment was established through the use of a locked room, an escape time limit, and game rules within which student teams completed complex puzzles focused on diabetes disease management. To evaluate the impact, students completed a pre-test and post-test to measure the knowledge they've gained and a perception survey to identify moderating factors that could help instructors improve the game's effectiveness and utility. Results. Students showed statistically significant increases in knowledge after completion of the game. A one-sample t -test indicated that students' mean perception was statistically significantly higher than the mean value of the evaluation scale. This statically significant result proved that this gaming act offers a potential instructional benefit beyond its novelty. Conclusion. The diabetes escape room proved to be a valuable educational game that increased students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and showed a positive perceived overall value by student participants.
Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Fanizza, Frank A; Ruisinger, Janelle F; Prohaska, Emily S; Melton, Brittany L
To describe the incorporation of a state health information exchange (HIE) into a community pharmacy transitions of care (TOC) service and to assess its impact on 30-day readmission rates. Three suburban community pharmacies in Olathe, Kansas. Balls Food Stores is a grocery store chain which operates 21 supermarket community pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Balls Food Stores launched a pharmacist-led self-referral TOC study in which a state HIE was utilized to collect discharge information from patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) to facilitate TOC comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs). Descriptive statistics were used to assess types and outcomes of identified drug therapy problems and the ability to access Kansas Health Information Network EMRs. A chi-square test was used to assess 30-day readmissions between patients who accepted and declined the service. Forty patients were identified for inclusion and 18 elected to participate in the service. The majority of participants were white females with a median age of 64.5 years. Out of 40 study patients, 85% had an EMR available; 12.5% of patients had a medication list included in their EMR hospitalization documentation. Participants who underwent the service had a statistically significantly lower rate of overall 30-day hospital readmission than those who declined (11.1% vs 36.4%, P = 0.032). Among the 18 TOC CMRs performed, 90 drug therapy problems were identified and 77 were resolved in collaboration with a patient, caregiver, or physician. Incorporation of a state HIE into a community pharmacist-led TOC service is a novel strategy for collecting patient data. During the study, no TOC participants were readmitted within 30 days. However, pharmacists found HIE data alone was insufficient to perform TOC CMRs for the majority of participants. In order to expand state HIE utilization, more health systems will need to upload a minimum standard data set to help facilitate care. Copyright © 2018
Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Konduri, Niranjan
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between student-life stress and health related quality of life (HRQOL) among Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students. Data were collected for 166 students in the first three years of a Pharm.D. curriculum. Student-Life Stress Inventory scores were significantly negatively correlated to mental…
O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.
Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha
Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p critical-thinking skills in pharmacy students.
Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko
For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.
Johnson, Kalin L; Alsharif, Naser Z; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D; Hogue, Michael D
International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors' collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.
Motycka, Carol; Williams, Jennifer S.; Hogan, Thanh; Gray, Matthew; Hartman, Jennifer
The primary purpose of schools and colleges of pharmacy is to produce pharmacists capable of providing competent patient centered care. To accomplish this goal, pharmacy students must learn and retain a great deal of knowledge as well as develop professional attitudes and behaviors. In recent years, several articles have been published questioning…
Amerine, Lindsey B Poppe; Granko, Robert P; Savage, Scott W; Daniels, Rowell; Eckel, Stephen F
The experience of health-system pharmacy administration (HSPA) residents in a longitudinal human resource (HR) management program is described. The subsequent benefits to the residents, department, and profession are also discussed. Postgraduate year 2 HSPA residents at an academic medical center desired more responsibility for managing an operational area. To this end, a program was created in which these residents directly manage a small group of pharmacy technicians and report to a clinical manager or assistant director with oversight responsibility. These "resident managers" are responsible, under the direction of the area's clinical manager, for the personnel, schedule, time and attendance, and HR activities of the area. Resident managers have led and sustained operational improvement projects in their areas. In addition to providing learning experiences to residents, the HSPA residency program has also improved the operations of the areas in which these residents work. Benefits to the residents include conducting annual performance evaluations for employees with whom they have a relationship as it is a task every administrator completes. Resident managers at UNC have consistently stated that this longitudinal HR experience is one of the most rewarding and most challenging experiences offered in the two-year HSPA residency. The involvement of HSPA residents in longitudinal management responsibilities furthers residents' leadership success by providing trained managers who are ready to immerse themselves into practice postresidency, having employee engagement and HR skills as well as experiences with leading operational improvements. A longitudinal HR management experience was successfully incorporated into an HSPA residency combined Master of Science degree program. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
Pharmacists' provision of medication counseling and medication review has been shown to improve adherence and resolve drug-related problems. Lack of knowledge of mental health conditions and negative beliefs may act as a barrier to the provision of pharmacy services. It is unclear how pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes impact their provision of pharmacy services. To explore the relationship between pharmacists' level of mental health stigma, mental health literacy and behavioral intentions in relation to providing pharmacy services for consumers with schizophrenia. A survey instrument containing a measure of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items relating to the provision of pharmacy services for consumers with schizophrenia compared to cardiovascular disease, was mailed to a random sample of 1000 pharmacists registered with the Pharmacy Board of New South Wales in November 2009. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between stigma, knowledge and behavior. Responses were received from 188 pharmacists. Pharmacists were significantly more confident and comfortable to provide services to consumers with a cardiovascular illness than a mental illness. Social distance, β = -0.11 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.01, P = 0.03), and schizophrenia literacy scores, β = 1.02, (95% CI: 0.54, 1.50, P mental health stigma and high levels of schizophrenia literacy were associated with pharmacists being more willing to provide medication counseling and identify drug-related problems for consumers with schizophrenia. This demonstrates the importance of improving knowledge and stigma surrounding schizophrenia to improve service delivery for consumers taking medications for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lucas, Amber; Massey, Lindsay; Gill, Taylor; Burger, Gregory; Little, Jeff D
The successful enactment of mandatory pharmacy technician certification in Kansas is described. In 2004, Kansas began requiring registration of all pharmacy technicians with the state board of pharmacy. Registration identified individuals working as pharmacy technicians but did not require any specific education or certification. In September 2012, the Kansas Board of Pharmacy created a task force of key stakeholders including pharmacists from multiple areas of practice, the University of Kansas School of Pharmacy, organizational leaders from the Kansas Council of Health-System Pharmacists (KCHP) and Kansas Pharmacists Association, and professional lobbyists. The goals of this task force were to research practices of technician certification in other states and to make recommendations to the state board of pharmacy on how Kansas could accomplish mandatory technician certification. The task force outlined the steps needed to achieve legislation that could be supported by the members. These topics included the creation of a technician trainee category, grandfathering certain technicians who had been practicing for a designated period of time, state board-approved exemptions, training requirements, age and education requirements, continuing-education requirements, and pharmacist:technician ratio. The recommendations were finalized at the August 2013 Kansas Pharmacy Summit, and the proposed legislation was introduced and passed during the 2014 legislative session. KCHP members learned many valuable lessons about advocacy and the legislative process with this initiative, including building relationships, working with legislators, and working with other professional organizations. The formation of a task force led to the successful passage of a bill granting the Kansas Board of Pharmacy the authority to issue regulations regarding mandatory pharmacy technician certification. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoorman, James J.
Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…
Hicks, Dave; McCarthy, Bryan; Fanikos, John; Emamifar, Amir; Nedved, Andrea; Thompson, Bruce; Bender, Fred; McMahon, Patrick
Our team surveyed a group of pharmacy directors to learn about their experiences with pharmacy consultants so that the directors might be able to use their consulting resources in a more effective manner. In May 2012, the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Pharmacy Council Financial Performance Committee developed an electronic survey that collectively measured the characteristics, goals, and methodology of historical pharmacy consultant engagements and level of satisfaction. After e-mailing the initial electronic survey, we conducted follow-up telephone interviews with respondents from July through November 2012. These interviews were designed to include questions about expected outcomes, recommendations for evaluation processes, timelines for implementing the recommendations, consultants' expenses, and insights gained. A total of 23 pharmacy directors responded to the initial electronic survey; their organizations had engaged at least one consultant within the previous 5 years. Data were collected for 28 consultant engagements. Subsequent telephone interviews were conducted with 20 of the 23 pharmacy directors (87%) who completed the initial electronic survey, accounting for 25 of the 28 consultant engagements (89%). Cost reduction along with revenue enhancement was most often the focus of these engagements. These engagements were also mainly within the scope of an organization-wide effort initiated by the executive board or executive team. Consultant experiences varied greatly in terms of (1) the degree to which assistance was provided to the organization, (2) benchmarking methodologies and resources, and (3) timelines for implementing the consultants' recommendations. In general, most respondents rated their consultant experience as positive and were able to provide "pearls of wisdom" or lessons learned.
Anderson, Claire; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Armstrong, Miriam
Abstract Objective To systematically review feedback from pharmacy users on their perceptions and experiences of health‐related advice and services provided from community pharmacies. Methods The focus of the review was community pharmacy activities in relation to promoting health and well‐being, preventing ill‐health and maintaining health. Searches were conducted for peer‐reviewed (international) and non‐peer‐reviewed (UK) research. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; hand searches of key journals and conference abstracts, key informants. Key informants in the UK were contacted to identify unpublished studies. The inclusion period was 1990 onwards. Data extraction and synthesis Data were abstracted into a matrix by one author with a sample checked by a second. The Health Development Agency's Evidence Base 2000 standards and the evidence categories used by the Department of Health in the National Service Frameworks were applied to each item. Main results Seven peer reviewed papers and 13 non‐peer reviewed reports were identified for inclusion in the review. Consumer usage of pharmacies is almost universal with prescription supplies and purchase of over the counter medicines predominating. Evidence shows that not only is usage low for general health advice, but that pharmacists are perceived as ‘drugs experts’ rather than experts on health and illness. Emergency hormonal contraception and head lice management schemes have been well received. There is a need to consider privacy and confidentiality surrounding advice giving. Conclusions Users of community pharmacy‐based health development initiatives express a high level of satisfaction. If community pharmacies are to be used to their full extent, then actions to extending the public's awareness and acceptance of the pharmacist's role in giving advice will be crucial. Further research will be needed to
Museo de la Farmacia Habanera y el adulto mayor: cita con el patrimonio farmacéutico y con temas de educación para la salud Museum of Havanan Pharmacy and of third age: a an appointment with pharmaceutical heritage and with susbjects on health education
Caridad Sedeño Argilagos
municipales.The Havana Pharmacy Musseum is an institution bringing togheter and exposes valuable historical heritages of pharmaceutical profession of XIX and XX centuries. It is sponsored by the Cultural Heritages Management from the Office of the Havana City Historian and it is annexed as part of the Third Age Care Program. Among the habitual spaces is the weekle meeting with elderlies from diverse grandparents circles from all capital municipalities of the. The sociocultural program organized in these habitual meetings starts qith a social breakfast allowing the intergroup indentification and exchange. Then, there is an integral visit to house-museum directed by a specialist of the institution and the program conclude with cultural, historical, interactive talks related to Pharmacy. During 2009 and with a montly frequency in the interctive program was included the subject on health education and the significance of the treatment adherence prescribed to achieve a good quality of life in third age. In the 10 meetings participate 187 elderlies from 7 Havana capital municipalities. Participants were in good psychosocial conditions demonstratiang independence, communitation and expression abilities in the debate at the end of the talk. Among participants there was predominance of female sex and the 46% was in 60-69 age groups. Chronic diseases prevailing were the high blood pressure and the diabetes mellitus. There was a low level of self-medication. Meetings finished with the participaton of all participants who recounted their social ,recreational and participatory experiences in the programs carried out in their respective municipal grandparents circles.
Marques dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis
Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program’s benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991
Kahlke, Renate; Eva, Kevin
Calls for enabling 'critical thinking' are ubiquitous in health professional education. However, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice as to what this term means and efforts to generate a universal definition have found limited traction. Moreover, the variability observed might suggest that multiplicity has value that the quest for universal definitions has failed to capture. In this study, we sought to map the multiple conceptions of critical thinking in circulation in health professional education to understand the relationships and tensions between them. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to explore conceptions of critical thinking with educators from four health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work. Four participants from each profession participated in two individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, the latter of which induced reflection on a visual depiction of results generated from the first set of interviews. Three main conceptions of critical thinking were identified: biomedical, humanist, and social justice-oriented critical thinking. 'Biomedical critical thinking' was the dominant conception. While each conception had distinct features, the particular conceptions of critical thinking espoused by individual participants were not stable within or between interviews. Multiple conceptions of critical thinking likely offer educators the ability to express diverse beliefs about what 'good thinking' means in variable contexts. The findings suggest that any single definition of critical thinking in the health professions will be inherently contentious and, we argue, should be. Such debates, when made visible to educators and trainees, can be highly productive.
Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J
Background While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. Methods In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Results Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2–10) at pharmacies, 3 (1–3) at private clinics and 5 (2–17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. Conclusions In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes. PMID:23698510
Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J
While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2-10) at pharmacies, 3 (1-3) at private clinics and 5 (2-17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes.
Chang, Huan Ying; Poh, David Yan Hong; Wong, Li Lian; Yap, John Yin Gwee; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern
Serious games are motivating and provide a safe environment for students to learn from their mistakes without experiencing any negative consequences from their actions. However, little is known about students' gaming preferences and the types of serious games they like to play for education. This study aims to determine the types of gaming aspects that students would like to play in a pharmacy-related serious game. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered survey, which obtained students' responses on their preferences regarding various gaming aspects (reward systems, game settings, storylines, viewing perspectives, and gaming styles) and for a hypothetical gaming scenario (authentic simulation or post-apocalyptic fantasy). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analyses. Response rate was 72.7% (497/684 undergraduates). The most popular game reward systems were unlocking mechanisms (112/497, 22.5%) and experience points (90/497, 18.1%). Most students preferred fantasy/medieval/mythic (253/497, 50.9%) and modern (117/497, 23.5%) settings, but lower year undergraduates preferred modern settings less than upper year seniors (47/236, 19.9% vs 70/242, 28.9%, P=.022). Almost one-third (147/497, 29.6%) preferred an adventurer storyline or an authentic pharmacy-related plot (119/497, 23.9%), and a collaborative game style was most preferred by the students (182/497, 36.6%). Three-dimensional game perspectives (270/497, 54.3%) were more popular than two-dimensional perspectives (221/497, 44.5%), especially among males than females (126/185, 68.1% vs 142/303, 46.9%, Pgame, a post-apocalyptic fantasy game (scenario B, 287/497, 57.7%) was more popular than an authentic simulation game (scenario A, 209/497, 42.1%). More males preferred the post-apocalyptic fantasy scenario than females (129/187, 69.0% vs 155/306, 50.7%, Pgame, based on an adventurer storyline with an unlocking mechanism reward system. A
Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika
Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957
Hall, Susan; Grant, Gary; Arora, Devinder; Karaksha, Abdullah; McFarland, Amelia; Lohning, Anna; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology are difficult topics to both teach and learn given the complex nature of drug mechanisms and drug-receptor interactions. This highlights the need for innovative teaching methods to deliver this information to students. One such method is through three-dimensional (3D) printing of enzymes and ligands in the teaching of molecular modelling concepts relating to drug-receptor and enzyme interactions be ligands. This type of printing has been shown to be beneficial in several educational settings; however, to our knowledge, its effectiveness in pharmacy, medicinal chemistry and pharmacology learning and teaching is largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacy student perceptions and the educational benefits of 3D printed molecules in molecular modelling with regards to engagement and learning outcomes when used in a drug-target interaction topic. This aim was achieved through administering students a short questionnaire designed to evaluate their engagement and learning outcomes with students also free to provide comments. This study found that nearly all (>90%) students found the activity was useful in improving both student engagement and learning outcomes. In conclusion, 3D printing may provide an alternative learning activity to help pharmacy students understand the drug-target interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The OneVA Pharmacy application design consists of 3 main components: VistA Medication Profile screen, Health Data Record Clinical Data Service (HDR/CDS), and OneVA...
Jacob, Bobby; White, Annesha; Shogbon, Angela
Objective: To measure student pharmacists' spirituality utilizing validated survey instruments and to determine perceptions regarding the anticipated role of spirituality in academic course work and professional practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The survey was offered to all first-year student pharmacists during the first week of the fall semester (2012-2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: A total of 580 students (98%) participated. The majority of students reported having each of the spiritual experiences on most days of the week or more frequently (58% to 89% based on individual item). Furthermore, 57% of students anticipate that matters of spirituality would be significant components of academic course work and 75% anticipate they would be incorporated into eventual professional practice settings. These perceptions were positively correlated to measures of spirituality and religiosity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that faculty should evaluate current and future incorporation of topics related to spirituality and health in pharmacy curriculum.
Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple
Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan
To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P knowledge on advice giving but poorer drug dispensing in moderate migraine according to the guidelines, relative to non-pharmacists (20.5% vs 40.3%, P = .014). A large number of community pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff had inappropriate practice behavior and understanding. Continuing education and interventions are important to improve the practice and knowledge of pharmacy personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.
Luder, Heidi; Frede, Stacey; Kirby, James; King, Keith; Heaton, Pamela
The purpose of this study was to survey new enrollees in a community pharmacy, employer-based diabetes and hypertension coaching program to describe the characteristics, health beliefs, and cues to action of newly enrolled participants. A 70-question, 5-point Likert-type survey was developed using constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). New enrollees in the coaching programs completed the survey. Survey responses between controlled and uncontrolled patients and patient demographics were compared. Between November 2011 and November 2012, 154 patients completed the survey. Patients were fairly well controlled with a mean hemoglobin A1C of 7.3% and a mean blood pressure of 134/82 mm Hg. The strongest cue to action for enrollment was the financial incentives offered by the employer (mean: 3.33, median: 4). White patients were significantly more motivated by financial incentives. More patients indicated they had not enrolled previously in the program because they were unaware it was available (mean: 2.89, median 3.0) and these patients were more likely to have an uncontrolled condition (P ≤ 0.050). A top factor motivating patients to enroll in a disease management coaching program was the receipt of financial incentives. Significant differences in HBM, TPB, and TRA responses were seen for patients with different demographics. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine
CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.
Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina
The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.
Full Text Available Fahmida Chowdhury,1 Katharine Sturm-Ramirez,1,2 Abdullah Al Mamun,1 A Danielle Iuliano,2 Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan,1 Mohammod Jobayer Chisti,1 Makhdum Ahmed,1 Sabbir Haider,3 Mahmudur Rahman,3 Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner2 1Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome.Results: We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62% sought care for themselves and 116 (38% sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71% were males. The majority (90% of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6% had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4% from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%, lower cost (46%, availability of medicine (33%, knowing the drug seller (20%, and convenient hours of operation (19%. The most commonly recommended drugs were
Arbesú Michelena, Ma Antonieta; Sedeño Argilagos, C. Caridad; Fernández Argüelles, Rogelio Alberto
Introduction: oncological patients are cared for at all health care system levels. The pharmaceutical professional requires unifying instructions for his/her work in order to be part of the health team. Currently, there is no domestic literature for the pharmaceutical services, mainly that one devoted to oncological area, which comprises in just one text all the functional requirements and directs his/her professional daily work. Objective: to verify the requirement for national integral literature for the development of the oncological pharmaceutical service work. Methods: one two-question questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge of experts and another with eight questions to learn about the requirement for literature on oncological pharmaceutical service adapted to the conditions of the Cuban health system. The questionnaires were e-mailed to 15 pharmacists who had an outstanding experience in several activities of the oncological pharmacy. Results: ten university experts, with 14.5 years of work experience as average in assistance activities from three provinces, responded. Two were excluded because their low level of information on oncological activity; poor incorporation of the pharmacist involved in services to activities inherent to his/her formation. All the experts believed that it was necessary to have a comprehensive text on the tasks, functions and activities linked to the oncological patient care, and to use the formal learning pathways for updating. A positive association with the favorable answers (1.40) was noticed. Conclusions: there exists a need for a text as a guide of the oncological pharmaceutical services according to the demands of the Cuban health care system. (author) 1
This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi
The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project.
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…
Erni, Pina; von Overbeck, Jan; Reich, Oliver; Ruggli, Martine
The Swiss Pharmacists Association has launched a new collaborative project, netCare. Community pharmacists provide a standard form with structured triage based on decision trees and document findings. As a backup, they can collaborate with physicians via video consultation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of this service on the Swiss health care system. All pharmacists offering netCare completed two training courses, a course covering the most common medical conditions observed in primary health care and a specific course on all of the decision trees. The pharmacists were free to decide whether they would provide the usual care or offer netCare triage. The patient was also free to accept or refuse netCare. Pharmacists reported the type of ailment, procedure of the consultation, treatment, patient information and outcomes of the follow-up call on a standardized form submitted to the study center. Pharmacists from 162 pharmacies performed 4118 triages over a period of 21 months. A backup consultation was needed for 17% of the cases. In follow-up calls, 84% of the patients who were seen only by pharmacists reported complete relief or symptom reduction. netCare is a low-threshold service by which pharmacists can manage common medical conditions with physician backup, if needed. This study showed that a pharmacist could resolve a large proportion of the cases. However, to be efficient and sustainable, this service must be fully integrated into the health care system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists upon graduation. A quantitative survey, which includes two standardized instruments, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), was administered to students at five schools of pharmacy in the northeast United States, resulting in a total of 399 responses. The findings confirm the significance of paid experiences and increased levels of a student's self-efficacy in a pharmacy setting. The other finding was related to ethnicity where the Asian/Pacific Islander students showed lower self-efficacy than other ethnic groups, which may be due to a cultural difference in displaying traits of high self-efficacy. Self-esteem also showed a positive finding for students with paid experiences and students who were older. There was an ethnicity finding where Asian/Pacific Islanders scored lower on the self-esteem scale, while the African-Americans scored higher than all the other groups. The results show that students improve their levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem through extended practical experiences. Schools should provide structured experiences of a sufficient length, beyond the present 300 hours, to prepare students for their transition into a professional role. Educators should be aware of the difference in Asian/Pacific Islander culture and encourage students to demonstrate their self-efficacy and self-esteem so other professionals can recognize them for their attributes.
Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L
Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Steckler, Taylor J; Brownlee, Michael J; Urick, Benjamin Y; Farley, Matthew J
Pharmacy informatics involves the customization and application of information technology to improve medication-related processes. It is a critical function given the recent expansion of technology and prevalence of medication use throughout healthcare. Despite the necessity for pharmacy involvement, many pharmacists and student pharmacists are unaware of how to get started in informatics. Ideally, training should start early with student pharmacists being enrolled in introductory courses taught by leaders in the field. Students especially interested in informatics can build upon their classroom experience with postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies in several informatics-related areas. Additionally, current pharmacists can gather information from national pharmacy organizations and local information technology pharmacists to prepare for projects in the field. These approaches provide opportunities for all pharmacists to expand their knowledge and establish the basis for highly-motivated pharmacists to become experts in informatics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka; Brechtelsbauer, Erich; Goff, Debra A
Health-system and community pharmacy practice in the United States is experiencing transformational change; however, this transformation is lagging in the international arena. As a result, efforts are being made to provide support and education to the international pharmacy leaders and practitioners. This article describes one effort, the Mandela Washington Fellows Program, and suggests areas where pharmacy leaders can be involved to help advance the practice of pharmacy on an international level. The Mandela Washington Fellows Program for young Africa leaders consists of a US-Africa pharmacy-mentoring program identified ranging from educational opportunities to collaboration for implementation of patient care programs. The specifics of the mentoring program include daily meetings, clinic and ward rounds, round table discussions with mentors, and visits to various hospital care systems. Lessons were learned and strategies for sustaining the program are discussed. These types of programs represent leadership opportunities that may not be apparent to most pharmacy directors, but expanding their view to helping international pharmacists expand their practice only strengthens the professional goal of providing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Full Text Available Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty.Results: The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%; inadequate communication style (21.9%; lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7% and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%.Conclusions: These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients.
Hammett, Theodore M; Phan, Son; Gaggin, Julia; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nicholas; Lutnick, Alexandra; Kral, Alex H; Fedorova, Ekaterina V; Heimer, Robert; Small, Will; Pollini, Robin; Beletsky, Leo; Latkin, Carl; Des Jarlais, Don C
People who inject drugs (PWID) are underserved by health providers but pharmacies may be their most accessible care settings. Studies in the U.S., Russia, Vietnam, China, Canada and Mexico employed a three-level (macro-, meso-, and micro-) model to assess feasibility of expanded pharmacy services for PWID. Studies employed qualitative and quantitative interviews, review of legal and policy documents, and information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of key stakeholders. Studies produced a mixed assessment of feasibility. Provision of information and referrals by pharmacies is permissible in all study sites and sale and safe disposal of needles/syringes by pharmacies is legal in almost all sites, although needle/syringe sales face challenges related to attitudes and practices of pharmacists, police, and other actors. Pharmacy provision of HIV testing, hepatitis vaccination, opioid substitution treatment, provision of naloxone for drug overdose, and abscess treatment, face more serious legal and policy barriers. Challenges to expanded services for drug users in pharmacies exist at all three levels, especially the macro-level characterized by legal barriers and persistent stigmatization of PWID. Where deficiencies in laws, policies, and community attitudes block implementation, stakeholders should advocate for needed legal and policy changes and work to address community stigma and resistance. Laws and policies are only as good as their implementation, so attention is also needed to meso- and micro- levels. Policies, attitudes, and practices of police departments and pharmacy chains as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individual PWID, individual pharmacies, and police officers should support rather than undermine positive laws and expanded services. Despite the challenges, pharmacies remain potentially important venues for delivering health services to PWID.
Rafie, Sally; McIntosh, Jennifer; Gardner, Debra K; Gawronski, Kristen M; Karaoui, Lamis R; Koepf, Erin R; Lehman, Katherine Joy; McBane, Sarah; Patel-Shori, Nima M
Family planning remains a high priority area for the United States, with goals to increase the proportion of pregnancies that are intended, reduce pregnancy rates among adolescents, and increase contraceptive use prioritized in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Contraception intended for use after unprotected intercourse, known as emergency contraception, remains underutilized. Levonorgestrel is one method of oral emergency contraception, which prevents fertilization and does not disrupt an already established pregnancy; thus, timing of administration is critical. Despite data demonstrating safety and efficacy, evidence-based decision making has been overshadowed by politically charged actions involving levonorgestrel emergency contraception for over a decade. The Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy supports expanded access to levonorgestrel emergency contraception and removal of barriers such as age restrictions on the nonprescription drug product. Pharmacists remain a key provider of emergency contraceptive services and can help ensure timely access. In states where direct pharmacy access to emergency contraception is available, pharmacists are encouraged to participate. Education, research, and advocacy are other important responsibilities for pharmacists in this arena. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Gazda, Nicholas P; Griffin, Emily; Hamrick, Kasey; Baskett, Jordan; Mellon, Meghan M; Eckel, Stephen F; Granko, Robert P
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to share experiences after the development of a health-system pharmacy administration residency with a MS degree and express the need for additional programs in nonacademic medical center health-system settings. Summary: Experiences with the development and implementation of a health-system pharmacy administration residency at a large community teaching hospital are described. Resident candidates benefit from collaborations with other health-systems through master's degree programs and visibility to leaders at your health-system. Programs benefit from building a pipeline of future pharmacy administrators and by leveraging the skills of residents to contribute to projects and department-wide initiatives. Tools to assist in the implementation of a new pharmacy administration program are also described and include rotation and preceptor development, marketing and recruiting, financial evaluation, and steps to prepare for accreditation. Conclusion: Health-system pharmacy administration residents provide the opportunity to build a pipeline of high-quality leaders, provide high-level project involvement, and produce a positive return on investment (ROI) for health-systems. These programs should be explored in academic and nonacademic-based health-systems.
Oksas, Richard M.
To meet the needs of dental patients for pharmaceutical services, dental schools have upgraded their emphasis in teaching pharmacology and the professional associations have developed liaison between each other. This survey examines the nature and extent of pharmacy colleges' involvement with dentistry. (LBH)
Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Baldursdóttir, Stefanía Guðlaug
Background: Example solutions to problem sets and exams are provided in the majority of pharmacy courses at the University of Copenhagen. Aims: Since the impact and usage of examples solutions are unknown, we wanted to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the usage of example solutions a...
McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Sav, Adem; Kendall, Elizabeth; King, Michelle A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wheeler, Amanda J
Health professionals, including pharmacists, are encouraged to meet the needs of their consumers in an efficient and patient-centred manner. Yet, there is limited information as to what consumers with chronic conditions need from pharmacy as a healthcare destination or how well pharmacy staff understand these needs. The aim of this study was to identify service user priorities for ideal community pharmacy services for consumers with chronic conditions and their carers, and compare these priorities with what pharmacy staff think these groups want. The nominal group technique was undertaken with pharmacist, pharmacy support staff, consumer and carer groups in four Australian regions between December 2012 and April 2013. Participant ideas and priorities for ideal services or care were identified, and contextual insight was obtained by thematic analysis. Twenty-one nominal group sessions are accepted, including 15 consumer and carer, four pharmacist and two pharmacy support staff groups. Pharmacy staff views generally aligned with consumer priorities, such as access, affordability, patient-centred care and continuity and coordinated care, yet diverged with respect to consumer information or education on medication and services. Fundamentally, consumers and carers sought streamlined access to information and medication, in a coordinated, patient-centred approach. Alleviating financial burden was a key consumer priority, with a call for the continuation and extension of medication subsidies. Overall, pharmacy staff had a reasonable understanding of what consumers would prioritise, but further emphasis on the importance, delivery, or both, of consumer information is needed. Greater consideration is needed from policy makers regarding the financial barriers to accessing medication for consumers with chronic conditions.
Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and
Kirschenbaum, Bonnie E
To discuss the role of restricted drug distribution systems in the implementation of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), health-system pharmacists' concerns associated with the use of specialty pharmacies and other restricted drug distribution systems, reimbursement policies for high-cost specialty drugs, supply chain models for traditional and specialty drugs, and emerging trends in the management of and reimbursement for specialty pharmaceuticals. Restricted drug distribution systems established by pharmaceutical manufacturers, specialty pharmacies, or other specialty suppliers may be a component of REMS, which are required by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of known or potential serious risks from certain drugs. Concerns of health-system pharmacists using specialty suppliers include access to pharmaceuticals, operational challenges, product integrity, financial implications, continuity of care, and patient safety. An ambulatory care patient taking a specialty drug product from home to a hospital outpatient clinic or inpatient setting for administration, a practice known as "brown bagging," raises concerns about product integrity and institutional liability. An institution's finances, tolerance for liability, and ability to skillfully manage the processes involved often determine its choice between an approach that prohibits brown bagging but is costly and one that permits the practice under certain conditions and is less costly. The recent shift from a traditional supply chain model to a specialty pharmacy supply chain model for high-cost pharmaceuticals has the potential to increase pharmaceutical costs for health systems. A dialogue is needed between health-system pharmacists and group purchasing organizations to address the latter's role in mitigating the financial implications of this change and to help clarify the safety issues. Some health plans have shifted part of the cost of expensive drugs to patients by establishing a
Pharmacy study of natural health product adverse reactions (SONAR): a cross-sectional study using active surveillance in community pharmacies to detect adverse events associated with natural health products and assess causality.
Necyk, Candace; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C; Legatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L; Arnason, John T; Ware, Mark A; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Vohra, Sunita
To investigate the rates and causality of adverse event(s) (AE) associated with natural health product (NHP) use, prescription drug use and concurrent NHP-drug use through active surveillance in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study of screened patients. 10 community pharmacies across Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 14 January to 30 July 2011. The participating pharmacy staff screened consecutive patients, or agents of patients, who were dropping or picking up prescription medications. Patients were screened to determine the proportions of them using prescription drugs and/or NHPs, as well as their respective AE rates. All AEs reported by the screened patients who took a NHP, consented to, and were available for, a detailed telephone interview (14%) were adjudicated fully to assess for causality. Over a total of 105 pharmacy weeks and 1118 patients screened, 410 patients reported taking prescription drugs only (36.7%; 95% CI 33.9% to 39.5%), 37 reported taking NHPs only (3.3%; 95% CI 2.4% to 4.5%) and 657 reported taking prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently (58.8%; 95% CI 55.9% to 61.6%). In total, 54 patients reported an AE, representing 1.2% (95% CI 0.51% to 2.9%), 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 16.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.6%) of each population, respectively. Compared with patients who reported using prescription drugs, the patients who reported using prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently were 6.4 times more likely to experience an AE (OR; 95% CI 2.52 to 16.17; ppharmacies take NHPs and prescription drugs concurrently, and of those, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) report an AE. A substantial proportion of community pharmacy patients use prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently; these patients are at a greater risk of experiencing an AE. Active surveillance provides a means of detecting such AEs and collecting high-quality data on which causality assessment can be based.
Cor, M Ken
Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maria Bell, Jan Douglas, Christopher CuttsCentre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education, Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Social media is progressively being used for sharing health information and for networking among health professionals and patients; this is particularly evident among the younger age groups. There is great potential for pharmacy to engage in the utilization of such platforms to improve health outcomes, and this paper explores some of the areas where social media is already in use in pharmacy and potential areas where using social media could make a positive impact on the determinants of health. The literature around this subject is limited; nevertheless, the number of published studies has increased in recent years. This paper concentrates on the use and application of social media by pharmacy to improve health outcomes. The subject was explored in five main areas: provision of medicines information, safer use of medicines, medicines use in chronic disease, implementation of evidence-based medicine and guidelines, and finally clinical research. In each of these areas, there is an increase in uptake and use of social media platforms by pharmacists and other health care professionals to improve patient outcomes. A variety of the more popular social media platforms have been used by health care professionals and the relative merits of these are discussed within each of the subject areas and consideration given to their application in pharmacy practice. It is evident that the majority of social media users fall into the younger age bracket, which is understandable. However, the majority of patients living with long-term conditions typically fall into the older age bracket (over 65 years of age and this should be taken into account when utilizing social media platforms to improve health outcomes.Keywords: social media, pharmacy, outcomes, impact, health
Diane Macquart de Terline
Full Text Available Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences.To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery.We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France and in community pharmacies throughout France.Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4% were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6% were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2% questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46. Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80, nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16, and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44, along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95, the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88, and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38, were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material.This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.
Asayut, Narong; Sookaneknun, Phayom; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Saramunee, Kritsanee
Identify costs, outcomes and stakeholders' perspectives associated with incorporation of community pharmacy services into the Thai National Health Insurance System and their values to all stakeholders. Using a combination of search terms, a comprehensive literature search was performed using the Thai Journal Citation Index Centre, Health System Research Institute database, PubMed and references from recent reviews. Identified studies were published between January 2000 and December 2014. The review included publications in English and Thai on primary research undertaken in community pharmacies associated with the National Health Insurance System. Two independent authors performed study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The literature search yielded 251 titles, with 18 satisfying the inclusion criteria. Clinical outcomes of community pharmacy services included control and reduction in blood pressure and blood sugar, improved adherence to medications, an increase in acceptance of interventions, and an increase in healthy behaviours. Thirty-three percentage of those at risk of diabetes and hypertension achieved normal blood sugar and blood pressure levels after being followed for 2-6 months by a community pharmacist. The cost of collaborative screening by community pharmacies and primary care units was US$ 4.5. Diabetes management costs were US$ 5.1-30.7. Community pharmacists reported high satisfaction rates. Stakeholders' perspectives revealed support for the community pharmacists' roles and the inclusion of community pharmacies as partners with the National Health Insurance System. Community pharmacy services improved outcomes for diabetic and hypertensive patients. This review supports the feasibility of incorporating community pharmacies into the Thai National Health System. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Limpach, Aimee L; Bazrafshan, Parham; Turner, Paul D; Monaghan, Michael S
To evaluate the overall effectiveness of a human anatomy course taught to distance-based and campus-based pharmacy students. A retrospective analysis of students' grades and course evaluations from 2003 through 2006 was conducted. No significant differences in student performance by pathway were found for the 2003-2005 academic years (p > 0.05). However, distance-based students' percentage and letter grades were significantly higher in 2006 (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004 respectively). Comparison of course and instructor evaluations showed that students in the distance course held similar or more positive perceptions of the course than their campus peers. Similar performance by campus and distance students enrolled in a human anatomy suggests that a distance-based course can be used successfully to teach human anatomy to pharmacy students.
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping
Full Text Available Interprofessional education is essential in that it helps healthcare disciplines better utilize each other and provide team-based collaboration that improves patient care. Many pharmacy training programs struggle to implement interprofessional education. This purpose of the study was to examine the effect of a 30-h interprofessional training that included pharmacy students to determine if the training helped these students build valuable knowledge and skills while working alongside other health care professions. The interprofessional training included graduate-level trainees from pharmacy, behavioral health, nursing, and family medicine programs where the trainees worked within teams to build interprofessional education competencies based on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies. Sixteen pharmacy trainees participated in the training and completed pre- and post-test measures. Data were collected over a two-year period with participants completing the Team Skills Scale and the Interprofessional Attitudes Scale. Paired sample t-tests indicated that, after this training, pharmacy trainees showed significant increases in feeling better able to work in healthcare teams and valuing interprofessional practice.
Boland, Daubney; White, Traci; Adams, Eve
Interprofessional education is essential in that it helps healthcare disciplines better utilize each other and provide team-based collaboration that improves patient care. Many pharmacy training programs struggle to implement interprofessional education. This purpose of the study was to examine the effect of a 30-h interprofessional training that included pharmacy students to determine if the training helped these students build valuable knowledge and skills while working alongside other health care professions. The interprofessional training included graduate-level trainees from pharmacy, behavioral health, nursing, and family medicine programs where the trainees worked within teams to build interprofessional education competencies based on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies. Sixteen pharmacy trainees participated in the training and completed pre- and post-test measures. Data were collected over a two-year period with participants completing the Team Skills Scale and the Interprofessional Attitudes Scale. Paired sample t -tests indicated that, after this training, pharmacy trainees showed significant increases in feeling better able to work in healthcare teams and valuing interprofessional practice.
ag A ABURAS
Full Text Available Better education is required better advanced tools to be used for students. Smart phone becomes main part of our daily life. New medical design interface is introduced for medicine student based mobile. The Graphic User Interface must be easy and simple. The main interface design issue for mobile is simple and easy to use. Human Mobile Interaction-HMI is the most advanced research area at present time. This research work is introducing new HMI for On Table Counter-OTC. OTC is the medicine that can sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional. This research paper is introducing and creating new advanced teaching tool for higher education especially medical (Pharmacy students using smart phone. Advanced MHealth system for basic symptoms applied for training medical student to have the best selection (diagnose. The MHealth system will give small and best list of Free Prescription Medicine - FPM using mobile device platform. Johnson &Johnson (J&J Medicine Company has been used for creating our HMI mHealth database. It has one of the biggest OTC database medicine companies worldwide. J&J database is used for developing the proposed mHealth system. The main goal of this research work is designing smart and simple HMI interacting interface for the Mobile device. The research goal has been achieved. The OTC database size for mobile memory was 400KB. The proposed research work has been completed and new advanced HMI based mHealth application has been introduced.
Fuller, Patrick D
An innovative, structured approach to incorporating leadership development activities into pharmacy residency training is described. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has called for increased efforts to make leadership development an integral component of the training of pharmacy students and new practitioners. In 2007, The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) took action to systematize leadership training in its pharmacy residency programs by launching a new Leadership Development Series. Throughout the residency year, trainees at TNMC participate in a variety of activities: (1) focused group discussions of selected articles on leadership concepts written by noted leaders of the past and present, (2) a two-day offsite retreat featuring trust-building exercises and physical challenges, (3) a self-assessment designed to help residents identify and use their untapped personal strengths, (4) training on the effective application of different styles of communication and conflict resolution, and (5) education on the history and evolution of health-system pharmacy, including a review and discussion of lectures by recipients of ASHP's Harvey A. K. Whitney Award. Feedback from residents who have completed the series has been positive, with many residents indicating that it has stimulated their professional growth and helped prepared them for leadership roles. A structured Leadership Development Series exposes pharmacy residents to various leadership philosophies and principles and, through the study of Harvey A. K. Whitney Award lectures, to the thoughts of past and present pharmacy leaders. Residents develop an increased self-awareness through a resident fall retreat, a StrengthsFinder assessment, and communication and conflict-mode assessment tools.
Vetter, R.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.
'Full-Text:' There is more to education in radiation protection than curricula, courses and certificates. In a broader sense, education implies the provision of knowledge, the development of competence, and the promotion of understanding. These purposes are served by 'Health Physics', the journal of radiation protection. The leading role of the journal is supported by an Advisory Board composed of members of the IRPA Publications Commission. A review is presented of the diversity of material in Health Physics throughout the last few years and set against the historical background. Expansion in the range of topics is described as well as the increase in didactic content both theoretical and operational. The global range of contributions is noted as is the attempt to provide an international perspective on developments in the discipline. Plans for the future are discussed. (author)
Full Text Available Rosemin Kassam1, John B Collins2, Jonathan Berkowitz31School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, 3Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to validate previously published satisfaction scales in larger and more diversified patient populations; to expand the number of community pharmacies represented; to test the robustness of satisfaction measures across a broader demographic spectrum and a variety of health conditions; to confirm the three-factor scale structure; to test the relationships between satisfaction and consultation practices involving pharmacists and pharmacy students; and to examine service gaps and establish plausible norms.Methods: Patients completed a 15-question survey about their expectations regarding pharmaceutical care-related activities while shopping in any pharmacy and a parallel 15 questions about their experiences while shopping in this particular pharmacy. The survey also collected information regarding pharmaceutical care consultation received by the patients and brief demographic data.Results: A total of 628 patients from 55 pharmacies completed the survey. The pilot study’s three-factor satisfaction structure was confirmed. Overall, satisfaction measures did not differ by demographics or medical condition, but there were strong and significant store-to-store differences and consultation practice advantages when pharmacists or pharmacists-plus-students participated, but not for consultations with students alone.Conclusion: Patient satisfaction can be reliably measured by surveys structured around pharmaceutical care activities. The introduction of pharmaceutical care in pharmacies improves patient satisfaction. Service gap details indicated that pharmacy managers need to pay closer attention to various consultative activities involving patients
Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...
Lorin B Grieve
Full Text Available Pharmacists utilize a myriad of communication methods to deliver patient care. One of the most prevalent communication methods is the telephone. The University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy created a novel instructional and assessment technique to enhance student pharmacist training experiences in telephonic communication within the PharmD curriculum. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties Type: Note
K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...
Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli
Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.
Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D
Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Meyerson, Beth E; Davis, Alissa; Agley, Jon D; Shannon, David J; Lawrence, Carrie A; Ryder, Priscilla T; Ritchie, Karleen; Gassman, Ruth
Pharmacies have much to contribute to the health of people who inject drugs (PWID) and to community efforts in HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevention through syringe access. However, little is known about what predicts pharmacy syringe sales without a prescription. To identify factors predicting pharmacy syringes sales to PWID. A hybrid staggered online survey of 298 Indiana community pharmacists occurred from July-September 2016 measuring pharmacy policy, practice, and pharmacist perceptions about syringe sales to PWID. Separate bivariate logistical regressions were followed by multivariable logistic regression to predict pharmacy syringe sales and pharmacist comfort dispensing syringes to PWID. Half (50.5%) of Indiana pharmacies sold syringes without a prescription to PWID. Pharmacy syringe sales was strongly associated with pharmacist supportive beliefs about syringe access by PWID and their comfort level selling syringes to PWID. Notably, pharmacies located in communities with high rates of opioid overdose mortality were 56% less likely to sell syringes without a prescription than those in communities with lower rates. Pharmacist comfort dispensing syringes was associated with being male, working at a pharmacy that sold syringes to PWID and one that stocked naloxone, having been asked about syringe access by medical providers, and agreement that PWID should be able to buy syringes without a prescription. As communities with high rates of opioid overdose mortality were less likely to have pharmacies that dispensed syringes to PWID, a concerted effort with these communities and their pharmacies should be made to understand opportunities to increase syringe access. Future studies should explore nuances between theoretical support for syringe access by PWID without a prescription and actual dispensing behaviors. Addressing potential policy conflicts and offering continuing education on non-prescription syringe distribution for pharmacists may improve comfort
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B
Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Objective. To review literature pertaining to grit and resilience in health professions education. Findings. There is significant interest in grit and resilience throughout the health professions, but little has been published with regard to pharmacy. Although there are methodological issues with defining and measuring grit and resilience, several studies have shown relationships between the constructs and personal and academic well-being. Educational interventions aimed at increasing grit and resilience have produced mixed results. Developing protective factors appears to be the most common approach in helping students become more resilient. Summary. Literature pertaining to grit and resilience reveals that the terms are nuanced, complex, and difficult to measure and understand. Regardless, the general characteristics associated with grit and resilience are of interest to educators and warrant further study. PMID:29606705
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.
Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L
Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.
Extavour, Rian Marie; Allison, Gillian L
Blended learning (BL) integrates face-to-face and online instructional methods, with applications in pharmacy education. This study aimed to assess pharmacy students' perceptions of BL in a pharmacy seminar course at The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine campus, Trinidad and Tobago. Topics based on the use of medicines and public health were presented by student groups during live seminars, supplemented with online activities. An online survey of students' perceptions was administered at the end of the course. The usefulness of learning resources and course activities were assessed using 5-point Likert-like scales (1 = not helpful to 5 = very helpful). The effectiveness of the instructor, blended delivery, time value, and development of critical-thinking were rated on a 5-point Likert scale for agreement (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Topics that were most instructive and additional topics of interest were also identified. Approximately 51% of students (37/72) completed the questionnaire; 73% were female and mean age was 24 years. The learning resources and most course activities were generally helpful (median = 4) in facilitating learning. There was strong agreement (median = 5) on the ease of navigating the online platform, and instructor encouraging interest in pharmacy issues. Students agreed (median = 4) that the course facilitated critical thinking, the BL approach was effective, and the time spent was worthwhile. The most instructive topics included medication errors, antibiotic resistance, and medicines in children and the elderly. BL in pharmacy seminars is a valuable approach to engage students learning about pharmacy and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conway, Susan E; Smith, Winter J; Truong, Teresa H; Shadid, Jill
Interprofessional learning is a key component of today's health sciences education. Within a two-course series in dental pharmacology and therapeutics, a dental curriculum was revised to provide an interprofessional activity to expose dental students to a community pharmacy setting. The objectives of this activity were to augment students' learning about drug laws and prescription writing, as well as to foster interprofessional relationships and collaboration between pharmacists and dentists. Dental students were scheduled for one-hour observations at community pharmacies on campus. Learning objectives to guide this activity focused on demonstrating community pharmacy operating procedures, identifying ways to minimize prescribing and dosing errors, and understanding how pharmacists can assist dentists in prescribing. Following the observation, students were required to submit a written assignment, which accounted for 14 percent of their course grade. All 119 dental students (100 percent) enrolled in the course for the summers of 2012 and 2013 completed the activity. The average grade on the written assignment was 96.2 out of 100. At the end of the course, students were asked to participate in an online course evaluation survey, for which response rates were 37 percent and 43 percent for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The students rated the pharmacy observation activity favorably on this course evaluation. The pharmacy observation activity provided a successful interprofessional component to the didactic pharmacy course and was well received by the dental students as well as the community pharmacists.
Mathialagan, Amuthaganesh; Nagalinggam, Preesha; Mathialagan, Saravanabavan; Kirby, Brian P
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between performance barriers and competency, and implementation of an expanded public health role for community pharmacists. A validated questionnaire was utilised for this study whereby three variables of the study (performance barriers, competency and public health role) were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to target respondents of registered community pharmacies in five states (Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak and Penang) in Malaysia. The data were analysed utilising the principles of structural equation modelling. There were 191 completed and usable responses received, which represented a 66.7% response rate. This study showed perceived competency had a direct relationship with delivering a general public health role. A perceived lack of competency was shown to be a barrier to fulfilling a public health role. However, other factors, such as design of premises, IT infrastructure and pay, were not viewed as barriers to carrying out a public health role. Perceived competency is an obstacle for community pharmacists to undertake a public health role in Malaysia. Adequate training programmes in pharmaceutical public health have to be put in place to address this concern and this should therefore be a priority. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Hitch, William; Ransom, Matthew
To support a medical team, organized by Shoulder to Shoulder, with pharmacy services in an effort to expand ongoing health care to a rural community in Honduras. Pharmacy services in a temporary medical clinic in a schoolhouse in Colomarigua, a small mountain village in Honduras. Pharmacy services and medical care to address acute care needs of the people of Colomarigua, Honduras, during a week-long clinic. Interpreters assisted with patient counseling. Medication labels with pictures that connected doses to mealtimes increased patient understanding and the potential for medications to be dosed correctly. Fill lines were drawn on delivery devices for pediatric suspensions. An effort was made to avoid polypharmacy by communicating with physicians about the different prescriptions that were being prescribed in each household. Not applicable. Not applicable. We created a temporary clinic with a pharmacy and provided medical care to more than 600 children and adults in the surrounding regions. The medical team identified need for a feeding program, and local Shoulder to Shoulder teams began activities to support the community's development. Education programs were initiated to allow promising local children access to higher education. Challenges to providing optimal pharmaceutical care included language barriers, space and flow of the pharmacy, and a limited formulary. Benefits included gaining a whole new perspective on pharmacotherapy, health, and the importance of service to those in need whether abroad or at home.
Sales, Mariscelle M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Glassman, Peter A; Valentino, Michael A; Good, Chester B
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Healthcare Group (VA PBM) oversees the formulary for the entire VA system, which serves more than 4 million veterans and provides more than 108 million prescriptions per year. Since its establishment in 1995, the VA PBM has managed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical-related policies, including drug safety and efficacy evaluations, pharmacologic management algorithms, and criteria for drug use. These evidence-based practices promote, optimize, and assist VA providers with the safe and appropriate use of pharmaceuticals while allowing for formulary decisions that can result in substantial cost savings. The VA PBM also has utilized various contracting techniques to standardize generic agents as well as specific drugs and drug classes (eg, antihistamines, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, alpha-blockers, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors [statins]). These methods have enabled the VA to save approximately dollar 1.5 billion since 1996 even as drug expenditures continued to rise from roughly dollar 1 billion in fiscal year (FY) 1996 to more than dollar 3 billion in FY 2003. Furthermore, the VA PBM has established an outcomes research section to undertake quality-improvement and safety initiatives that ultimately monitor and determine the clinical impact of formulary decisions on the VA system nationwide. The experiences of this pharmacy benefits program, including clinical and contracting processes/procedures and their impact on the VA healthcare system, are described.
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South‑East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Astructured questionnaire was ...
Tang, D H; Warholak, T L; Hines, L E; Hurwitz, J; Brown, M; Taylor, A M; Brixner, D; Malone, D C
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a constellation of research methods designed to improve health care decision making. Educational programs that improve health care decision makers' CER knowledge and awareness may ultimately lead to more cost-effective use of health care resources. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in CER knowledge, attitudes, and ability among Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee members and support staff after attending a tailored educational program. Physicians and pharmacists from two professional societies and the Indian Health Service who participated in the P&T process were invited via email to participate in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, prior to and following the 4-hour live, educational program on CER to determine the impact on their related knowledge, attitudes, and ability to use CER in decision-making. Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability of subsections of the questionnaire and regression analysis was used to assess programmatic impact on CER knowledge, attitude, and ability. One hundred and forty of the 199 participants completed both the pre- and post-CER session questionnaires (response rate = 70.4%). Most participants (>75%) correctly answered eight of the ten knowledge items after attending the educational session. More than 60% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward CER both before and after the program. Compared to baseline (pretest), participants reported significant improvements in their perceived ability to use CER after attending the session in these areas: using CER reviews, knowledge of CER methods, identifying problems with randomized controlled trials, identifying threats to validity, understanding of evidence synthesis approaches, and evaluating the quality of CER (all P values CER educational program was effective in increasing participants' CER knowledge and self-perceived ability to evaluate
Donnelly, Amy; Shah, Smita; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
Objectives: The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the Triple A programme into the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum; (2) to compare the effect of the Triple A programme versus problem-based learning methods on the asthma knowledge of final-year pharmacy students and their perceived confidence in dealing…
Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit
Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists…
El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
Physicians have a responsibility to educate people about their health as well as to treat them. In fact, achievement of "Health for All" requires that people become educated about immunization, nutrition, family planning, and environmental sanitation. The goal of health education is to change behavior by changing attitudes. Health education encourages self-reliance and motivates people to make their own health-related decisions. In order to reach patients, physicians must bridge the social gap created by the gulf between technical priorities and what is really possible for people to achieve. The process of health education moves from the sender to the message to the channel to the receivers to the effects. Appropriate methods can be used for individual or group communication and methods can focus on information provision and/or behavior change. Participatory methods are effective in changing behavior and include group analysis of a situation, group dialogue, persuasion, and educational games. An effective strategy for individual instruction is woman-to-woman or child-to-child communication, which depends upon the identification of "key" women and children. Development of a community-based health education strategy relies on community participation and the involvement of influential members of the community. After a message has been transmitted, innovators will begin the new practice, early adopters will follow, and slow adopters will wait and watch. The innovators and early adopters can help reduce resistance to the innovation. While it is a slow process, health education can improve attitudes and behavior.
ICIT Report, 1976
This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…
Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency
Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies)…
Gastelurrutia, Miguel A; Benrimoj, S I Charlie; Castrillon, Carla C; de Amezua, María J Casado; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Faus, Maria J
To identify and prioritise facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy. Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 15) and pharmacy strategists (n = 18), and the results were examined using the content analysis method. In addition, two nominal groups (seven community pharmacists and seven strategists) were formed to identify and prioritise facilitators. Results of both techniques were then triangulated. Facilitators for practice change. Twelve facilitators were identified and grouped into four domains (D1: Pharmacist; D2: Pharmacy as an organisation; D3: Pharmaceutical profession; D4: Miscellaneous). Facilitators identified in D1 include: the need for more clinical education at both pre- and post-graduate levels; the need for clearer and unequivocal messages from professional leaders about the future of the professional practice; and the need for a change in pharmacists' attitudes. Facilitators in D2 are: the need to change the reimbursement system to accommodate cognitive service delivery as well as dispensing; and the need to change the front office of pharmacies. Facilitators identified in D3 are: the need for the Spanish National Professional Association to take a leadership role in the implementation of cognitive services; the need to reduce administrative workload; and the need for universities to reduce the gap between education and research. Other facilitators identified in this study include: the need to increase patients' demand for cognitive services at pharmacies; the need to improve pharmacist-physician relationships; the need for support from health care authorities; and the need for improved marketing of cognitive services and their benefits to society, including physicians and health care authorities. Twelve facilitators were identified. Strategists considered clinical education and pharmacists' attitude as the most important, and
Ragucci, Kelly R; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Campbell, Kristin Bova; Buck, Marcia L; Dager, William E; Donovan, Jennifer L; Emerson, Kayleigh; Gubbins, Paul O; Haight, Robert J; Jackevicius, Cynthia; Murphy, John E; Prohaska, Emily
The American College of Clinical Pharmacy and other stakeholder organizations seek to advance clinical pharmacist practitioners, educators, and researchers. Unfortunately, there remains an inadequate supply of residency-trained clinical specialists to meet the needs of our health care system, and nonspecialists often are called on to fill open specialist positions. The impact of clinical pharmacy specialists on pharmacotherapy outcomes in both acute care and primary care settings demonstrates the value of these specialists. This commentary articulates the need for postgraduate year two (PGY2)-trained clinical specialists within the health care system by discussing various clinical and policy rationales, interprofessional support, economic justifications, and their impact on quality of care and drug safety. The integrated practice model that has grown out of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) could threaten the growth and development of future clinical specialists. Therefore, the ways in which PGY2-trained clinical pharmacist specialists are deployed in the PPMI require further consideration. PGY2 residencies provide education and training opportunities that cannot be achieved in traditional professional degree programs or postgraduate year one residencies. These specialists are needed to provide direct patient care to complex patient populations and to educate and train pharmacy students and postgraduate residents. Limitations to training and hiring PGY2-trained clinical pharmacy specialists include site capacity limitations and lack of funding. A gap analysis is needed to define the extent of the mismatch between the demand for specialists by health care systems and educational institutions versus the capacity to train clinical pharmacists at the specialty level. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...
The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.
Poloyac, Samuel M; Block, Kirsten F; Cavanaugh, Jane E; Dwoskin, Linda P; Melchert, Russell B; Nemire, Ruth E; O'Donnell, James M; Priefer, Ronny; Touchette, Daniel R
Graduate education in the pharmaceutical sciences is a cornerstone of research within pharmacy schools. Pharmaceutical scientists are critical contributors to addressing the challenges of new drug discovery, delivery, and optimal care in order to ensure improved therapeutic outcomes in populations of patients. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) charged the 2016-2017 Research and Graduate Affairs Committee (RGAC) to define the competencies necessary for graduate education in the pharmaceutical sciences (Charge 1), recommend collaborative curricular development across schools of pharmacy (Charge 2), recommend AACP programing for graduate education (Charge 3), and provide guidance on emerging areas for innovation in graduate education (Charge 4). With respect to Charges 1 and 2, the RGAC committee developed six domains of core competencies for graduate education in the pharmaceutical sciences as well as recommendations for shared programming. For Charge 3, the committee made 3 specific programming recommendations that include AACP sponsored regional research symposia, a professional development forum at the AACP INterim Meeting, and the addition of a graduate research and education poster session at the AACP Annual Meeting. For Charge 4, the committee recommended that AACP develop a standing committee of graduate program deans and directors to provide guidance to member schools in support of graduate program representation at AACP meetings, develop skills for interprofessional teamwork and augment research through integration of Pharm.D., Ph.D., postdoctoral associates, resident, and fellow experiences. Two proposed policy statements by the committee are that AACP believes core competencies are essential components of graduate education and AACP supports the inclusion of research and graduate education focuses in its portfolio of meetings and programs.
Axon, David Rhys; Hernandez, Carlos; Lee, Jeannie; Slack, Marion
The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, management strategies, and outcomes of pain experienced by student pharmacists, and to discuss implications for pharmacy education. A questionnaire administered to student pharmacists collected data about their experience, management strategies, and outcomes of pain. Data were analyzed using t -tests, chi-square or Fisher's tests, and logistic regression. Of the 218 student pharmacists who completed the survey, 79% experienced pain in the past five years. Chronic pain impacted students' ability to work (15%) and attend school (9%). Respondents most commonly used prescription (38%) and over-the-counter (OTC, 78%) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and rest (69%) to manage pain. Men used more opioids, whereas women used more OTC NSAIDs ( p < 0.05). Emergency department visits were associated with increased prescription drug use to manage pain. This study found that 15% of student pharmacists had chronic pain in the past five years, which was managed with medical and non-medical strategies.
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...
Full Text Available Today, due to ever-increasing knowledge and large volumes of information, educational planners of various fields around the world, have been seeking to establish a better and faster refresh for learning. Integration can be a good educational strategy by blending different subjects and contents when presented to students. The aim of this study is to evaluate the medical literature about integration in the curriculum; its process, importance, necessity and different types of it.This review article was prepared by searching the PubMed database, Google Scholar and science direct websites, national and international journals in the field of medical education curricula. The keywords were educational planning, curriculum integration, and medical education with integration and incorporation.Integration and its eleven steps can be an important strategy in educational planning. According to various studies, integration can enhance the students’ learning and skills in medicinal and pharmaceutical care. It also improves the satisfaction of faculty and students, the quality of education and increases the students’ grades at their examinations. Considering the proper planning, cooperation and co-teaching of faculty members, focus on the desired performance of students and correct assessment of the fundamental principles of integration are crucial to this strategy.
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
Full Text Available This study describes the content of entrepreneurship education in health care education and the kinds of teaching methods that are used when teaching about entrepreneurship. Health care entrepreneurship has increased in many countries in recent decades and there is evidence that entrepreneurs have also a role in public health care. Therefore the health care professionals need to be educated to have the entrepreneurial skills. Education in the field of health care is still based on traditional forms of teaching and does not give enough attention to the issue of becoming an entrepreneur. The data was collected from teachers (n=111 via e-mail from six Finnish polytechnics. The data were analysed statistically and the open-ended questions were analysed via content analysis. Approximately 23% of the teachers had taught about entrepreneurship. The most popular teaching methods were company visits and cases, lecturing, and project work. The courses dealt with establishing a company, entrepreneurship in general, and marketing. Nearly all of the teachers had cooperated with the entrepreneurs or with the companies in question. Approximately 33% of the teachers took entrepreneurship into consideration often in other courses related to entrepreneurship.
Key words: Health Professionals' Education, Undergraduate Medical Education, Primary Health Care, Social. Medicine ... tion process to gather all health professions educations .... integrated program in the revised 5-year medical degree.
Financial risk management of pharmacy benefits in integrated health systems is explained. A managed care organization should assume financial risk for pharmacy benefits only if it can manage the risk. Horizontally integrated organizations often do not have much control over the management of drug utilization and costs. Vertically integrated organizations have the greatest ability to manage pharmacy financial risk; virtual integration may also be compatible. Contracts can be established in which the provider is incentivized or placed at partial or full risk. The main concerns that health plans have with respect to pharmacy capitation are formulary management and the question of who should receive rebates from manufacturers. The components needed to managed pharmacy financial risk depend on the type of contract negotiated. Health-system pharmacists are uniquely positioned to take advantage of opportunities opening up through pharmacy risk contracting. Functions most organizations must provide when assuming pharmacy financial risk can be divided into internal and external categories. Internally performed functions include formulary management, clinical pharmacy services and utilization management, and utilization reports for physicians. Functions that can be outsourced include claims processing and administration, provider- and customer support services, and rebates. Organizations that integrate the pharmacy benefit across the health care continuum will be more effective in controlling costs and improving outcomes than organizations that handle this benefit as separate from others. Patient care should not focus on payment mechanisms and unit costs but on developing superior processes and systems that improve health care.
Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor
The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Australian and New Zealand universities is largely unexamined despite its generally acknowledged benefit. Data are also limited about the use of IPE in teaching medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students. For this reason a web-based cross-sectional survey was used to gather information from Australian and New Zealand universities offering nursing, pharmacy or medical programs. Responses were received from 31 of the 43 (72%) target universities. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that they currently offer IPE experiences, but only 24% of these experiences met the accepted definition of IPE. Of the participants who offer IPE as defined by Center for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education, only 50% use it to teach medication safety. Timetabling restrictions and lack of appropriate teaching and learning resources were identified as the main barriers to implementation of IPE. All participants reported that staff development, multi-media and e-learning resources would be beneficial to IPE initiatives and the teaching of medication safety. Innovative approaches will be needed to overcome the barriers and facilitate the uptake of quality IPE more broadly. Web-based and e-learning options promise a possible way forward, particularly in the teaching of medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students.
Poster presented at International Conference "Communicating for Social Change: Lessons learnt from public health", Glocal NOMAD, Aidsnet (The Danish NGO Network on AIDS and Development), ADRA Denmark and Enreca Health. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University, May 4., 2010,Denmark....
Ovelil, Bernd Pflug
Ayurveda is prevention in itself. It is not necessary for Ayurveda to develop a comprehensive structure of preventive approaches as it is found in modern health education. On the other hand has Ayurveda not modernized its preventive principles according to the present living and working conditions of the people. It is so far not understood as integral part of the socio-economic development of the country. This has saved Ayurveda to become part of the highly structured and bureaucratic form of health care and health education- at the expense of not being consulted by others when working on a social health oriented development strategy. PMID:22556952
Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P
Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
NC van Wyk
Full Text Available Paolo Freire’s theory of critical thinking shows remarkable similarities to the principles supported by health education. In his capacity as Brazilian educationalist, Freire emphasized man’s active participation in his own development. Without this active involvement, growth and development become quite impossible to attain.
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.
Budzinski, Jason W; Farrell, Barbara; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M; Repchinsky, Carol; Jovaisas, Barbara; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique
To assess the use of an electronic knowledge resource to document continuing education activities and reveal educational needs of practicing pharmacists. Over a 38-week period, 67 e-mails were sent to 6,500 Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) members. Each e-mail contained a link to an e-Therapeutics+ Highlight, a factual excerpt of selected content from an online drug and therapeutic knowledge resource. Participants were then prompted to complete a pop-up questionnaire. Members completed 4,140 questionnaires. Participants attributed the information they learned in the Highlights to practice improvements (50.4%), learning (57.0%), and motivation to learn more (57.4%). Reading Highlight excerpts and completing Web-based questionnaires is an effective method of continuing education that could be easily documented and tracked, making it an effective tool for use with e-portfolios.
Awad, Abdelmoneim; Abahussain, Eman
To investigate self-reported practice of pharmacists regarding health promotion and education activities, explore the barriers that may limit their involvement in health promotion and education, and identify their willingness to participate in continuing education programs related to health education. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a pre-tested questionnaire on a sample of 223 community pharmacists. The extent of the pharmacists' involvement in counselling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients' health behaviour. The response rate was 92%. Information on medication use was the most frequent reason for consumers seeking community pharmacists' advice. The majority of respondents believed that behaviour related to the proper use of drugs was very important. There was less agreement on the importance of other health behaviours. Respondents indicated they were involved in counselling patients on health behaviours related to use of drugs as prescribed/directed, weight management, medicine contents and side effects, diet modification and stress reduction, but were less involved in counselling on other health behaviours. Respondents' perception of themselves as "most prepared" to counsel patients closely reflected their involvement. Pharmacists reported high levels of success in helping patients to achieve improvements in using their drugs properly compared to low levels in changing patients' personal health behaviours. The majority of respondents believed that pharmacists had a responsibility for counselling consumers on health behaviours (97%, 95% CI 95-99%), and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion (84%, 78-88%). Lack of pharmacists' time was reported by about 58% of respondents as the major barrier limiting pharmacists' provision of health
Gilbert, Elise M; Gerzenshtein, Lana
The integration of specialty pharmacy services and existing outpatient clinical pharmacy services within an infectious diseases (ID) clinic to optimize the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is described. The management of HIV-infected patients is a highly specialized area of practice, often requiring use of complex medication regimens for reduction of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections, and prevention of HIV transmission. To maximize the effectiveness and safety of treatment with antiretroviral agents and associated pharmacotherapies, an interdisciplinary team is often involved in patient care. At Chicago-based Northwestern Medicine (NM), the outpatient ID clinic has long worked with an interdisciplinary care team including physicians, clinical pharmacists, nurses, and social workers to care for patients with HIV infection. In April 2014, specialty pharmacy services for patients with HIV infection were added to the NM ID clinic's care model to help maintain continuity of care and enhance patient follow-up. The care model includes well-defined roles for clinical pharmacists, pharmacy residents and students on rotation, and licensed pharmacy technicians. Specialty pharmacy services, including medication education, prescription fulfillment, assistance with medication access (e.g., navigation of financial assistance programs, completion of prior-authorization requests), and treatment monitoring, allow for closed-loop medication management of the HIV-infected patient population. Integration of specialty pharmacy services with the interdisciplinary care provided in the outpatient NM ID clinic has enhanced continuity of care for patients with HIV infection in terms of prescription filling, medication counseling, and adherence monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Following the changes in the basic concepts of pharmaceutical science, the main opinion in pharmacy practice changed from “drug-oriented pharmacy” to “patient-oriented pharmacy”, leading to changes in the pharmacy education in many aspects.Methods: In the presented study, we compare Iran’s Pharm.D education system and the four of high ranking systems available in the world in term of pharmaceutical care related educations and how much is the portion of this type educations in the curriculum. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF with a rank of 2, The University of Michigan with a rank of 7, and the Universities of Pittsburgh and Purdue with ranks of almost under 50 in the world ranking have been selected.Results: The results showed, in the United States (US colleges about 60.5% of educational program was related to the pharmaceutical care concept. This calculation for the University of Waterloo was about 74%. The Saudi University compared, had about 47% related units. Regarding the Iranian program, when the specialized units after basic science were considered as the professional course, about 24% of them had a relationship with the pharmaceutical care. However, this was in the case that a student chooses the hospital internship instead of industry internship in the final year; otherwise, the percentage would reduce to 22.7%.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, and regarding internationally accepted standards, we strongly recommend to change the structure of pharmacy curriculum in Iran to improve the ability of students for patient-oriented services.
Devries, Jennifer; Rafie, Sally; Polston, Gregory
To design and implement a health system-wide program increasing provision of take-home naloxone in patients at risk for opioid overdose, with the downstream aim of reducing fatalities. The program includes health care professional education and guidelines, development, and dissemination of patient education materials, electronic health record changes to promote naloxone prescriptions, and availability of naloxone in pharmacies. Academic health system, San Diego, California. University of California, San Diego Health (UCSDH), offers both inpatient and outpatient primary care and specialty services with 563 beds spanning 2 hospitals and 6 pharmacies. UCSDH is part of the University of California health system, and it serves as the county's safety net hospital. In January 2016, a multisite academic health system initiated a system-wide overdose education and naloxone distribution program to prevent opioid overdose and opioid overdose-related deaths. An interdisciplinary, interdepartmental team came together to develop and implement the program. To strengthen institutional support, naloxone prescribing guidelines were developed and approved for the health system. Education on naloxone for physicians, pharmacists, and nurses was provided through departmental trainings, bulletins, and e-mail notifications. Alerts in the electronic health record and preset naloxone orders facilitated co-prescribing of naloxone with opioid prescriptions. Electronic health record reports captured naloxone prescriptions ordered. Summary reports on the electronic health record measured naloxone reminder alerts and response rates. Since the start of the program, the health system has trained 252 physicians, pharmacists, and nurses in overdose education and take-home naloxone. There has been an increase in the number of prescriptions for naloxone from a baseline of 4.5 per month to an average of 46 per month during the 3 months following full implementation of the program including
Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...
Gastelurrutia, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Castrillon, Carla Cristina; Faus, María José
To identify and assess barriers for dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of different cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study through semi-structured interviews followed by a descriptive analysis. Two groups of experts related to Spanish community pharmacy were chosen. One with 15 community pharmacists with a relevant professional activity, while the other group (n=18) was related to pharmacy strategists. The lack of university clinical oriented learning, lack of pharmacists' attitude towards change and some uncertainty over their professional future were identified as barriers at the pharmacists' level. In relation to pharmacy as an organization the lack of clear messages by their leaders and the small volume of Spanish pharmacies were identified as barriers. In the category of pharmacy profession, the current reimbursement system, the lack of university clinical education, and the lack of leadership by current representative organizations were the barriers found. The lack of real involvement by health authorities, the lack of knowledge about the objectives of pharmacy cognitive services, and the lack of demand of these services by patients where also identified as barriers. Finally, 12 barriers were identified and grouped into 6 categories. These barriers fit in with the barriers identified in other countries.
Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.
Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.
Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work. PMID:28439134
Jessica W. Skelley
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the baseline knowledge of fourth year student pharmacists on their ability to properly identify and categorize medication related problems (MRP during their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE in the ambulatory care setting, and to assess the efficacy of a written resource designed to educate and train users on identification and documentation of MRP's and used for this purpose with participating students on their ambulatory care APPE. Methods: A pretest consisting of ten multiple-choice questions was administered electronically to fourth year student pharmacists (N=18 at the start of their ambulatory care APPE. The test was designed to assess both the students' baseline knowledge regarding MRP's, and their ability to identify a wide variety of medication-related problems. Students then received a written copy of The Medication Therapy Intervention & Safety Documentation Program training manual and were asked to read it in its entirety in the first week of their APPE. Finally, students were given a posttest survey (identical to the pretest to complete to assess if their knowledge had increased from baseline. Results: The average score for the 18 students taking the baseline knowledge pre-test was 63.33%, indicating limited baseline knowledge regarding the identification and classification of MRP's. In assessing the effectiveness of the written training document, the overall posttest results compared to pretest results did not indicate improvement in students' knowledge or ability to properly identify and classify medication related problems (MRP after reviewing the training manual. The average scores declined from 63.33% on the pretest to 62.78% on the posttest, although this was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.884. However, a statistically significant decline in students' knowledge occurred on one specific question, which tested their ability to classify MRP's (p = 0.029. Conclusions: Based on the
... offer discounts to healthy activities in the area: Biking, hiking, or walking tours Museums Fitness clubs Farms Festivals Your hospital may offer discounts for: Retail stores such as sporting goods, health food, and art stores Acupuncture Skin care Eye ...
Consedine, Nathan S.; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Windsor, John A.
Given global demand on health workforces, understanding student enrollment motivations are critical. Prior studies have concentrated on variation in career and lifestyle values; the current work evaluated the importance of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of health career interests. We argue that emotional proclivities may be important and…
Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...
Marchand, Jon-Paul; Pearson, Marion L; Albon, Simon P
To examine faculty members' and students' use and perceptions of lecture recordings in a previously implemented lecture-capture initiative. Patterns of using lecture recordings were determined from software analytics, and surveys were conducted to determine awareness and usage, effect on attendance and other behaviors, and learning impact. Most students and faculty members were aware of and appreciated the recordings. Students' patterns of use changed as the novelty wore off. Students felt that the recordings enhanced their learning, improved their in-class engagement, and had little effect on their attendance. Faculty members saw little difference in students' grades or in-class engagement but noted increased absenteeism. Students made appropriate use of recordings to support their learning, but faculty members generally did not make active educational use of the recordings. Further investigation is needed to understand the effects of lecture recordings on attendance. Professional development activities for both students and faculty members would help maximize the learning benefits of the recordings.
Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E
Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched ...
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem
Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.
Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen
, Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...
Saldarriaga, Enrique M; Vodicka, Elisabeth; La Rosa, Sayda; Valderrama, Maria; Garcia, Patricia J
Prevention and control of chronic diseases is a high priority for many low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of training pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for 3 chronic diseases-hypertension, diabetes, and anemia-to improve disease detection and awareness through private pharmacies. We developed a multiphase training curriculum for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to build capacity for identification of risk factors, patient education, point-of-care testing, and referral for abnormal results. We conducted a pre-post evaluation with participants and evaluated results using Student t test for proportions. We conducted point-of-care testing with pharmacy clients and evaluated acceptability by patient characteristics (age, gender, and type of patient) using multiple logistic regression. In total, 72 pharmacy workers (66%) completed the full training curriculum. Pretest scores indicated that pharmacists had more knowledge and skills in chronic disease risk factors, patient education, and testing than pharmacy technicians. All participants improved their knowledge and skills after the training, and post-test scores indicated that pharmacy technicians achieved the same level of competency as pharmacists (P anemia than a traditional health center. Fast service was very important: 41% ranked faster results and 30% ranked faster attention as the most important factor for receiving diagnostic testing in the pharmacy. We found that it is both feasible for pharmacies and acceptable to clients to train pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for anemia, diabetes, and hypertension. This innovative approach holds potential to increase early detection of risk factors and bolster disease prevention and management efforts in Peru and other low- and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Smith, J E; Black, B L
Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients.
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use.
SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. Methods: ...
Ivanitskaya, Lana; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence
Websites of many rogue sellers of medications are accessible through links in email spam messages or via web search engines. This study examined how well students enrolled in a U.S. higher education institution could identify clearly unsafe pharmacies. The aim is to estimate these health consumers vulnerability to fraud by illegitimate Internet pharmacies. Two Internet pharmacy websites, created specifically for this study, displayed multiple untrustworthy features modeled after five actual Internet drug sellers which the authors considered to be potentially dangerous to consumers. The websites had none of the safe pharmacy signs and nearly all of the danger signs specified in the Food and Drug Administration s (FDA s) guide to consumers. Participants were told that a neighborhood pharmacy charged US$165 for a one-month supply of Beozine, a bogus drug to ensure no pre-existing knowledge. After checking its price at two Internet pharmacies-$37.99 in pharmacy A and $57.60 in pharmacy B-the respondents were asked to indicate if each seller was a good place to buy the drug. Responses came from 1,914 undergraduate students who completed an online eHealth literacy assessment in 2005-2008. Participation rate was 78%. In response to "On a scale from 0-10, how good is this pharmacy as a place for buying Beozine?" many respondents gave favorable ratings. Specifically, 50% of students who reviewed pharmacy A and 37% of students who reviewed pharmacy B chose a rating above the scale midpoint. When explaining a low drug cost, these raters related it to low operation costs, ad revenue, pressure to lower costs due to comparison shopping, and/or high sales volume. Those who said that pharmacy A or B was "a very bad place" for purchasing the drug (25%), as defined by a score of 1 or less, related low drug cost to lack of regulation, low drug quality, and/or customer information sales. About 16% of students thought that people should be advised to buy cheaper drugs at pharmacies
Full Text Available SL Scahill,1 M Atif,2 ZU Babar3,4 1School of Management, Massey Business School, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Pharmacy School, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, England, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: There is much fragmentation and little consensus in the use of descriptors for the different disciplines that make up the pharmacy sector. Globalization, reprofessionalization and the influx of other disciplines means there is a requirement for a greater degree of standardization. This has not been well addressed in the pharmacy practice research and education literature. Objectives: To identify and define the various subdisciplines of the pharmacy sector and integrate them into an internationally relevant conceptual model based on narrative synthesis of the literature. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to understand the fragmentation in dialogue surrounding definitions relating to concepts and practices in the context of the pharmacy sector. From a synthesis of this literature, the need for this model was justified. Key assumptions of the model were identified, and an organic process of development took place with the three authors engaging in a process of sense-making to theorize the model. Results: The model is “fit for purpose” across multiple countries and includes two components making up the umbrella term “pharmaceutical practice”. The first component is the four conceptual dimensions, which outline the disciplines including social and administrative sciences, community pharmacy, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. The second component of the model describes the “acts of practice”: teaching, research and professional advocacy; service and academic enterprise. Conclusions: This model aims to expose issues
Patricia A. Shane
Full Text Available This concept paper discusses the untapped promise of often overlooked humanistic skills to advance the practice of pharmacy. It highlights the seminal work that is, increasingly, integrated into medical and nursing education. The work of these educators and the growing empirical evidence that validates the importance of humanistic skills is raising questions for the future of pharmacy education and practice. To potentiate humanistic professional competencies, e.g., compassion, empathy, and emotional intelligence, how do we develop a more holistic model that integrates reflective and affective skills? There are many historical and current transitions in the profession and practice of pharmacy. If our education model is refocused with an emphasis on pharmacy’s therapeutic roots, the field has the opportunity to play a vital role in improving health outcomes and patient-centered care. Beyond the metrics of treatment effects, achieving greater patient-centeredness will require transformations that improve care processes and invest in patients’ experiences of the treatment and care they receive. Is layering on additional science sufficient to yield better health outcomes if we neglect the power of empathic interactions in the healing process?
Redman, B K
The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.
[Pharmaceutical counseling of non-conventional dosage forms concerning the health-literacy and the patient adherence in public medication dispensing -Questionnaire surveys in Hungarian community pharmacies.
Somogyi, O; Zelko, R
Although the non-conventional dosage forms (e.g. modified release per oral systems or transdermal patches) have more significant advantages than other conventional dosage forms, the pa- tients have to apply them correctly in their home medicine using to reach the effective and safe therapy. A guideline of relevant application instructions contribute to development of an effective pharmaceutical counseling in community pharmacies. The counseling and advices can improve the patients' knowledge concerning application rules of different new dosage forms (health- literacy) with patient adherence. Finally it will result more effective and safer therapies. The aim of our Hungarian questionnaire surveys was to explore the patients' drug application habits or application errors and improve special verbal counseling of mentioned non-conventional dosage forms in community pharmacies. Understandable patient information leaflets were developed about application rules and besides the levels of patients' reading comprehension was evaluated in case of the leaflet of medicinal patches. The results show that a properly developed text is useful for the majority of patients but they need the verbal explanation as well, moreover there is a demand for the verbal counseling in community pharmacies. The most common application errors were explored and the most effective instructions or application rules were collected for the pharmacists and patients concerning the modified release tablets or capsules and transdermal patches.
Shafer, Emily; Bergeron, Nyahne; Smith-Ray, Renae; Robson, Chester; O'Koren, Rachel
To describe the 3-pronged approach taken by a large national retail pharmacy chain to address the opioid epidemic and associated overdoses. Large national retail pharmacy chain with more than 8200 stores in 50 states. Eight million customer interactions daily through in-store and digital settings. This is a company with a long history of responding to public health crises. Initiated 3 programs to respond to the opioid crisis: 1) provide safe medication disposal kiosks; 2) expand national access to naloxone; and 3) provide education on the risk and avoidance of opioid overdose. Used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate and enhance the quality, speed, and public health impact of the interventions. Not applicable. Early results are safe medication disposal kiosks in more than 43 states, naloxone-dispensing program in 33 states, and patient and support system education using the Opioid Overdose Toolkit from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The availability of safe drug-disposal kiosks, naloxone dispensing at pharmacies, and patient education are key prevention initiatives to address the opioid epidemic and reduce the increasing national burden of opioid overdose. Early results are quantitatively and qualitatively promising. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koehler, Tamara; Brown, A.
a b s t r a c t Introduction: Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts.
Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie
Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540
Li, Edward; Liu, Jennifer; Ramchandani, Monica
Biologic drugs approved via the abbreviated United States biosimilar approval pathway are anticipated to improve access to medications by addressing increasing health care expenditures. Surveys of health care practitioners indicate that there is inadequate knowledge and understanding about biosimilars; this must be addressed to ensure safe and effective use of this new category of products. Concepts of biosimilar development, manufacturing, regulation, naming, formulary, and inventory considerations, as well as patient and provider education should be included within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum as preparation for clinical practice. Based on these considerations, we propose that PharmD graduates be required to have knowledge in the following domains regarding biologics and biosimilars: legal definition, development and regulation, state pharmacy practice laws, and pharmacy practice management. We link these general biosimilar concepts to the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016 and Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Outcomes 2013, and provide example classroom learning objectives, in-class activities, and assessments to guide implementation.
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine
To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.
Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine
Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Methods: Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS, Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. Results: A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada, Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days. Conclusion: Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals.
Mendes, Antonio E; Tonin, Fernanda S; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada), Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days). Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals.
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.
Philip, Achsah; Desai, Avani; Nguyen, Phouc Anne; Birney, Patrick; Colavecchia, Anthony; Karralli, Rusol; Smith, Lindsey; Lorimer, Dirk; Burgess, Gwen; Munch, Kyle; Daniel, Nelvin; Lionetti, Jason; Garey, Kevin W
Pharmacy leader development over time was analyzed using the seven action logics. As part of an ongoing leadership seminar series, students were required to select a visionary pharmacy leader and conduct a structured interview to evaluate pharmacy leaders' action logics. A standardized questionnaire comprising 13 questions was created by the class. Questions addressed leadership qualities during the leaders' early years, education years, and work years. Transcripts were then coded by two separate trained investigators based on the leader's stage of life to provide a score for each action logic individually over time. Kappa coefficient was used to evaluate interrater agreement. A total of 14 leaders were interviewed. All leaders were currently employed and had won national awards for their contributions to pharmacy practice. Overall, there was 82% agreement between the two evaluators' scores for the various characteristics. Action logics changed based on the leaders' life stage. Using aggregate data from all leader interviews, a progression from lower-order action logics (opportunist, diplomat, expert) to higher-order action logics (strategist, alchemist) was found. Ten leaders (71%) were diplomats during their early years. Six leaders (43%) were experts during their education years, and 4 (29%) were strategists or alchemists. During the third life stage analyzed (the work years), 6 leaders (43%) were strategists, and 2 were alchemists. During their work years, all leaders had a percentage of their answers coded as alchemist (range, 5-22%). Throughout their professional careers, pharmacy leaders continually develop skills through formal education and mentorship that follow action logics. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lowres, Nicole; Krass, Ines; Neubeck, Lis; Redfern, Julie; McLachlan, Andrew J; Bennett, Alexandra A; Freedman, S Ben
Atrial fibrillation guidelines advocate screening to identify undiagnosed atrial fibrillation. Community pharmacies may provide an opportunistic venue for such screening. To explore the experience of implementing an atrial fibrillation screening service from the pharmacist's perspective including: the process of study implementation; the perceived benefits; the barriers and enablers; and the challenges for future sustainability of atrial fibrillation screening within pharmacies. Setting Interviews were conducted face-to-face in the pharmacy or via telephone, according to pharmacist preference. The 'SEARCH-AF study' screened 1000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years using an iPhone electrocardiogram, identifying 1.5 % with undiagnosed atrial fibrillation. Nine pharmacists took part in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed in full and thematically analysed. Qualitative analysis of the experience of implementing an AF screening service from the pharmacist's perspective. Four broad themes relating to service provision were identified: (1) interest and engagement in atrial fibrillation screening by pharmacists, customers, and doctors with the novel, easy-to-use electrocardiogram technology serving as an incentive to undergo screening and an education tool for pharmacists to use with customers; (2) perceived benefits to the pharmacist including increased job satisfaction, improvement in customer relations and pharmacy profile by fostering enhanced customer care and the educational role of pharmacists; (3) implementation barriers including managing workflow, and enablers such as personal approaches for recruitment, and allocating time to discuss screening process and fears; and, (4) potential for sustainable future implementation including remuneration linked to government or pharmacy incentives, combined cardiovascular screening, and automating sections of risk-assessments using touch-screen technology. Atrial fibrillation screening in pharmacies is well
Lindgren, Kurt; Koldkjær Sølling, Ina; Carøe, Per; Siggaard Mathiesen, Kirsten
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration creates natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between these three areas of expertise is to create an understanding of skills and cultural differences in each area. Futhermore, the aim is to enable future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve health literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view of welfare technology, a Student Academy was created as a theoretically- and practically-oriented learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management related to e-health and health literacy. The Student Academy inspires students, stakeholders, politicians, DanAge Association members, companies, and professionals to participate in training, projects, workshops, and company visits.
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between the 3...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... between the 3 areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S
To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.
Schommer, Jon C; Bonnarens, Joseph K; Brown, Lawrence M; Goode, Jean-Venable Kelly R
To describe and compare perceptions of key informants representing U.S. colleges/schools of pharmacy and community pharmacy practice sites regarding (1) value associated with community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) and (2) barriers to offering CPRPs . Descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. United States, June 13, 2009, through July 13, 2009. 554 respondents to a Web-based survey. Key informants representing the following four organizational groups were surveyed: (1) colleges/schools of pharmacy participating in CPRPs, (2) colleges/schools of pharmacy not participating in CPRPs, (3) CPRP community pharmacy practice sites, and (4) non-CPRP community pharmacy practice sites. Value of CPRPs to participating pharmacies, value of CPRPs to participating colleges/schools of pharmacy, and barriers to offering CPRPs. Overall, 267 key informants from colleges/schools of pharmacy and 287 key informants from pharmacy practice sites responded to the survey (n = 554 total respondents). Of these, 334 responders provided data that were usable for analysis. The most important types of value to the respondents were altruistic in nature (e.g., pharmacy education development, pharmacy profession development, community engagement). However, barriers to offering CPRPs were more practical and included challenges related to accreditation and operational issues. Further, evidence indicated that (1) lack of leadership, (2) lack of revenue generated from such programs, and (3) the cost of reimbursement for residents may be fundamental, multidimensional barriers to implementing CPRPs. Guidelines for starting and continuing CPRPs, "industry norms" that would require CPRP training for certain types of employment, and creation of models for patient care revenue would help develop and position CPRPs in the future.
Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Sallach, Rory E
This pilot study explores the patient-centered demand for mobile phone-based health (mobile health [m-health]) services in the rural United States by documenting rural patients' access to mobile phones and patients' willingness to receive m-health services. An anonymous institutional review board-approved survey was completed by patients visiting two rural pharmacies in Nebraska from August to October 2011. Patients who volunteered to complete the survey provided their demographic data, disease state information, health status, mobile phone access, and willingness to receive (in terms of using and giving time to) m-health services. The majority of the 24 survey respondents were 19-40 years old (52%), female (88%), married (63%), with excellent to very good health status (63%), with no comorbidities (83%), with ≤$100 monthly medication expenses (80%), with private insurance (78%), living within 5 miles of their pharmacy (71%), and reporting that m-health services are important to them (75%; 12/16). Approximately 95%, 81%, 73%, and 55% of respondents reported access to a mobile phone, voice mails, text messaging, and mobile phone applications, respectively. Of the respondents, 65%, 57%, 52%, and 48% were willing to receive prerecorded messages for appointment reminders from the doctor, disease information, medication use/self-care information, and symptom monitoring information, respectively. In total, 70%, 63%, 61%, 54%, and 50% were willing to receive prerecorded messages from the pharmacist containing contact requests, new/refill prescription reminders, information on medication problems, reviewing/monitoring of medication use, and medication self-management/preventive screenings/immunizations, respectively. Of 44% (7/16) respondents willing to give time for m-health services, 83% were willing to give 15 min, and 17% were willing to give 30 min every month. By demonstrating rural patients' demand for m-health (including pharmacy) services, this is one of the
Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E
Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel
Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…
Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.
Cruz, Jennifer L; Brown, Jamie N
Rigorous practices for safe dispensing of investigational drugs are not standardized. This investigation sought to identify error-prevention processes utilized in the provision of investigational drug services (IDS) and to characterize pharmacists' perceptions about safety risks posed by investigational drugs. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to an audience of IDS pharmacists within the Veteran Affairs Health System. Multiple facets were examined including demographics, perceptions of medication safety, and standard processes used to support investigational drug protocols. Twenty-one respondents (32.8% response rate) from the Northeast, Midwest, South, West, and Non-contiguous United States participated. The mean number of pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs) dedicated to the IDS was 0.77 per site with 0.2 technician FTEs. The mean number of active protocols was 22. Seventeen respondents (81%) indicated some level of concern for safety risks. Concerns related to the packaging of medications were expressed, most notably lack of product differentiation, expiration dating, barcodes, and choice of font size or color. Regarding medication safety practices, the majority of sites had specific procedures in place for storing and securing drug supply, temperature monitoring, and prescription labeling. Repackaging bulk items and proactive error-identification strategies were less common. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported that an independent double check was not routinely performed. Medication safety concerns exist among pharmacists in an investigational drug service; however, a variety of measures have been employed to improve medication safety practices. Best practices for the safe dispensing of investigational medications should be developed in order to standardize these error-prevention strategies.
Steed, Liz; Sohanpal, Ratna; James, Wai-Yee; Rivas, Carol; Jumbe, Sandra; Chater, Angel; Todd, Adam; Edwards, Elizabeth; Macneil, Virginia; Macfarlane, Fraser; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert
To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates. Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention. Phase I : We used information from qualitative studies in pharmacies, systematic literature reviews and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour framework to inform design of the initial version of the intervention. Phase II : We then tested the acceptability of this intervention with smoking cessation advisers and assessed fidelity using actors who visited pharmacies posing as smokers, in a pilot study. Phase III : We reviewed the content and associated theory underpinning our intervention, taking account of the results of the earlier studies and a realist analysis of published literature. We then confirmed a logic model describing the intended operation of the intervention and used this model to refine the intervention and associated materials. Eight community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 12 Stop Smoking Advisers. Two, 150 min, skills-based training sessions focused on communication and behaviour change skills with between session practice. The pilot study confirmed acceptability of the intervention and showed preliminary evidence of benefit; however, organisational barriers tended to limit effective operation. The pilot data and realist review pointed to additional use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to seat the intervention in the wider organisational context. We have developed and refined an intervention to promote smoking cessation services in community pharmacies, which we now plan to evaluate in a randomised controlled trial. UKCRN ID 18446, Pilot. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.
The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…
Uden-Holman, Tanya M; Curry, Susan J; Benz, Loretta; Aquilino, Mary Lober
Although interprofessional education (IPE) has existed in various formats for several decades, the need for IPE recently has taken on renewed interest and momentum. Public health has a critical role to play in furthering IPE, yet schools of public health are often underrepresented in IPE initiatives. The University of Iowa College of Public Health is serving as a catalyst for IPE activities on our health sciences campus, which includes colleges of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health. IPE-related activities have included campus visit by IPE leaders, administration of the Survey of Critical Elements for Implementing IPE, administration of the Interprofessional Learning Opportunities Inventory survey, the development of a comprehensive strategic plan, and the pilot of an IPE course for all first-year prelicensure students and Master of Health Administration students. Although more work is needed to more fully integrate IPE into the curriculum, success to date of the University of Iowa IPE initiative demonstrates that public health can play a critical role as a convener and catalyst for IPE curricular innovations on a health sciences campus.
Grindrod, Kelly; Forgione, Andrea; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gavura, Scott; Giustini, Dean
New "social" information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.
Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…
Full Text Available Pharmacies are an integral part of the modern healthcare system which strives for a holistic and effi cient care. General practitioners and pharmacists are held in high esteem among local communities as they are the fi rst point of contact when people have health issues. However, a strong demand for health services in developed countries and its present fi nancing schemes undermined the sustainability of the whole health system (8.9% of GDP in 2013 and growing. According to WHO and EU recommendations, the whole healthcare system shall accept a holistic approach and focus on education, prevention and proper medicine consume. Part of this strategy is a seamless care concept, where medical doctors and pharmacists build a team around the well-being of a patient. Financing scheme incentives and KPI’s (key performance indicators will be focused on keeping people healthy, instead of paying for procedures. The future healthcare ecosystem obliges pharmacists to optimize network coverage and to extend health services. Nevertheless, their growth strategy needs to be gradual, considering the present level of network coverage, the low pace of private and public expenditures for medicine and services, and the fact that a new fi nancing model for pharmacies is still unknown. Thus, we expect the development of pharmacy network in regulated environment to be fi nanced predominantly from retained earnings in publicly owned pharmacies and by awarding pharmacy concessions.
Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A; Martin, Craig
To develop and establish the validity and reliability of a conflict management scale specific to pharmacy practice and education. A multistage inventory-item development process was undertaken involving 93 pharmacists and using a previously described explanatory model for conflict in pharmacy practice. A 19-item inventory was developed, field tested, and validated. The conflict management scale (CMS) demonstrated an acceptable degree of reliability and validity for use in educational or practice settings to promote self-reflection and self-awareness regarding individuals' conflict management styles. The CMS provides a unique, pharmacy-specific method for individuals to determine and reflect upon their own conflict management styles. As part of an educational program to facilitate self-reflection and heighten self-awareness, the CMS may be a useful tool to promote discussions related to an important part of pharmacy practice.
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Akl, E A; Sackett, K; Pretorius, R; Erdley, S; Bhoopathi, P S; Mustafa, R; Schünemann, H J
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We used a comprehensive search strategy including an electronic search of the following databases: DARE, EPOC register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstracts Online (search date: January 2007). We also screened the reference list of included studies and relevant reviews, contact authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behaviour (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified 1156 citations. Out of 55 potentially eligible citations, we included one RCT. The methodological quality was fair. The game, used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The group that was randomized to the game had statistically higher scores on the knowledge test (P = 0.02). The findings of this systematic review do not confirm nor refute the utility of games as a teaching
Joice Nedel Ott
Full Text Available The National Examination of Student Performance (ENADE integrates the National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES as a mandatory curriculum component in Brazilian undergraduate courses. The objective of this work was to analyze, in a critical-reflexive way, the questions of the ENADE, applied to Pharmacy academics in 2010, in order to understand if the profile of the test and the evaluative intention are consistent with the recommendations by the National Curriculum Guidelines for pharmacy courses (DCNF. Through Qualtrics Survey Software were prepared four questionnaires sent by digital means teachers allocated to 18 Pharmacy courses, public and private institutions, from the Rio Grande do Sul State (RS. A total of 131 teachers evaluatedof the ENADE 2010 test. Teachers’ opinion for suitability of the Specific issues reached an average score 7.78 ± 2.22, most assessed exercise capacity in drugs and medicines (63% they demanded critical-reflective ability (45.5% and interdisciplinary approach (45.3%. The General Training questions, average score was 5.16 ± 2.87 seconds teachers, helped in understanding the social, cultural and economic environment in which health professionals be inserted (42.8% and, to a lesser acuity assessed the critical-reflective character (32.2%, humanist (12.2% and ethical (10.6%. It was through the opinion of teachers, that Pharmacy ENADE 2010 test contemplates the principles defined by NDCF, however presented an asymmetric distribution of the training aspects required to the formation of the general pharmacist.
Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam
Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.
Cordina, Maria; Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice Editorial Board
The Malta College of Pharmacy Practice, will be hosting the 13th International Social Pharmacy Workshop next summer. The concept of social pharmacy is very clearly explained in the article by Professor Ellen West Sørensen and colleagues, who are considered to be pioneers in this field. Malta has successfully hosted a number of pharmacy conferences, however this one is somewhat different and rather special.
Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen
Education and health are the two most important characteristics of human capital. Their economic value lies in the effects they have on productivity: both education and health make individuals more productive. Education and health have a considerable impact on individual well-being, as well. The
Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…
Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L
Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Isabel Pimenta Jacinto
Full Text Available Community Pharmacies’ legal framework (regulated by the decree-law nº 307/2007, 31st August established the possibility of provision of pharmaceutical services to promote health and well-being by pharmacies. Due to its characteristics in terms of access and geographical distribution, pharmacies are health providers which can contribute to increase the immunization coverage with benefits in terms of public health. In this article, it is described the national and international framework of the implementation of vaccination services in pharmacies and the results of its implementation. It is also conducted a reflection on strengthening the role of pharmacies and its contribution to the national targets for immunization coverage and public health.
... using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A ... (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health ... Prescription Filling, Over-the-counter Products, Financial Management ...
Kujundzić, N; Inić, S
The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).
Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine
In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients' first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia's LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the
programs require 2 months of chronic pain management; however, only two of the eleven programs identify chronic pain management as a primary practice setting. Discussion: Pain specialists in all fields are in high demand; however, the need for health care professionals specialized in chronic pain management probably exceeds that for professionals specialized in acute pain management and palliative care combined. This disparity between disease prevalence and specialty training programs is not reflected in the current residency training structure, nor have additional training programs arisen to fill this critical need. Conclusion: Health care systems will continue to struggle to meet the demands of patients with chronic pain until significant emphasis is placed on the education and training of health care professionals in this area. Clinical pharmacy should aim to meet this demand through the expansion of PGY-2 training programs and improved didactic education in pharmacy school that reflects the increased need for chronic pain specialists. Keywords: pain management, clinical pharmacists, pharmacy pain specialists, training programs
Benrimoj, Shalom I; Roberts, Alison S
To describe Australia's community pharmacy network in the context of the health system and outline the provision of services. The 5000 community pharmacies form a key component of the healthcare system for Australians, for whom health expenditures represent 9% of the Gross Domestic Product. A typical community pharmacy dispenses 880 prescriptions per week. Pharmacists are key partners in the Government's National Medicines Policy and contribute to its objectives through the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). The Third Community Pharmacy Agreement included funding for CPS including medication review and the provision of written drug information. Funding is also provided for a quality assurance platform with which the majority of pharmacies are accredited. Fifteen million dollars (Australian) have been allocated to research in community pharmacy, which has focused on achieving quality use of medicines (QUM), as well as developing new CPS and facilitating change. Elements of the Agreements have taken into account QUM principles and are now significant drivers of practice change. Although accounting for 10% of remuneration for community pharmacy, the provision of CPS represents a significant shift in focus to view pharmacy as a service provider. Delivery of CPS through the community pharmacy network provides sustainability for primary health care due to improvement in quality presumably associated with a reduction in healthcare costs. Australian pharmacy practice is moving strongly in the direction of CPS provision; however, change does not occur easily. The development of a change management strategy is underway to improve the uptake of professional and business opportunities in community pharmacy.
Yao, Dongning; Xi, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yuankai; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao; Yao, Wenbing
Clinical pharmacy is not only a medical science but also an elaborate public health care system firmly related to its subsystems of education, training, qualification authentication, scientific research, management, and human resources. China is a developing country with a tremendous need for improvements in the public health system, including the clinical pharmacy service system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the infrastructure and personnel qualities of clinical pharmacy services in China. Public county hospitals in China. A national survey of clinical pharmacists in county hospitals was conducted. It was sampled through a stratified sampling strategy. Responses were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The main outcome measures include the coverage of clinical pharmacy services, the overall staffing of clinical pharmacists, the software and hardware of clinical pharmacy services, the charge mode of clinical pharmacy services, and the educational background, professional training acquisition, practical experience, and entry path of clinical pharmacists. The overall coverage of clinical pharmacy services on both the department scale (median = 18.25%) and the patient scale (median = 15.38%) does not meet the 100% coverage that is required by the government. In 57.73% of the sample hospitals, the staffing does not meet the requirement, and the size of the clinical pharmacist group is smaller in larger hospitals. In addition, 23.4% of the sample hospitals do not have management rules for the clinical pharmacists, and 43.1% do not have rational drug use software, both of which are required by the government. In terms of fees, 89.9% of the sample hospitals do not charge for the services. With regard to education, 8.5% of respondents are with unqualified degree, and among respondents with qualified degree, 37.31% are unqualified in the major; 43% of respondents lack the clinical pharmacist training required by the government. Most
Sanders, Kimberly A; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Waldron, Kayla M; Willoughby, Ian; Pinelli, Nicole R
To assess the educational impact of engaging second professional year student pharmacists in active, direct patient care experiences in health system practice. Student pharmacists in their second professional year completed a redesigned, skill-based four-week introductory pharmacy practice experience in health system practice. The immersion consisted of experiences in both operational and clinical pharmacy environments. Students were assessed with skill development checklist assessments. Pre-post surveys were also collected. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Twenty-eight student pharmacists were included; of those, 26 completed both surveys (92.9% response rate). Survey results revealed significant increases in 81.8% of operational and 100% of clinical self-efficacy statements (psystem practice while identifying additional areas for emphasized learning. Student pharmacists engaged in early, hands-on, direct patient care experiences enhanced their skill development in operational and clinical pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof
Article addresses the problem of increasing Polish employees health education effectiveness according to the differences in educational level. Research model assume that effective method of developing recommendations improving the health education will synthesise scientific findings regarding methodology of conducting such education and knowledge about needs of two target groups: low and high educated employees. Educational solutions were searched in publications related to: health education, andragogy, propaganda and direct marketing. The empirical material used to characterize two target groups came from four research (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion (Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine) in 2007-2010. Low educated employees' health education should be focused on increasing responsibility for health and strengthening their self-confidence according to the introduction of healthy lifestyle changes. To achieve these goals, important issue is to build their motivation to develop knowledge about taking care of health. In providing such information we should avoid the methods associated with school. Another important issue is creating an appropriate infrastructure and conditions facilitating the change of harmful behaviors undertaken at home and in the workplace. According to high-educated employees a challenge is to support taking health behaviors--although they are convinced it is important for their health, such behaviors are perceived as a difficult and freedom restriction. Promoting behavior change techniques, avoiding prohibitions in the educational messages and creating favorable climate for taking care of health in groups they participate are needed.
... or Mental Health from the school of discipline, the proposed graduation rate eligibility threshold... sizes across the health professions schools, the graduation rate eligibility thresholds for Hispanic...: allopathic and osteopathic medicine; pharmacy; dentistry; and behavioral or mental health. Individual schools...
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia
The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…
There have been significant developments in health education over recent years. Focusing on France, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of health education in reducing social inequalities based on the example of the Atelier santé ville de Cahors (Cahors Health Workshop). The paper addresses the following questions: What are the results and outcomes of the workshop? What kind of health education issues are at stake in the territorial approach to policy-making in an urban context? We examined the methods underlying the health education measures taken in the Cahors Health Workshop, which involve project-based approaches and the promotion of community health. Health education aimed at improving health is central to issues such as listening and speaking, the development of autonomy and the responsibilization of urban actors. Based on a rigorous methodology and the underlying values, health education in the Cahors Health Workshop places local residents, elected representatives and health professionals at the heart of the health care process (from the diagnostic process to the assessment process) and contributes to the reduction of social inequalities in health while facilitating access to information and health care. The goal of health education is to encourage individuals to be responsible for their own health in order to empower them to make informed choices adapted to the demands of their environment.
Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A
To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.
Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva
To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
Cochran, Gerald T; Engel, Rafael J; Hruschak, Valerie J; Tarter, Ralph E
Opioid misuse imposes a disproportionately heavy burden on individuals living in rural areas. Community pharmacy has the potential to expand and coordinate with health professionals to identify and intervene with those who misuse opioids. Rural and urban community pharmacy patients were recruited in this pilot project to describe and compare patterns of opioid misuse. We administered a health screening survey in 4 community pharmacies among patients filling opioid medications. Univariate statistics were used to assess differences in health characteristics and opioid medication misuse behaviors between rural and urban respondents. Multivariable statistics were used to identify risk factors associated with rural and urban opioid misuse. A total of 333 participants completed the survey. Participants in rural settings had poorer overall health, higher pain levels, lower education, and a higher rate of unemployment compared to patients in urban pharmacies. Rural respondents with illicit drug use (adjustable odds ratio [aOR]: 14.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-95.38), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR: 5.44, 95% CI = 1.52-19.50), and ≤high school education (aOR: 6.68, 95% CI = 1.06-42.21) had increased risk for opioid misuse. Community pharmacy represents a promising resource for potential identification of opioid misuse, particularly in rural communities. Continued research must extend these findings and work to establish collaborative services in rural settings.
Vande Griend, Joseph P; Rodgers, Melissa; Nuffer, Wesley
Medication therapy management (MTM) delivery is increasingly important in managed care. Successful delivery positively affects patient health and improves Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services star ratings, a measure of health plan quality. As MTM services continue to grow, there is an increased need for efficient and effective care models. The primary objectives of this project were to describe the delivery of MTM services by fourth-year Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) students in a centralized retail pharmacy system and to evaluate and quantify the clinical and financial contributions of the students. The secondary objective was to describe the engagement needed to complete comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) and targeted interventions. From May 2015 to December 2015, thirty-five APPE students from the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy provided MTM services at Albertsons Companies using the OutcomesMTM and Mirixa platforms. Students delivered patient care services by phone at the central office and provided face-to-face visits at pharmacies in the region. With implementation of the MTM APPE in 2015, the team consisted of 2 MTM pharmacists and pharmacy students, as compared with 1 MTM pharmacist in 2014. The number of CMRs and targeted interventions completed and the estimated additional revenue generated during the 2015 time period were compared with those completed from May through December 2014. The patient and provider engagement needed to complete the CMRs and targeted interventions was summarized. 125 CMRs and 1,918 targeted interventions were billed in 2015, compared with 13 CMRs and 767 targeted interventions in 2014. An estimated $16,575-$49,272 of additional revenue was generated in 2015. To complete the interventions in 2015, the team engaged in 1,714 CMR opportunities and 4,686 targeted intervention opportunities. In this MTM rotation, students provided real-life care to patients, resulting in financial and clinical
Full Text Available Background: the Employees’ motivation is a very important part of management, both practically and theoretically. Motivation has been regarded as an indispensable part of performance, and structural element for management practice theories. The most important factor of the health care system is its workforce. They possess the highest impact on the input of health care system. Also they are one of the main determinant key of their efficacy and performance is their motivation. Although Motivated and qualified staff is the critical element for health care system performance, it is one of the hardest goal to reach due to health care complexity.Method: the Sample consisted of 326 men and women pharmacists and pharmacy staff, which are 155 women and 81 men. Wright (2004 work motivation 6-item scale were used to asses pharmacists and pharmacy staff work motivation. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA test method.Results: the results indicated that there is no significant difference in pharmacists and pharmacy staff work motivation according to their gender, education, job, job location and income.Conclusion: income, Location of job, Job, education might be considered as the hygiene factors. Other intrinsic or socio-cultural factor might be motivators for pharmacists and pharmacy staff.
Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan
This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…
Full Text Available Jeanine A Driesenaar,1 Peter AGM De Smet,2,3 Rolf van Hulten,4,5 Litje Hu,1 Sandra van Dulmen1,6,7 1NIVEL, Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 5Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Drammen, Norway Background: Pharmaceutical care is one of the major tasks of pharmacists, which aims to improve patient outcomes. Counseling patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease about their use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS might enhance medication adherence and symptom control. Therefore, effective pharmacist–patient communication is very important. In this regard, both affective communication, for handling emotions, and instrumental communication, for exchanging biomedical and lifestyle information, are relevant. Until now, only few studies have explored pharmacist–patient communication, and further insight is needed in this regard. The aim of this study is to investigate how pharmacists and pharmacy technicians communicate about ICS with patients with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, what topics are discussed by them, and whether pharmacists and pharmacy technicians differ in their communication during counseling sessions. Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years who had used ICS for at least 1 year and filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited through 12 pharmacies. Participants had one counseling session with a pharmacist or a
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A prospective, one-group and pre- and post-test design to assess the effects of health care providers' education on clinical patient outcomes was ...
Health Education is one of the critical eight essential pillars of the primary health care (PHC) adopted world-wide by WHO member countries in 1978. After over two decades of health education to support PHC implementation, the epidemiological profile of Ghana continues to be dominated by communicable diseases, and ...
Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.
Desselle, Shane P; Holmes, Erin R
The results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey are described. A survey was e-mailed to a randomized sample of 5,000 certified pharmacy technicians (CPhTs) throughout the United States, with response reminders employed. Survey items eliciting demographic and work characteristics and work life attitudes were generated from the literature and qualitative interviews. This study aimed to describe job satisfaction, sources of stress, profession and employer commitment, education and training, and reasons for entry into the profession among CPhTs and determine relationships between those variables and CPhTs' level of involvement in various work activities, with particular attention paid to differences in practice setting. Frequency statistics, correlation analysis, and means testing were used to meet study objectives and identify significant differences. A total of 516 CPhTs currently working as a pharmacy technician responded to the survey. The CPhTs reported high levels of involvement in more traditional activities but less involvement in those that involve greater cognitive load. Respondents reported moderate levels of job satisfaction and commitment and somewhat high levels of stress overall. Most CPhTs chose to be a pharmacy technician because they desired to enter a healthcare field and help people and were recruited. CPhTs derived benefit from all aspects of education and training evaluated and most from on-the-job training. Perceived value of education and training was associated with higher satisfaction and commitment and with lower stress. There were a number of differences in these work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job functions. The results of the survey indicated that job satisfaction and commitment were moderate and that stress levels were somewhat high among CPhTs. There were a number of differences in work life attitudes across practice settings and by involvement in various job
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. One hundred and eight customers in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. Customers perceive community pharmacies very differently in terms of both expectations of and positive experiences with counselling. They appear to be in favour of pharmacy counselling with respect to over-the-counter medicine and first-time prescription medicine in contrast to refills. Customers find it difficult to express the health-care role of pharmacies even when experiencing and appreciating it. Lack of appreciation of pharmacy counselling for refill prescription medicine and the difficulty in defining the role of pharmacies might stem from the difficulties that customers have in understanding medicine and thus the role of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…