WorldWideScience

Sample records for health longitudinal observational

  1. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  2. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  3. Observations on the health of infants at a time of rapid societal change: a longitudinal study from birth to fifteen months in Abu Dhabi.

    Gardner, Hazel; Green, Katherine; Gardner, Andrew S; Geddes, Donna

    2018-02-07

    Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates has been accompanied by a rise in chronic disease. Early childhood is known to affect health outcomes in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the general health of Emirati infants born in a government maternity hospital in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in October 2002. One hundred twenty-five women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed as part of a larger study encompassing a wide range of cultural, social, and behavioural aspects of health. They were then re-interviewed at three (n = 94), six (n = 59) and 15 months postpartum (n = 52). Data are presented using univariate statistics. In this study seven infants (6%) were born prematurely and four infants (3%) were classified as small for gestational age, while 11 (9%) of the infants weighed less than 2500 g. Low birth weight infants (LBW) were significantly more likely to require treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR = 30.83, p = 0.00). Iron supplementation during pregnancy was associated with fewer underweight infants (OR = 3.92, p = 0.042). No associations were found between infant birth weight and maternal age, age at marriage, consanguinity, education level, current maternal employment, parity, pre-existing anaemia or anaemia in pregnancy, diabetes, folic acid intake, multivitamin intake or infant gender. Maternally-reported infant health issues, vaccination, medication, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, and use of secure car seats are also reported. The health of infants at birth in this UAE sample showed improvements compared to previous studies. The proportion of LBW infants is decreasing and continuing improvements in health care in the UAE are having a positive impact on infant health.

  4. Contrasts Between Young Males Dying by Suicide, Those Dying From Other Causes and Those Still Living: Observations From the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Feigelman, William; Joiner, Thomas; Rosen, Zohn; Silva, Caroline; Mueller, Anna S

    2016-07-02

    Utilizing Add Health longitudinal data, we compared 21 male suicide casualties to 10,101 living respondents identifying suicide correlates. 21 suicide decedents completed surveys in 1994/1995 (Wave 1) and 11 completed at Wave 3; responses were compared with Chi-square and oneway ANOVA tests. Suicide decedents were prone to higher delinquency and fighting at Wave 1, but not at Wave 3. At Wave 1 suicide decedents remained undistinguished from living respondents in depression, self-esteem, and drug uses. Yet, after Wave 3, the 11 respondents dying by suicide showed significantly higher depression, drug use and lower self-esteem. Delinquency trends can readily understood, but more complex causes are needed to account for unexpected changes in self-esteem, depression and drug uses.

  5. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and

  6. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  7. Weight, blood pressure, and dietary benefits after 12 months of a Web-based Nutrition Education Program (DASH for health): longitudinal observational study.

    Moore, Thomas J; Alsabeeh, Nour; Apovian, Caroline M; Murphy, Megan C; Coffman, Gerald A; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Jenkins, Mark; Cabral, Howard

    2008-12-12

    The dietary habits of Americans are creating serious health concerns, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even some types of cancer. While considerable attention has been focused on calorie reduction and weight loss, approaches are needed that will not only help the population reduce calorie intake but also consume the type of healthy, well-balanced diet that would prevent this array of medical complications. To design an Internet-based nutrition education program and to explore its effect on weight, blood pressure, and eating habits after 12 months of participation. We designed the DASH for Health program to provide weekly articles about healthy nutrition via the Internet. Dietary advice was based on the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). The program was offered as a free benefit to the employees of EMC Corporation, and 2834 employees and spouses enrolled. Enrollees voluntarily entered information about themselves on the website (food intake), and we used these self-entered data to determine if the program had any effect. Analyses were based upon the change in weight, blood pressure, and food intake between the baseline period (before the DASH program began) and the 12th month. To be included in an outcome, a subject had to have provided both a baseline and 12th-month entry. After 12 months, 735 of 2834 original enrollees (26%) were still actively using the program. For subjects who were overweight/obese (body mass index > 25; n = 151), weight change at 12 months was -4.2 lbs (95% CI: -2.2, -6.2; P Internet, with no person-to-person contact with health professionals, is associated with significant weight loss, blood pressure lowering, and dietary improvements after 12 months. Effective programs like DASH for Health, delivered via the Internet, can provide benefit to large numbers of subjects at low cost and may help address the nutritional public health crisis.

  8. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

    Pablo Martinez-Martín

    Full Text Available To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL determined PD costs over a 4-year period.Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL.One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD age: 63 (11 years, mean (SD disease duration: 8 (6 years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease. Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from € 2,082.17 (€ 2,889.86 in year 1 to € 4,008.6 (€ 7,757.35 in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased € 75.72 (p = 0.0174; for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented € 49.21 (p = 0.0094 and € 44.81 (p = 0.0404, respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased € 16.31 (p = 0.0228.PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses.

  9. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  10. Thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in a fixed population; longitudinal radiological observations

    Ono, Minoru; Russell, W.J.; Kudo, Sho.

    1984-05-01

    All lateral chest radiographs of 34 persons with posterior longitudinal ligament ossification (PLLO) in the thoracic spine were reviewed for date of its onset and its progress. These observations spanned as long as 18 years. Upper mid-thoracic PLLO first appeared under the age of 40, then increased in extent in the vertical axis until the age of 50. Lower thoracic PLLO occurred later than upper mid-thoracic PLLO. In the lower thoracic and lumbar regions, degeneration of the vertebrae and discs apparently were focal factors which triggered the development of thoracic PLLO. PLLO apparently developed in a different way in the upper and mid-thoracic regions, where the vertebrae and discs were unremarkable at the time of its initial appearance, and degenerative abnormalities did not predispose to it. (author)

  11. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Longitudinal Ionospheric Variability Observed by LITES on the ISS

    Stephan, A. W.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Geddes, G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Budzien, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) is an imaging spectrograph designed to measure altitude profiles (150-350 km) of extreme- and far-ultraviolet airglow emissions that originate from photochemical processes in the ionosphere and thermosphere. During the daytime, LITES observes the bright O+ 83.4 nm emission from which the ionospheric profile can be inferred. At night, recombination emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm provide a direct measure of the electron content along the line of sight. LITES was launched and installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in late February 2017 where it has been operating along with the highly complementary GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment. We will present some of the first observations from LITES in April 2017 that show longitudinal patterns in ionospheric density and the daily variability in those patterns. LITES vertical imaging from a vantage point near 410 km enables a particularly unique perspective on the altitude of the ionospheric peak density at night that can complement and inform other ground- and space-based measurements, and track the longitude-altitude variability that is reflective of changes in equatorial electrodynamics.

  13. Patient-Related Benefits for Adults with Cochlear Implantation: A Multicultural Longitudinal Observational Study

    Lenarz, Thomas; Muller, Lida; Czerniejewska-Wolska, Hanna; Vallés Varela, Hector; Orús Dotú, César; Durko, Marcin; Huarte Irujo, Alicia; Piszczatowski, Bartosz; Zadrożniak, Marek; Irwin, Colin; Graham, Petra L.; Wyss, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess subjectively perceived, real-world benefits longitudinally for unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients in a multinational population treated routinely. To identify possible predictors of self-reported benefits. Design This was a prospective, multicenter, repeated-measures study. Self-assessment of performance at preimplantation and postimplantation at 1, 2, and 3 years using standardized, validated, local language versions of the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ), and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) was performed. Outcomes were analyzed using a longitudinal mixed-effects model incorporating country effect. Patient demographics were explored for associations with change over time. Subjects Two hundred ninety-one routinely treated, unilateral CI recipients, aged 137–81 years, from 9 clinics across 4 countries. Results Highly significant improvements were observed for all outcome measures (p < 0.0001). Postimplantation, mean outcome scores remained stable beyond 1 year, with notable individual variability. A significant association for one or more outcomes with preimplantation contralateral hearing aid use, telephone use, age at implantation, implantation side, preimplantation comorbidities, dizziness, and tinnitus was observed (p < 0.004). Conclusions Longitudinal benefits of CI treatment can be measured using clinically standardized self-assessment tools to provide a holistic view of patient-related benefits in routine clinical practice for aggregated data from multinational populations. Self-reported outcomes can provide medical-based evidence regarding CI treatment to support decision-making by health service providers. PMID:28719901

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  15. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  16. Longitudinal Associations Between Cyberbullying Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Fahy, AE; Stansfeld, SA; Smuk, M; Smith, NR; Cummins, S; Clark, C

    2016-01-01

    : Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. : Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between inv...

  17. The Health Assessment Longitudinal File imperative: foundation for improving the health of the force.

    Kemper, Judith A; Donahue, Donald A; Harris, Judith S

    2003-08-01

    A smaller active duty force and an increased operational tempo have made the Reserve components (RC) essential elements in the accomplishment of the mission of the U.S. Army. One critical factor in meeting mission is maintaining the optimal health of each soldier. Baseline health data about the RC is currently not being collected, even though increasing numbers of reserve soldiers are being activated. The Annual Health Certification and Survey is being developed as a way to meet the RCs' statutory requirement for annual certification of health while at the same time generating and tracking baseline data on each reservist in a longitudinal health file, the Health Assessment Longitudinal File. This article discusses the Annual Health Certification Questionnaire/Health Assessment Longitudinal File, which will greatly enhance the Army's ability to accurately certify the health status of the RC and track health in relation to training, mission activities, and deployment.

  18. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  19. What motivates early adolescents for school? A longitudinal analysis of associations between observed teaching and motivation

    Stroet, Kim; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    For many early adolescent students, motivation for school declines after their transition to secondary education. Increasingly, the decisive importance of teachers in shaping early adolescents' motivation is stressed; thus far, however, both longitudinal and observational studies on this topic have

  20. Does perceived discrimination affect health? Longitudinal relationships between work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health.

    Pavalko, Eliza K; Mossakowski, Krysia N; Hamilton, Vanessa J

    2003-03-01

    This study uses longitudinal data to examine the causal relationships between perceived work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health. Using data on 1,778 employed women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we investigate the structural and individual characteristics that predict later perceptions of discrimination and the effects of those perceptions on subsequent health. We find that perceptions of discrimination are influenced by job attitudes, prior experiences of discrimination, and work contexts, but prior health is not related to later perceptions. However, perceptions of discrimination do impact subsequent health, and these effects remain significant after controlling for prior emotional health, physical health limitations, discrimination, and job characteristics. Overall, the results provide even stronger support for the health impact of workplace discrimination and suggest a need for further longitudinal analyses of causes and consequences of perceived discrimination.

  1. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  2. Dysphonia in extremely preterm children: A longitudinal observation.

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2016-12-01

    Dysphonia is a potential long-term complication of preterm birth. Childhood voice disorders caused by vocal hyperfunction resolve with pubertal changes to the vocal mechanism in many cases. In extremely preterm children, whose voice quality is affected by supraglottic hyperfunction adapted secondary to underlying structural laryngeal pathology sustained during neonatal intubation, the prognosis is unknown. A pilot study was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of dysphonia in children born at dysphonia severity scores were significantly lower on repeat assessment, but no differences were observed in objective or quality of life scores. Individual variation was observed: the difference in CAPE-V scores ranged from -36 to + 1. No participant presented with normal voice quality on repeat assessment. Analysis of group data masked individual variability in this series. Mechanisms underlying such individual variation are currently unknown. These data suggest that dysphonia is persistent in extremely preterm children. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the progression of voice disorders in extremely preterm children, to inform prognostic predictors and treatment decisions.

  3. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  4. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Shermin de Silva

    Full Text Available Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60, averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  5. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  6. A longitudinal observation of a patient with normal tension glaucoma

    Hlupheka L. Sithole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is a disease associated with normal intraocular pressure (10 mmHg – 21 mmHg that may lead to irreversible blindness if misdiagnosed or left untreated over a period of time. The author observed a patient with NTG over a period of 5 years (from 2013 to 2017. The initial visual field analysis results (2014 showed mild visual field defects because of NTG at the start of the 5-year period. Although the patient was also diagnosed with hydrocephalus, a condition associated with optic nerve head damage, following years of noncompliance to treatment of NTG and follow-up eye examination schedules, the patient’s visual field defects were found to have progressed by the year 2017. It is therefore important for optometrists to apply due diligence when examining patients with NTG in order to expedite intervention and prevention of visual impairment and blindness.

  7. Resilience Mediates the Longitudinal Relationships Between Social Support and Mental Health Outcomes in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Koelmel, Emily; Hughes, Abbey J; Alschuler, Kevin N; Ehde, Dawn M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine resilience as a mediator between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in this population. Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were assessed at 4 time points over 12 months in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Telephone-based measures administered to community-based participants. Individuals (N=163) with MS and 1 or more of the following symptoms: depression, fatigue, and pain. Not applicable. Mental health outcomes included (1) depressive symptomatology, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (2) anxious symptomatology, assessed using the short form of the Emotional Distress-Anxiety Scale from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; and (3) general mental health status, assessed using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short Form-8 Health Survey. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. At any given time, social support from significant others, family members, and friends was significantly associated with subsequent mental health outcomes for all 3 measures assessed (all P values social support significantly mediated the relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes. After controlling for resilience, most of the direct relationships between social support and mental health outcomes were no longer significant. There are significant longitudinal relationships between social support, resilience, and mental health outcomes for people with MS. Given the mediating role of resilience in supporting better mental health outcomes, future clinical research and practice may benefit from an emphasis on resilience-focused psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Caspi, A; Begg, D; Dickson, N; Harrington, H; Langley, J; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A

    1997-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.

  9. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  11. Longitudinal Observations of Infants' Daily Arrivals at a Day Care Center.

    Willis, E. Anne; Ricciuti, Henry N.

    This longitudinal study was concerned with infants' reactions to being greeted by a caregiver upon arrival at the nursery, being left by the parent with the caregiver, and to reunion with the parents. Observations were made twice weekly in the natural setting of the nursery foyer where parents normally arrive with their infants. An affectivity…

  12. The impact of extended longitudinal observation on the assessment of personality disorders.

    Pedersen, G; Karterud, S; Hummelen, B; Wilberg, T

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sources of information are necessary for a valid assessment of personality disorders (PDs). This study investigates the impact of longitudinal observation. The sample comprised 1217 patients from 15 different treatment units. PDs were assessed at admission to treatment using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and additional clinical information (best estimate diagnosis). After approximately 18 weeks of treatment, the SCID-II protocols were re-examined at clinical conferences and the diagnostic status reassessed on the basis of longitudinal observations in multiple group situations (longitudinal, expert, all data principle). Using this procedure, 78% of the patients' diagnostic criteria sets were changed, and 32% of patients' diagnostic statuses were changed. Many (32%) patients who were evaluated initially as not having a PD received a PD diagnosis after re-examination. The information provided by customary clinical assessment has important limitations, and longitudinal observation provides additional information that may change the diagnostic status in approximately one-third of PD cases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Longitudinal weight gain in women identified with polycystic ovary syndrome: results of an observational study in young women.

    Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E; Paul, Eldho; Moran, Lisa J; Loxton, Deborah; Jolley, Damien; Lombard, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-18% of women. The natural history of weight gain in women with PCOS has not been well described. Here we aimed to examine longitudinal weight gain in women with and without PCOS and to assess the association between obesity and PCOS prevalence. The observational study was set in the general community. Participants were women randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme (Medicare) database. Mailed survey data were collected by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Data from respondents to survey 4, aged 28-33 years (2006, n = 9,145) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were PCOS prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.4%). Women reporting PCOS had higher weight, mean BMI [2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.9-3.1)], and greater 10-year weight gain [2.6 kg (95% CI: 1.2-4.0)]. BMI was the strongest correlate of PCOS status with every BMI increment increasing the risk of reporting PCOS by 9.2% (95% CI: 6%-12%). This community based observational study with longitudinal reporting of weight shows that weight, BMI, and 10-year weight gain were higher in PCOS. We report the novel finding that obesity and greater weight gain are significantly associated with PCOS status. Considering the prevalence, major health and economic burden of PCOS, the increasing weight gain in young women, and established benefits of weight loss, these results have major public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  15. Individual Placement and Support in Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Observational Study of Employment Outcomes.

    Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance L; Barnett, Scott D; Njoh, Eni; Dixon, Thomas M; Holmes, Sally Ann; LePage, James P; Ota, Doug; Sabharwal, Sunil; White, Kevin T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of a 24-month program of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) on employment outcomes for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal, observational multisite study of a single-arm, nonrandomized cohort. SCI centers in the Veterans Health Administration (n=7). Veterans with SCI (N=213) enrolled during an episode of either inpatient hospital care (24.4%) or outpatient care (75.6%). More than half the sample (59.2%) had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). IPS SE for 24 months. Competitive employment. Over the 24-month period, 92 of 213 IPS participants obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 43.2%. For the subsample of participants without TBI enrolled as outpatients (n=69), 36 obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 52.2%. Overall, employed participants averaged 38.2±29.7 weeks of employment, with an average time to first employment of 348.3±220.0 days. Nearly 25% of first jobs occurred within 4 to 6 months of beginning the program. Similar employment characteristics were observed in the subsample without TBI history enrolled as outpatients. Almost half of the veterans with SCI participating in the 24-month IPS program as part of their ongoing SCI care achieved competitive employment, consistent with their expressed preferences at the start of the study. Among a subsample of veterans without TBI history enrolled as outpatients, employment rates were >50%. Time to first employment was highly variable, but quite long in many instances. These findings support offering continued IPS services as part of ongoing SCI care to achieve positive employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal Associations Between Cyberbullying Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Fahy, Amanda E; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Smuk, Melanie; Smith, Neil R; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between involvement in cyberbullying and future symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and mental well-being. At baseline, 14% reported being cybervictims, 8% reported being cyberbullies, and 20% reported being cyberbully-victims in the previous year. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression (cybervictims: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 2.06]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.13, 2.09]) and social anxiety (cybervictims: OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]) but not below average well-being (cybervictims: relative risk ratio = 1.28, 95% CI [.86, 1.91]; cyberbully-victims: relative risk ratio = 1.38, 95% CI [.95, 1.99]) at 1 year follow-up, after adjustment for confounding factors including baseline mental health. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of cyberbullying and the potential of cybervictimization as a risk factor for future depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and below average well-being among adolescents. Future research should identify protective factors and possible interventions to reduce adolescent cyberbullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Health Spending and Medicare Resource Use: A Longitudinal Analysis of U.S. Communities.

    Mays, Glen P; Mamaril, Cezar B

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether local expenditures for public health activities influence area-level medical spending for Medicare beneficiaries. Six census surveys of the nation's 2,900 local public health agencies were conducted between 1993 and 2013, linked with contemporaneous information on population demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and area-level Medicare spending estimates from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. Measures derive from agency survey data and aggregated Medicare claims. A longitudinal cohort design follows the geographic areas served by local public health agencies. Multivariate, fixed-effects, and instrumental-variables regression models estimate how area-level Medicare spending changes in response to shifts in local public health spending, controlling for observed and unmeasured confounders. A 10 percent increase in local public health spending per capita was associated with 0.8 percent reduction in adjusted Medicare expenditures per person after 1 year (p health insurance coverage, and health professional shortages. Expanded financing for public health activities may provide an effective way of constraining Medicare spending, particularly in low-resource communities. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Examination of Longitudinal Invariance on a Framework for Observing and Categorizing Instructional Strategies

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Tai, Robert H.; Skeeles-Worley, Angela D.

    2018-02-01

    In longitudinal studies, measurement invariance is required to conduct substantive comparisons over time or across groups. In this study, we examined measurement invariance on a recently developed instrument capturing student preferences for seven instructional strategies related to science learning and career interest. We have labeled these seven instructional strategies as Collaborating, Competing, Caretaking, Creating/Making, Discovering, Performing, and Teaching. A better understanding of student preferences for particular instructional strategies can help educators, researchers, and policy makers deliberately tailor programmatic instructional structure to increase student persistence in the STEM pipeline. However, simply confirming the relationship between student preferences for science instructional strategies and their future career choices at a single time point is not sufficient to clarify our understanding of the relationship between instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline, especially since preferences for instructional strategies are understood to vary over time. As such, we sought to develop a measure that invariantly captures student preference over a period of time: the Framework for Observing and Categorizing Instructional Strategies (FOCIS). We administered the FOCIS instrument over four semesters over two middle school grades to 1009 6th graders and 1021 7th graders and confirmed the longitudinal invariance of the FOCIS measure. This confirmation of longitudinal invariance will allow researchers to examine the relationship between student preference for certain instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline.

  20. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  1. Critical Outcomes in Longitudinal Observational Studies and Registries in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Zamora, Natalia V; Christensen, Robin; Goel, Niti

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Outcomes important to patients are those that are relevant to their well-being, including quality of life, morbid endpoints, and death. These outcomes often occur over the longterm and can be identified in prospective longitudinal observational studies (PLOS). There are no standards...... for which outcome domains should be considered. Our overarching goal is to identify critical longterm outcome domains for patients with rheumatic diseases, and to develop a conceptual framework to measure and classify them within the scope of OMERACT Filter 2.0. METHODS: The steps of this initiative...

  2. Longitudinal effects of GALM on physical activity, health and fitness of older adults

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Stevens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To determine the longitudinal effects of participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness of sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65 (pag 35-36 abstract book).

  3. Predictors of Dental Care Use: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I.; Visotcky, Alexis (Dye); Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal trends and associated factors in dental service utilization by adolescents progressing to early adulthood in the United States. Data Source The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), III (2001-2002) and IV (2007-2008). Study Design This is a retrospective, observational study of adolescents' transition to early adulthood. We obtained descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to identify the effects of baseline and concurrent covariates on dental service utilization from adolescence to early adulthood over time. Principal Findings Dental service utilization within the prior 12 months peaked at age 16 (72%), gradually decreased until age 21 (57%), and thereafter remained flat. Whites and Asians had a 10-20 percentage points higher proportion of dental service utilization at most ages compared to Blacks and Hispanics. Dental service utilization at later follow-up visits was strongly associated with baseline utilization with OR= 10.7, 2.4 and 1.5 at the 1-year, 7-year and 13-year follow-ups respectively. These effects decreased when adjusted for current income, insurance and education. Compared to Whites, Blacks were consistently less likely to report any dental examination. Conclusion Dental service utilization was highest in adolescents. Gender, education, health insurance and income in young adulthood were significant predictors of reporting a dental examination. Blacks had lower odds of reporting a dental examination either as adolescents or as young adults. PMID:23850156

  4. Socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular risk factors in China and India: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and longitudinal aging study in India.

    Hu, Peifeng; Wang, Serena; Lee, Jinkook

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major public health challenge in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare socioeconomic status (SES) gradients of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) both within and between China and India. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between SES and CVRF, using data from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and the longitudinal aging study in India. The results showed that, compared to illiteracy, the odds ratios of completing junior high school for high-risk waist circumference were 4.99 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-14.06) among Indian men, 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-7.05) among Indian women, but 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.92) among Chinese women. Similar patterns were observed between educational attainment and high-risk body mass index, and between education and hypertension, based on self-reported physician diagnosis and direct blood pressure measurements. SES is associated with CVRF in both China and India. However, this relationship showed opposite patterns across two countries, suggesting that this association is not fixed, but is subjective to underlying causal pathways, such as patterns of risky health behaviors and different social and health policies.

  5. Longitudinal muscle of the esophagus: its role in esophageal health and disease.

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2013-07-01

    The muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. The function of the longitudinal muscle and its role in bolus propulsion are not clear. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known of the role of the longitudinal muscle in health, as well as in sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging reveal that, during peristalsis, the two muscle layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the contrary, during transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, longitudinal muscle contracts independent of the circular muscle. Recent studies have provided novel insights into the role of the longitudinal muscle in LES relaxation and descending relaxation of the esophagus. In certain diseases (e.g. some motility disorders of the esophagus), there is discoordination between the two muscle layers, which likely plays an important role in the genesis of dysphagia and delayed esophageal emptying. There is close temporal correlation between prolonged contractions of the longitudinal muscles of the esophagus and esophageal 'angina-like' pain. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are reviewed. Longitudinal muscles of the esophagus play a key role in the physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Neuro-pharmacologic controls of circular and longitudinal muscle are different, which provides an opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies in the treatment of esophageal sensory and motor disorders.

  6. Relations between longitudinal trajectories of subjective financial wellbeing with self-rated health among elderly

    Giovanni Piumatti

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that in late life longitudinal negative changes in perceptions of financial wellbeing may occur together with decreases levels of self-reported health. Future research on health inequalities in elderly should pay specific attention to the link between financial wellbeing and health from a self-reported perspective.

  7. Longitudinal associations between health behaviors and mental health in low-income adults.

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Although there are established relationships between physical and mental health, few studies have explored the relationship between health behaviors and mental health over time. To explore rates of health-compromising behaviors (HCBs) and the longitudinal relationship between HCBs and depression, anxiety, and stress, five waves of data were collected over 1 year from 482 patients at an urban public health clinic (47 % female, 68 % African-American, M age = 28). Smoking (61 %), binge drinking (52 %), illegal drug use (53 %), unprotected sex with non-primary partners (55 %), and fast food consumption (71 %) were common, while consumption of fruits or vegetables (30 %) and breakfast (17 %) were rare. Cross-lagged models identified within-time associations between HCBs and depression/anxiety and stress. Additionally, depression/anxiety and stress predicted later HCBs, but HCBs did not predict later mental health. Results suggest that targeting mental health may be important to promoting improvements across multiple health behaviors.

  8. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  9. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  10. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers.

  11. Large variation in measures used to assess outcomes of opioid dependence treatment: A systematic review of longitudinal observational studies.

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Darke, Shane; Simon, Roland; Griffiths, Paul

    2017-10-02

    Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in all languages, with data on treated opioid users, using Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and additional strategies (e.g. Pubmed function 'related citations' and checking reference lists of eligible studies). Twenty-seven studies were included (11 countries, 85 publications, recruitment 1962-2009). Baseline n was >65 686 and median follow-up 34.5 months (21 studies) or 51.4 person-months (10 studies). Eight outcome domains were identified: 'drug use' (21/27 studies), 'crime' (13), 'health' (13), 'treatment-related' outcomes (16), 'social functioning' (13), 'harms' (8), 'mortality' (13) and 'economic estimates' (2 studies). All studies using drug use outcomes included a binary (abstinence) category in at least one measure. Studies typically reported outcomes on less than half (on average 3.7 or 46%) of the eight outcome domains, while the average was 5.1 (64%) in seven studies initiated since 2000. Wide variation exists in outcome measures found in longitudinal observational studies of treatment of opioid users. This reduces replicability of studies and suggests a lack of common expectations on treatment success. Future studies should consider using all or most of eight outcome domains identified (excluding economic analyses if unfeasible), non-binary measures and amount/value of drugs used and consensus meetings with joint ownership of scientific, treatment and patient communities. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. To track or not to track: user reactions to concepts in longitudinal health monitoring.

    Beaudin, Jennifer S; Intille, Stephen S; Morris, Margaret E

    2006-01-01

    Advances in ubiquitous computing, smart homes, and sensor technologies enable novel, longitudinal health monitoring applications in the home. Many home monitoring technologies have been proposed to detect health crises, support aging-in-place, and improve medical care. Health professionals and potential end users in the lay public, however, sometimes question whether home health monitoring is justified given the cost and potential invasion of privacy. The aim of the study was to elicit specific feedback from health professionals and laypeople about how they might use longitudinal health monitoring data for proactive health and well-being. Interviews were conducted with 8 health professionals and 26 laypeople. Participants were asked to evaluate mock data visualization displays that could be generated by novel home monitoring systems. The mock displays were used to elicit reactions to longitudinal monitoring in the home setting as well as what behaviors, events, and physiological indicators people were interested in tracking. Based on the qualitative data provided by the interviews, lists of benefits of and concerns about health tracking from the perspectives of the practitioners and laypeople were compiled. Variables of particular interest to the interviewees, as well as their specific ideas for applications of collected data, were documented. Based upon these interviews, we recommend that ubiquitous "monitoring" systems may be more readily adopted if they are developed as tools for personalized, longitudinal self-investigation that help end users learn about the conditions and variables that impact their social, cognitive, and physical health.

  13. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Longitudinal beta regression models for analyzing health-related quality of life scores over time

    Hunger Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL has become an increasingly important outcome parameter in clinical trials and epidemiological research. HRQL scores are typically bounded at both ends of the scale and often highly skewed. Several regression techniques have been proposed to model such data in cross-sectional studies, however, methods applicable in longitudinal research are less well researched. This study examined the use of beta regression models for analyzing longitudinal HRQL data using two empirical examples with distributional features typically encountered in practice. Methods We used SF-6D utility data from a German older age cohort study and stroke-specific HRQL data from a randomized controlled trial. We described the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models and compared both models to the commonly used linear mixed model in terms of overall fit and predictive accuracy. Results At any measurement time, the beta distribution fitted the SF-6D utility data and stroke-specific HRQL data better than the normal distribution. The mixed beta model showed better likelihood-based fit statistics than the linear mixed model and respected the boundedness of the outcome variable. However, it tended to underestimate the true mean at the upper part of the distribution. Adjusted group means from marginal beta model and linear mixed model were nearly identical but differences could be observed with respect to standard errors. Conclusions Understanding the conceptual differences between mixed and marginal beta regression models is important for their proper use in the analysis of longitudinal HRQL data. Beta regression fits the typical distribution of HRQL data better than linear mixed models, however, if focus is on estimating group mean scores rather than making individual predictions, the two methods might not differ substantially.

  15. Regression analysis of longitudinal data with correlated censoring and observation times.

    Li, Yang; He, Xin; Wang, Haiying; Sun, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal data occur in many fields such as the medical follow-up studies that involve repeated measurements. For their analysis, most existing approaches assume that the observation or follow-up times are independent of the response process either completely or given some covariates. In practice, it is apparent that this may not be true. In this paper, we present a joint analysis approach that allows the possible mutual correlations that can be characterized by time-dependent random effects. Estimating equations are developed for the parameter estimation and the resulted estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The finite sample performance of the proposed estimators is assessed through a simulation study and an illustrative example from a skin cancer study is provided.

  16. Longitudinal observations of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on Product Development

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges......, such as communication difficulties, a lack of common vision between team members or issues related to documentation, may occur during PD projects, enabling them to take the necessary preventative action (Edmondson and Nembhard, 2009). When investigating factors impacting the success of PD, the majority of research...... studies of globally distributed design teams in PD projects. This paper aims to contribute to the further understanding of the factors impacting the success of PD projects when teams are distributed globally. With the results from a longitudinal observational study over 8 months, the factors impacting...

  17. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (p<0.001) of HF power during 20 to 36 gestation weeks. Compared with the non-trait-anxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Access to Health Care by Immigrant Status among Older Adults: The Importance of Health Insurance as a Mediator

    Choi, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…

  19. The effects of workplace flexibility on health behaviors: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Casey, Patrick R; Jones, Fiona A

    2007-12-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between workplace flexibility and health behaviors, and estimate the potential importance of flexibility for effective worksite health promotion programs. Cross-sectional and longitudinal health risk appraisal data were obtained from US based employees of a multinational pharmaceutical company (n = 3193). Examined health behaviors were hours of sleep, physical activity frequency, health education seminar attendance, frequency of practicing personal resilience techniques, and self-appraised lifestyle. Self-reported flexibility in the workplace was the primary independent variable. Each health behavior, except regular attendance in health education seminars, was positively related to perceived flexibility in cross-sectional analyses. Sleep and self-appraised lifestyle were significantly related to changes in perceived flexibility over time. Workplace flexibility may contribute to positive lifestyle behaviors, and may play an important role in effective worksite health promotion programs.

  20. Barriers towards insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients: results of an observational longitudinal study

    Kulzer Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The course of barriers towards insulin therapy was analysed in three different groups of type 2 diabetic patients. This observational longitudinal study surveyed a three-month follow-up. Methods Participants in this study totalled 130 type 2 diabetic patients. The first subgroup was on insulin therapy at baseline (group 1: n = 57, age 55.6 ± 8.7 yrs, disease duration 12.7 ± 7.2 yrs, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6% and remained on insulin at follow-up. Of an initial 73 insulin-naïve patients, 44 were switched to insulin therapy (group 2: age 58.1 ± 6.8 yrs, disease duration 7.7 ± 5.0 yrs, HbA1c 9.1 ± 1.7% and 29 patients remained on an oral regimen (group 3: age 52.7 ± 10.7 yrs, disease duration 5.3 ± 4.6 yrs, HbA1c 8.3 ± 1.4%. Barriers towards insulin therapy were measured using the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS. As generic instruments of health related quality of life patients completed also the Problem Areas of Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID, the WHO-5 Well-Being Scale (WHO-5, the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Trait Version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI at baseline and at three-month follow-up. Results At the three-month follow-up, HbA1c had improved in all three groups (7.7 ± 1.2% vs. 7.1 ± 1.1% vs. 6.7 ± 0.8%. The course of negative appraisal of insulin therapy was significantly different in the three groups (p > .003: the ITAS score increased in patients remained on oral antidiabetic drugs (51.2 ± 12.2 to 53.6 ± 12.3, whereas it decreased in patients switched to insulin therapy (49.2 ± 9.8 to 46.2 ± 9.9 or remained on insulin treatment (45.8 ± 8.3 to 44.5 ± 8.0. Diabetes-related distress, trait anxiety, and well-being, showed a similar course in all three groups. The depression score improved significantly in patients switched to insulin treatment compared with patients remaining on insulin therapy. Conclusions In summary, this study suggests that a negative

  1. Developing longitudinal qualitative designs: lessons learned and recommendations for health services research.

    Calman, Lynn; Brunton, Lisa; Molassiotis, Alex

    2013-02-06

    Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative study. Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time; recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients, and analyzing data within and across time. As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting conditions.

  2. Predicting longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities with random-effects multinomial logit regression.

    Liu, Xian; Engel, Charles C

    2012-12-20

    Researchers often encounter longitudinal health data characterized with three or more ordinal or nominal categories. Random-effects multinomial logit models are generally applied to account for potential lack of independence inherent in such clustered data. When parameter estimates are used to describe longitudinal processes, however, random effects, both between and within individuals, need to be retransformed for correctly predicting outcome probabilities. This study attempts to go beyond existing work by developing a retransformation method that derives longitudinal growth trajectories of unbiased health probabilities. We estimated variances of the predicted probabilities by using the delta method. Additionally, we transformed the covariates' regression coefficients on the multinomial logit function, not substantively meaningful, to the conditional effects on the predicted probabilities. The empirical illustration uses the longitudinal data from the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old. Our analysis compared three sets of the predicted probabilities of three health states at six time points, obtained from, respectively, the retransformation method, the best linear unbiased prediction, and the fixed-effects approach. The results demonstrate that neglect of retransforming random errors in the random-effects multinomial logit model results in severely biased longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities as well as overestimated effects of covariates on the probabilities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  4. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  5. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  6. An Observation of a Transverse to Longitudinal Emittance Exchange at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    Koeth, Timothy W [State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2009-05-01

    An experimental program to perform a proof of principle of transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (ϵxin ↔ ϵzout and ϵxin ↔ ϵzout) has been developed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, including two magnetic dogleg channels and a TM110 deflecting mode radio frequency cavity, were constructed for the emittance exchange experiment. The first priority was a measurement of the Emittance Exchange beamline transport matrix. The method of difference orbits was used to measure the transport matrix. Through varying individual beam input vector elements, such as xin, x'in, yin, y'in, zin, or δin, and measuring the changes in all of the beam output vector's elements, xout, x'out, yout, y'out, zout, δout, the full 6 x 6 transport matrix was measured. The measured emittance exchange transport matrix was in overall good agreement with our calculated transport matrix. A direct observation of an emittance exchange was performed by measuring the electron beam's characteristics before and after the emittance exchange beamline. Operating with a 14.3 MeV, 250pC electron bunch, ϵzin of 21.1 ± 1.5 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵxout of 20.8 ± 2.00 mm • mrad. Diagnostic limitations in the ϵzout measurement did not account for an energy-time correlation, thus potentially returning values larger than the actual longitudinal emittance. The ϵxin of 4.67 ± 0.22 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵzout of 7.06 ± 0.43 mm • mrad. The apparent ϵzoutgrowth is consistent with calculated values in which the correlation term is neglected.

  7. Striped aeolian bedforms: a novel longitudinal pattern observed in ripples and megaripples on Earth and Mars

    Gough, T. R.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.; Martin, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Striped aeolian bedforms (SABs) are a previously undocumented longitudinal pattern consisting of streamwise corridors of ripples or megaripples separated by corridors containing smaller bedforms. Similar patterns of spanwise variations in bed texture and/or bed topography are observed in water flumes. SABs have been observed in satellite imagery at sites in Peru, Iran, California, the Puna region of northwestern Argentina, and on Mars. The spanwise periodicity varies from automated image-based grain size analysis, we found that median grain size was larger on the ripples and megaripples than on the intervening corridors containing smaller bedforms. This result is consistent with fluvial stripes, for which it is suggested that instability-driven streamwise vortices produce lateral sediment transport and sorting. We found no consistent evidence upwind of the SAB patterns to indicate topographic seeding is necessary. Therefore, we hypothesize that SABs are a self-organized bedform pattern that develops from secondary (lateral) transport of sediment in mixed sediment deposits. We also hypothesize that the development and maintenance of SABs requires unimodal wind regimes.

  8. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Tsuguhiko Kato

    Full Text Available Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children's health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554. We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children's unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers 40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health.

  10. Longitudinal associations between bullying and mental health among adolescents in Vietnam.

    Le, Ha Thi Hai; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Campbell, Marilyn A; Gatton, Michelle L; Tran, Nam T; Dunne, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This study measured bullying roles across an academic year and examined how change in bullying experiences is associated with symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Vietnam. 1424 students in middle and high schools completed two self-administered questionnaires, six months apart in 2014-2015. Students who were victimised often and those who were classified as highly involved as both victims and bullies at one or both survey times showed significantly higher levels of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation than other students. The mental health of adolescents who were involved in bullying as a victim or bully remained at low levels was generally similar to those not involved in any bullying. However, females who had stable but low level in victimisation or bully-victim status had worse mental health than males with stable-low-level exposure. This is the first longitudinal analysis of bullying among adolescents in Vietnam. Persistent and frequent bullying was strongly linked with poor mental health for males and females. A new observation is that Vietnamese girls appear to be more sensitive to low level but long-term bullying involvement than were boys.

  11. Relationship transitions and change in health behavior: A four-phase, twelve-year longitudinal study.

    Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2018-03-19

    Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health promotion and prevention in higher music education: results of a longitudinal study.

    Zander, Mark F; Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    Music-related symptoms can already be found among student musicians during their years of university training. The goals of the present study were to ascertain the state and developmental course of the student musicians' health and to test the effectiveness of a preventive curriculum given to student musicians during their first two semesters at university. Within a longitudinal, observational study, we assessed students' psychological and physical health during the first 2 years of university training. We compared data from the group of students who had followed the prevention program (intervention group, IG, n = 144) with data of a comparison group (CG, n = 103) of students who had not followed the program. Using standardized questionnaires, we measured physical and psychological symptoms as well as health behavior in a sequential plan (duration, 3.5 yrs). Student musicians (n = 247) showed elevated ratings in psychological and physical health in comparison with nonmusicians of the same age. These ratings decreased at the end of the students' second year. The prevention program had a preventive effect on the students' psychological health: while IG students remained stable in their performance and powers of concentration, CG students got worse in those same areas. However, the prevention program did not reduce physical symptoms. In comparison with their younger colleagues, upper-level students took more courses in body-oriented methods, relaxation, and mental techniques, which focus on preventive measures for musicians. At present, the study offers evidence supporting the use of the prevention curriculum for young musicians. In higher music education, preventive education has a positive impact on students' performance and their attitude toward health. The preventive curriculum does not have an effect on preexisting physical symptoms, and those symptoms related to the students musicians' activity should rather be treated in an additional therapeutic setting.

  13. Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of CHARLS.

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) data was used to investigate internet use and mobile phone ownership in older Chinese adults and examine digital divide and social economic status and mobile technology adoption and health outcomes associations. Results suggest a significant digital divide associated with not only individual characteristics, but also neighborhood resources. Future eHealth programs should consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for different social groups.

  14. Health, lifestyle and gender influences on aging well: An Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion

    Hal eKendig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (‘healthy’, ‘active’ and ‘successful’ aging has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12 year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being underweight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being underweight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  15. Health, lifestyle, and gender influences on aging well: an Australian longitudinal analysis to guide health promotion.

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well ("healthy," "active," and "successful" aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies.

  16. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  17. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  18. Late life changes in mental health: a longitudinal study of 9683 women.

    Leigh, Lucy; Byles, Julie E; Chojenta, Catherine; Pachana, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    To identify latent subgroups of women in late life who are alike in terms of their mental health trajectories. Longitudinal data are for 9683 participants in the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, who completed at least two surveys between 1999 (aged 73-78 years) and 2008 (aged 82-87 years). Mental health was measured using the five-item mental health inventory (MHI-5). Latent profile analysis uncovered patterns of change in MHI-5 scores. Three patterns of change were identified for women who were still alive in 2008 (n = 7061), and three similar patterns for deceased women (n = 2622): (1) 'poor mental health' representing women with low MHI-5 scores, (2) 'good mental health' and (3) 'excellent' mental health, where scores remained very high. Deceased women had lower mental health scores for each class. Remote areas of residence, higher education, single marital status, higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and falls were the covariates associated with mental health in the survivor group. For the deceased group, education, BMI and falls were significant. Arthritis, stroke, heart disease, bronchitis/emphysema, diabetes and osteoporosis were associated with worse mental health for both groups, while asthma increased these odds significantly for the survivor group only. Hypertension and cancer were not significant predictors of poor mental health. The results show associations between chronic disease and level of mental health in older age, but no evidence of a large decline in mental health in the period prior to death.

  19. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: A meta-analysis of longitudinal data

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Miche, M.; Brothers, A.F.; Barrett, A.E.; Diehl, M.; Montepare, J.M.; Wahl, H.-W.; Wurm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging—that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process—on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo,

  20. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  1. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Methods: Data were used from 4482

  2. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  3. Child incarceration and long-term adult health outcomes: a longitudinal study.

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J

    2018-03-12

    Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.

  4. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - a representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    Knecht, Michaela; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 ...

  5. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  6. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  8. Patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics associated with the use of observation stays in veterans health administration hospitals, 2005 to 2012

    Wright, Brad; O'Shea, Amy M.J.; Glasgow, Justin M.; Ayyagari, Padmaja; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have documented that a significant increase in the use of observation stays along with extensive variation in patterns of use across hospitals. The objective of this longitudinal observational study was to examine the extent to which patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics explain variation in observation stay rates across Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Our data came from years 2005 to 2012 of the nationwide VHA Medical SAS inpatient...

  9. Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health

    Singham, Timothy; Viding, Essi; Schoeler, Tabea; Arseneault, Louise; Ronald, Angelica; Cecil, Charlotte M.; McCrory, Eamon; Rijsdijk, Frülhing

    2017-01-01

    Importance Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. Objective To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Exposures Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). Results The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety

  10. [Presenteeism and workers' health: effects of mediation on psycho-physical stress in a longitudinal study].

    Falco, Alessandra; Girardi, Damiano; Parmiani, Gianluca; Bortolato, Stefano; Piccirelli, Alessandra; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; De Carlo, Nicola A

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the phenomenon of presenteeism, a construct still little studied, especially in Italy, in its medical, psychological, social and economic implications. In the first part we propose a review of the international literature, and of the meanings, causes and consequences of the phenomenon on individual and organizational health. In the second part, we present a study which involved, for a period of about a year, 326 workers of a company in the engineering industry. This study is, in this writers' knowledge, the first survey--characterized by a longitudinal design and a multi-method approach, both not very present also in the international literature--carried out in our country on the phenomenon of presenteeism. The survey examines the mediating role of presenteeism in the relationship between specific risk factors of work context and content--career growth, conflict with colleagues, social rewards--and the psycho-physical strain. The risk factors were detected through a self-report instrument at the beginning of the year. The workers, at the end of the same year, were subjected to a healthcare surveillance visit in which the competent physician evaluated the psycho-physical strain. The hypothesized relations have been tested by estimating a structural equation model with observed variables. What emerged was a negative association between social rewards and presenteeism and a positive relation between conflict with colleagues and presenteeism. Instead, no association between growth and presenteeism emerged. Presenteeism, in turn, predicts psycho-physical strain. Overall, presenteeism mediates the relationship between social rewards and strain, as well as between interpersonal conflict and strain, but not between growth and strain. This work is characterized by some innovative aspects compared to previous studies conducted on the subject, both in theory and methodology. From a theoretical point of view the hypothesized model aims to

  11. Health related quality of life in renal transplantation: 2 years of longitudinal follow-up.

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell, M Carmen; Moreso, Francesc; Parramon, Gemma; Seron, Daniel

    2017-08-10

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is recognized as an outcome measure in kidney transplantation. In this study was assessed changes on HRQoL and kidney-specific symptoms, also was evaluated the effect of socio-demographic and clinical parameters on patient's perceived HRQoL. A longitudinal study was done, at 5 time-points over 2 years after transplantation. To evaluate HRQoL the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form was administrated, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress. At 6-months after transplantation, patients had similar HRQoL scores compared to the general population. The improvement on effects of kidney disease domain could be considered as large (η 2 =0.29), and medium on burden of kidney disease domain (η 2 =0.12), work status domain (η 2 =0.12), and sexual function domain (η 2 =0.13). Psychological distress, depressive symptoms, haemoglobin, and serum creatinine had significant influence on patient's perceived HRQoL over 2 years after transplantation. An improvement of HRQoL was observed on general and specific-targeted symptoms over 2 years after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Variable selection and estimation for longitudinal survey data

    Wang, Li; Wang, Suojin; Wang, Guannan

    2014-01-01

    There is wide interest in studying longitudinal surveys where sample subjects are observed successively over time. Longitudinal surveys have been used in many areas today, for example, in the health and social sciences, to explore relationships

  13. Elder mistreatment predicts later physical and psychological health: Results from a national longitudinal study.

    Wong, Jaclyn S; Waite, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health 5 years later than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process.

  14. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  15. Caregiving and mental health among workers: Longitudinal evidence from a large cohort of adults in Thailand

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As people in middle and lower income countries live longer, more people become sick, disabled, and frail and the demand for family caregiving grows. Thailand faces such challenges. This study investigates the relationship between caregiving and mental health among workers drawn from a large longitudinal cohort of Thai adults. Methods: Participants were drawn from the Thai Health-Risk Transition Study, a cohort study since 2005 of distance-learning adult Open University students residing nationwide. Caregiving status and binary psychological distress outcome (score 19–30 on Kessler 6 were recorded in 2009 and 2013 among cohort members who were paid workers at both years (n=33,972. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between four-year longitudinal caregiving status and psychological distress in 2013, adjusting for potential covariates. Results: Longitudinal analyses revealed the transitional nature of care with 25% exiting and 10% entering the caring role during the four-year follow-up. Based on multivariate logistic regression, 2009–2013 caregiving status was significantly associated with psychological distress. Cohort members transitioning into caregiving and those who were caregivers in both 2009 and 2013 had a higher risk for psychological distress than non-caregivers (Adjusted Odds Ratios 1.40 [1.02–1.96] and 1.64 [1.16–2.33], respectively. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on caregiving and associated risk for psychological distress among working Thais. This adds to the limited existing literature in middle-income countries and highlights the potential pressure among caregivers in balancing work and care while preserving their own mental health. Keywords: Carers, Caregivers, Mental health, Work and health, Longitudinal data, Cohort study, Thailand

  16. Four-peak longitudinal distribution of the equatorial plasma bubbles observed in the topside ionosphere: Possible troposphere tide influence

    Sidorova, L. N.; Filippov, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider an idea of the troposphere tide influence on the character of the longitudinal variations in the distribution of the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) observed in the topside ionosphere. For this purpose, the obtained EPB longitudinal patterns were compared with the thermosphere and ionosphere characteristics having the prominent "wave-like" longitudinal structures with wave number 4, which are uniquely associated with the influence of the troposphere DE3 tides. The characteristics of the equatorial mass density anomaly (EMA), equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), zonal wind and pre-reversal E × B drift enhancement (PRE) were used for comparison. The equinox seasons during high solar activity were under consideration. It was obtained that the longitudinal patterns of the EMA and zonal wind show the surprising similarity with the EPB distributions (R ≅ 0.8, R ≅ 0.72). On the other hand, the resemblance with the ionosphere characteristics (EIA, PRE) is rather faint (R ≅ 0.37, R ≅ 0.12). It was shown that the thermosphere zonal winds are the most possible transfer mediator of the troposphere DE3 tide influence. The most successful moment for the transfer of the troposphere DE3 tide energy takes place in the beginning of the EPB production, namely, during the seed perturbation development.

  17. Team Investment and Longitudinal Relationships: An Innovative Global Health Education Model.

    Myers, Kimberly R; Fredrick, N Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Increasing student interest in global health has resulted in medical schools offering more global health opportunities. However, concerns have been raised, particularly about one-time, short-term experiences, including lack of follow-through for students and perpetuation of unintentional messages of global health heroism, neocolonialism, and disregard for existing systems and communities of care. Medical schools must develop global health programs that address these issues. The Global Health Scholars Program (GHSP) was created in 2008-2009 at Penn State College of Medicine. This four-year program is based on values of team investment and longitudinal relationships and uses the service-learning framework of preparation, service, and reflection. Teams of approximately five students, with faculty oversight, participate in two separate monthlong trips abroad to the same host community in years 1 and 4, and in campus- and Web-based activities in years 2 and 3. As of December 2016, 191 students have been accepted into the GHSP. Since inception, applications have grown by 475% and program sites have expanded from one to seven sites on four continents. The response from students has been positive, but logistical challenges persist in sustaining team investment and maintaining longitudinal relationships between student teams and host communities. Formal methods of assessment should be used to compare the GHSP model with more traditional approaches to global health education. Other medical schools with similar aims can adapt the GHSP model to expand their global health programming.

  18. A Health 'Kuznets' Curve'? Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence on Concentration Indices'.

    Costa-Font, Joan; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina; Sato, Azusa

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of income related health inequalities appears to exhibit changing patterns when both developing countries and developed countries are examined. This paper tests for the existence of a health Kuznets' curve; that is, an inverse U-shape pattern between economic developments (as measured by GDP per capita) and income-related health inequalities (as measured by concentration indices). We draw upon both cross sectional (the World Health Survey) and a long longitudinal (the European Community Household Panel survey) dataset. Our results suggest evidence of a health Kuznets' curve on per capita income. We find a polynomial association where inequalities decline when GDP per capita reaches a magnitude ranging between $26,000 and $38,700. That is, income-related health inequalities rise with GDP per capita, but tail off once a threshold level of economic development has been attained.

  19. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  20. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  1. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  2. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal

  3. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  4. Gene–arsenic interaction in longitudinal changes of blood pressure: Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    Farzan, Shohreh F. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH (United States); Jiang, Jieying; Wu, Fen; Liu, Mengling [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Newman, Jonathan D. [The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Eunus, Mahbub; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and mounting evidence indicates that toxicant exposures can profoundly impact on CVD risk. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that arsenic (As) exposure is positively related to increases in blood pressure (BP), a primary CVD risk factor. However, evidence of whether genetic susceptibility can modify the association between As and BP is lacking. In this study, we used mixed effect models adjusted for potential confounders to examine the interaction between As exposure from well water and potential genetic modifiers on longitudinal change in BP over approximately 7 years of follow-up in 1137 subjects selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Bangladesh. Genotyping was conducted for 235 SNPs in 18 genes related to As metabolism, oxidative stress and endothelial function. We observed interactions between 44 SNPs with well water As for one or more BP outcome measures (systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure (PP)) over the course of follow-up. The interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well water As on annual PP remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR-adjusted p for interaction = 0.05). Among individuals with the rs3794624 variant genotype, well water As was associated with a 2.23 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.14–3.32) greater annual increase in PP, while among those with the wild type, well water As was associated with a 0.13 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.02–0.23) greater annual increase in PP. Our results suggest that genetic variability may contribute to As-associated increases in BP over time. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with blood pressure increases over time. • Genetic polymorphisms may modify the association between As and blood pressure. • An interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well As increased annual pulse pressure. • Genetic variants may contribute to As-related blood

  5. The benefits of personal strengths in mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation.

    Duan, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    This study used a two-wave longitudinal research design to explore the role of individual strengths, including interpersonal strength, intellectual strength, and temperance strength, in affecting the mental health of stressed college students. A total of 404 stressed Chinese college students were screened to participate in this 12-month longitudinal study. At the beginning of the study (Time 1), students who had not experienced stressful events within the last 12 months were invited to assess their strengths, psychological well-being, and psychological symptoms. After 12 months (Time 2), 404 students who reported stressful experiences completed the scales again and were retained for the final analyses. Academics-related stressors were the most endorsed life events among college students, whose states of mental health showed downward trends from Time 1 to Time 2. Three strengths had weak to modest correlations to mental health at both Time 1 and Time 2. Although the additional variances of mental health explained by the three strengths were very modest, the mediational roles of the strengths were identified. The perceived stress completely mediated the relationship between the strengths and the psychological symptoms and partly mediated the relationship between the strengths and psychological well-being. Individual strengths may function as a defense against perceived stress and are protective factors of mental health. These strengths maintain mental health by enhancing the psychological well-being and reducing the psychological symptoms of individuals.

  6. Health benefits of increased walking for sedentary, generally healthy older adults: using longitudinal data to approximate an intervention trial.

    Diehr, Paula; Hirsch, Calvin

    2010-09-01

    Older adults are often advised to walk more, but randomized trials have not conclusively established the benefits of walking in this age group. Typical analyses based on observational data may have biased results. Here, we propose a "limited-bias," more interpretable estimate of the health benefits to sedentary healthy older adults of walking more, using longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. The number of city blocks walked per week, collected annually, was classified as sedentary (or=28). Analysis was restricted to persons sedentary and healthy in the first 2 years. In Year 3, some became more active (the treatment groups). Self-rated health at Year 5 (follow-up) was regressed on walking at Year 3, with additional covariates from Year 2, when all were sedentary. At follow-up, 83.5% of those active at baseline had excellent, very good, or good self-rated health, as compared with 63.9% of the sedentary, an apparent benefit of 19.6 percentage points. After covariate adjustment, the limited-bias estimate of the benefit was 11.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval 3.7-18.6). Ten different outcome measures showed a benefit, ranging from 5 to 11 percentage points. Estimates from other study designs were smaller, less interpretable, and potentially more biased. In longitudinal studies where walking and health are ascertained at every wave, limited-bias estimates can provide better estimates of the benefits of walking. A surprisingly small increase in walking was associated with meaningful health benefits.

  7. Cultural events – does attendance improve health? Evidence from a Polish longitudinal study

    Dorota Węziak-Białowolska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is strong advocacy for uptake of both the arts and creative activities as determinants of individual health conditions, studies evaluating causal influence of attendance at cultural events on population health using individual population data on health are scarce. If available, results are often only of an associative nature. In this light, this study investigated causative impact of attendance at cultural events on self-reported and physical health in the Polish population. Methods Four recent waves (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015 of the biennial longitudinal Polish household panel study, Social Diagnosis, were analysed. The data, representative for the Polish population aged over 16, with respect to age, gender, classes of place of residence and NUTS 2 regions, were collected from self-report questionnaires. Causative influence of cultural attendance on population health was established using longitudinal population representative data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity of individuals and to mitigate issues caused by omitted variables, a panel data model with a fixed effects estimator was applied. The endogeneity problem (those who enjoy good health are more likely to participate in cultural activities more frequently was circumvented by application of instrumental variables. Results Results confirmed positive association between cultural attendance and self-reported health. However, in contrast to the often suggested positive causative relationship, such a link was not confirmed by the study. Additionally, no evidence was found to corroborate a positive impact from cultural attendance on physical health. Both findings were substantiated by augmentation in the longitudinal perspective and causal link. Conclusions We showed the relation between attendance at cultural events and self-reported health could only be confirmed as associational. Therefore, this study provided little justification to encourage use

  8. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  9. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  10. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Bart Verkuil

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations.Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health.The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783 showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23-.34, anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29-.40 and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30-.44. Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450 showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13-0.21. Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10-0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028.All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias.Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work.

  11. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Verkuil, Bart; Atasayi, Serpil; Molendijk, Marc L

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23-.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29-.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30-.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13-0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10-0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work.

  12. The concurrent and longitudinal effects of child disability types and health on family experiences.

    Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal effects of children's disability types and health on family experiences, namely, parent divorce, mother's unemployment, and receipt of social welfare. The parent and school staff survey data for 1999 and 2004 from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study were analyzed, when the ages of children with disabilities ranged from 6 to 17. Weighted logistic regressions using Taylor Series Linearization were used to model the concurrent associations and longitudinal association between children's disability types and health and family experiences. Models were adjusted to account for other children in the family with disabilities, sociodemographic characteristics, and other family experiences variables. Family experiences varied significantly by disability type in 1999. Compared with families of children with learning disabilities, parents of children with emotional disturbances were 81% more likely to get divorced, and 2.5 times more likely to receive welfare from 1999 to 2004. Mothers of children with a secondary disability were 81% more likely to be unemployed than those of children without a secondary disability. These findings indicate that specific disability types in children have an influence on family experience, and that some of those influences may persist over time. Families of children with emotional disturbances appear to be particularly at risk for negative family experiences. Clinicians, educators, and policymakers should be aware of the complex needs of families of children with disabilities when considering the types of services and supports provided to both children with disabilities and their families.

  13. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in longitudinal studies of myeloma patients

    Nielsen, Lene Kongsgaard; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2017-01-01

    in HRQoL scores, which is perceived as beneficial to the patient according to two published guidelines. METHODS: A literature search was performed May 2016. Publications with longitudinal follow-up using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument for HRQoL measurement of physical functioning, global quality of life......OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients report high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to patients with other haematological malignancies. The aim of this review was to analyse published longitudinal studies including MM patients according to a change...... during first-line compared to relapsed treatment regimens. The background of these findings should be in focus in future studies, and HRQoL measurements should be integrated in maintenance studies....

  14. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  15. The Brain Health Registry: An internet-based platform for recruitment, assessment, and longitudinal monitoring of participants for neuroscience studies.

    Weiner, Michael W; Nosheny, Rachel; Camacho, Monica; Truran-Sacrey, Diana; Mackin, R Scott; Flenniken, Derek; Ulbricht, Aaron; Insel, Philip; Finley, Shannon; Fockler, Juliet; Veitch, Dallas

    2018-05-08

    Recruitment, assessment, and longitudinal monitoring of participants for neuroscience studies and clinical trials limit the development of new treatments. Widespread Internet use allows data capture from participants in an unsupervised setting. The Brain Health Registry, a website and online registry, collects data from participants and their study partners. The Brain Health Registry obtains self and study partner report questionnaires and neuropsychological data, including the Cogstate Brief Battery, Lumos Labs Neurocognitive Performance Test, and MemTrax Memory Test. Participants provide informed consent before participation. Baseline and longitudinal data were obtained from nearly 57,000 and 28,000 participants, respectively. Over 18,800 participants were referred to, and nearly 1800 were enrolled in, clinical Alzheimer's disease and aging studies, including five observational studies and seven intervention trials. Online assessments of participants and study partners provide useful information at relatively low cost for neuroscience studies and clinical trials and may ultimately be used in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 the Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Experience of health-system pharmacy administration residents in a longitudinal human resource management program.

    Amerine, Lindsey B Poppe; Granko, Robert P; Savage, Scott W; Daniels, Rowell; Eckel, Stephen F

    2014-12-15

    The experience of health-system pharmacy administration (HSPA) residents in a longitudinal human resource (HR) management program is described. The subsequent benefits to the residents, department, and profession are also discussed. Postgraduate year 2 HSPA residents at an academic medical center desired more responsibility for managing an operational area. To this end, a program was created in which these residents directly manage a small group of pharmacy technicians and report to a clinical manager or assistant director with oversight responsibility. These "resident managers" are responsible, under the direction of the area's clinical manager, for the personnel, schedule, time and attendance, and HR activities of the area. Resident managers have led and sustained operational improvement projects in their areas. In addition to providing learning experiences to residents, the HSPA residency program has also improved the operations of the areas in which these residents work. Benefits to the residents include conducting annual performance evaluations for employees with whom they have a relationship as it is a task every administrator completes. Resident managers at UNC have consistently stated that this longitudinal HR experience is one of the most rewarding and most challenging experiences offered in the two-year HSPA residency. The involvement of HSPA residents in longitudinal management responsibilities furthers residents' leadership success by providing trained managers who are ready to immerse themselves into practice postresidency, having employee engagement and HR skills as well as experiences with leading operational improvements. A longitudinal HR management experience was successfully incorporated into an HSPA residency combined Master of Science degree program. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of "Step into Health" program in Qatar: a pedometer-based longitudinal study.

    Al-Kuwari, Mohamed G; Al-Mohannadi, Abdulla S; Sayegh, Suzan

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the impact of a one-year pedometer-based intervention on increasing the physical activity level among adult population in Qatar. This longitudinal study was conducted over a one-year period and included a total of 268 adults aged between 18-64 years old. Data were extracted and used from the "Step into Health" (SIH) program, a community-based program launched in 2012, as an approach to improve physical activity in Qatar. Walking intervention encouraged members of SIH to accumulate 10,000 steps or more per day and monitor their progress through a pedometer supported by a self-monitoring online account and a reinforcement system. This study shows a significant increase in average daily steps from 3933±3240 steps/day at baseline into 7507±5416 steps/week at the 12th month (P<0.001). It was found that 18.6% of participants met the daily target of 10,000 steps or more; however, there was a considerable increase of 39.2% by the 12th month. Females showed an increase in their physical activity; still, they remain less active than males. It was found that non-Arabs subgroup were more active than Arabs. Interestingly, older members (≥50 years old) were more active throughout the study period. Pedometer program was found to be effective in increasing the level of physical activity among participants. A decline in physical activity has been observed during hot weather, while re-enforcement campaign had a positive impact on the number of steps/day.

  18. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  19. Self-rated health in Canadian immigrants: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Lynch, John; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2011-03-01

    Using a multi-level random effects logistic model, we examine the contribution of source country, individual characteristics and post-migration experiences to the self-rated health (SRH) of 2468 male and 2614 female immigrants from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2001-2005). Sex/gender differences were found for all categories of health determinants. Source country characteristics explained away some ethnic differentials in health and had independent negative effects, particularly among women. Thus, women from countries lower on the development index appear at greater risk of poor SRH, and should be at the forefront of public health programmes aimed at new immigrants in Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MIPAS observations of longitudinal oscillations in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere: climatology of odd-parity daily frequency modes

    M. García-Comas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS global Sun-synchronous observations are almost fixed in local time. Subtraction of the descending and ascending node measurements at each longitude only includes the longitudinal oscillations with odd daily frequencies nodd from the Sun's perspective at 10:00. Contributions from the background atmosphere, daily-invariant zonal oscillations and tidal modes with even-parity daily frequencies vanish. We have determined longitudinal oscillations in MIPAS temperature with nodd and wavenumber k = 0–4 from the stratosphere to 150 km from April 2007 to March 2012. To our knowledge, this is the first time zonal oscillations in temperature have been derived pole to pole in this altitude range from a single instrument. The major findings are the detection of (1 migrating tides at northern and southern high latitudes; (2 significant k = 1 activity at extratropical and high latitudes, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere; (3 k = 3 and k = 4 eastward-propagating waves that penetrate the lower thermosphere with a significantly larger vertical wavelength than in the mesosphere; and (4 a migrating tide quasi-biennial oscillation in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. MIPAS global measurements of longitudinal oscillations are useful for testing tide modeling in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and as a lower boundary for models extending higher up in the atmosphere.

  1. Social isolation and mental health at primary and secondary school entry: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers' and teachers' reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of health behaviors after the economic downturn: a longitudinal study.

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2013-07-01

    Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair health behaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and health behaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the health behaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the health behaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the health behaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five health behaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five health behaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across health behaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health

    Ekberg Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of the present study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between job mobility and health and burnout. A second aim was to elucidate the effects of perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions on the relationship between job mobility (non-, internally and externally mobile, and health (SF-36 and burnout (CBI. Methods The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants and the data were analysed with Structural Equation Modeling statistical methods. Results The results showed that job mobility was a better predictor of health and burnout, than health and burnout were as predictors of job mobility. The predictive effects were most obvious for psychosocial health and burnout, but negligible as far as physical health was concerned. Organizational justice was found to have a direct impact on health, but not on job mobility; whereas turnover intentions had a direct effect on job mobility. Conclusion The predictive relationship between job mobility and health has practical implications for health promotive actions in different organizations.

  4. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  5. Challenges in shared decision making in advanced cancer care: a qualitative longitudinal observational and interview study.

    Brom, Linda; De Snoo-Trimp, Janine C; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Pasman, H Roeline W

    2017-02-01

    Patients' preferences and expectations should be taken into account in treatment decision making in the last phase of life. Shared decision making (SDM) is regarded as a way to give the patient a central role in decision making. Little is known about how SDM is used in clinical practice in advanced cancer care. To examine whether and how the steps of SDM can be recognized in decision making about second- and third-line chemotherapy. Fourteen advanced cancer patients were followed over time using face-to-face in-depth interviews and observations of the patients' out-clinic visits. Interviews and outpatient clinic visits in which treatment options were discussed or decisions made were transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding. Patients were satisfied with the decision-making process, but the steps of SDM were barely seen in daily practice. The creation of awareness about available treatment options by physicians was limited and not discussed in an equal way. Patients' wishes and concerns were not explicitly assessed, which led to different expectations about improved survival from subsequent lines of chemotherapy. To reach SDM in daily practice, physicians should create awareness of all treatment options, including forgoing treatment, and communicate the risk of benefit and harm. Open and honest communication is needed in which patients' expectations and concerns are discussed. Through this, the difficult process of decision making in the last phase of life can be facilitated and the focus on the best care for the specific patient is strengthened. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 'Real-life' study of imatinib therapy in chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia: A novel retrospective observational longitudinal analysis.

    Merante, Serena; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Calvello, Celeste; Rocca, Barbara; Zappatore, Rita; Cavigliano, Paola; Orlandi, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Imatinib is a cornerstone of treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It remains unclear whether transient treatment discontinuation or dose changes affect outcome and this approach has not yet been approved for use outside clinical trials. We conducted a retrospective single-institution observational study to evaluate factors affecting response in 'real-life' clinical practice in 138 chronic myeloid leukemia patients in chronic phase treated with imatinib. We used a novel longitudinal data analytical model, with a generalized estimating equation model, to study BCR-ABL variation according to continuous standard dose, change in dose or discontinuation; BCR-ABL transcript levels were recorded. Treatment history was subdivided into time periods for which treatment was given at constant dosage (total 483 time periods). Molecular and cytogenetic complete response was observed after 154 (32%) and 358 (74%) time periods, respectively. After adjusting for length of time period, no association between dose and cytogenetic complete response rate was observed. There was a significantly lower molecular complete response rate after time periods at a high imatinib dosage. This statistical approach can identify individual patient variation in longitudinal data collected over time and suggests that changes in dose or discontinuation of therapy could be considered in patients with appropriate biological characteristics.

  7. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Serum Bilirubin and Prediabetes in a Health Screening Population.

    Oda, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal associations between total bilirubin (TB) and prediabetes have not been reported. This study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and prediabetes. Cross-sectional associations between TB and prediabetes were investigated in 3681 nondiabetic subjects. Longitudinal associations between TB and prediabetes over 6 years were investigated in 2149 subjects who were normoglycemic at baseline. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of ≥5.6 mmol/L or glycated hemoglobin levels of ≥5.7% excluding diabetes. The prevalence of prediabetes was 25.4%, and the cumulative incidence of prediabetes during 6 years was 25.5% in a Japanese health screening population. Prevalent prediabetes was significantly associated with the quintiles of TB in nonsmoking men (trend, pprediabetes was not significantly associated with the quintiles of TB, while it was positively associated with 1 standard deviation increase in TB in nonsmoking men (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]; 1.21 [1.07 to 1.37], p=0.002). TB levels were significantly inversely associated with prevalent prediabetes in nonsmokers, but not in smokers, whereas an inverse association between TB levels and incident prediabetes seemed to be unlikely. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. Objective The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale” (dallas) from 2012-2015. Methods The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. Results We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Conclusions

  9. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom.

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally; Mair, Frances S

    2017-02-16

    Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015. The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Although there is receptiveness to digital health

  10. Health among Swedish employees and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility: a longitudinal study.

    Runeson, Roma; Vingård, Eva; Lampa, Erik; Wahlstedt, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    The present study is part of a 3-year longitudinal study on work and health among employees in the public sector in Sweden. The aim was to study associations between self-rated health (SRH) and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Of the 9003 employees, 7533 answered the baseline questionnaires (84%). Altogether 9373 subjects received the follow-up questionnaire, and 6617 subjects responded (71%). In total 4240 completed the questionnaire on both occasions, and this group comprised the study population. SRH consisted of the response to a single question: 'In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, poor, or very poor?' The health was investigated in terms of the development of health status in the 3-year follow-up. The exposure factors were: financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Odds ratios were analysed using logistic regressions. Good financial situation and further education were predictors in maintaining good health and in avoiding poor health. The analysis also indicated the following determinants of sustained good SRH: having a good financial situation (OR 1.99 at baseline and OR 1.87 at follow-up), having a further education compared to lower education (OR 1.17 at baseline), and not having a worsening financial situation between baseline and follow-up (OR 0.53). Financial situation and educational level were important factors that influence the subjective perception of health.

  11. Social isolation, health literacy, and mortality risk: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Smith, Samuel G; Jackson, Sarah E; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Steptoe, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the relationships between social isolation, health literacy, and all-cause mortality, and the modifying effect of social isolation on the latter relationship. Data were from 7731 adults aged ≥50 years participating in Wave 2 (2004/2005) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Social isolation was defined according to marital/cohabiting status and contact with children, relatives, and friends, and participation in social organizations. Scores were split at the median to indicate social isolation (yes vs. no). Health literacy was assessed as comprehension of a medicine label and classified as "high" (≥75% correct) or "low" (socially isolated versus nonisolated groups. Low health literacy (adj. HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.45 vs. high) and social isolation (adj. HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) were independently associated with increased mortality risk. The multiplicative interaction term for health literacy and social isolation was not statistically significant (p = .81). Low health literacy and high social isolation are risk factors for mortality. Social isolation does not modify the relationship between health literacy and mortality. Clinicians should be aware of the health risks faced by socially isolated adults and those with low health literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. CGH observes National Women’s Health Week

    This week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is observing the 17th annual National Women’s Health Week. The goal of the National Women's Health Week is to empower women to make their health a priority. In celebration, the NCI Center for Global Health held a seminar on the Knowledge Summaries for Comprehensive Breast Cancer Control: Pathways for Advanced Cancer Planning.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care - Does Time Heal?

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    for 15 months, we repeated the evaluation. Our aim was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar......We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being deployed in a large hospital. After the nurses had used the system in their daily work...... with it – if time heals poor design. On the basis of our study, we present findings on the usability of the electronic patient system as experienced by the nurses at these two different points in time and discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  15. The effects of work organization on the health of immigrant manual workers: A longitudinal analysis.

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a longitudinal design to examine the associations of work organization and health outcomes among Latino manual workers. Participants included 247 Latino workers who completed baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews and clinical examinations. Health outcome measures were epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and depressive symptoms. Independent measures were measures of job demand, job control, and job support. Workers commonly experienced rotator cuff syndrome (6.5%), back pain (8.9%), and depressive symptoms (11.2%); fewer experienced epicondylitis (2.4%). Psychological demand was associated with rotator cuff syndrome; awkward position and decision latitude were associated with back pain. Decreased skill variety but increased decision latitude was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Work context factors are important for health outcomes among vulnerable workers. Further research is needed to expand upon this work, particularly cultural perspectives on job support.

  16. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  17. Young adult gay and bisexual men's stigma experiences and mental health: An 8-year longitudinal study.

    Pachankis, John E; Sullivan, Timothy J; Feinstein, Brian A; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-04-05

    This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More self-described feminine men experienced quicker reductions in concealment, compared to more self-described masculine men. Enacted stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with depression and social anxiety across 8 years; and anticipated stigma and internalized stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with social anxiety across 8 years. Enacted stigma was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among men who reported greater masculinity compared to those who reported greater femininity. Findings are discussed in terms of common developmental influences across early sexual orientation identity formation, including gay and bisexual young men's resilience to stigma-based stress; the transition from college; and the rapidly changing social climate surrounding sexual minority individuals. Findings suggest the need for future longitudinal examinations of stigma and mental health among sexual minorities that utilize multiple age cohorts to determine the relative contribution of cohort-specific versus common maturational factors influencing the mental health of this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Estimation of Longitudinal Force and Sideslip Angle for Intelligent Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles by Observer Iteration and Information Fusion.

    Chen, Te; Chen, Long; Xu, Xing; Cai, Yingfeng; Jiang, Haobin; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-20

    Exact estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is important for lateral stability and path-following control of four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle. This paper presents an effective method for longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation by observer iteration and information fusion for four-wheel independent drive electric vehicles. The electric driving wheel model is introduced into the vehicle modeling process and used for longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force reconstruction equation is obtained via model decoupling, the a Luenberger observer and high-order sliding mode observer are united for longitudinal force observer design, and the Kalman filter is applied to restrain the influence of noise. Via the estimated longitudinal force, an estimation strategy is then proposed based on observer iteration and information fusion, in which the Luenberger observer is applied to achieve the transcendental estimation utilizing less sensor measurements, the extended Kalman filter is used for a posteriori estimation with higher accuracy, and a fuzzy weight controller is used to enhance the adaptive ability of observer system. Simulations and experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of proposed estimation method is verified.

  19. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  20. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the recovery period and indicate much

  1. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the

  2. The influence of organizational commitment and health on sickness absenteeism: a longitudinal study.

    Schalk, René

    2011-07-01

    The prevention of sickness absenteeism of nurses is an important issue for organizations in health care as well as for nurses. The role of work-related attitudes, such as organizational commitment, as a cause of absenteeism is still unclear. To examine the influence over time of organizational commitment, health complaints, and visits to a general practitioner on sickness absenteeism. This was a longitudinal, three-wave study in two nursing homes in the Netherlands among 224 nurses. Questionnaire data (self reports of organizational commitment, health complaints, visits to a general practitioner), as well as absenteeism data retrieved from personnel files was used. Health complaints and visits to a general practitioner were found to predict absenteeism behaviour. Commitment was related to health complaints at the same point in time, but did not predict future sickness absenteeism. With respect to managing sickness absenteeism of nurses it should be acknowledged by managers that nurses call in sick when they perceive that there is a real health problem, not because of negative work attitudes. It is important, however, for managers to signal signs of decreasing organizational commitment because this is associated with increases in health complaints. This can eventually result in increases in absenteeism. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of food insecurity on health status of adolescents in Ethiopia: longitudinal study

    Mulusew G. Jebena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents’ health and wellbeing in Ethiopia. Method We used data from the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth which began tracking a cohort of adolescents in 2005 to examine the social, behavioral and economic determinants of their health and well-being. A total of 1,919 sample were included in the main analyses. All youths provided data related to their food insecurity experiences and their health status. A mixed effect logistic regression using random intercept and trend model was used to examine the relationship between food insecurity and their health status. Fixed effects estimates were also computed to check the parsimoniousness of the random intercept and trend model. Results The results indicated that the mean (±SD age of adolescents was 18.6(±1.4. Nine hundred twenty three (48.1% of them were female. The magnitude of self-rated health status was relatively unstable ranging from 18.9%, 34.7% to 37.3% in each round. Similarly, 20.4%, 48.4% and 20.6% of adolescents were food insecure during each consecutive round of the survey respectively. Exposure to food insecurity is strongly associated with self-rated health status (β = 0.28, P < 0.001 and poor self-rated health was also more pronounced for some time (β =2.11, P < 0.001 and decline after a turning point (β = −0.38, P < 0.001. Conclusions These findings imply that any social, nutrition and public health interventions designed to improve adolescent health should consider underlying social determinants of health such as food insecurity.

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. A longitudinal study of paternal mental health during transition to fatherhood as young adults.

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    Rates of paternal depression range from 5% to 10% with a growing body of literature describing the harm to fathers, children, and families. Changes in depression symptoms over the life course, and the role of social factors, are not well known. This study examines associations with changes in depression symptoms during the transition to fatherhood for young fathers and whether this association differed by key social factors. We combined all 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to support a 23-year longitudinal analysis of 10 623 men and then created a "fatherhood-year" data set, regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptoms scores on fatherhood status (nonresidence/residence), fatherhood-years, and covariates to determine associations between Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores and fatherhood life course intervals. Depressive symptom scores reported at the entry into fatherhood are higher for nonresident fathers than nonfathers, which in turn are higher than those of resident fathers. Resident fathers have a significant decrease in scores during late adolescence (β = -0.035, P = .023), but a significant increase in scores during early fatherhood (β = 0.023, P = .041). From entrance into fatherhood to the end of early fatherhood (+5 years), the depressive symptoms score for resident fathers increases on average by 68%. In our longitudinal, population-based study, resident fathers show increasing depressive symptom scores during children's key attachment years of 0-5. Identifying at-risk fathers based on social factors and designing effective interventions may ultimately improve health outcomes for the entire family. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. As long as you've got your health: Longitudinal relationships between positive affect and functional health in old age.

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Broc, Guillaume; Quintard, Bruno; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Reciprocal relationships between positive affect (PA) and health are now subject of a heuristic debate in psychology and behavioral medicine. Two radically opposed approaches address the link between subjective well being (SWB) and physical health: top-down (i.e., psychosomatic hypothesis) and bottom-up (i.e., disability/ability hypothesis) approaches. The aim of the present study was to test these two approaches by investigating thirteen-year longitudinal relationships between PA, as an affective dimension of SWB, and functional health in older people. The study included 3754 participants aged 62-101 years assessed 6 times over a thirteen-year period. PA was measured by the mean of the positive affect subscale of the CES-D scale. Functional health was assessed by four composite items: a single-item self-rating of hearing impairment, a single-item self-rating of vision impairment, the number of medically prescribed drugs, and a single-item self-rating of dyspnoea. We used cross-lagged modeling with latent variables, which is appropriate for testing specific theories. Mean arterial pressure, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia status, sequelae of stroke, gender, level of education, and age at baseline were use as control variables in the models. Results indicated that good health significantly predicted subsequent levels of PA (average β = -0.58, p got your health". Limitations of this finding are reviewed and discussed. Models including longitudinal mediators, such as biomarkers and life style patterns, are needed to clarify the nature of the link between these constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retinal thickness as a marker of disease progression in longitudinal observation of patients with Wolfram syndrome.

    Zmyslowska, Agnieszka; Fendler, Wojciech; Waszczykowska, Arleta; Niwald, Anna; Borowiec, Maciej; Jurowski, Piotr; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a recessively inherited monogenic form of diabetes coexisting with optic atrophy and neurodegenerative disorders with no currently recognized markers of disease progression. The aim of the study was to evaluate retinal parameters by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in WFS patients after 2 years of follow-up and analysis of the parameters in relation to visual acuity. OCT parameters and visual acuity were measured in 12 WFS patients and 31 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Total thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), average retinal thickness and total retinal volume decreased in comparison with previous OCT examination. Significant decreases were noted for RNFL (average difference -17.92 µm 95% CI -30.74 to -0.10; p = 0.0157), macular average thickness (average difference -5.38 µm 95% CI -10.63 to -2.36; p = 0.0067) and total retinal volume (average difference -0.15 mm 3 95% CI -0.30 to -0.07; p = 0.0070). Central thickness remained unchanged (average difference 1.5 µm 95% CI -7.61 to 10.61; p = 0.71). Visual acuity of WFS patients showed a strong negative correlation with diabetes duration (R = -0.82; p = 0.0010). After division of WFS patients into two groups (with low-vision and blind patients), all OCT parameters except for the RNFL value were lower in blind WFS patients. OCT measures structural parameters and can precede visual acuity loss. The OCT study in WFS patients should be performed longitudinally, and serial retinal examinations may be helpful as a potential end point for future clinical trials.

  9. Causal inference and longitudinal data: a case study of religion and mental health.

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Jackson, John W; Li, Shanshan

    2016-11-01

    We provide an introduction to causal inference with longitudinal data and discuss the complexities of analysis and interpretation when exposures can vary over time. We consider what types of causal questions can be addressed with the standard regression-based analyses and what types of covariate control and control for the prior values of outcome and exposure must be made to reason about causal effects. We also consider newer classes of causal models, including marginal structural models, that can assess questions of the joint effects of time-varying exposures and can take into account feedback between the exposure and outcome over time. Such feedback renders cross-sectional data ineffective for drawing inferences about causation. The challenges are illustrated by analyses concerning potential effects of religious service attendance on depression, in which there may in fact be effects in both directions with service attendance preventing the subsequent depression, but depression itself leading to lower levels of the subsequent religious service attendance. Longitudinal designs, with careful control for prior exposures, outcomes, and confounders, and suitable methodology, will strengthen research on mental health, religion and health, and in the biomedical and social sciences generally.

  10. Functional ability and oral health among older people: a longitudinal study from age 75 to 80

    Avlund, K; Holm-Pedersen, P; Schroll, M

    2001-01-01

    : The study included a random sample of 75-year-olds at baseline and a follow-up study 5 years later. The data are treated as two cross-sectional studies at age 75 and 80, respectively, and as a longitudinal study from age 75 to 80. SETTING: The western part of Copenhagen County. PARTICIPANTS: The two cross......-sectional studies of 75- and 80-year-old people included 411 and 321 persons, respectively. The longitudinal study from age 75 to 80 included the 326 persons who participated in both surveys. MEASUREMENTS: Oral health status was measured roughly by number of teeth and chewing ability. Use of dental services...... diseases, self-rated health, socio-demographic factors, living alone, and social relations were included as possible confounders. RESULTS: The odds ratio of having no or few teeth was 1.7 (1.1-2.6) in 75-year-old individuals who felt tired in mobility, 1.7 (1.0-2.9) in 80-year-old persons who needed help...

  11. Examination of youth sexual and reproductive health transitions in Nigeria and Kenya using longitudinal data

    Ilene S. Speizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adolescent (ages 15–19 and young adult (ages 20–24 years are a crucial time as many sexual and reproductive health (SRH transitions take place in these years. The study of youth SRH transitions in sub-Saharan Africa is limited due to a paucity of longitudinal data needed to examine the timing and circumstances of these transitions. Methods This paper uses recently collected longitudinal data from select urban areas in Kenya and Nigeria that include a large youth sample at baseline (2010/2011 and endline (2014. We control for unobserved heterogeneity in our modelling approach to correct for selectivity issues that are often ignored in similar types of analyses. Results We demonstrate that the transition patterns (i.e., sexual initiation, first marriage, and first pregnancy/birth differ within and across the urban areas and countries studied. Urban Kenyan youth have more premarital sex and pregnancy than youth from the Nigerian cities. Further analyses demonstrate that more educated and wealthier youth transition later than their less educated and poorer counterparts. Conclusions The findings from this study can be used to inform programs seeking to serve young people based on their varying reproductive health needs in different contexts over the adolescent and young adult years.

  12. Drug awareness in adolescents attending a mental health service: analysis of longitudinal data.

    Arnau, Jaume; Bono, Roser; Díaz, Rosa; Goti, Javier

    2011-11-01

    One of the procedures used most recently with longitudinal data is linear mixed models. In the context of health research the increasing number of studies that now use these models bears witness to the growing interest in this type of analysis. This paper describes the application of linear mixed models to a longitudinal study of a sample of Spanish adolescents attending a mental health service, the aim being to investigate their knowledge about the consumption of alcohol and other drugs. More specifically, the main objective was to compare the efficacy of a motivational interviewing programme with a standard approach to drug awareness. The models used to analyse the overall indicator of drug awareness were as follows: (a) unconditional linear growth curve model; (b) growth model with subject-associated variables; and (c) individual curve model with predictive variables. The results showed that awareness increased over time and that the variable 'schooling years' explained part of the between-subjects variation. The effect of motivational interviewing was also significant.

  13. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  14. Longitudinal variation in lateral trapping of fine sediment in tidal estuaries: observations and a 3D exploratory model

    Chen, Wei; de Swart, Huib E.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the longitudinal variation of lateral entrapment of suspended sediment, as is observed in some tidal estuaries. In particular, field data from the Yangtze Estuary are analysed, which reveal that in one cross-section, two maxima of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) occur close to the south and north sides, while in a cross-section 2 km down-estuary, only one SSC maximum on the south side is present. This pattern is found during both spring tide and neap tide, which are characterised by different intensities of turbulence. To understand longitudinal variation in lateral trapping of sediment, results of a new three-dimensional exploratory model are analysed. The hydrodynamic part contains residual flow due to fresh water input, density gradients and Coriolis force and due to channel curvature-induced leakage. Moreover, the model includes a spatially varying eddy viscosity that accounts for variation of intensity of turbulence over the spring-neap cycle. By imposing morphodynamic equilibrium, the two-dimensional distribution of sediment in the domain is obtained analytically by a novel procedure. Results reveal that the occurrence of the SSC maxima near the south side of both cross-sections is due to sediment entrapment by lateral density gradients, while the second SSC maximum near the north side of the first cross-section is by sediment transport due to curvature-induced leakage. Coriolis deflection of longitudinal flow also contributes the trapping of sediment near the north side. This mechanism is important in the upper estuary, where the flow due to lateral density gradients is weak.

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery: a longitudinal observational study

    Konnopka Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery and increases economic costs in many areas of health. The objective of this study was to analyse psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery in a longitudinal study design. Methods A sample of 531 back pain patients was interviewed after an initial disc surgery (T0, 3 months (T1 and 15 months (T2 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric comorbidity and a modified version of the Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory to assess resource utilization and lost productivity for a 3-month period prior interview. Health care utilization was monetarily valued by unit costs and productivity by labour costs. Costs were analysed using random coefficient models and bootstrap techniques. Results Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with significantly (p  Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity presents an important predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery, even if patients do not utilize mental health care. This effect seems to be stable over time. More attention should be given to psychiatric comorbidity and cost-effective treatments should be applied to treat psychiatric comorbidity in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery to reduce health care utilization and costs associated with psychiatric comorbidity.

  16. Is poor mental health a risk factor for retirement? Findings from a longitudinal population survey.

    Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    Poor mental health may influence people's decisions about, and ability to, keep working into later adulthood. The identification of factors that drive retirement provides valuable information for policymakers attempting to mitigate the effects of population ageing. This study examined whether mental health predicts subsequent retirement in a general population sample, and whether this association varied with the timing of retirement. Longitudinal data from 2,803 people aged 45-75 years were drawn from five waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the association between mental health and retirement. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The relative influences of other health, social, financial, and work-related predictors of retirement were considered to determine the unique contribution of mental health to retirement behaviour. Poor mental health was associated with higher rates of retirement in men (hazard rate ratio, HRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and workforce exit more generally in women (HRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22). These associations varied with the timing of retirement and were driven by early retirees specifically. Physical functioning, income, social activity, job conditions (including job stress for women and job control for men), and aspects of job satisfaction also predicted subsequent retirement. Poor mental and physical health predict workforce departure in mid-to-late adulthood, particularly early retirement. Strategies to accommodate health conditions in the workplace may reduce rates of early retirement and encourage people to remain at work into later adulthood.

  17. Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: a longitudinal study of the health effects.

    Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-08-01

    This study analysed interactions between job insecurity and temporary employment and health. We tested the violation hypothesis (whether permanent employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) and the intensification hypothesis (whether temporary employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) in a longitudinal setting. Previous research on this topic is scarce and based on cross-sectional data. A population cohort (n=1071) was surveyed at age 30 and age 42. Exposure to temporary employment during this 12-year period was elicited with a job-time matrix and measured as the score of 6-month periods. Exposure to job insecurity was measured according to the perceived threat of unemployment. Health at follow-up was assessed as optimal versus suboptimal self-rated health, sleep quality and mental health. In addition to sociodemographics and baseline health, the analyses were adjusted for exposure to unemployment, non-employment and self-employment during the 12-year period. 26% of participants had been exposed to temporary employment. The effect of job insecurity on health was the same in the exposed and unexposed groups, that is the violation hypothesis was not supported. Non-significant interactions between the exposures and all health outcomes also indicated null findings regarding the intensification hypothesis. These findings suggest that perceived job insecurity can lead to adverse health effects in both permanent and temporary employees. Policies should aim to improve work-related well-being by reducing job insecurity. Efforts towards 'flexicurity' are important, but it is equally important to remember that a significant proportion of employees with a permanent contract experience job insecurity.

  18. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  19. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  20. The effects of adolescent health-related behavior on academic performance : a systematic review of the longitudinal evidence

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors-namely,

  1. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  2. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-01-01

    Background Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Conclusions Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly

  3. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    El-Hilly, Abdulrahman Abdulla; Iqbal, Sheeraz Syed; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Muntasir, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Sarim; Al-Fagih, Zaid; Usmani, Omar; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-10-24

    Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly against current behavioral support therapy

  4. Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function.A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery.Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all. Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance.Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition.

  5. Psychological and health comorbidities before and after bariatric surgery: a longitudinal study

    Susana Sofia Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity has multiple implications for psychological and physical health. Bariatric surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice for this chronic disease, despite the controversial impact of the surgery on psychosocial health. The objective of this study was to describe candidates for bariatric surgery and analyze changes in weight, psychopathology, personality, and health problems and complaints at 6- and 12- month follow-up assessments. METHODS: Thirty obese patients (20 women and 10 men with a mean age of 39.17±8.81 years were evaluated in different dimensions before surgery and 6 and 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS: Six and 12 months after bariatric surgery, patients reported significant weight loss and a significant reduction in the number of health problems and complaints. The rates of self-reported psychopathology were low before surgery, and there were no statistically significant changes over time. The conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness dimensions increased, but neuroticism and openness remained unchanged. All changes had a medium effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients experience significant health improvements and some positive personality changes after bariatric surgery. Even though these findings underscore the role of bariatric surgery as a relevant treatment for morbid obesity, more in-depth longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the evolution of patients after the procedure.

  6. In search of links between social capital, mental health and sociotherapy: a longitudinal study in Rwanda.

    Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E; Wind, Tim R; Scholte, Willem F

    2014-11-01

    To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social capital and mental health. Evidence that social capital can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social capital may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental health. However, studies on community interventions and social capital have mostly relied on cross-sectional study designs. We present a longitudinal study in Rwanda on the effect on social capital and mental health of sociotherapy, a community-based psychosocial group intervention consisting of fifteen weekly group sessions. We hypothesized that the intervention would impact social capital and, as a result of that, mental health. We used a quasi-experimental study design with measurement points pre- and post-intervention and at eight months follow-up (2007-2008). Considering sex and living situation, we selected 100 adults for our experimental group. We formed a control group of 100 respondents with similar symptom score distribution, age, and sex from a random community sample in the same region. Mental health was assessed by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire, and social capital through a locally adapted version of the short Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool. It measures three elements of social capital: cognitive social capital, support, and civic participation. Latent growth models were used to examine whether effects of sociotherapy on mental health and social capital were related. Civic participation increased with 7% in the intervention group versus 2% in controls; mental health improved with 10% versus 5% (both: p social capital did not show consistent changes. These findings hint at the possibility to foster social capital and simultaneously impact mental health. Further identification of pathways of influence may contribute to the designing of psychosocial interventions that effectively promote recovery in war-affected populations. Nederlands Trial

  7. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  8. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study.

    Murray, Emily T; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-06-01

    In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship. We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40-69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness). Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - a representative longitudinal study in Switzerland.

    Knecht, Michaela K; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver

    2011-04-29

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

  10. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345

  11. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    Hämmig Oliver

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1 to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2 to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel, covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based, and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%. A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

  12. On the etiology of incident brain lacunes: longitudinal observations from the LADIS study

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Pantoni, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated regional differences in MRI characteristics and risk factor profiles of incident lacunes over a 3-year period. METHODS: Baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI were collected within the LADIS study (n=358). Incident lacunes were characterized with respect to brain...... region, their appearance within pre-existent white matter hyperintensities (WMH), surrounding WMH size, and risk factors. RESULTS: 106 incident lacunes were observed in 62 patients (58 subcortical white matter [WM], 35 basal ganglia, and 13 infratentorial). Incident subcortical WM lacunes occurred more...

  13. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  14. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study

    Bronwyn Brew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. Methods The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline. Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Results Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β −0.33, 95 % CI −0.53, −0.13 and wellbeing (β −0.21(95 % CI −0.35, −0.06 than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98. All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97. Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 % or mental health needs (75 % and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Conclusions Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health

  15. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Brew, Bronwyn; Inder, Kerry; Allen, Joanne; Thomas, Matthew; Kelly, Brian

    2016-09-15

    Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline). Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β -0.33, 95 % CI -0.53, -0.13) and wellbeing (β -0.21(95 % CI -0.35, -0.06) than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98). All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP) or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97). Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 %) or mental health needs (75 %) and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health professionals should be supported.

  16. Abortion and mental health : A longitudinal study of common mental disorders among women who terminated an unwanted pregnancy

    van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in the mental health of women who have abortions, both before and after the pregnancy termination, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, the “Dutch Abortion and Mental Health Study” (DA...

  17. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: an exploratory analysis

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010 with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%; "fruits and vegetables" (25%; "pastry shop" (24%; and "diet/light" (5% The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  18. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  19. Longitudinal Relationship Between Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older Adults: Results From the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Petersen, Johanna; Kaye, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Peter G; Quinones, Ana; Dodge, Hiroko; Arnold, Alice; Thielke, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    To understand the longitudinal relationship between loneliness and isolation. Participants included 5,870 adults 65 years and older (M = 72.89 ± 5.59 years) from the first 5 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Loneliness was assessed using a dichotomized loneliness question. Social isolation was assessed using six items from the Lubben Social Network Scale. Yearly life events were included to assess abrupt social network changes. Mixed effects logistic regression was employed to analyze the relationship between isolation and loneliness. Higher levels of social isolation were associated with higher odds of loneliness, as was an increase (from median) in level of social isolation. Life events such as a friend dying were also associated with increased odds of loneliness. These results suggest that average level of isolation and increases in the level of isolation are closely tied to loneliness, which has implications for future assessment or monitoring of loneliness in older adult populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Association between Cardiovascular Health Score and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Baseline Assessment.

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-12-01

    The American Heart Association aims to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in this decade by improving seven ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) characteristics in the population. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between the American Heart Association's CVH score and values for carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline assessment. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health is a multicenter cohort study of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years in Brazil. In this study, the investigators analyzed 9,662 individuals with no previous cardiovascular disease. The distribution of CIMT values (categorized into age-, sex-, and race-specific quartiles) was analyzed according to CVH scores using χ 2 trend tests. Linear and multinomial regression models were built to evaluate the association between CIMT and CVH score. A significant increase was observed in the proportion of individuals within the first and second CIMT quartiles, as well as a decrease within the fourth quartile with higher CVH score strata (P for trend < .001). A 1-point increase in CVH score was associated in adjusted models with a decrease of 0.011 mm in CIMT and an odds ratio of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77-0.81) of having CIMT in the fourth quartile. However, nearly 16% of individuals with optimal CVH scores had CIMT values in the highest quartile. In this study, significant associations were found between CIMT and CVH score in a large sample of middle-aged adults. However, a high CVH score did not warrant the absence of a significant subclinical atherosclerotic burden. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. OBSERVING THE INFLUENCE OF MINDFULNESS AND ATTACHMENT STYLES THROUGH MOTHER AND INFANT INTERACTION: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

    Pickard, Judy A; Townsend, Michelle; Caputi, Peter; Grenyer, Brin F S

    2017-05-01

    The cross-generational influence of attachment security or insecurity on caregiving is well-established. Recently, research has focused on mindfulness as a potential variable to interrupt the transmission of insecure attachment and disrupt its effect across generations. Thirty-six pregnant female participants completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and Relationship Questionnaire-Clinical Version at 30 weeks' gestation. Following the infant's birth, mothers and their babies participated in a video-recorded feeding session at 7 to 10 weeks' postpartum. It was predicted that a secure attachment style and higher levels of mindfulness measured prenatally would be associated with greater maternal responsiveness postpartum. The hypothesis was supported for both the secure and insecure (fearful and profoundly distrustful) attachment styles. Mindfulness did not mediate the relationship between attachment and maternal distress. The mindfulness subscale Non-Reacting was significantly associated with maternal response to distress. These findings support the role of prenatal mindfulness skills and attachment security for later postnatal maternal sensitivity to baby. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years.

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Mental health can affect young people's sense of wellbeing and life satisfaction, their ability to participate in employment and education, and their onward opportunities in life. This paper offers a rare opportunity to longitudinally examine mental health in a population-representative study of children aged 4-5 years to 14-15 years. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, this study examined maternally-reported child mental health over a 10 year period, in order to understand their initial mental health status early in life and its change over time, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Longitudinal models were fitted from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years. Results showed that child sex, maternal mental health, socio-economic status (family income, maternal education, neighbourhood disadvantage, maternal hostility, and child temperament (persistence, sociability, reactivity are all independent contributors to child mental health at age 4. These effects largely persist over time, with the effects of maternal mental health increasing slightly over time. Persistence of these effects suggests the need for early intervention and supports. The independent contribution of these factors to child mental health suggests that multi-faceted approaches to child and maternal mental health are needed.

  3. CHI: A contemporaneous health index for degenerative disease monitoring using longitudinal measurements.

    Huang, Yijun; Meng, Qiang; Evans, Heather; Lober, William; Cheng, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning; Liu, Ji; Huang, Shuai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel formulation for contemporaneous patient risk monitoring by exploiting the emerging data-rich environment in many healthcare applications, where an abundance of longitudinal data that reflect the degeneration of the health condition can be continuously collected. Our objective, and the developed formulation, is fundamentally different from many existing risk score models for different healthcare applications, which mostly focus on predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome at a pre-specified time. Rather, our formulation translates multivariate longitudinal measurements into a contemporaneous health index (CHI) that captures patient condition changes over the course of progression. Another significant feature of our formulation is that, CHI can be estimated with or without label information, different from other risk score models strictly based on supervised learning. To develop this formulation, we focus on the degenerative disease conditions, for which we could utilize the monotonic progression characteristic (either towards disease or recovery) to learn CHI. Such a domain knowledge leads us to a novel learning formulation, and on top of that, we further generalize this formulation with a capacity to incorporate label information if available. We further develop algorithms to mitigate the challenges associated with the nonsmooth convex optimization problem by first identifying its dual reformulation as a constrained smooth optimization problem, and then, using the block coordinate descent algorithm to iteratively solve the optimization with a derived efficient projection at each iteration. Extensive numerical studies are performed on both synthetic datasets and real-world applications on Alzheimer's disease and Surgical Site Infection, which demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the proposed method on degenerative conditions that include a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  5. Emergency department use by released prisoners with HIV: an observational longitudinal study.

    Jaimie P Meyer

    Full Text Available Many people living with HIV access healthcare systems through the emergency department (ED, and increased ED use may be indicative of disenfranchisement with primary HIV care, under-managed comorbid disease, or coincide with use of other healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to investigate ED use by HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to communities.We evaluated ED use by 151 HIV-infected released prisoners who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of directly administered versus self-administered antiretroviral therapy in Connecticut. Primary outcomes were quantity and type of ED visits and correlates of ED use were evaluated with multivariate models by Poisson regression.In the 12 months post-release, there were 227 unique ED contacts made by 85/151 (56% subjects. ED visits were primarily for acute febrile syndromes (32.6% or pain (20.3%, followed by substance use issues (19.4%, trauma (18%, mental illness (11%, and social access issues (4.4%. Compared to those not utilizing the ED, users were more likely to be white, older, and unmarried, with less trust in their physician and poorer perceived physical health but greater social support. In multivariate models, ED use was correlated with moderate to severe depression (IRR = 1.80, being temporarily housed (IRR = 0.54, and alcohol addiction severity (IRR = 0.21 but not any surrogates of HIV severity.EDs are frequent sources of care after prison-release with visits often reflective of social and psychiatric instability. Future interventions should attempt to fill resource gaps, engage released prisoners in continuous HIV care, and address these substantial needs.

  6. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Sanne M A; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-06-01

    High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Data were used from 4482 representative adults participating in the second (2010-12) and third wave (2013-15) of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental well-being was assessed with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) at the second wave. The classification criteria of this instrument were used to classify participants as having flourishing mental health: high levels of both hedonic well-being (life-satisfaction, happiness) and eudaimonic well-being (social contribution, purpose in life, personal growth). DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders were measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 at all waves. Odds ratios of (first and recurrent) incident disorders were estimated, using logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Flourishing reduced the risk of incident mood disorders by 28% and of anxiety disorders by 53%, but did not significantly predicted substance use disorders. A similar pattern of associations was found for either high hedonic or high eudaimonic well-being. Significant results were found for substance use disorders when life-events and social support were removed as covariates. This study underscores the rationale of promoting mental well-being as a public mental health strategy to prevent mental illness. In wealthy European nations it seems fruitful to measure and pursuit a flourishing life rather than merely high levels of hedonic well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    Gooding, Holly C; McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Gillman, Matthew W; Field, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension. To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates of hypertension awareness and control in this age group. Cross-sectional study of 13,512 young adults participating in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in 2007-2008. We defined hypertension as an average of two measured systolic blood pressures (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressures (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-report of hypertension. We defined hypertension awareness as reporting having been told by a health care provider that one had high blood pressure, and assessed awareness among those with uncontrolled hypertension. We considered those aware of having hypertension controlled if their average measured SBP was young adults with hypertension, 2,531 (76%) were uncontrolled, and 1,893 (75%) of those with uncontrolled hypertension were unaware they had hypertension. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, income, education, alcohol and tobacco use, young adults with uncontrolled hypertension who had (vs. didn't have) routine preventive care in the past 2 years were 2.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.55) to be aware, but young adults who believed they were in excellent (vs. less than excellent) health were 64% less likely to be aware they had hypertension (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57). Neither preventive care utilization nor self-rated health was associated with blood pressure control. In this nationally representative group of young adults, rates of hypertension awareness and control were low. Efforts to increase detection of hypertension must address young adults' access to preventive care and perception of their need for care.

  8. The effect of effort-reward imbalance on the health of childcare workers in Hamburg: a longitudinal study.

    Koch, Peter; Kersten, Jan Felix; Stranzinger, Johanna; Nienhaus, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) among qualified childcare workers in Germany is currently estimated at around 65%. High rates of burnout and musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) have also been reported for this group. Previous longitudinal studies show inconsistent results with regard to the association between ERI and MS. As yet, no longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the association between ERI and burnout or MS in childcare workers. This study aims to investigate the extent to which a relationship between ERI and MS or burnout can be observed in childcare workers in Germany on a longitudinal basis. In 2014 childcare workers ( N  = 199, response rate: 57%) of a provider of facilities for children and youth in Hamburg were asked about stress and health effects in the workplace. Follow-up was completed one year later ( N  = 106, follow-up rate: 53%) For the baseline assessment, ERI was determined as the primary influencing factor. Data on MS was recorded using the Nordic questionnaire, and burnout using the personal burnout scale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). The statistical analysis was carried out using multivariate linear and logistic regression. At baseline ERI was present in 65% of the sample population. The mean burnout score at the time of follow-up was 53.7 (SD: 20.7); the prevalence of MS was between 19% and 62%. ERI was identified as a statistically significant factor for MS, after adjusting especially for physical stress (lower back: OR 4.2; 95% CI: 1.14 to 15.50, neck: OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.25 to 15.0, total MS: OR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.20 to 13.49). With regard to burnout, a relative increase of 10% in the ERI ratio score increased the burnout score by 1.1 points ( p  = 0.034). ERI was revealed to be a major factor in relation to MS and burnout in childcare workers. Based on this observation worksite interventions on the individual and organizational level should be introduced in order to prevent ERI.

  9. Health effects of unemployment in Europe (2008-2011): a longitudinal analysis of income and financial strain as mediating factors.

    Tøge, Anne Grete

    2016-05-06

    Unemployment has a number of negative consequences, such as decreased income and poor self-rated health. However, the relationships between unemployment, income, and health are not fully understood. Longitudinal studies have investigated the health effect of unemployment and income separately, but the mediating role of income remains to be scrutinized. Using longitudinal data and methods, this paper investigates whether the effect of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH) is mediated by income, financial strain and unemployment benefits. The analyses use data from the longitudinal panel of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) over the 4 years of 2008 to 2011. Individual fixed effects models are applied, estimating the longitudinal change in SRH as people move from employment to unemployment, and investigating whether this change is reduced after controlling for possible mediating mechanisms, absolute income change, relative income change, relative income rank, income deprivation, financial strain, and unemployment benefits. Becoming unemployed is associated with decreased SRH (-0.048, SE 0.012). This decrease is 19 % weaker (-0.039, SE 0.010) after controlling for change in financial strain. Absolute and relative changes in household equalized income, as well as changes in relative rank and transitions into income deprivation, are not found to be associated with change in SRH. Financial strain is found to be a potential mediator of the individual health effect of unemployment, while neither absolute income, relative income, relative rank, income deprivation nor unemployment benefits are found to be mediators of this relationship.

  10. A successful model for longitudinal community-engaged health research: the 2040 Partners for Health Student Program.

    Redman, Romany M; Reinsvold, Magdalena C; Reddy, Anireddy; Bennett, Paige E; Hoerauf, Janine M; Puls, Kristina M; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Ly, Alexandra R; White, Gregory; McNeil, Owetta; Meredith, Janet J

    2017-06-01

    Community-based participatory research [CBPR] is an emerging approach to collaborative research aimed at creating locally effective and sustainable interventions. The 2040 Partners for Health student program was developed as a unique model of longitudinal CBPR. Analysis of this program and its components illuminates both the challenges and the opportunities inherent in community engagement. The program rests on a foundation of a community-based, non-profit organization and a supportive academic university centre. Inter-professional health students and community members of underserved populations work together on different health projects by employing an adapted CBPR methodology. Three successful examples of sustainable CBPR projects are briefly described. The three projects are presented as primary outcomes resulting from this model. Benefits and challenges of the model as an approach to community-engaged research are discussed as well as secondary benefits of student participation. The 2040 Partners for Health student program represents a successful model of CBPR, illuminating common challenges and reiterating the profound value of community-engaged research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  12. Tobacco price boards as a promotional strategy-a longitudinal observational study in Australian retailers.

    Bayly, Megan; Scollo, Michelle; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-07-22

    Price boards in tobacco retailers are one of the few forms of tobacco promotion remaining in Australia. This study aimed to examine how these boards were used to promote products over a period of rapidly rising taxes. Observations were made in a panel of 350 stores in Melbourne, Australia, in November of 2013 (just before) and in 2014 and 2015 (after 12.5% increases in tobacco duty). Fieldworkers unobtrusively noted the presence and characteristics of price boards, and the brand name, size and price of the product at the top of each board. Price boards were common in all store types apart from newsagent/lottery agents. The characteristics of the top-listed product changed notably over time: premium brands accounted for 66% of top-listed products in 2013, significantly declining to 43% in 2015, while packs of 20 cigarettes increased in prominence from 32% to 45%. The prevalence of packs of 20 cigarettes in budget market segments tripled from 2013 (13%) and 2014 (11%) to 32% in 2015, with no change in the proportion of packs that were under $A20 from 2014 (37%) to 2015 (36%). The rate of increase in the average price of the top-listed pack correspondingly flattened from 2014 to 2015 compared with 2013-2014. Price boards promote tobacco products in ways that undermine the effectiveness of tax policy as a means of discouraging consumption. Communication to consumers about prices should be restricted to information sheets provided to adult smokers on request at the point of sale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Socio-geographic mobility and health status: a longitudinal analysis using the National Population Health Survey of Canada.

    Curtis, Sarah; Setia, Maninder S; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2009-12-01

    The paper reviews arguments that associations between small area socio-economic conditions and individual health are likely to vary according to the type of health condition considered. We comment on the importance of longitudinal research to examine how far area conditions predict later health outcomes, and also how far area variations in health may result from selective migration processes predicted by health status. Using data for 1996 and 2002, from the National Population Health Survey of Canada, linked to small area data on social and on material deprivation in the area of residence for 6950 survey respondents at the two time points, we report on analyses to address these questions. The area measures of material and social deprivation were previously developed by Pampalon and colleagues at the Institut National de Santé Publique de Québec and related to the dissemination area matching the informant's postal code. The health outcomes considered were restriction of activity due to chronic conditions and psychological distress. Our findings suggest that individuals living in materially deprived areas in 2002 were more likely to be affected by health conditions resulting in restriction of activity. Prevalence of psychological distress was higher in areas with greater social deprivation in 2002. Most of these area differences were attenuated when adjustment was made for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Measures recorded in 1996 of individual characteristics and measures of deprivation for area of residence were used to predict change in health outcomes by 2002. Several individual factors (sex, age group, income, household composition) in 1996 were predictive of later health outcomes. After controlling for these individual characteristics the only significant association between health change and area deprivation was with development of restricted activity, which was more common among people who, in 1996, had lived in areas that ranked moderately

  14. Maternal Health Factors as Risks for Postnatal Depression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Catherine L Chojenta

    Full Text Available While previous studies have identified a range of potential risk factors for postnatal depression (PND, none have examined a comprehensive set of risk factors at a population-level using data collected prospectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between a range of factors and PND and to construct a model of the predictors of PND.Data came from 5219 women who completed Survey 5 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2009 and reported giving birth to a child.Over 15% of women reported experiencing PND with at least one of their children. The strongest positive associations were for postnatal anxiety (OR = 13.79,95%CI = 10.48,18.13 and antenatal depression (OR = 9.23,95%CI = 6.10,13.97. Positive associations were also found for history of depression and PND, low SF-36 Mental Health Index, emotional distress during labour, and breastfeeding for less than six months.Results indicate that understanding a woman's mental health history plays an important role in the detection of those who are most vulnerable to PND. Treatment and management of depression and anxiety earlier in life and during pregnancy may have a positive impact on the incidence of PND.

  15. Food insecurity and emotional health in the USA: a systematic narrative review of longitudinal research.

    Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales

    2017-12-01

    To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.

  16. Longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status in colon cancer survivors.

    Satia, Jessie A; Campbell, Marci K; Galanko, Joseph A; James, Aimee; Carr, Carol; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    Lifestyle changes in persons diagnosed with cancer are important because they may impact prognosis, co-morbidities, and survival. This report describes longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status among colon cancer survivors (n = 278) and population-based controls (n = 459) in North Carolina (39% African American), and examines demographic and psychosocial correlates of healthy lifestyle changes following a colon cancer diagnosis. Data are from surveys of a population-based cohort of colon cancer patients on diagnosis (the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, NCCCS) and approximately 2 years post-diagnosis [the North Carolina Strategies to Improve Diet, Exercise, and Screening Study (NC STRIDES)], and population-based controls. Both studies collected information on demographic/lifestyle characteristics and medical history. The NCCCS reflects pre-diagnosis or pre-interview patterns, whereas NC STRIDES queried on current practices. Between the NCCCS and NC STRIDES, colon cancer survivors reported significant increases in vegetable intake, physical activity, and supplement use (all P dietary supplement post-diagnosis, whereas being retired correlated with increased vegetable intake, all P Colon cancer survivors reported making significant improvements in multiple health-related behaviors. Health care providers should communicate with persons diagnosed with colon cancer to ensure that they are making healthy lifestyle changes.

  17. Objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in adolescent body fatness: an observational cohort study.

    Collings, P J; Wijndaele, K; Corder, K; Westgate, K; Ridgway, C L; Sharp, S J; Atkin, A J; Stephen, A M; Bamber, D; Goodyer, I; Brage, S; Ekelund, U

    2016-04-01

    The data regarding prospective associations between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in youth are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between baseline levels of objectively measured PA and changes in adiposity over 2.5 years from mid-to-late adolescence. This was an observational cohort study in 728 school students (43% boys) from Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) was estimated at baseline (mean ± standard deviation age: 15 ± 0.3 years) and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. Habitual PA was assessed at baseline by ≥3 d combined heart rate and movement sensing. Average daily PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and the time (min d(-1) ) spent in light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA, respectively) was estimated. Multilevel models were used to investigate associations between baseline PA and change in FMI (ΔFMI). Adjustment for baseline age, sex, follow-up duration, area-level socioeconomic status, season of PA assessment, sedentary time, energy intake and sleep duration was made; baseline FMI was also added in a second model. FMI increased significantly over follow-up (0.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) , P positively predicted ΔFMI in overfat participants (P ≤ 0.030), as did VPA in initially normal fat participants (P ≤ 0.044). There were further positive associations between PAEE and ΔFMI in normal fat participants, and between MPA and ΔFMI in both fat groups, when adjusted for baseline FMI (P ≤ 0.024). Baseline PAEE and its subcomponents were positively associated with small and unlikely clinically relevant increases in ΔFMI. These counter-intuitive findings may be explained by behavioural changes during the course of study follow-up. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  18. Educational success and adult health: findings from the Chicago longitudinal study.

    Topitzes, James; Godes, Olga; Mersky, Joshua P; Ceglarek, Sudi; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that education is associated with health, yet we lack knowledge about the specific educational experiences influencing health trajectories. This study examines the role school factors play in the emergence of poor young adult health outcomes for a low-income, minority sample. The following research questions are addressed. First, what are the education-based predictors of daily tobacco smoking, frequent substance use, depression, and no health insurance coverage? Second, do later-occurring school factors explain the association between earlier school measures and the outcomes and, if so, what pathways account for this mediation effect? Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an investigation of a cohort of 1,539 individuals, born around 1980, who attended kindergarten programs in the Chicago Public Schools. Participants were followed prospectively from early childhood through age 24, and study measures were created from various data sources and multiple assessment waves. Findings from probit hierarchical regressions with controls for early sociodemographic covariates indicated that elementary school socioemotional classroom adjustment and high school completion were significantly and negatively associated with all four study outcomes. Participation in the Chicago Child Parent Center preschool program predicted lower rates of both daily tobacco smoking and no health insurance coverage (p frustration tolerance was inversely associated with daily tobacco smoking and frequent drug use (p < .05). Also, negatively linked to frequent drug use was a high school measure of students' expectation to attend college (p < .01). In nearly all cases, later-occurring school factors fully mediated significant associations between earlier ones and the outcomes. Patterns of mediation were explored along with implications of results.

  19. Three Years of Digital Consumer Health Information: A Longitudinal Study of the Touch Screen Health Kiosk.

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use, over three and a half years, of a sample of 20 touch-screen health kiosks in the United Kingdom. Identifies four patterns of use over time--declining, stable, increasing, and no trend--and discusses implications of these patterns. Thumbnail use graphs for the 20 kiosks are appended. (AEF)

  20. The social genome of friends and schoolmates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health

    Boardman, Jason D.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2018-01-01

    Humans tend to form social relationships with others who resemble them. Whether this sorting of like with like arises from historical patterns of migration, meso-level social structures in modern society, or individual-level selection of similar peers remains unsettled. Recent research has evaluated the possibility that unobserved genotypes may play an important role in the creation of homophilous relationships. We extend this work by using data from 5,500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine genetic similarities among pairs of friends. Although there is some evidence that friends have correlated genotypes, both at the whole-genome level as well as at trait-associated loci (via polygenic scores), further analysis suggests that meso-level forces, such as school assignment, are a principal source of genetic similarity between friends. We also observe apparent social–genetic effects in which polygenic scores of an individual’s friends and schoolmates predict the individual’s own educational attainment. In contrast, an individual’s height is unassociated with the height genetics of peers. PMID:29317533

  1. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A longitudinal assessment of adherence with immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation from the Mycophenolic Acid Observational REnal Transplant (MORE) study.

    Tsapepas, Demetra; Langone, Anthony; Chan, Laurence; Wiland, Anne; McCague, Kevin; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2014-04-17

    Nonadherence with immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation is a major clinical concern, but longitudinal data are sparse. Adherence data were recorded during the Mycophenolic Acid Observational REnal Transplant (MORE) study to help inform compliance management decisions. Prospective data were analyzed from the four-year, observational MORE study of de novo adult renal transplant recipients receiving mycophenolic acid (MPA) as enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) at 40 US sites under routine management. Adherence was assessed using the Immunosuppressant Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS): total score 0-12 (12, adherence; adherent recipients (p=0.59); graft loss was 4.7% (19/402) vs. 3.0% (12/406) (p=0.20); death was 1.5% (6/402) vs. 4.7% (19/406) (p=0.013). Adherence to the immunosuppressive regimen decreases over time, highlighting the need to monitor and encourage adherence even in long-term maintenance kidney transplant patients. Other than African American race, demographic factors may be of limited value in predicting nonadherence.

  3. Secondary health conditions in persons with spinal cord injury : A longitudinal study from one to five years post-discharge

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J. E.; Post, Marcel W. M.; de Groot, Sonja; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Tepper, Marga; Lindeman, Eline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the occurrence of secondary health conditions and their potential risk factors in persons with spinal cord injury from 1 to 5 years after discharge from initial inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Multicentre longitudinal study. Subjects: A total of 139 wheelchair-dependent

  4. A longitudinal study on the effects of health policy in organizations on job satisfaction, burnout, and sickness absence

    Ybema, J.F.; Evers, M.S.; Scheppingen, A.R. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the effects of health policy in organizations as perceived by employees on their job satisfaction, burnout, and sickness absence. METHODS: The data were collected with Internet questionnaires in a longitudinal three-wave design among a heterogeneous sample of

  5. The relation between calcium intake and body composition in a Dutch population: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    Boon, N.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Saris, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary calcium intake is related to body mass index and the sum of four skinfolds among subjects in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (the Netherlands), the authors followed a cohort of men and women from age 13 years in 1977 to age 36 years in 2000.

  6. Young and going strong?: A longitudinal study on occupational health among young employees of different educational levels

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Bossche, S.N.J van den; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify job characteristics that determine young employees' wellbeing, health, and performance, and to compare educational groups. Design/methodology/approach: Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and 2-wave longitudinal data (n=1,284), the paper

  7. The longitudinal relationship of sexual function and androgen status in older men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    Hsu, Benjumin; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether declining sexual function in older men is a cause or consequence of reduced androgen status. Longitudinal associations were examined between reproductive hormones and sexual function in older men. Men aged 70 years and older from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project study were assessed at baseline (n = 1705) and 2-year follow-up (n = 1367), with a total of 1226 men included in the final analyses. At both visits, serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and SHBG, LH, and FSH were measured by immunoassay. Sexual functions (erectile function, sexual activity, and sexual desire) were self-reported via standardized questions. In longitudinal analyses, although baseline hormones (T, DHT, E2, and E1) did not predict decline in sexual function, the decline in serum T (but not DHT, E2, or E1) over 2 years was strongly related to the change in sexual activity and desire (but not erectile function). For each 1-SD decrease in T from baseline to 2-year follow-up, there was a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.36) for an additional risk of further decline in sexual activity. However, the magnitude of the decrease in serum T was strikingly small (sexual desire, but not for erectile function. We found a consistent association among older men followed over 2 years between the decline in sexual activity and desire, but not in erectile function, with a decrease in serum T. Although these observational findings cannot determine causality, the small magnitude of the decrease in serum T raises the hypothesis that reduced sexual function may reduce serum T rather than the reverse.

  8. Observed versus predicted cardiovascular events and all-cause death in HIV infection: a longitudinal cohort study.

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Pucci, Giacomo; Baldelli, Franco; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian cohort of HIV-positive subjects. The study was an observational longitudinal cohort study. The probability for 10-year CVD events according to the Framingham algorithm was assessed in 369 consecutive HIV-positive participants free from overt CVD enrolled in 2004, who were followed for a median of 10.0 years (interquartile range, 9.1-10.1). Cardiovascular events included myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, revascularized angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke, peripheral arterial disease. Over 3097 person-years of observation, we observed a total of 34 CVD events, whereas Framingham algorithm predicted the occurrence of 34.3 CVD events. CVD event rate was 11.0/1000 person-years of follow-up. In a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, Framingham risk equation showed an excellent predictive value for incident CVD events (c-statistics, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.90). In a multivariable Cox analysis, age, smoking and diabetes were independent predictors of CVD events. All-cause death rate was 20.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (n = 62 deaths). Causes of death included liver diseases (18), malignancies (14), AIDS-related (11); cardiovascular (9) and others (10). In a Cox analysis, age, AIDS diagnosis and chronic hepatitis were independent predictors of death. Observed CVD events in HIV-infected patients were well predicted by Framingham algorithm. Established major CVD risk factors are the strongest determinants of CVD morbidity in an Italian contemporary cohort of HIV-positive subjects. Interventions to modify traditional risk factors are urgently needed in HIV people.

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  10. Associations between onset of effort-reward imbalance at work and onset of musculoskeletal pain: analyzing observational longitudinal data as pseudo-trials.

    Halonen, Jaana I; Virtanen, Marianna; Leineweber, Constanze; Rod, Naja H; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L

    2018-03-27

    Existing evidence of an association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and musculoskeletal pain is limited, preventing reliable conclusions about the magnitude and direction of the relation. In a large longitudinal study, we examined whether the onset of ERI is associated with subsequent onset of musculoskeletal pain among those free of pain at baseline, and vice versa, whether onset of pain leads to onset of ERI. Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. We used responses from 3 consecutive study phases to examine whether exposure onset between the first and second phases predicts onset of the outcome in the third phase (N = 4079). Effort-reward imbalance was assessed with a short form of the ERI model. Having neck-shoulder and low back pain affecting life to some degree in the past 3 months was also assessed in all study phases. As covariates, we included age, sex, marital status, occupational status, and physically strenuous work. In the adjusted models, onset of ERI was associated with onset of neck-shoulder pain (relative risk [RR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.89) and low back pain (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.50). The opposite was also observed, as onset of neck-shoulder pain increased the risk of subsequent onset of ERI (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.74). Our findings suggest that when accounting for the temporal order, the associations between ERI and musculoskeletal pain that affects life are bidirectional, implying that interventions to both ERI and pain may be worthwhile to prevent a vicious cycle.

  11. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Padula, Claudia B; Weitlauf, Julie C; Rosen, Allyson C; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B; Naughton, Michelle J; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R; Stefanick, Marcia L; Goldstein, Mary K; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We studied 7,330 women aged 65-79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans' greater cognitive reserve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    Padula, Claudia B.; Weitlauf, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design and Methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65–79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans’ greater cognitive reserve. PMID:26615021

  13. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany

    Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, pimpairment had higher risks of dementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia. PMID:27391486

  14. Understanding the evolution of multimorbidity: evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS.

    Guillaume Ruel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study (NWAHS was collected between baseline (2000-2002 and follow-up (2008-2010. Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001 while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001, diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001 and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001 were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001, diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01 and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs.

  15. Does disability status modify the association between psychosocial job quality and mental health? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis.

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it?: an examination of linear and quadratic associations.

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia C; Helms, Sarah W; Brechwald, Whitney A; Rancourt, Diana

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to prior work, recent theory suggests that high, not low, levels of adolescent peer popularity may be associated with health risk behavior. This study examined (a) whether popularity may be uniquely associated with cigarette use, marijuana use, and sexual risk behavior, beyond the predictive effects of aggression; (b) whether the longitudinal association between popularity and health risk behavior may be curvilinear; and (c) gender moderation. A total of 336 adolescents, initially in 10-11th grades, reported cigarette use, marijuana use, and number of sexual intercourse partners at two time points 18 months apart. Sociometric peer nominations were used to examine popularity and aggression. Longitudinal quadratic effects and gender moderation suggest that both high and low levels of popularity predict some, but not all, health risk behaviors. New theoretical models can be useful for understanding the complex manner in which health risk behaviors may be reinforced within the peer context.

  17. Current strategies for monitoring men with localised prostate cancer lack a strong evidence base: observational longitudinal study.

    Metcalfe, C; Tilling, K; Davis, M; Lane, J A; Martin, R M; Kynaston, H; Powell, P; Neal, D E; Hamdy, F; Donovan, J L

    2009-08-04

    The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends conservative management of men with 'low-risk' localised prostate cancer, monitoring the disease using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and re-biopsy. However, there is little evidence of the changes in PSA level that should alert to the need for clinical re-assessment. This study compares the alerts resulting from PSA kinetics and a novel longitudinal reference range approach, which incorporates age-related changes, during the monitoring of 408 men with localised prostate cancer. Men were monitored by regular PSA tests over a mean of 2.9 years, recording when a man's PSA doubling time fell below 2 years, PSA velocity exceeded 2 ng ml(-1) per year, or when his upper 10% reference range was exceeded. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and PSA velocity alerted a high proportion of men initially but became unresponsive to changes with successive tests. Calculating doubling time using recent PSA measurements reduced the decline in response. The reference range method maintained responsiveness to changes in PSA level throughout the monitoring. The increasing unresponsiveness of PSA kinetics is a consequence of the underlying regression model. Novel methods are needed for evaluation in cohorts currently being managed by monitoring. Meanwhile, the NICE guidance should be cautious.

  18. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The deterioration of Canadian immigrants' oral health: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effect of immigration on the self-reported oral health of immigrants to Canada over a 4-year period. The study used Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC 2001-2005). The target population comprised 3976 non-refugee immigrants to Canada. The dependent variable was self-reported dental problems. The independent variables were as follows: age, sex, ethnicity, income, education, perceived discrimination, history of social assistance, social support, and official language proficiency. A generalized estimation equation approach was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. After 2 years, the proportion of immigrants reporting dental problems more than tripled (32.6%) and remained approximately the same at 4 years after immigrating (33.3%). Over time, immigrants were more likely to report dental problems (OR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.55-3.02). An increase in self-reported dental problems over time was associated with sex, history of social assistance, total household income, and self-perceived discrimination. An increased likelihood of reporting dental problems occurred over time. Immigrants should arguably constitute an important focus of public policy and programmes aimed at improving their oral health and access to dental care in Canada. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  1. A hidden Markov model approach to analyze longitudinal ternary outcomes when some observed states are possibly misclassified.

    Benoit, Julia S; Chan, Wenyaw; Luo, Sheng; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Doody, Rachelle

    2016-04-30

    Understanding the dynamic disease process is vital in early detection, diagnosis, and measuring progression. Continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) methods have been used to estimate state-change intensities but challenges arise when stages are potentially misclassified. We present an analytical likelihood approach where the hidden state is modeled as a three-state CTMC model allowing for some observed states to be possibly misclassified. Covariate effects of the hidden process and misclassification probabilities of the hidden state are estimated without information from a 'gold standard' as comparison. Parameter estimates are obtained using a modified expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and identifiability of CTMC estimation is addressed. Simulation studies and an application studying Alzheimer's disease caregiver stress-levels are presented. The method was highly sensitive to detecting true misclassification and did not falsely identify error in the absence of misclassification. In conclusion, we have developed a robust longitudinal method for analyzing categorical outcome data when classification of disease severity stage is uncertain and the purpose is to study the process' transition behavior without a gold standard. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of relationships between social support and general health in an Australian population cohort of young women.

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2015-02-01

    The influence of social support on health and quality of life has been well documented. There is less evidence on whether health status affects social support, and little is known about longitudinal relationships between social support and health in early adulthood. This study investigates these associations using both concurrent and time-lagged measures at 5 time-points over 12 years during early adulthood. A population-based cohort of 9,758 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health was used. Women were aged 22-27 in 2000 and 35-39 in 2012. The General Health subscale of the SF-36 and the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item Scale were used, with scores standardised to a range of 0-100. Longitudinal tobit models were used, because both social support and general health data were left skewed, with marked ceiling effects. All models were adjusted for status of the outcome of interest at the immediately previous survey. With both concurrent and time-lagged measures, there was a statistically significant difference in mean general health scores across social support quintiles after adjusting for demographic and behavioural covariates: lower general health was associated with lower social support. In reverse, social support mean scores were also significantly different across general health quintiles in both concurrent and time-lagged fully adjusted models. Social support is significantly associated with both current and subsequent general health in early adulthood. The significance of the reverse associations indicates that the two mutually influence each other. This study highlights the importance of social support as a health-related quality of life issue.

  3. Predictors of new-onset depressive disorders - Results from the longitudinal Finnish Health 2011 Study.

    Markkula, Niina; Marola, Niko; Nieminen, Tarja; Koskinen, Seppo; Saarni, Samuli I; Härkänen, Tommi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-01-15

    Identifying risk factors for depression is important for understanding etiological mechanisms and targeting preventive efforts. No prior studies have compared risk factors of dysthymia and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a longitudinal setting. Predictors of new-onset MDD and dysthymia were examined in a longitudinal general population study (Health 2000 and 2011 Surveys, BRIF8901). 4057 persons free of depressive disorders at baseline were followed up for 11 years. DSM-IV MDD and dysthymia were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 126 persons (4.4%, 95%CI 3.6-5.2) were diagnosed with MDD or dysthymia at follow-up. Predictors of new-onset depressive disorders were younger age (adjusted OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99 per year), female gender (aOR 1.46, 95%CI 1.01-2.12), multiple childhood adversities (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83), low trust dimension of social capital (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.36-0.96 for high trust), baseline anxiety disorder (aOR 2.75, 95%CI 1.36-5.56), and baseline depressive symptoms (aOR 1.65, 95%CI 1.04-2.61 for moderate and aOR 2.49, 95%CI 1.20-5.17 for severe symptoms). Risk factors for MDD were younger age, female gender, anxiety disorder and depressive symptoms, whereas younger age, multiple childhood adversities, low trust, and having 1-2 somatic diseases predicted dysthymia. We only had one follow-up point at eleven years, and did not collect information on the subjects' health during the follow-up period. Persons with subclinical depressive symptoms, anxiety disorders, low trust, and multiple childhood adversities have a higher risk of depressive disorders. Predictors of MDD and dysthymia appear to differ. This information can be used to target preventive efforts and guide social policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Health Improvement in the Atlanta CHDWB Wellness Cohort

    Rubina Tabassum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Health Discovery and Wellbeing (CHDWB is an academic program designed to evaluate the efficacy of clinical self-knowledge and health partner counseling for development and maintenance of healthy behaviors. This paper reports on the change in health profiles for over 90 traits, measured in 382 participants over three visits in the 12 months following enrolment. Significant changes in the desired direction of improved health are observed for many traits related to cardiovascular health, including BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and arterial stiffness, as well as for summary measures of physical and mental health. The changes are most notable for individuals in the upper quartile of baseline risk, many of whom showed a positive correlated response across clinical categories. By contrast, individuals who start with more healthy profiles do not generally show significant improvements and only a modest impact of targeting specific health attributes was observed. Overall, the CHDWB model shows promise as an effective intervention particularly for individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Health Improvement in the Atlanta CHDWB Wellness Cohort.

    Tabassum, Rubina; Cunningham, Lynn; Stephens, Emily Hope; Sturdivant, Katelyn; Martin, Gregory S; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2014-12-22

    The Center for Health Discovery and Wellbeing (CHDWB) is an academic program designed to evaluate the efficacy of clinical self-knowledge and health partner counseling for development and maintenance of healthy behaviors. This paper reports on the change in health profiles for over 90 traits, measured in 382 participants over three visits in the 12 months following enrolment. Significant changes in the desired direction of improved health are observed for many traits related to cardiovascular health, including BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and arterial stiffness, as well as for summary measures of physical and mental health. The changes are most notable for individuals in the upper quartile of baseline risk, many of whom showed a positive correlated response across clinical categories. By contrast, individuals who start with more healthy profiles do not generally show significant improvements and only a modest impact of targeting specific health attributes was observed. Overall, the CHDWB model shows promise as an effective intervention particularly for individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  6. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  7. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study.

    Mahoney, L Meghan; Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    New media changes the dissemination of public health information and misinformation. During a guest appearance on the Today Show, US Representative Michele Bachmann claimed that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could cause "mental retardation". The purpose of this study is to explore how new media influences the type of public health information users access, as well as the impact to these platforms after a major controversy. Specifically, this study aims to examine the similarities and differences in the dissemination of news articles related to the HPV vaccination between Google News and Twitter, as well as how the content of news changed after Michele Bachmann's controversial comment. This study used a purposive sampling to draw the first 100 news articles that appeared on Google News and the first 100 articles that appeared on Twitter from August 1-October 31, 2011. Article tone, source, topics, concerns, references, publication date, and interactive features were coded. The intercoder reliability had a total agreement of .90. Results indicate that 44.0% of the articles (88/200) about the HPV vaccination had a positive tone, 32.5% (65/200) maintained a neutral tone, while 23.5% (47/200) presented a negative tone. Protection against diseases 82.0% (164/200), vaccine eligibility for females 75.5% (151/200), and side effects 59.0% (118/200) were the top three topics covered by these articles. Google News and Twitter articles significantly differed in article tone, source, topics, concerns covered, types of sources referenced in the article, and uses of interactive features. Most notably, topic focus changed from public health information towards political conversation after Bachmann's comment. Before the comment, the HPV vaccine news talked more often about vaccine dosing (Ppolitics (P=.01) and talked more about HPV vaccine eligibility for males (P=.01). This longitudinal infodemiology study suggests that new media influences public health communication

  8. Investigating predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online health-communication program: a longitudinal study.

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein

    2010-09-02

    Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a "physical activity check," which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong motivation to be healthy (OR = 1.46, CI = 1

  9. School environment and mental health in early adolescence - a longitudinal study in Sweden (KUPOL).

    Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Hultin, Hanna; Dalman, Christina; Engström, Karin; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Forsell, Yvonne; Karlberg, Martin; Lavebratt, Catharina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Sundell, Knut; Zhou, Jia; Almroth, Melody; Raffetti, Elena

    2016-07-16

    Longitudinal studies indicate strong associations between school proficiency and indicators of mental health throughout adulthood, but the mechanisms of such associations are not fully elucidated. The Kupol study is a prospective cohort study in Sweden set up in order to: (i) describe the association of school pedagogic and social environment and its specific dimensions with the risk of mental ill-health and psychiatric disorders in adolescence; (ii) evaluate the direct effects of school pedagogic and social environment on mental health and the effects mediated by the individual's academic achievements; and (iii) assess if school pedagogic and social environment are associated with mental ill-health through epigenetic mechanisms, in particular those involving genes regulating the response to stress. The Kupol cohort at baseline consists of 3959 children attending the 7th grade of compulsory school (13-14 years old) in 8 regions of central Sweden in the school years 2013-2014 or 2014-2015. Three follow-up surveys in subsequent years are planned. Teachers' and students' perceptions of the culture, climate and ethos of their schools, and students' mental ill-health are assessed at the whole school level by annual questionnaire surveys. In order to conduct epigenetic analyses saliva specimens are collected from a nested sample of students at inception and two years later. Further, class-, family- and child-level information is collected at baseline and during each year of follow-up. Self-reported information is being complemented with register data via record-linkages to national and regional health and administrative registers. The topic being investigated is new, and the sample constitutes the largest adolescent cohort in Sweden involved in an ad hoc study. Epigenetic analyses centered on environmental cues to stress response are a thoroughly new approach. Finally a notable feature is the multi-informant and multi-method data collection, with surveys at the school

  10. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP) - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program.

    Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C

    2017-04-28

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  11. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  12. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  13. The health Oriented pedagogical project (HOPP - a controlled longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention program

    Per Morten Fredriksen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.

  14. Longitudinal study of religiosity and mental health of adolescents with psychiatric problems. The TRAILS study.

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W; de Vries-Schot, M; Scheepers, P; van Deurzen, P A M; Klip, H; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-09-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the influence of the religiosity of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems on the course of mental health during adolescence. In the TRAILS clinical cohort of 543 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report at baseline, T2 (12-14 years), T3 (14-17 years), and T4 (17-21 years). The Youth Self Report (YSR) was used at baseline, T2, and T3, and the Adult Self Report (ASR) was used at T4. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using self-report and information from mothers and fathers, resulting in three categorical religiosity variables and six SOCON (Social Cultural Developments Questionnaire) religiosity scales that assess religiosity in greater detail. Repeated measure ANOVA analyses were performed for each independent religiosity variable with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as dependent variables, gender as a factor and time (T1, T2, T3 and T4) as within factor. Results were adjusted for marital status of parents and socioeconomic status and corrected for multiple testing. There were main effects of the self-report SOCON scale "Humanistic beliefs" and gender and gender "by Humanistic beliefs" interaction effect on internalizing problems. Follow-up tests revealed that among females "high" scores on "Humanistic beliefs" were associated with increased internalizing problems. There were hardly any associations between religiosity and mental health in a clinical cohort of pre-adolescents up to adolescence. The exception being that among females strong humanistic beliefs were associated with internalizing problems. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health: The Role of Vulnerability and Resilience.

    Singham, Timothy; Viding, Essi; Schoeler, Tabea; Arseneault, Louise; Ronald, Angelica; Cecil, Charlotte M; McCrory, Eamon; Rijsdijk, Frülhing; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety (β = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33) persisted for 2 years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.20) but not

  16. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany.

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined.The German Ageing Survey (DEAS is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse. Functional health was assessed by the subscale "physical functioning" of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D.Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = -11.8, predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = 4.8 on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms.Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men and depressive symptoms (women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards.

  17. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation and dysregulation of esophageal peristalsis by the integrated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and disease.

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-09-01

    Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively. Studies in patients with various types of esophageal motor disorders reveal temporal disassociation between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. We suggest that the discoordination between the two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain. Certain pathologies may selectively target one and not the other muscle layer, e.g., in eosinophilic esophagitis there is a selective dysfunction of the longitudinal muscle layer. In achalasia esophagus, swallows are accompanied by the strong contraction of the longitudinal muscle without circular muscle contraction. The possibility that the discoordination between two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain are discussed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the regulation and dysregulation of peristalsis by the coordinated and discoordinated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and diseased states.

  19. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  20. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Holendro Singh Chungkham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ, using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. RESULTS: Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42 between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68. The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  1. Mental health problems among individuals with persistent health challenges from adolescence to young adulthood: a population-based longitudinal study in Norway

    Sølvi Helseth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent health challenges are increasing throughout the world. It has been shown that adolescents with persistent health challenges are at greater risk of having mental health problems than their healthy peers. However, these studies are mainly cross-sectional, and little is known about the transition to adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine how mental health problems in adolescents and young adults with persistent health challenges vary during adolescence and in the transition to young adulthood. Methods The study used longitudinal and time-series data from the “Young in Norway” study. A sample of adolescents was prospectively followed from adolescence to young adulthood with measures at four different time points (n = 3,087; T1–T4: 2921 adolescents (12–19 years participated at T1 and T2, while 2448 young adults participated at T3 and T4. Persistent health challenges, age, gender, mental health problems and parental socio-economic status were measured in the longitudinal survey. Regression models were applied to estimate associations between persistent health challenges (understood as having a chronic health condition or disability and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood. Different models were tested for chronic health conditions and disability. Results Adolescents with disability had higher scores for depressive and anxiety symptoms, loneliness and self-concept instability, and lower scores for self-worth, appearance satisfaction, scholastic competence and social acceptance compared with adolescents without disability. In young adulthood, there were also significant associations between disability and most mental health problems. The longitudinal associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood showed that significant associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems were only

  2. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  3. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  4. Longitudinal health-related quality of life outcomes and related factors after pediatric SCT.

    Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Hancock, K

    2009-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate longitudinally health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes and related factors up to 2 years post-pediatric SCT. A total of 99 mothers of patients, aged 1.5-17 years, completed two standardized HRQOL questionnaires, generic and disease specific (DS), about the child, and reported on their own symptoms of depression and family function pre-SCT, 12 and 24 months post-SCT. Clinical (diagnosis, radiation), child (age) and family (maternal depression) information was also obtained. Significant improvement in physical and psychosocial HRQOL from pre-SCT to 1 or 2 years post-SCT was reported. Survivors of ALL were reported to have poorer physical and psychosocial HRQOL than survivors of solid tumors on the DS measure. Maternal depression was negatively associated with physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Maternal education (higher) at pre-SCT predicted improvements in physical domains 2 years post-SCT; mother's age (older) and child's age (younger) also predicted improvements of physical and emotional HRQOL. We conclude that survivors of pediatric SCT improved physical and psychosocial HRQOL by 1 and 2 years post-SCT. Older survivors whose mothers are younger and distressed, with lower education at SCT have compromised HRQOL compared to other survivors. This study has important implications for the care of SCT survivors and their families.

  5. Oppositional behavior and longitudinal predictions of early adulthood mental health problems in chronic tic disorders.

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Bécue, Jean-Cyprien; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy A; Richer, Francois

    2018-03-16

    Chronic tic disorders (TD) are associated with a number of psychological problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. ODD is often considered a risk factor for many psychological symptoms and recent work suggests that different ODD dimensions show independent predictions of later psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal predictions between ODD dimensions of Irritability and Defiance and the most frequent comorbidities in TD from childhood to early adulthood. From an initial sample of 135, parent reports were obtained on 58 participants with TD using standard clinical questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Defiance symptoms decreased from baseline to follow-up whereas Irritability symptoms were more stable over time. In multiple regressions, Irritability in childhood predicted anxiety and OCB in early adulthood while Defiance in childhood predicted ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms in early adulthood. No developmental link was found for depressive symptoms. Results indicate that ODD dimensions are developmentally linked to both internalizing and externalizing adult mental health symptoms in TD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Longitudinal Effects of Gendered Harassment Perpetration and Victimization on Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescence.

    Rinehart, Sarah J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Bub, Kristen L

    2017-08-01

    Gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and homophobic name-calling, is prevalent in adolescents and is linked to negative outcomes including depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance abuse, and personal distress. However, much of the extant literature is cross-sectional and rarely are perpetrators of these behaviors included in studies of outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of longitudinal changes in gendered harassment perpetration and victimization on changes in mental health outcomes among a large sample of early adolescents. Given that these behaviors commonly occur in the context of a patriarchal society (males hold power), we also investigated the impact of gender on gendered harassment. Participants included 3,549 students from four Midwestern middle schools (50.4% female, 49% African American, 34% White) at two time points (13 and 17 years old). Results indicated that increases from age 13 to 17 years in sexual harassment perpetration and victimization and homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization predicted increases in depression symptoms and substance use. Gender did not moderate these pathways. These findings highlight that negative outcomes are associated with changes in gendered harassment among adolescents and emphasize the importance of prevention efforts. Implications for school interventions are discussed.

  7. [Oral health status evaluation of pre-school children: longitudinal epidemiologic study (1993-1994), Córdoba, Argentina].

    Battellino, L J; Cornejo, L S; Dorronsoro de Cattoni, S T; Luna Maldonado de Yankilevich, E R; Calamari, S E; Azcura, A I; Virga, C

    1997-06-01

    A one-year longitudinal survey was carried out on a sample of the Cordoba City 4-year old kindergarten population (n = 820); so as to determine the role of several variables upon the incidence of caries. The dmf-t, dmf-s, oral hygiene and oral health indexes as well as incidence rates and caries relative risks of caries were inversely related to the socioeconomic level (SEL) of the children involved. Thus in the SEL III (typical proletariat, non-typical proletariat and sub-proletariat) children, the relative risk of caries was almost five times higher (RR = 4.9) than in the SEL I (entrepreneureal and managerial bourgeoisie) children. In SEL I, almost all new lesions occurred on smooth surfaces (61.2%), while in SEL III the molar occlusal faces were mainly affected (66.3%). Daily sugar intake was higher in SEL III children but experience of caries showed poor correlation to the amount (r = 0.40) and frequency (r = 0.52) of carbohydrate intake. No significant interlevel differences were observed in the biochemical salivary parameters analyzed. Assisted toothbrushing and fluoride topications strongly lowered the incidence of caries among SEL III children, also making the corresponding rates fall almost to SEL I values (0.31, 0.23 and 0.22 vs. 0.21). In conclusion, SEL III children should be treated prophylactically with effective preventive measures, because of their susceptibility to caries. Such preventive measures include assisted toothbrushing and fluoride topications.

  8. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms.

    Gum, Amber M; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use patterns over time and social context. A total of 144 participants ≥65 years old with depressive symptoms completed an in-person baseline interview and six monthly telephone follow-up interviews. Outcomes at each follow-up included the use of antidepressants or counseling. Covariates included personal and social context variables. Approximately half of the participants (N=70, 48%) received no formal treatment (antidepressant prescription or counseling). Treatment use or nonuse did not change for most participants. More participants with severe symptoms received antidepressants (25%-37%) than did those with milder symptoms (10%-14%), although more participants in the latter group started (milder, 62%,versus severe, 49%) and stopped (milder, 77%, versus severe, 26%) antidepressant treatment at least once. Fewer individuals received counseling overall, with no clear patterns by symptom severity. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, treatment use at follow-up was independently associated with younger age, current major depressive episode, baseline use of antidepressant, intention to begin a new treatment at baseline, and receipt of advice to seek treatment. Over a six-month period, most older adults with depressive symptoms in this study continued their use or nonuse of mental health treatment. Demographic, need, attitudinal, and social variables were related to treatment use over time. Addressing intentions and providing advice may facilitate treatment seeking.

  9. Longitudinal Omics Modelling and Integration in Clinical Metabonomics Research: challenges in childhood metabolic health research

    Peter eSperisen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modelling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modelling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system’s components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modelling in the context of childhood metabolic health research.

  10. Longitudinal pathways between mental health difficulties and academic performance during middle childhood and early adolescence.

    Deighton, Jessica; Humphrey, Neil; Belsky, Jay; Boehnke, Jan; Vostanis, Panos; Patalay, Praveetha

    2018-03-01

    There is a growing appreciation that child functioning in different domains, levels, or systems are interrelated over time. Here, we investigate links between internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and academic attainment during middle childhood and early adolescence, drawing on two large data sets (child: mean age 8.7 at enrolment, n = 5,878; adolescent: mean age 11.7, n = 6,388). Using a 2-year cross-lag design, we test three hypotheses - adjustment erosion, academic incompetence, and shared risk - while also examining the moderating influence of gender. Multilevel structural equation models provided consistent evidence of the deleterious effect of externalizing problems on later academic achievement in both cohorts, supporting the adjustment-erosion hypothesis. Evidence supporting the academic-incompetence hypothesis was restricted to the middle childhood cohort, revealing links between early academic failure and later internalizing symptoms. In both cohorts, inclusion of shared-risk variables improved model fit and rendered some previously established cross-lag pathways non-significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations noted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Longitudinal research and in particular developmental cascades literature make the case for weaker associations between internalizing symptoms and academic performance than between externalizing problems and academic performance. Findings vary in terms of the magnitude and inferred direction of effects. Inconsistencies may be explained by different age ranges, prevalence of small-to-modest sample sizes, and large time lags between measurement points. Gender differences remain underexamined. What does this study add? The present study used cross-lagged models to examine longitudinal associations in age groups (middle child and adolescence) in a large-scale British sample. The large sample size not only allows for

  11. Associations between sleep disturbance and mental health status: a longitudinal study of Japanese junior high school students.

    Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Eise; Harano, Satoru; Tamaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Asai, Takami; Ohida, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    A limited number of longitudinal studies have addressed the association between sleep disturbance and mental health status among adolescents. To examine whether each of these is a risk factor for the onset of the other, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study of Japanese adolescents. In 2004, we performed a baseline study of students attending three private junior high schools in Tokyo, and in 2006, a follow-up study was performed on the same population. The mean age of the subjects was 13 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep disturbance, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health status. The subjects were 698 students, of whom 516 were suitable for analysis. The incidence of newly developed poor mental health status during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 35.1%. New onset of poor mental health status was significantly associated with new onset of sleep disturbance and lasting sleep disturbance. The incidence of sleep disturbance during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 33.3%. New onset of sleep disturbance was significantly associated with new onset of poor mental health status and lasting poor mental health status. Sleep disturbance and poor mental health status increase each other's onset risk.

  12. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  13. Digital divide 2.0: the role of social networking sites in seeking health information online from a longitudinal perspective.

    Feng, Yang; Xie, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a longitudinal angle, this study analyzed data from the Pew Internet's Health Tracking Survey in 2006, 2008, and 2010 to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use. Results showed that with the growing role of social networking site use in predicting people's likelihood of seeking health information online, the socioeconomic and demographic factors that contributed to the disparities in social networking site use could also lead to disparities in seeking health information online. Also, results indicated that people are more likely to seek heath-related information online if they or their close family or friends have a chronic disease situation.

  14. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study.

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara Dos Santos

    2016-08-08

    to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (pde morbidades de idosos, segundo a dinâmica do arranjo domiciliar; e verificar os determinantes sociodemográficos e de saúde do arranjo domiciliar. trata-se de uma pesquisa domiciliar e longitudinal (2005-2012), conduzida com 623 idosos. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva e regressão logística multinomial (pde estudo e com renda entre 1├┤ 3 salários mínimos. Durante o desenvolvimento dessa pesquisa, identificou-se uma elevação da distribuição de idosos com 1├┤3 salários mínimos. O número de morbidades aumentou nos três grupos ao longo do estudo, com maiores taxas entre os idosos que mudaram a dinâmica do arranjo domiciliar. Verificou-se que idosos do sexo masculino apresentaram menores chances de morar sozinhos (p=0,007) e mudar o arranjo domiciliar comparados às mulheres (p = 0,005). Ganhar menos de um salário mínimo diminuiu as chances de mudança do arranjo domiciliar em relação aos que ganham mais de três salários (p=0,034). os fatores determinantes do arranjo domiciliar foram o sexo e a renda, sendo que as variáveis capacidade funcional e número de morbidades não estiveram associadas ao desfecho analisado. describir las características sociodemográficas y el número de enfermedades concomitantes de ancianos, según la dinámica de la acomodación domiciliaria; y verificar los determinantes sociodemográficos y de salud del espacio domiciliario. se trata de una investigación domiciliaria y longitudinal (2005-2012), realiza con 623 ancianos. Fue realizado análisis estadístico descriptivo y regresión log

  15. Aggressive Event Incidence using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R): A Longitudinal Study.

    Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto; Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify aggressive event incidence rates in the inpatient psychiatric setting, describe characteristics of events and differences based on aggression target and type (verbal vs. physical). A longitudinal study was carried out of aggressive events identified by workers in four inpatient psychiatric units using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) over 6 weeks. A total of 113 aggressive events were recorded resulting in a rate of 13.27 events per bed per year. Verbal aggression was demonstrated in 86 % and physical aggression in 57 % of events. Most events (70.8 %, n = 81) targeted a worker. Compared to other targets, workers were 3.4 times more likely to feel threatened (95 % CI 1.2-9.6, χ 2  = 5.08, p = 0.0242), and less likely to have a visible injury (OR 0.15, 95 % CI 0.04-0.6; χ 2  = 7.1, p = 0.0078). Event severity ranged from 0 to 21 with a mean of 9.5(SD = 5.1), with 20 % considered severe. Verbal events had lower mean severity of 6.5(SD = 3.8) versus physical events with a severity of 11.8(SD = 4.8; t = 6.5, df = 111, p Aggression incidence was similar to incidence found in other studies. Workers were the target of most aggressive events and many were identified as having no understandable provocation. Further understanding of event characteristics will promote more effective prevention and management of aggressive events.

  16. The effect of unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece from 2008 to 2013: a longitudinal study before and during the financial crisis.

    Drydakis, Nick

    2015-03-01

    The current study uses six annual waves of the Longitudinal Labor Market Study (LLMS) covering the 2008-2013 period to obtain longitudinal estimations suggesting statistically significant negative effects from unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece. The specifications suggest that unemployment results in lower health and the deterioration of mental health during the 2008-2009 period compared with the 2010-2013 period, i.e., a period in which the country's unemployment doubled as a consequence of the financial crisis. Unemployment seems to be more detrimental to health/mental health in periods of high unemployment, suggesting that the unemployment crisis in Greece is more devastating as it concerns more people. Importantly, in all specifications, comparable qualitative patterns are found by controlling for unemployment due to firm closure, which allows us to minimize potential bias due to unemployment-health related reverse causality. Moreover, in all cases, women are more negatively affected by unemployment in relation to their health and mental health statuses than are men. Greece has been more deeply affected by the financial crisis than any other EU country, and this study contributes by offering estimates for before and during the financial crisis and considering causality issues. Because health and mental health indicators increase more rapidly in a context of higher surrounding unemployment, policy action must place greater emphasis on unemployment reduction and supporting women's employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. World Health Organization Member States and Open Health Data: An Observational Study

    Charles J Greenberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Open health data has implications for clinical care, research, public health, and health policy at regional, national, and global levels. No published attempts have been made to determine, collectively, whether WHO member states and governments have embraced the promise and effort required to officially share open health data. The observational study will provide evidence that World Health Organization (WHO member states individually and collectively have adopted open data recommended principles, providing access to open health data. Methods Using the WHO list of member states (n=194, the researchers identified the presence of open health data or initiatives. With each country, the following types of official government web pages were recorded: a Ministry of Health web page; a conspicuous link on a government web page to open health data; additional government health web sites; national government-sponsored open data repositories; unique attributes of national health data web sites; and adherence to the principles of open government data for health. A supplemental PDF file provides a representation of data used for analysis and observations. Our complete data is available at: https://goo.gl/Kwj7mb Observations and Discussion Open health data is easily discoverable in less than one-third of the WHO member states. 13 nations demonstrate the principle to provide comprehensive open data. Only 16 nations distribute primary, non-aggregated health data. 24 % of the WHO observed member states are providing some health data in a non-proprietary formats such as comma-separated values. The sixth, seventh, and eighth open government data principles for health, representing universal access, non-proprietary formats, and non-patent protection, are observed in about one-third of the WHO member states. While there are examples of organized national open health data, no more than a one-third minority of the world’s nations have portals set up to

  18. Retention of Children and Their Families in the Longitudinal Outcome Study of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program: A Multilevel Analysis

    Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…

  19. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...

  20. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008?2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N.; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 10...

  1. Social support and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2014-09-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis is a distressing event that impacts on physical and psychological functioning. This study examined the longitudinal relationships among a diagnosis of breast cancer, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were 412 women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported a new diagnosis of breast cancer between 1998 and 2007. The three surveys of longitudinal data analyzed included data 3 years before diagnosis, at diagnosis (baseline), and 3 years after diagnosis (follow-up). Social support was measured using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey; HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Compared with pre-diagnosis HRQOL, women newly diagnosed with breast cancer reported significantly poorer HRQOL in subscales related to pain, physical functioning, and health and vitality. At 3-year follow-up, HRQOL had improved in most domains to levels consistent with pre-diagnosis. Levels of social support remained stable across time. The structural equation model showed that social support was positively predictive of better physical and mental HRQOL at 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal analyses indicate that social support appears to be an important predictor of HRQOL in women diagnosed with breast cancer. In particular, positive emotional and informational support that may normally be provided by a partner is important in maintaining HRQOL. Identification of those lacking social support, especially patients without partners, will enable them to be guided to appropriate support networks and programs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Observation of transverse and longitudinal modes in non-neutral electron clouds confined in a magnetic mirror

    Eckhouse, S.; Fisher, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic modes on non-neutral electron clouds confined in a magnetic mirror field have been investigated. The cloud contains 2 x 10 11 electrons at an average kinetic energy of 0.3 MeV for a magnetic field with a peak intensity of 9 kG at the midplane. It was found that the cloud is moving azimuthally as well as longitudinally. The azimuthal motion has an m=1 spatial nature. The longitudinal modes have a more complicated nature, but their frequency equals that of the azimuthal mode

  3. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  4. Volunteering in adolescence and young adulthood crime involvement: a longitudinal analysis from the add health study.

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Students from grades 7-12 were recruited in 1994-1995 (n = 20,745), and then followed in 2001-2002 (n = 14,322) and in 2008-2009 (n = 12,288). In 2000-2001, participants were retrospectively asked about their volunteering experience from 12 to 18 years of age. Consequently, participants were divided into non-volunteers, self-volunteers, adult-required volunteers, and court-ordered volunteers. Groups were compared for rates of illegal behaviors, arrest, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age) using weighted generalized linear mixed negative binomial models while accounting for sampling design. Relative to non-volunteers, self-volunteers reported 11 % fewer illegal behaviors (RR: 0.89, 95 % CI: 0.80, 0.99), 31 % fewer arrests (RR: 0.69, 95 %: 0.57, 0.85), and 39 % fewer convictions (RR: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.47, 0.79) by age 18-28 years, and 28 % fewer illegal behaviors, 53 % fewer arrests, and 36 % fewer convictions by age 24-34. In comparison the adult-required volunteers also reported fewer arrests and convictions; however, they reported more illegal behaviors than the non-volunteers. The court-ordered volunteers reported higher rates of criminal involvement than the non-volunteers, throughout. This study suggests that volunteering in adolescence may reduce crime involvement in adulthood.

  5. Financial position and adoption of electronic health records: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    Shen, Jay J; Ginn, Gregory O

    2012-01-01

    Financial barriers are a major factor of slow electronic health record (EHR) adoption among US hospitals. All existing literature focuses on relationships between current or short-term financial position and EHR adoption. This study examines relationship between financial position in previous years and the current level of EHR adoption. Retrospective longitudinal data were extracted from (1) the 2009 American Hospital Association (AHA) EHR implementation survey; (2) the 2002 and 2006 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Cost Reports; and (3) the 2002 and 2006 AHA Annual Survey containing organizational and operational data. The final sample was 2,701 acute care hospitals in the United States. General ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis with a three-level dependent variable to measure adoption, five independent variables to measure financial position, and 11 control variables to measure structure and environment. For 2006, higher total margin was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption, but higher asset turnover was significantly and negatively associated with EHR adoption. For 2002, higher total margin was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption, but higher asset turnover and higher equity multiplier were both significantly and negatively associated with EHR adoption. In addition, lower net days revenue in accounts receivable was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption. For both the 2002 and 2006 control variables, human resource intensity and bed size were significant and positively related to adoption, and percentage Medicare patients and investor ownership were significant and negatively related to adoption. Financial position does relate to EHR adoption in mid-term and long-term planning.

  6. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City

    Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. Methods. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Results. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. Conclusions. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health. PMID:25521873

  7. Cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of racism on mental health among residents of Black neighborhoods in New York City.

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health.

  8. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  9. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  10. Patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics associated with the use of observation stays in veterans health administration hospitals, 2005 to 2012.

    Wright, Brad; OʼShea, Amy M J; Glasgow, Justin M; Ayyagari, Padmaja; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have documented that a significant increase in the use of observation stays along with extensive variation in patterns of use across hospitals.The objective of this longitudinal observational study was to examine the extent to which patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics explain variation in observation stay rates across Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals.Our data came from years 2005 to 2012 of the nationwide VHA Medical SAS inpatient and enrollment files, American Hospital Association Survey, and Area Health Resource File. We used these data to estimate linear regression models of hospitals' observation stay rates as a function of hospital, patient, and local health system characteristics, while controlling for time trends and Veterans Integrated Service Network level fixed effects.We found that observation stay rates are inversely related to hospital bed size and that hospitals with a greater proportion of younger or rural patients have higher observation stay rates. Observation stay rates were nearly 15 percentage points higher in 2012 than 2005.Although we identify several characteristics associated with variation in VHA hospital observation stay rates, many factors remain unmeasured.

  11. Longitudinal associations between mental health conditions and overactive bladder in women veterans.

    Bradley, Catherine S; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Hillis, Stephen L; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-10-01

    One in 5 recently deployed US women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions. We sought to estimate the 1-year incidence and remission of overactive bladder and to identify the impact of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and prior sexual assault on 1-year overactive bladder incidence and remission rates. Participants of this 1-year prospective cohort study were female veterans separated from military service who had returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployment within the previous 2 years. Eligible women were identified through the Defense Manpower Data Center and recruited by mail and telephone. Telephone screening confirmed participants were ambulatory, community-dwelling veterans and excluded those with urinary tract fistula, congenital abnormality, or cancer; pelvic radiation; spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson disease; stroke; or current/recent pregnancy. Data collection included computer-assisted telephone interviews performed at enrollment and 1 year later. The interview assessed demographic and military service characteristics; urinary symptoms and treatment; depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and treatment; and a lifetime history of sexual assault. Overactive bladder was identified if at least moderately bothersome urgency urinary incontinence and/or urinary frequency symptoms were reported on Urogenital Distress Inventory items. Exposures included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime sexual assault, assessed at

  12. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  13. Forms of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Religion and Health in Older Adults and Implications for Sample Bias.

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased toward more educated and more religiously involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results.

  14. The Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH: A longitudinal cohort study of multidimensional components of health and well-being

    Gondo Yasuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid worldwide increase in the oldest old population, considerable concern has arisen about the social and economic burden of diseases and disability in this age group. Understanding of multidimensional structure of health and its life-course trajectory is an essential prerequisite for effective health care delivery. Therefore, we organized an interdisciplinary research team consisting of geriatricians, dentists, psychologists, sociologists, and epidemiologists to conduct a longitudinal observational study. Methods/Design For the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH study, a random sample of inhabitants of the city of Tokyo, aged 85 years or older, was drawn from the basic city registry. The baseline comprehensive assessment consists of an in-home interview, a self-administered questionnaire, and a medical/dental examination. To perform a wide variety of biomedical measurements, including carotid ultrasonography and a detailed dental examination, participants were invited to our study center at Keio University Hospital. For those who were not able to visit the study center, we provided the option of a home-based examination, in which participants were simultaneously visited by a geriatrician and a dentist. Of 2875 eligible individuals, a total of 1152 people were recruited, of which 542 completed both the in-home interview and the medical/dental examination, with 442 completed the in-home interview only, and another 168 completed self or proxy-administered data collection only. Carotid ultrasonography was completed in 458 subjects, which was 99.6% of the clinic visitors (n = 460. Masticatory assessment using a colour-changeable chewing gum was completed in 421 subjects, a 91.5% of the clinic visitors. Discussion Our results demonstrated the feasibility of a new comprehensive study that incorporated non-invasive measurements of subclinical diseases and a detailed dental examination aiming at community

  15. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data : An illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    Verdam, M.G.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: - Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. - A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. - Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data

  16. GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper: Geoscience and Public Health Connections

    Low, R.; Boger, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global health crisis posed by vector-borne diseases is so great in scope that it is clearly insurmountable without the active help of tens-or hundreds- of thousands of individuals, working to identify and eradicate risk in communities around the world. Mobile devices equipped with data collection capabilities and visualization opportunities are lowering the barrier for participation in data collection efforts. The GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper (MHM) provides citizen scientists with an easy to use mobile platform to identify and locate mosquito breeding sites in their community. The app also supports the identification of vector taxa in the larvae development phase via a built-in key, which provides important information for scientists and public health officials tracking the rate of range expansion of invasive vector species and associated health threats. GO Mosquito is actively working with other citizen scientist programs across the world to ensure interoperability of data through standardization of metadata fields specific to vector monitoring, and through the development of APIs that allow for data exchange and shared data display through a UN-sponsored proof of concept project, Global Mosquito Alert. Avenues of application for mosquito vector data-both directly, by public health entities, and by modelers who employ remotely sensed environmental data to project mosquito population dynamics and epidemic disease will be featured.

  17. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  18. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    Winkels, R.M.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Zutphen, van, M.; Harten-Gerritsen, van, A.S.; Kok, D.E.G.; Duijnhoven, van, F.J.B.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the "COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life" - COLON - study. The main aim of this study is to...

  19. Perceived classism and its relation with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority: the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) panel.

    Simons, Audrey M W; Koster, Annemarie; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Classism might be the downside of the prevailing ideologies of individual responsibility for success. However, since studies into perceived classism have mainly been qualitative, little is known about its association with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority, especially in more egalitarian countries. This study, therefore, examined the associations of perceived classism with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority. We used cross-sectional data (2012/2013) from the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) (n = 1540; age 16-90; 46.9 % men). We found that classism was perceived by 18.2 % of the participants, with the lowest income and occupation group most likely to perceive classism (22.0 and 27.5 %, respectively). Perceived classism was significantly associated with poor health (e.g. self-rated health OR = 2.44, 95 % CI = 1.76-3.38) and feelings of inferiority (e.g. shame OR = 4.64, 95 % CI = 3.08-6.98). No significant associations were found with health behaviours. To further examine the role of perceived classism for socioeconomic differences in health and its association with country-level socioeconomic inequalities, prevailing ideologies, and objective opportunities for social mobility, we recommend more longitudinal and international studies with comparable measures of perceived classism.

  20. Job strain and unhealthy lifestyle: results from the baseline cohort study, Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Toivanen, Susanna; Chor, Dóra

    2015-03-31

    Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and sedentary behavior, are among the main modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. The workplace is regarded as an important site of potential health risks where preventive strategies can be effective. We investigated independent associations among psychosocial job strain, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking in public servants in the largest Brazilian adult cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. Our analytical samples comprised 11,779 and 11,963 current workers for, respectively, analyses of job strain and leisure-time physical activity and analyses of job strain and smoking. Job strain was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire; physical activity was evaluated using a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We also examined smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The association reported in this paper was assessed by means of multinomial and logistic regression, stratified by sex. Among men, compared with low-strain activities (low demand and high control), job strain showed an association with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.64) or with the practice of physical activities of less than recommended duration (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.15-1.82). Among women, greater likelihood of physical inactivity was identified among job-strain and passive-job groups (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.22-1.77 and OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.20-1.67, respectively). Greater control at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among both men and women. Social support at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among women, as was smoking for both genders. We observed no association

  1. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P media thickness (β=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P 0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting ( P 0 ( P =0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be used for the further study and regulation of traditional and novel tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pregnant Women regarding Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs following Oral Health Education in Pune District of Maharashtra: A Longitudinal Hospital-based Study.

    Chawla, Roshani M; Shetiya, Sahana H; Agarwal, Deepti R; Mitra, Pranjan; Bomble, Nikhil A; Narayana, D Satya

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy is a natural process that may create some changes in different parts of the body including the oral cavity. These changes will lead to oral diseases if enough and timely care of oral cavity is not taken. Women may experience increased gingivitis or pregnancy gingivitis beginning in the second or third month of pregnancy that increases in severity throughout the duration of pregnancy. To motivate the patient toward oral health and implement the needed prophylactic measures, a longitudinal study was planned to observe the effect of oral health education during pregnancy on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and treatment needs (TNs) of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups. A longitudinal study was conducted among 112 pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups to assess the effect of oral health education on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and TNs. The demographic details, knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women, and oral health status were collected through a predesigned questionnaire by a principal investigator through an interview. Oral health examination was carried out to assess oral health status using revised World Health Organization Proforma 1997, and oral health education was given through PowerPoint presentation to the participants in local language, i.e., Marathi, after collecting the baseline data. Reinforcement of oral health education and blanket referral was done at 14th week, and follow-up data were collected at 28th week of gestation. The demographic details, such as age, sex, education, occupation, income, and the questions based on knowledge, attitude, and practice among participants were analyzed using number, percentage, and mean. At baseline, knowledge was limited, attitude was positive, while the practice was poor regarding oral health care during pregnancy in pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups. After oral health education and

  4. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  5. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  6. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health.

    Brett C Haberstick

    Full Text Available The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive.We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724 participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health with follow-up information every six years since 1995.Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment.Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed.

  7. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study.

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John; Richardson, Marty; Seed, Paul T; Rudd, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population skills in relation to these. An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified. The proportion of the population above and below these thresholds, and the sociodemographic variables associated with a greater risk of being below the thresholds, were described. Sixty-four health materials were sampled. Two competency thresholds were identified: text (literacy) only, and text + numeracy; 2515/5795 participants (43%) were below the text-only threshold, while 2905/4767 (61%) were below the text + numeracy threshold. Univariable analyses of social determinants of health showed that those groups more at risk of socioeconomic deprivation had higher odds of being below the health literacy competency threshold than those at lower risk of deprivation. Multivariable analysis resulted in some variables becoming non-significant or reduced in effect. Levels of low health literacy mirror those found in other industrialised countries, with a mismatch between the complexity of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  8. Is envy harmful to a society's psychological health and wellbeing? A longitudinal study of 18,000 adults.

    Mujcic, Redzo; Oswald, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell warned of the social dangers of widespread envy. One view of modern society is that it is systematically developing a set of institutions -- such as social media and new forms of advertising -- that make people feel inadequate and envious of others. If so, how might that be influencing the psychological health of our citizens? This paper reports the first large-scale longitudinal research into envy and its possible repercussions. The paper studies 18,000 randomly selected individuals over the years 2005, 2009, and 2013. Using measures of SF-36 mental health and psychological well-being, four main conclusions emerge. First, the young are especially susceptible. Levels of envy fall as people grow older. This longitudinal finding is consistent with a cross-sectional pattern noted recently by Nicole E. Henniger and Christine R. Harris, and with the theory of socioemotional regulation suggested by scholars such as Laura L. Carstensen. Second, using fixed-effects equations and prospective analysis, the analysis reveals that envy today is a powerful predictor of worse SF-36 mental health and well-being in the future. A change from the lowest to the highest level of envy, for example, is associated with a worsening of SF-36 mental health by approximately half a standard deviation (p < .001). Third, no evidence is found for the idea that envy acts as a useful motivator. Greater envy is associated with slower -- not higher -- growth of psychological well-being in the future. Nor is envy a predictor of later economic success. Fourth, the longitudinal decline of envy leaves unaltered a U-shaped age pattern of well-being from age 20 to age 70. These results are consistent with the idea that society should be concerned about institutions that stimulate large-scale envy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A longitudinal comparative study of the physical and mental health problems of affected residents of the firework disaster Enschede, The Netherlands

    Grievink, L; Velden, P.G. van der; Stellato, R.K.; Dusseldorp, A.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Kleber, R.J.; Lebret, E.

    Objectives: After the firework disaster in Enschede, The Netherlands, on 13 May 2000, a longitudinal health study was carried out. Study questions were: (1) did the health status change over this period; and (2) how is the health status 18months after the disaster compared with controls? Study

  10. A longitudinal comparative study of the physical and mental health problems of affected residents of the firework disaster Enschede, The Netherlands

    Grievink, L.; van der Velden, P. G.; Stellato, R. K.; Dusseldorp, A.; Gersons, B. P. R.; Kleber, R. J.; Lebret, E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After the firework disaster in Enschede, The Netherlands, on 13 May 2000, a longitudinal health study was carried out. Study questions were: (1) did the health status change over this period; and (2) how is the health status 18 months after the disaster compared with controls? STUDY

  11. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  12. Management of outpatients in France with stable coronary artery disease. Findings from the prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) registry.

    Danchin, Nicolas; Ferrieres, Jean; Guenoun, Maxime; Cattan, Simon; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the treatment of coronary artery disease mean that an increasing number of patients survive acute cardiovascular events and live as outpatients with or without anginal symptoms. To determine the characteristics and management of contemporary outpatients with stable coronary artery disease in Western Europe, and to compare France with the other Western European countries. CLARIFY (prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Between November 2009 and July 2010, 32,954 adult outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as a history of documented myocardial infarction [of >3 months], prior coronary revascularization, chest pain with myocardial ischaemia, or coronary stenosis of>50% proven by angiography) were enrolled in 45 countries. The demographics and management of CLARIFY patients enrolled in France were compared with those enrolled in other Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). Of the 14,726 patients enrolled in Western Europe (mean age 66.2 [10.2] years; 79.6% male), 2432 (16.5%) were from France. The use of aspirin was lower in France than in other Western European countries (74.5% vs. 86.9%, respectively), whereas use of thienopyridines (48.5% vs. 21.7%), oral anticoagulants (12.3% vs. 9.0%) and lipid-lowering drugs (95.8% vs. 92.5%) was higher. Beta-blockers were used in 73% of both groups. Angina was less prevalent in France (6.3% vs. 15.5%) and French patients showed higher levels of physical activity than their counterparts in Western Europe. The management of patients with stable CAD in France appears favourable, with good adherence to guideline-based therapies, but there remains room for improvement in terms of symptom and risk factor control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  14. The Influence of Masculine Norms and Occupational Factors on Mental Health: Evidence From the Baseline of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Milner, Allison; Kavanagh, Anne; King, Tania; Currier, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Men employed in male-dominated occupations are at elevated risk of work-related fatalities, injuries, and suicide. Prior research has focused on associations between psychosocial and physical exposures at work and health outcomes. However, masculine norms may also contribute to mental health. We used data from the baseline survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to examine whether: (a) men in male-dominated jobs report greater adherence to masculine norms; (b) being in a male-dominated occupation is associated with poorer mental health; and (c) being in a male-dominated occupation modifies the association between masculine norms and mental health. Masculine norms were measured using the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-22). Mental health was assessed using the SF-12. Results of regression analysis (adjusted for covariates) suggest a linear relationship between the extent to which an occupation is male-dominated and endorsement of values on the CMNI-22. Many CMNI-22 subscales were related to poorer mental health. However, the need for self-reliance was identified as the strongest predictor of poorer mental health. The mental health scale did not appear to be patterned by occupational gender composition and we did not find an interaction between the gender ratio of an occupation and the CNMI-22 scale. These findings highlight the need to address harmful aspects of masculinity as a potential cause of mental health problems. More longitudinal research is needed on the social domains in which gender and health are experienced, such as in the workplace.

  15. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: a longitudinal survey

    Aseltine Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have been consistently linked to psychiatric difficulties in children and adults. However, the long-term effects of ACEs on mental health during the early adult years have been understudied. In addition, many studies are methodologically limited by use of non-representative samples, and few studies have investigated gender and racial differences. The current study relates self-reported lifetime exposure to a range of ACEs in a community sample of high school seniors to three mental health outcomes–depressive symptoms, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior–two years later during the transition to adulthood. Methods The study has a two-wave, prospective design. A systematic probability sample of high school seniors (N = 1093 was taken from communities of diverse socioeconomic status. They were interviewed in person in 1998 and over the telephone two years later. Gender and racial differences in ACE prevalence were tested with chi-square tests. Each mental health outcome was regressed on one ACE, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and SES to obtain partially standardized regression coefficients. Results Most ACEs were strongly associated with all three outcomes. The cumulative effect of ACEs was significant and of similar magnitude for all three outcomes. Except for sex abuse/assault, significant gender differences in the effects of single ACEs on depression and drug use were not observed. However, boys who experienced ACEs were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior early in young adulthood than girls who experienced similar ACEs. Where racial/ethnic differences existed, the adverse mental health impact of ACEs on Whites was consistently greater than on Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion Our sample of young adults from urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities reported high rates of adverse childhood experiences. The public health impact of childhood adversity is evident

  17. Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland

    Benzeval Michaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing studies are divided as to whether social inequalities in health widen or converge as people age. In part this is due to reliance on cross-sectional data, but also among longitudinal studies to differences in the measurement of both socioeconomic status (SES and health and in the treatment of survival effects. The aim of this paper is to examine social inequalities in health as people age using longitudinal data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study to investigate the effect of selective mortality, the timing of the SES measure and cohort on the inequality patterns. Methods The Twenty-07 Study has followed three cohorts, born around 1932, 1952 and 1972, from 1987/8 to 2007/8; 4,510 respondents were interviewed at baseline and, at the most recent follow-up, 2,604 were interviewed and 674 had died. Hierarchical repeated-measures models were estimated for self-assessed health status, with and without mortality, with baseline or time-varying social class, sex and cohort. Results Social inequalities in health emerge around the age of 30 after which they widen until the early 60s and then begin to narrow, converging around the age of 75. This pattern is a result of those in manual classes reporting poor health at younger ages, with the gap narrowing as the health of those in non-manual classes declines at older ages. However, employing a more proximal measure of SES reduces inequalities in middle age so that convergence of inequalities is not apparent in old age. Including death in the health outcome steepens the health trajectories at older ages, especially for manual classes, eliminating the convergence in health inequalities, suggesting that healthy survival effects are important. Cohort effects do not appear to affect the pattern of inequalities in health as people age in this study. Conclusions There is a general belief that social inequalities in health appear to narrow at older ages; however, taking account of

  18. Associations between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis versus Tobacco Users

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hancox, Robert J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Thomson, W. Murray; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Following major policy changes in the United States, policy makers, clinicians, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life. Objective To test associations between cannabis use over twenty years and a variety of physical health indices at early midlife. Design A 38-year, prospective, longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study of New Zealand. Participants The study included 1,037 male and female participants. Exposure We assessed frequency of cannabis use and also cannabis dependence at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years. Main Outcomes and Measures We obtained laboratory measures of physical health (periodontal health, lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health), as well as self-reported physical health, at ages 26 and 38. Results Cannabis use was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 and within-individual decline in periodontal health from age 26–38. For example, 55.61% of those with 15+ joint years had periodontal disease, compared with 13.53% of those who never used cannabis. Cannabis use was unrelated to other physical health problems, however. Unlike cannabis use, tobacco use was associated with worse lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health at age 38, as well as within-individual decline in health from age 26 to 38. Conclusions and Relevance Cannabis use for up to 20 years is associated with periodontal disease but is not associated with other physical health problems in early midlife. PMID:27249330

  19. Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies

    Göritz Anja S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59% among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17 were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors.

  20. Influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Enoki, Kaori; Matsuda, Ken-Ich; Ikebe, Kazunori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Thomson, William Murray

    2014-06-01

    Xerostomia and tooth loss are major oral health problems in the elderly. The aim of this longitudinal study was to characterize the influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among elderly Japanese people. A total of 99 community-dwelling, independently living individuals aged 60 years and older were interviewed and underwent dental examination at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 and the Xerostomia Inventory were used to assess OHRQoL and xerostomia severity, respectively. Participants whose xerostomia worsened over the 5-year period had a significantly poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Linear regression models showed that tooth loss and worsening xerostomia were significant predictors of poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Tooth loss and worsening xerostomia result in poorer OHRQoL among older Japanese people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of personality in health care use: Results of a population-based longitudinal study in Germany.

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To determine the role of personality in health care use longitudinally.Data were derived from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of German households starting in 1984. Concentrating on the role of personality, we used data from the years 2005, 2009 and 2013. Personality was measured by using the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S. Number of physician visits in the last 3 months and hospital stays in the last year were used as measures of health care use.Adjusting for predisposing factors, enabling resources, and need factors, fixed effects regressions revealed that physician visits increased with increasing neuroticism, whereas extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness did not affect physician visits in a significant way. The effect of self-rated health on physician visits was significantly moderated by neuroticism. Moreover, fixed effects regressions revealed that the probability of hospitalization in the past year increased with increasing extraversion, whereas the other personality factors did not affect this outcome measure significantly.Our findings suggest that changes in neuroticism are associated with changes in physician visits and that changes in extraversion are associated with the probability of hospitalization. Since recent studies have shown that treatments can modify personality traits, developing interventional strategies should take into account personality factors. For example, efforts to intervene in changing neuroticism might have beneficial effects for the healthcare system.

  2. The role of personality in health care use: Results of a population-based longitudinal study in Germany.

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-01-01

    To determine the role of personality in health care use longitudinally. Data were derived from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of German households starting in 1984. Concentrating on the role of personality, we used data from the years 2005, 2009 and 2013. Personality was measured by using the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S). Number of physician visits in the last 3 months and hospital stays in the last year were used as measures of health care use. Adjusting for predisposing factors, enabling resources, and need factors, fixed effects regressions revealed that physician visits increased with increasing neuroticism, whereas extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness did not affect physician visits in a significant way. The effect of self-rated health on physician visits was significantly moderated by neuroticism. Moreover, fixed effects regressions revealed that the probability of hospitalization in the past year increased with increasing extraversion, whereas the other personality factors did not affect this outcome measure significantly. Our findings suggest that changes in neuroticism are associated with changes in physician visits and that changes in extraversion are associated with the probability of hospitalization. Since recent studies have shown that treatments can modify personality traits, developing interventional strategies should take into account personality factors. For example, efforts to intervene in changing neuroticism might have beneficial effects for the healthcare system.

  3. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Poor dental hygiene and periodontal health in nursing home residents with dementia: an observational study.

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Baumgart, Dominik; Cabrera, Tomas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schröder, Johannes; Corcodel, Nicoleta; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Poor oral health conditions are well documented in the institutionalized elderly, but the literature is lacking research on relationships between dementia and periodontal health in nursing home residents. The purpose of this cohort study, therefore, was to assess whether dementia is associated with poor oral health/denture hygiene and an increased risk of periodontal disease in the institutionalized elderly. A total of 219 participants were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to determine cognitive state. According to the MMSE outcome, participants scoring ≤20 were assigned to dementia group (D) and those scoring >20 to the non-dementia group (ND), respectively. For each of the groups D and ND, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Denture Hygiene Index (DHI) linear regression models were used with the confounders age, gender, dementia, number of comorbidities and number of permanent medications. To assess the risk factors for severe periodontitis as measured by the Community Index of Periodontal Treatment Needs, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences of GBI as well of DHI for demented and healthy subjects (p > 0.05). Severe periodontitis was detected in 66 % of participants with dementia. The logistic regression showed a 2.9 times increased risk among demented participants (p = 0.006). Oral hygiene, denture hygiene and periodontal health are poor in nursing home residents. The severity of oral problems, primarily periodontitis, seems to be enhanced in subjects suffering from dementia. Longitudinal observations are needed to clarify the cause-reaction relationship.

  5. Predicting continuance-findings from a longitudinal study of older adults using an eHealth newsletter.

    Forquer, Heather A; Christensen, John L; Tan, Andy S L

    2014-01-01

    While eHealth technologies are promisingly efficient and widespread, theoretical frameworks capable of predicting long-term use, termed continuance, are lacking. Attempts to extend prominent information technology (IT) theories to the area of eHealth have been limited by small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, self-reported as opposed to actual use measures, and a focus on technology adoption rather than continuance. To address these gaps in the literature, this analysis includes empirical evidence of actual use of an eHealth technology over the course of one year. This large (n = 4,570) longitudinal study focuses on older adults, a population with many health needs and among whom eHealth use may be particularly important. With three measurement points over the course of a year, this study examined the effects of utilitarian and hedonic beliefs on the continued use of an eHealth newsletter using constructs from IT adoption and continuance theories. Additional analyses compared the relative strength of intentions compared to earlier use in predicting later use. Usage intention was strongly predicted by both hedonic beliefs and utilitarian beliefs. In addition, utilitarian beliefs had both direct effects on intention and indirect effects, mediated by hedonic beliefs. While intention predicted subsequent use, earlier use was a significantly stronger predictor of use than intention. These findings make a theoretical contribution to an emerging literature by shedding light on the complex interplay of reasoned action and automaticity in the context of eHealth continuance.

  6. The next generation of precision medicine: observational studies, electronic health records, biobanks, and continuous monitoring.

    Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Johnson, Kipp W; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-04-12

    Precision medicine can utilize new techniques in order to more effectively translate research findings into clinical practice. In this article, we first explore the limitations of traditional study designs, which stem from (to name a few): massive cost for the assembly of large patient cohorts; non-representative patient data; and the astounding complexity of human biology. Second, we propose that harnessing electronic health records and mobile device biometrics coupled to longitudinal data may prove to be a solution to many of these problems by capturing a "real world" phenotype. We envision that future biomedical research utilizing more precise approaches to patient care will utilize continuous and longitudinal data sources.

  7. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Factors promoting health-related quality of life in people with rheumatic diseases: a 12 month longitudinal study

    2011-01-01

    Background Rheumatic diseases have a significant adverse impact on the individual from physical, mental and social aspects, resulting in a low health-related quality of life (HRQL). There is a lack of longitudinal studies on HRQL in people with rheumatic diseases that focus on factors promoting HRQL instead of risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between suggested health promoting factors at baseline and outcome in HRQL at a 12 month follow-up in people with rheumatic diseases. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in 185 individuals with rheumatic diseases with questionnaires one week and 12 months after rehabilitation in a Swedish rheumatology clinic. HRQL was assessed by SF-36 together with suggested health factors. The associations between SF-36 subscales and the health factors were analysed by multivariable logistic regressions. Results Factors predicting better outcome in HRQL in one or several SF-36 subscales were being younger or middle-aged, feeling painless, having good sleep structure, feeling rested after sleep, performing low effort of exercise more than twice per week, having strong sense of coherence (SOC), emotional support and practical assistance, higher educational level and work capacity. The most important factors were having strong SOC, feeling rested after sleep, having work capacity, being younger or middle-aged, and having good sleep structure. Conclusions This study identified several factors that promoted a good outcome in HRQL to people with rheumatic diseases. These health factors could be important to address in clinical work with rheumatic diseases in order to optimise treatment strategies. PMID:21599884

  9. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; Findings from the longitudinal SMILE study

    Kempen Gertrudis IJM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. Results The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32 and mental (OR = 2.12 dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Conclusion Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to

  10. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; findings from the longitudinal SMILE study.

    Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Eijk, Jacques T M

    2008-07-17

    More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE) were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32) and mental (OR = 2.12) dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the precise mechanisms underlying these effects.

  11. Evaluating automated dynamic contrast enhanced wrist 3 T MRI in healthy volunteers: One-year longitudinal observational study

    Rastogi, Anshul, E-mail: anshul.rastogi@bartshealth.nhs.uk [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Kubassova, Olga, E-mail: olga@imageanalysis.org.uk [Image Analysis, Leeds (United Kingdom); Krasnosselskaia, Lada V., E-mail: solaguz@yahoo.com [Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lim, Adrian K.P., E-mail: a.lim@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Radiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Satchithananda, Keshthra, E-mail: keshthra.satchithananda@imperial.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Boesen, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.boesen@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and the Parker Institute, Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg Hospitals (Denmark); Binks, Michael, E-mail: michael.h.binks@gsk.com [GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, SG1 2NY (United Kingdom); Hajnal, Joseph V., E-mail: jo.hajnal@kcl.ac.uk [Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Peter C., E-mail: peter.taylor@kennedy.ox.ac.uk [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Rational and Objective: Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI has great potential to provide quantitative measure of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis. There is no current benchmark to establish the stability of signal in the joints of healthy subjects when imaged with DCE-MRI longitudinally, which is crucial so as to differentiate changes induced by treatment from the inherent variability of perfusion measures. The objective of this study was to test a pixel-by-pixel parametric map based approach for analysis of DCE-MRI (Dynamika) and to investigate the variability in signal characteristics over time in healthy controls using longitudinally acquired images. Materials and Methods: 10 healthy volunteers enrolled, dominant wrists were imaged with contrast enhanced 3T MRI at baseline, week 12, 24 and 52 and scored with RAMRIS, DCE-MRI was analysed using a novel quantification parametric map based approach. Radiographs were obtained at baseline and week 52 and scored using modified Sharp van der Heidje method. RAMRIS scores and dynamic MRI measures were correlated. Results: No erosions were seen on radiographs, whereas MRI showed erosion-like changes, low grade bone marrow oedema and low-moderate synovial enhancement. The DCE-MRI parameters were stable (baseline scores, variability) (mean ± st.dev); in whole wrist analysis, ME{sub mean} (1.3 ± 0.07, −0.08 ± 0.1 at week 24) and IRE{sub mean} (0.008 ± 0.004, −0.002 ± 0.005 at week 12 and 24). In the rough wrist ROI, ME{sub mean} (1.2 ± 0.07, 0.04 ± 0.02 at week 52) and IRE{sub mean} (0.001 ± 0.0008, 0.0006 ± 0.0009 at week 52) and precise wrist ROI, ME{sub mean} (1.2 ± 0.09, 0.04 ± 0.04 at week 52) and IRE{sub mean} (0.001 ± 0.0008, 0.0008 ± 0.001 at week 24 and 52). The Dynamic parameters obtained using fully automated analysis demonstrated strong, statistically significant correlations with RAMRIS synovitis scores. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that contrast enhancement does occur in

  12. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    Oluwatoyi O. Toriola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting: A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results: Body mass index (BMI classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal bodyweight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH, boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of -0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ, bent arm hang (BAH and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion: Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the

  13. How does social capital matter to the health status of older adults? Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey.

    Liu, Gordon G; Xue, Xindong; Yu, Chenxi; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-09-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data from China to examine the causal relationship between structural social capital and health among Chinese older adults. We employ various econometric strategies to control for the potential endogeneity of social capital and account for the possible contextual confounding effects by including community-level social capital. We use three indicators to measure individuals' general, physical, and mental health. Results indicate that social capital has a significant and positive effect on general and physical health. Based on our primary IV findings, a one standard-deviation increase in social capital leads to a 4.9 standard-deviation decrease in the probability of having bad health and a 2.2 standard-deviation decrease in physical activity limitations. Our results are robust to a series of sensitivity checks. Further analysis suggests heterogeneous effects by age but not by gender or area of residence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polarization observables in the longitudinal basis for pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction using a density matrix approach

    Biplab Dey, Michael E. McCracken, David G. Ireland, Curtis A. Meyer

    2011-05-01

    The complete expression for the intensity in pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction with a polarized beam, target, and recoil baryon is derived using a density matrix approach that offers great economy of notation. A Cartesian basis with spins for all particles quantized along a single direction, the longitudinal beam direction, is used for consistency and clarity in interpretation. A single spin-quantization axis for all particles enables the amplitudes to be written in a manifestly covariant fashion with simple relations to those of the well-known CGLN formalism. Possible sign discrepancies between theoretical amplitude-level expressions and experimentally measurable intensity profiles are dealt with carefully. Our motivation is to provide a coherent framework for coupled-channel partial-wave analysis of several meson photoproduction reactions, incorporating recently published and forthcoming polarization data from Jefferson Lab.

  15. Associations of Dairy Intake with Arterial Stiffness in Brazilian Adults: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Ribeiro, Amanda Gomes; Mill, José Geraldo; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2018-05-31

    Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse pressure (PP) in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008⁻2010; n = 12,892) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Dairy consumption was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by computing servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy products. Dairy consumption was described in four categories (≤1 serving/day to >4 servings/day). Covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to compare cfPWV across increasing intake of dairy food, adjusting for confounding factors, including non-dairy food groups. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with cfPWV and PP (-0.13 m/s and -1.3 mmHg, from the lowest and to the highest category of dairy intake). Low-fat dairy, fermented dairy and cheese showed an inverse relationship with cfPWV and PP. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption to reduce arterial stiffness. However, further evidence from longitudinal studies or long-term intervention is needed to support reduction of cfPWV and PP mediating the beneficial effects of dairy products on cardiovascular health.

  16. The educational, racial and gender crossovers in life satisfaction: Findings from the longitudinal Health and Retirement Study.

    Zhang, Wei; Braun, Kathryn L; Wu, Yan Yan

    2017-11-01

    To examine variations in life satisfaction by education, gender, and race/ethnicity over a period of eight years among middle-aged and older Americans. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze five waves (2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014) of longitudinal data from 16,163 participants born 1890-1953 in the U.S. Health and Retirement Study. Life satisfaction was higher in older adults, and the Great Recession had great impact on life satisfaction. Crossover interactions were found by gender, education, and race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with higher life satisfaction for both genders, with stronger effects for females. Hispanics had the higher level of life satisfaction than non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. Longitudinal evidence revealed disparities in life satisfaction. The racial/ethnic differences in the impact of education suggest that the economic and health returns of education vary by social group. Researchers should continue to examine reasons for these disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Associations of Dairy Intake with Arterial Stiffness in Brazilian Adults: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil

    Amanda Gomes Ribeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and pulse pressure (PP in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008–2010; n = 12,892 of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Dairy consumption was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ by computing servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy products. Dairy consumption was described in four categories (≤1 serving/day to >4 servings/day. Covariance analysis (ANCOVA was used to compare cfPWV across increasing intake of dairy food, adjusting for confounding factors, including non-dairy food groups. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with cfPWV and PP (−0.13 m/s and −1.3 mmHg, from the lowest and to the highest category of dairy intake. Low-fat dairy, fermented dairy and cheese showed an inverse relationship with cfPWV and PP. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption to reduce arterial stiffness. However, further evidence from longitudinal studies or long-term intervention is needed to support reduction of cfPWV and PP mediating the beneficial effects of dairy products on cardiovascular health.

  19. Pathways from fertility history to later life health: Results from analyses of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Emily Grundy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research shows associations between fertility histories and later life health. The childless, those with large families, and those with a young age at entry to parenthood generally have higher mortality and worse health than parents of two or three children. These associations are hypothesised to reflect a range of biosocial influences, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objective: To identify pathways from fertility histories to later life health by examining mediation through health-related behaviours, social support and strain, and wealth. Additionally to examine mediation through allostatic load - an indicator of multisystem physical dysregulation, hypothesised to be an outcome of chronic stress. Methods: Associations between fertility histories, mediators, and outcomes were analysed using path models. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Outcomes studied were a measure of allostatic load based on 9 biomarkers and self-reported long-term illness which limited activities. Results: Early parenthood (Conclusions: In England early parenthood and larger family size are associated with less wealth and poorer health behaviours and this accounts for much of the association with health. At least part of this operates through stress-related physiological dysfunction (allostatic load.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Financial Difficulties and Mental Health in a National Sample of British Undergraduate Students.

    Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has shown a relationship between financial difficulties and poor mental health in students, but most research is cross-sectional. To examine longitudinal relationships over time between financial variables and mental health in students. A national sample of 454 first year British undergraduate students completed measures of mental health and financial variables at up to four time points across a year. Cross-sectional relationships were found between poorer mental health and female gender, having a disability and non-white ethnicity. Greater financial difficulties predicted greater depression and stress cross-sectionally, and also predicted poorer anxiety, global mental health and alcohol dependence over time. Depression worsened over time for those who had considered abandoning studies or not coming to university for financial reasons, and there were effects for how students viewed their student loan. Anxiety and alcohol dependence also predicted worsening financial situation suggesting a bi-directional relationship. Financial difficulties appear to lead to poor mental health in students with the possibility of a vicious cycle occurring.

  1. Marital status and work-related health limitation: a longitudinal study of young adult and middle-aged Americans.

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Simpson, Gaynell M

    2016-01-01

    The literature establishes clearly the health benefit of marriage. Much less clear from published data is whether work-related health (dis)advantages accruing to marital transitions persist over time or are limited to the short term. Informed by the marital resources and marital crisis perspectives, this study sought links between marital status measured via three approaches and work-related health limitation, exploring these relationships across genders. The study employed data from eight recent waves (1996-2010) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It applied generalized estimating equations to estimate the impacts, on work-related health limitation, of current marital status; of marital transition 2 years in the past; and of marital transition 8 years in the past. Our gender-specific results indicated that lower likelihood of work-related health limitation was associated with a married status, a stable married status, and an entry into marriage. Results are consistent overall with the marital resources perspective. The use of three different approaches to evaluate the relationship of marital status to work-related health limitation may explain the gender-specific results.

  2. Unhealthy Conditions? A Longitudinal Analysis of the Health of Children in One- and Two-parent Households

    Hilke Brockmann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Families produce health, but changes in familial structures are made responsible for many negative health trends in the population. How does the health of younger children today in Germany develop when comparing whether the parents live together or separately? Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, we are able to show that children in traditional marriages are not generally healthier than children in other families. For example, the risk of suffering health problems is even significantly lower among younger children of single mothers than among children of married mothers. Nevertheless, children of married mothers have a higher birth weight and a body mass index (BMI that deviates less from the norm than the children of divorced mothers. Longitudinally and under control of possible selection effects, there is evidence that the separation and divorce of parents has negative health effects. Especially the mental and intellectual state of the mother, rather than her material situation, can help to cushion the negative consequences of a separation on her children’s health. Against the background of increasing numbers of single mothers, we will discuss the current and future significance of these findings.

  3. The longitudinal relationship between mental health disorders and chronic disease for older adults: a population-based study.

    Chen, Chun-Min; Lee, I-Chen; Su, Yung-Yu; Mullan, Judy; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2017-09-01

    Although mental health disorders in older adults are common, their relationship with chronic disease and the influence of chronic disease on the development of mental health disorders over time is not well understood. This longitudinal study investigated the change in status of mental health disorders and chronic disease, as well as their interrelationships, over time. Participants included community-dwelling older adults living in Taiwan, aged 65 years or older, who completed six waves of survey interviews. Mental health disorders were scored using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule, and chronic disease(s) status was recorded during consecutive biennial data collection waves. The autoregressive latent trajectory model and parallel latent growth curve model were used for data analysis. The study findings suggest that in older people pre-existing mental health disorders and/or chronic disease(s) will predispose them to developing significantly more mental health disorders and/or chronic diseases respectively. The study findings also suggest that pre-existing mental health disorders can significantly contribute to the development of chronic disease over time, and that pre-existing chronic disease(s) significantly can contribute to the development of mental health disorders over time, indicating a reciprocal interrelationship. Our study findings suggest that it in addition to monitoring and treating chronic disease(s) in older people, it is also important to monitor and treat their mental health disorders. Doing so will result in overall better health outcomes and will facilitate a better quality of life as they age. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study

    Vivien Jørgensen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Ambulatory individuals have a high risk of falling and of fall-related injuries. Fall history, fear of falling and walking speed could predict recurrent falls and injurious falls. Further studies with larger samples are needed to validate these findings. [Jørgensen V, Butler Forslund E, Opheim A, Franzén E, Wahman K, Hultling C, Seiger Å, Ståhle A, Stanghelle JK, Roaldsen KS (2017 Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 108–113

  5. Domestic violence and treatment seeking: a longitudinal study of low-income women and mental health/substance abuse care.

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2014-01-01

    A study with 591 low-income women examined domestic violence's role in treatment seeking for mental health or substance abuse problems. (The women resided in one of two California counties.) Following Aday's behavioral model of health services utilization, the secondary data analysis considered the women's need, enabling, and predisposing factors. Generalized estimating equations analyzed the women's longitudinal records of treatment seeking. Results showed that those in the sample who were likely to seek treatment had experienced three or more controlling behaviors and only one abusive behavior. Multivariate data analysis showed treatment-seeking women were likely to be white and older; responsible for few dependent children; not graduates of high school; employed; not participating in Medicaid; diagnosed; and perceiving a need for treatment. The implications of these results for services and policies are discussed.

  6. Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling

    Park, Irene J. K.; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R.; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin…

  7. A Big Five approach to self-regulation: personality traits and health trajectories in the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health.

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W; Barckley, Maureen; Goldberg, Lewis R; Dubanoski, Joan P; Hillier, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory processes influencing health outcomes may have their origins in childhood personality traits. The Big Five approach to personality was used here to investigate the associations between childhood traits, trait-related regulatory processes and changes in health across middle age. Participants (N = 1176) were members of the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of the participants' traits when they were in elementary school were related to trajectories of self-rated health measured on 6 occasions over 14 years in middle age. Five trajectories of self-rated health were identified by latent class growth analysis: Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, Good, Decreasing and Poor. Childhood Conscientiousness was the only childhood trait to predict membership in the Decreasing class vs. the combined healthy classes (Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good and Good), even after controlling for adult Conscientiousness and the other adult Big Five traits. The Decreasing class had poorer objectively assessed clinical health measured on one occasion in middle age, was less well-educated, and had a history of more lifespan health-damaging behaviors compared to the combined healthy classes. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood Conscientiousness (i.e. greater self-discipline and goal-directedness) may prevent subsequent health decline decades later through self-regulatory processes involving the acquisition of lifelong healthful behavior patterns and higher educational attainment.

  8. Women's experiences of participating in a prospective, longitudinal postpartum depression study: insights for perinatal mental health researchers.

    Andrighetti, Heather J; Semaka, Alicia; Austin, Jehannine C

    2017-08-01

    Barriers to recruitment for research on mental illness include participant distrust of researchers and social stigma. Though these issues may be acutely important in perinatal mental health research, they remain unexplored in this context. In order to inform strategies to more fully engage women in perinatal mental health research, we explored the motivations and experiences of women with a history of major depressive disorder who participated in a prospective longitudinal research study on postpartum depression (PPD). Sixteen women with a history of depression who had either completed or recently made a decision about participation in a longitudinal research study about PPD were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews explored participants' decision-making about, and experiences of, participation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed using elements of grounded theory methodology. Follow-up interviews were conducted with four participants to refine and clarify preliminary results. Foundational elements necessary for women to consider participating in PPD research included personal acceptance of illness and trust in the research team/institution. Other main motivators included perceived personal relevance, anticipated benefits (including access to support/resources, learning opportunities, and improved self-worth), altruism, and accessible study procedures. Our data suggest that participating in perinatal mental health research may help women make meaning of their mental illness experience and is perceived as providing support. The findings-particularly around the importance of participant-researcher rapport and accessibility of study design-may inform strategies that improve participation rates, decrease attrition, and maximize participant benefits in perinatal mental health research.

  9. Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care.

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail

    2014-03-01

    This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (pspirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts.

  10. Observations of Health Care in China: Four Perspectives.

    Attwood, Madge, Ed.

    This collection consists of four papers dealing with the delivery of health care in the People's Republic of China. The papers resulted from a study tour of the Chinese health care system in June 1980. Included in the volume are the following papers: "A Comparison of Selected Aspects of the Health Care Systems of the Socialist Federal…

  11. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States.

    Melina Arnold

    2016-08-01

    who never used postmenopausal hormones. This study has limitations because some of the anthropometric information was obtained from retrospective self-reports. Furthermore, data from longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up and repeated anthropometric measures are typically subject to missing data at various time points, which was also the case in this study. Yet, this limitation was partially overcome by using growth curve models, which enabled us to impute data at missing time points for each participant.In summary, this study showed that a longer duration of overweight and obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several forms of cancer. Furthermore, the degree of overweight experienced during adulthood seemed to play an important role in the risk of developing cancer, especially for endometrial cancer. Although the observational nature of our study precludes inferring causality or making clinical recommendations, our findings suggest that reducing overweight duration in adulthood could reduce cancer risk and that obesity prevention is important from early onset. If this is true, health care teams should recognize the potential of obesity management in cancer prevention and that excess body weight in women is important to manage regardless of the age of the patient.

  12. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  13. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Observed Longitudinal Relationship between Future Orientation and Substance Use Among a Cohort of Youth with Serious Criminal Offenses.

    Brooks, Merrian; Miller, Elizabeth; Abebe, Kaleab; Mulvey, Edward

    2018-03-06

    Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years. Multiple measures were chosen a priori as elements of future orientation. After evaluating the psychometrics of a new measure for future orientation, we ran mixed effects cross-lagged panel models to assess the relationship between changes in future orientation and substance use (tobacco, marijuana, hard drugs, and alcohol). There was a significant bidirectional relationship between future orientation and all substance use outcomes. Adjusted models accounted for different sites, sex, age, ethnicity, parental education, and proportion of time spent in a facility. In adjusted models, higher levels of future orientation resulted in smaller increases in substance use at future time points. Future orientation and substance use influence each other in this sample of adolescent offenders. Treating substance use disorders is also likely to increase future orientation, promoting positive youth development more generally. This study expands our understanding of the longitudinal relationship between changes in future orientation and changes in levels of substance use in a sample of justice involved youth with high levels of substance use, a group of considerable clinical and policy interest.

  15. Longitudinal Raman Spectroscopic Observation of Skin Biochemical Changes due to Chemotherapeutic Treatment for Breast Cancer in Small Animal Model

    Myeongsu Seong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer field effect (CFE has been highlighted as one of indirect indications for tissue variations that are insensitive to conventional diagnostic techniques. In this research, we had a hypothesis that chemotherapy for breast cancer would affect skin biochemical compositions that would be reflected by Raman spectral changes. We used a fiber-optic probe-based Raman spectroscopy to perform preliminary animal experiments to validate the hypothesis. Firstly, we verified the probing depth of the fiber-optic probe (~800 μm using a simple intravenous fat emulsion-filled phantom having a silicon wafer at the bottom inside a cuvette. Then, we obtained Raman spectra during breast cancer treatment by chemotherapy from a small animal model in longitudinal manner. Our results showed that the treatment causes variations of biochemical compositions in the skin. For further validation, the Raman spectra will have to be collected from more populations and spectra will need to be compared with immunohistochemistry of the breast tissue.

  16. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  17. Physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescents with burns: a controlled, longitudinal study.

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted

  18. Examination of the association between mental health, morbidity, and mortality in late life: findings from longitudinal community surveys.

    Burns, Richard A; Butterworth, Peter; Browning, Colette; Byles, Julie; Luszcz, Mary; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-05-01

    Physical health has been demonstrated to mediate the mental health and mortality risk association. The current study examines an alternative hypothesis that mental health mediates the effect of physical health on mortality risk. Participants (N = 14,019; women = 91%), including eventual decedents (n = 3,752), were aged 70 years and older, and drawn from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Participants were observed on two to four occasions, over a 10-year period. Mediation analysis compared the converse mediation of physical and mental health on mortality risk. For men, neither physical nor mental health was associated with mortality risk. For women, poor mental health reported only a small effect on mortality risk (Hazard Risk (HR) = 1.01; p physical health (HR = 1.04; p effects were observed. Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health.

  19. Internet use, social engagement and health literacy decline during ageing in a longitudinal cohort of older English adults.

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Health literacy skills tend to decline during ageing, which is often attributed to age-related cognitive decline. Whether health literacy skills may be influenced by technological and social factors during ageing is unknown. We investigated whether internet use and social engagement protect against health literacy decline during ageing, independent of cognitive decline. We used prospective data from 4368 men and women aged ≥52 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2004 to 2011. Health literacy was measured at baseline (2004-2005) and at follow-up (2010-2011) using a reading comprehension test of a fictitious medicine label. The influences of consistent internet use and engagement in each of the civic, leisure and cultural activities on health literacy decline over the follow-up were estimated. After adjusting for cognitive decline and other covariates, consistent internet use (1379/4368; 32%) was protectively associated with health literacy decline (OR=0.77; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99), as was consistent engagement in cultural activities (1715/4368; 39%; OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). As the number of activities engaged in increased, the likelihood of health literacy decline steadily decreased (ptrendcinema, art galleries, museums and the theatre), may help older adults to maintain health literacy during ageing. Support for older adults to maintain socially engaged lives and to access the internet should help promote the maintenance of functional literacy skills during ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995–2008)

    TEIMOURIZAD, Abedin; HADIAN, Mohamad; REZAEI, Satar; HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. Methods We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. Results The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. Conclusion When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation. PMID:26060721

  1. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995-2008).

    Teimourizad, Abedin; Hadian, Mohamad; Rezaei, Satar; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah

    2014-11-01

    Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation.

  2. The benefits of dispositional mindfulness in physical health: a longitudinal study of female college students.

    Murphy, Megan J; Mermelstein, Liza C; Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (eg, sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants included 441 college women. Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5 academic quarters from fall 2008 to fall 2010. Findings indicated that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were related to healthier eating practices, better quality of sleep, and better physical health. Dispositional mindfulness contributed to better physical health even after controlling for traditional health habits. Finally, bidirectional mediational relationships were found between healthy eating and dispositional mindfulness as well as between sleep quality and dispositional mindfulness when physical health was the outcome variable. Findings suggest that incorporating mindfulness training into programming on college campuses may be beneficial, as results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is related to positive physical health among college students.

  3. Different outcomes for different health measures in immigrants: evidence from a longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2012-02-01

    The response of immigrants to new societies is dynamic. There may be an initial period of happiness followed by peaks of stressful periods. These reactions along with socio-economic changes are likely to influence their health, which may start converging towards the average health of the host population. We used a longitudinal analysis to assess the differences in health outcomes (mental health and self-rated health), separately in men and women, in Canadian born and immigrants over a 12-year period (and the associated socio-economic factors). We used random effects logistic regression models for evaluation of these health outcomes in 3,081 men and 4,187 women from the National Population Health Survey (1994/95 to 2006/07). After adjusting for all the covariates, non-white immigrants were less likely to have severe psychological distress compared with the Canadian born individuals [odds ratio (OR) Men: 0.49, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.00, Women-OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32-0.92]. Immigrant women (white and non-white) were more likely to rate their health as poor through this 12-year period than the Canadian born women (White-OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.17-2.64; Non-white-OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.01-3.28). Immigrants in the lowest income adequacy category reported higher psychological distress and poorer health than those in the highest income categories. We did not find any significant differences in the mental health and self-rated health of Canadian men and white male immigrants throughout this 12-year period. Though, non-white immigrant women were less likely to have severe psychological distress through this 12 year period, they were the ones most likely to rate their health as poor.

  4. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Giatti, Luana; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-20

    The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant's closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants' age, sex and education category. The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.

  5. The importance of historical residential address information in longitudinal studies using administrative health data.

    Youens, David; Preen, David B; Harris, Mark N; Moorin, Rachael E

    2018-02-01

    When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004. Linked administrative data including mortality records, hospital admissions, primary care and Electoral Roll records were used. Regularity of GP contact, based on the variance of the number of days between GP visits, was calculated for each person-year. Outcomes were the number and costs (A$2014) of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the following year. Models were estimated separately for cohorts where (i) postcode was ascertained at study commencement and held constant, and (ii) postcode and residency within Western Australia were updated with each change of address recorded on the Electoral Roll over the study period. Updating address data reduced total person-years by 11% and changed the distribution of covariates. Estimations of associations between patterns of GP contact and number of hospitalizations changed; the incidence rate ratios measuring the relationship with the most regular GP contact (baseline of those with interval (CI) 0.66-1.00] to 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.53) after updating postcode information. Impacts on cost models were smaller, though still statistically significant. Longitudinal studies using administrative data may report biased results if they ignore address changes and migration. Researchers should attempt to link to these data wherever possible, or choose study designs which these issues are less likely to affect. Custodians should be aware that such data can be vital to high quality research. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University

  6. The impact of economic growth on health care utilization: a longitudinal study in rural Vietnam.

    Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2013-03-16

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, out-of-pocket payment is the principal source of health financing. The economic growth is widening the gap between rich and poor people in many aspects, including health care utilization. While inequities in health between high- and low-income groups have been well investigated, this study aims to investigate how the health care utilization changes when the economic condition is changing at a household level. We analysed a panel data of 11,260 households in a rural district of Vietnam. Of the sample, 74.4% having an income increase between 2003 and 2007 were defined as households with economic growth. We used a double-differences propensity score matching technique to compare the changes in health care expenditure as percentage of total expenditure and health care utilization from 2003 to 2005, from 2003 to 2007, and from 2005 to 2007, between households with and without economic growth. Households with economic growth spent less percentage of their expenditure for health care, but used more provincial/central hospitals (higher quality health care services) than households without economic growth. The differences were statistically significant. The results suggest that households with economic growth are better off also in terms of health services utilization. Efforts for reducing inequalities in health should therefore consider the inequality in income growth over time.

  7. Emotion regulation, mental health, and social wellbeing in a young adolescent sample: A concurrent and longitudinal investigation.

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2018-04-26

    Previous research has established that the ability to manage emotions effectively is critical to healthy psychological and social development in adolescents. However, less research has considered the relationships between specific emotion regulation (ER) strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression, and social wellbeing in this age group. The current study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between 2 ER strategies (reappraisal and suppression) and social outcomes (peer victimization, friendship satisfaction, and family satisfaction) in young adolescents. Analyses also controlled for mental health (anxiety and depression). Given likely gender differences in these variables, key analyses were conducted in parallel for males and females. There were 232 Australian adolescents who completed measures in Grade 7 (Age Mean = 11.97, SD = .35; 64% female) and a year later in Grade 8. Zero-order correlations indicated an inverse relationship between suppression use and social wellbeing variables, although a number of these associations were no longer significant when controlling for mental health. There was limited evidence that reappraisal was uniquely related to social outcomes. However, interaction effects suggested that greater use of reappraisal might have provided some protection against the negative social effects of poorer mental health. Poorer mental and social wellbeing also appeared to be related to ER strategy use, particularly greater suppression use. The findings suggest that ER strategy use, mental health, and social outcomes all play important and interrelated roles in adolescent wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Differences in mothers' and fathers' health-related quality of life after pediatric SCT: a longitudinal study.

    Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Doyle, J; Berlin-Romalis, D; Hancock, K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and related factors in mothers and fathers of children who undergo SCT, before, and 1 and 2 years after SCT. A total of 84 parents (49 mothers/35 fathers) of patients diagnosed mainly with leukemia completed a HRQOL measure before SCT, 46 at 1 year (26 mothers/20 fathers) and 50 parents (31 mothers/19 fathers) at 2 years post SCT. Physical and psychosocial HRQOL summary scores are reported. Parents' age and gender, child's diagnosis, radiation history, age, behavior and physical health were examined. Linear mixed models for repeated measures with a covariate structure were used for analysis. Physical HRQOL did not differ between mothers and fathers or over time. Maternal and paternal psychosocial HRQOL scores improved by 2 years post SCT. Child's behavior problems and poor health, and maternal age (younger) predicted poor maternal psychosocial HRQOL 2 years post SCT. Child's behavior problems, diagnosis and treatment severity predicted poor paternal psychosocial HRQOL. These findings identify similar (child's poor behavior) and differential risk factors (parental young age, disease and treatment severity, and child's poor health status) for poor HRQOL for mothers and fathers. These findings can guide comprehensive family-care interventions before, during and after pediatric SCT.

  9. Repeated cross-sectional study of the longitudinal changes in attitudes toward interprofessional health care teams amongst undergraduate students.

    Kururi, Nana; Makino, Takatoshi; Kazama, Hiroko; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Matsui, Hiroki; Lee, Bumsuk; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Abe, Yumiko; Uchida, Yoko; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Tozato, Fusae; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2014-07-01

    The interprofessional education (IPE) program at Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan, uses a lecture style for first-year students and a training style for third-year students. To investigate the comprehensive implications of IPE, the change pattern of attitudes toward health care teams was examined longitudinally in pre-qualified students. The modified Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale (mATHCTS) was used. The overall mean score of the mATHCTS improved significantly after the training-style IPE in their third year. Two individual items in the factor "quality of care delivery" decreased significantly during the first year. In contrast, two individual items in the factor "patient-centered care" increased significantly during the third year. These changes over time were confirmed by analyses using regression factor scores. There are at least two independent attitudes toward collaborative practice (CP) or IPE in response to IPE interventions: the attitude toward "value of IPE for health care providers" may response negatively to IPE in the early stages, and the attitude toward "value of IPE for health care receivers" positively in the later stages. These findings suggest that the continuation of mandatory IPE, which must be designed on the basis of students' high expectations for IPE and CP on entry, may result in profound changes in attitudes amongst participating students.

  10. Clinical utility of the Structured Observation of Motor Performance in Infants within the child health services.

    Kine Johansen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of the Structured Observation of Motor Performance in Infants (SOMP-I when used by nurses in routine child healthcare by analyzing the nurses' SOMP-I assessments and the actions taken when motor problems were suspected.Infants from three child health centers in Uppsala County, Sweden, were consecutively enrolled in a longitudinal study. The 242 infants were assessed using SOMP-I by the nurse responsible for the infant as part of the regular well-child visits at as close to 2, 4, 6 and 10 months of age as possible. The nurses noted actions taken such as giving advice, scheduling an extra follow-up or referring the infant to specialized care. The infants' motor development was reassessed at 18 months of age through review of medical records or parental report.The assessments of level of motor development at 2 and 10 months showed a distribution corresponding to the percentile distribution of the SOMP-I method. Fewer infants than expected were assessed as delayed at 4 and 6 months or deficient in quality at all assessment ages. When an infant was assessed as delayed in level or deficient in quality, the likelihood of the nurse taking actions increased. This increased further if both delay and quality deficit were found at the same assessment or if one or both were found at repeated assessments. The reassessment of the motor development at 18 months did not reveal any missed infants with major motor impairments.The use of SOMP-I appears to demonstrate favorable clinical utility in routine child healthcare as tested here. Child health nurses can assess early motor performance using this standardized assessment method, and using the method appears to support them the clinical decision-making.

  11. Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...

  12. Harsh parenting and adolescent health: a longitudinal analysis with genetic moderation.

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Windle, Michael; Philibert, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of harsh parenting during preadolescence, anger across adolescence, and a health phenotype at late adolescence among African American youths living in the rural South. A second purpose was to determine whether, for genetic reasons, some youths will be more sensitive than others to a harsh parenting to anger to poor health pathway. Participants were 368 youths (age 11.2 at the first assessment) who provided data on receipt of harsh parenting during preadolescence (ages 11 to 13), anger across adolescence (ages 16 to 18), and a health phenotype consisting of C Reactive Protein, depressive symptoms, and health problems at age 19. Youths were genotyped at the 5-HTTLPR at age 16. The data analysis revealed that (a) harsher parenting was associated positively across time with anger and poor health, (b) anger across adolescence also was associated positively across time with poor health, (c) anger served as a mediator connecting harsh parenting and poor health, and (d) the harsh parenting to anger to poor health pathway was significant only for youths carrying one or two copies of a short allele at the 5-HTTLPR. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that harsh parent-child interactions presage health through effects on emotion regulation, particularly anger. This mediational pathway pertained only to youths carrying a gene that confers sensitivity and reactivity to harsh family processes and the negative emotional states they occasion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Under observation : The interplay between eHealth and surveillance

    Purtova, Nadezhda; Adams, Samantha; Leenes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The essays in this book clarify the technical, legal, ethical, and social aspects of the interaction between eHealth technologies and surveillance practices. The book starts out by presenting a theoretical framework on eHealth and surveillance, followed by an introduction to the various ideas on

  14. Application of lean thinking to health care: issues and observations

    Joosten, Tom; Bongers, Inge; Janssen, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Incidents and quality problems are a prime cause why health care leaders are calling to redesign health care delivery. One of the concepts used is lean thinking. Yet, lean often leads to resistance. Also, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting lean premises. In this paper, we present an overview of lean thinking and its application to health care. Development, theory and application of lean thinking to health care Lean thinking evolved from a tool designed to improve operational shop-floor performance at an automotive manufacturer to a management approach with both operational and sociotechnical aspects. Sociotechnical dynamics have until recently not received much attention. At the same time a balanced approach might lead to a situation where operational and sociotechnial improvements are mutually reinforcing. Application to health care has been limited and focussed mainly on operational aspects using original lean tools. A more integrative approach would be to pay more attention to sociotechnical dynamics of lean implementation efforts. Also, the need to use the original lean tools may be limited, because health care may have different instruments and tools already in use that are in line with lean thinking principles. Discussion We believe lean thinking has the potential to improve health care delivery. At the same time, there are methodological and practical considerations that need to be taken into account. Otherwise, lean implementation will be superficial and fail, adding to existing resistance and making it more difficult to improve health care in the long term. PMID:19696048

  15. Factors predicting health services use among older people in China: An analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013.

    Gong, Cathy Honge; Kendig, Hal; He, Xiaojun

    2016-02-18

    Rapid population ageing in China is increasing the numbers of older people who are likely to require health services in response to higher levels of poor perceived health and chronic diseases. Understanding factors influencing health services use at late life will help to plan for increasing needs for health care, reducing inequalities in health services use and releasing severe pressures on a highly variable health care system that has constrained public resources and increasing reliance on health insurance and user payments. Drawing on the nationally representative China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013 data, we apply the Andersen healthcare utilization conceptual model to binary logistic regression multivariate analyses to examine the joint predictors of physical examinations, outpatient and inpatient care among the middle-aged and elderly in China. The multivariate analyses find that both physical examinations and inpatient care rates increase significantly by age when health deteriorates. Females are less likely to use inpatient care. Significant socio-economic variations exist in healthcare utilization. Older people with higher education, communist party membership, urban residence, non-agricultural household registration, better financial situation are more likely to have physical examinations or inpatient care. Factors influencing all three types of health care utilization are household expenditure, losing a partner, having multiple chronic diseases or perceiving poor health. With activities of daily living limitations or pain increases the probability of seeing a doctor while with functional loss increases the rates of having physical examinations, but being the ethnic minorities, no social health insurance, with depression, fair or poor memory could be a barrier to having physical examinations or seeing a doctor, which might delay the early diagnose of severe health problems among these groups. Not drinking, not smoking and regular physical

  16. Changes in health and primary health care use of Moroccan and Turkish migrants between 2001 and 2005: a longitudinal study

    Foets Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social environment and health status are related, and changes affecting social relations may also affect the general health state of a group. During the past few years, several events have affected the relationships between Muslim immigrants and the non-immigrant population in many countries. This study investigates whether the health status of the Moroccan and Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands has changed in four years, whether changes in health status have had any influence on primary health care use, and which socio-demographic factors might explain this relationship. Methods A cohort of 108 Turkish and 102 Moroccan respondents were interviewed in 2001 and in 2005. The questionnaire included the SF-36 and the GP contact frequency (in the past two months. Interviews were conducted in the language preferred by the respondents. Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Results The mental health of the Moroccan group improved between 2001 and 2005. Physical health remained unchanged for both groups. The number of GP contacts decreased with half a contact/2 months among the Turkish group. Significant predictors of physical health change were: age, educational level. For mental health change, these were: ethnicity, age, civil status, work situation in 2001, change in work situation. For change in GP contacts: ethnicity, age and change in mental and physical health. Conclusion Changes in health status concerned the mental health component. Changes in health status were paired with changes in health care utilization. Among the Turkish group, an unexpected decrease in GP contacts was noticed, whilst showing a generally unchanged health status. Further research taking perceived quality of care into account might help shedding some light on this outcome.

  17. Are people who claim compensation "cured by a verdict"? A longitudinal study of health outcomes after whiplash.

    Spearing, Natalie M; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Pobereskin, Louis H; Rowell, David S; Connelly, Luke B

    2012-09-01

    This study examines whether the lure of injury compensation prompts whiplash claimants to overstate their symptoms. Claim settlement is the intervention of interest, as it represents the point at which there is no further incentive to exaggerate symptoms, and neck pain at 24 months is the outcome of interest. Longitudinal data on neck pain scores and timing of claim settlement were regressed, controlling for the effect of time on recovery, to compare outcomes in claimants who had and had not settled their compensation claims. The results show clearly that removing the financial incentive to over-report symptoms has no effect on self-reported neck pain in a fault-based compensation scheme, and this finding concurs with other studies on this topic. Policy decisions to limit compensation in the belief that claimants systematically misrepresent their health status are not supported empirically Claimants do not appear to be "cured by a verdict".

  18. Longitudinal Trajectories of Health Related Quality of Life in Danish Family Members of Individuals with Severe Brain Injury

    Norup, Anne; Snipes, Daniel J.; Siert, Lars

    2013-01-01

    – Emotional scores were higher when patients had high Rancho Los Amigos Scale scores at admission to early intensive rehabilitation in hospital. These results suggest that the acute and sub-acute periods after brain injury are an extremely difficult time psychologically for many families, and family......Scant research has examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in family members of patients with severe brain injury, even less has been done in Scandinavian countries, and none has examined this construct longitudinally. The current study therefore used multilevel modelling to investigate...... the trajectories of HRQoL in 94 Danish family members of patients with severe brain injury at five time points, beginning at the patient's stay in a neuro intensive care unit through one year after injury. The family members’ HRQoL scores significantly and strongly increased over time, and Role Limitations...

  19. Career in mental health still an unlikely career choice for nursing graduates: a replicated longitudinal study.

    Stevens, John; Browne, Graeme; Graham, Iain

    2013-06-01

    The lack of qualified mental health nurses is at critical level with the problem likely to worsen as the aging mental health nursing workforce retires. This study investigates the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students by comparing preferences at the start, middle, and end of the Bachelor of Nursing program. The comparison of the cohorts gave an indication of the change in preferences over the intervening years. It replicates research completed in 1992, 1997, and 2001, and develops a profile of nursing career preferences and the rationale underpinning those preferences in a cohort of students (n = 150) who began their Bachelor of Nursing studies in 2007 and completed in 2009. The main findings included that, like the previous studies, mental health nursing is one of the least desirable career choices for most nurses at the start of their course and remains so as they approach graduation. The reasons change but the outcome remains the same. The current system of using the Bachelor of Nursing award to produce mental health nurses in Australia does not encourage nurses to consider a career in mental health nursing. Which begs the question: where will mental health nurses in the future come from? © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. The Copenhagen County child cohort: design of a longitudinal study of child mental health

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Houmann, Tine

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of psychopathology in the first years of life are few, and the association between mental health problems in infancy and psychiatric disturbances later in life has not been systematically investigated. The aim of the present project was to study mental health problems...

  1. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design"…

  2. The Benefits of Dispositional Mindfulness in Physical Health: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students

    Murphy, Megan J.; Mermelstein, Liza C.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (e.g., sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants: Participants included 441 college women. Methods: Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5…

  3. Health problems of victims before and after disaster: a longitudinal study in general practice.

    Yzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.A.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Soeteman, R.J.H.; Veen, P.M.H. ten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the health problems and to assess the possible risk factors for developing health problems in persons affected by the explosion of a firework depot at Enschede, The Netherlands, on May 13, 2000. The explosion considerably damaged buildings in the local neighbourhood

  4. Investigating Predictors of Visiting, Using and Revisiting an Online Health-Communication Programme: A Longitudinal Study

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Crutzen, R.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health

  5. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    Dardynskaya, I.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Khrouch, V.T.; Gavrilin, Y.I.; Shinkarev, S.M.; Dardynskiy, O.

    2002-01-01

    health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent

  6. Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-12-01

    Research on the links between abortion and mental health has been limited by design problems and relatively weak evidence. To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes and mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. After adjustment for confounding, abortion was associated with a small increase in the risk of mental disorders; women who had had abortions had rates of mental disorder that were about 30% higher. There were no consistent associations between other pregnancy outcomes and mental health. Estimates of attributable risk indicated that exposure to abortion accounted for 1.5% to 5.5% of the overall rate of mental disorders. The evidence is consistent with the view that abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental disorders. Other pregnancy outcomes were not related to increased risk of mental health problems.

  7. Observations on reproductive health programs in the Baltic States

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nadisauskiene, R J; Liljestrand, J

    2004-01-01

    Public attention in Sweden has been drawn to three neighboring states that recently joined the European Union: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. At this historic moment, it seems instructive to look at how the rapidly reformed health sectors of these ex-Soviet republics are responding to the vision...... of reproductive health articulated in Cairo 10 years ago. Reproductive health and rights have improved in these states in spite of recent reforms often acting to oppose improvement. Reforms such as the introduction of family medicine need continued adjustment, especially regarding antenatal care. One special...

  8. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Safety and Health Day

    2009-01-01

    Sue Smith, a medical clinic employee at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, takes the temperature of colleague Karen Badon during 2009 Safety and Health Day activities Oct. 22. Safety Day activities included speakers, informational sessions and a number of displays on safety and health issues. Astronaut Dominic Gorie also visited the south Mississippi rocket engine testing facility during the day to address employees and present several Silver Snoopy awards for outstanding contributions to flight safety and mission success. The activities were part of an ongoing safety and health emphasis at Stennis.

  9. Effects of internet use on health and depression: a longitudinal study.

    Bessière, Katie; Pressman, Sarah; Kiesler, Sara; Kraut, Robert

    2010-02-28

    The rapid expansion of the Internet has increased the ease with which the public can obtain medical information. Most research on the utility of the Internet for health purposes has evaluated the quality of the information itself or examined its impact on clinical populations. Little is known about the consequences of its use by the general population. Is use of the Internet by the general population for health purposes associated with a subsequent change in psychological well-being and health? Are the effects different for healthy versus ill individuals? Does the impact of using the Internet for health purposes differ from the impact of other types of Internet use? Data come from a national US panel survey of 740 individuals conducted from 2000 to 2002. Across three surveys, respondents described their use of the Internet for different purposes, indicated whether they had any of 13 serious illnesses (or were taking care of someone with a serious illness), and reported their depression. In the initial and final surveys they also reported on their physical health. Lagged dependent variable regression analysis was used to predict changes in depression and general health reported on a later survey from frequency of different types of Internet use at an earlier period, holding constant prior depression and general health, respectively. Statistical interactions tested whether uses of the Internet predicted depression and general health differently for people who initially differed on their general health, chronic illness, and caregiver status. Health-related Internet use was associated with small but reliable increases in depression (ie, increasing use of the Internet for health purposes from 3 to 5 days per week to once a day was associated with .11 standard deviations more symptoms of depression, P = .002). In contrast, using the Internet for communication with friends and family was associated with small but reliable decreases in depression (ie, increasing use of the

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies

    David Bann, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. Methods: We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD, 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS, 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS, and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS. BMI (kg/m2 was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10–11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. Findings: In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946–70, but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (pinteraction=0·001. Low socioeconomic

  11. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health pre...

  12. A longitudinal study of health outcomes for people released from prison in Fiji: the HIP-Fiji project.

    Kinner, Stuart A; Winter, Rebecca; Saxton, Kate

    2015-12-01

    To examine the health of prisoners and ex-prisoners in Fiji, including risk behaviours, service access and HIV status. Longitudinal study of 198 men and women recruited prior to release from prison in Fiji, interviewed in the weeks preceding release, and again 1 and 4 months post-release. Dried blood spot samples taken at baseline were tested for HIV. Eighty percent of participants completed at least one follow-up interview. The prevalence of HIV was low (1%), despite evidence of widespread STI and BBV risk behaviours. A history of risky substance use was normative and more than a third reported high psychological distress prior to release. Fewer than one in four reported accessing health care within a month of release from prison. The health needs of this population are significant but differ in important ways from those of incarcerated populations in other countries. Further research is needed to inform evidence-based care for prisoners and ex-prisoners in Pacific Island nations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  14. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  15. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  16. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  17. Longitudinal Study of the Health Status of U.S. Navy Combat Pilots.

    1985-04-01

    included such diagnoses as helminthiasis , amoebiasis, avitaminoses, and dermatophytosis. In examining long-term health effects, results of the study of...consisted of ancylostomiasis, other intestinal helminthiasis , intestinal parasitism, and other infective- parasitic disease. These pilots also had higher

  18. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  19. Measuring the Strategic Value of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA)

    Bigelow, James H; Harris, Katherine M; Hillestad, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Military Health System (MHS) has more than 9 million eligible beneficiaries, including active duty service members and their families, retirees and their families, and Guard and Reserve members serving on active duty and their families...

  20. Effects of Internet Use on Health and Depression: A Longitudinal Study

    Bessi?re, Katie; Pressman, Sarah; Kiesler, Sara; Kraut, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of the Internet has increased the ease with which the public can obtain medical information. Most research on the utility of the Internet for health purposes has evaluated the quality of the information itself or examined its impact on clinical populations. Little is known about the consequences of its use by the general population. Objective Is use of the Internet by the general population for health purposes associated with a subsequent change in psychological...

  1. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  2. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  3. Nasolabial Growth in Individuals With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: A Preliminary Study of Longitudinal Observation Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry.

    Alazzawi, Omar; Morioka, Daichi; Miyabe, Mai; Tosa, Yasusoshi; Ohkubo, Fumio; Yoshimoto, Shinya

    2017-07-01

    There are limited numbers of studies comparing the preoperative and postoperative facial features of infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) using three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry. The authors attempted an anthropometric analysis of nasolabial asymmetry 1 year after primary lip repair using a handheld 3D imaging system. Five different nasolabial dimensions in 24 infants with UCLP were measured using 3D images captured during primary lip repair and again, 1 year after the repair. The nasal and upper-lip elements of the cleft side were significantly changed after primary lip repair, and nasolabial asymmetry was anthropometrically improved. This is a preliminary longitudinal observation of nasolabial growth in individuals with UCLP using 3D stereophotogrammetric technique. The authors would like to follow these children until adulthood, capturing 3D images at every intervention.

  4. A longitudinal observation of one-to-one singing lessons: The effects of personality and Adult attachment.

    Serra-Dawa, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental and singing teaching has previously been studied with par- particular focus on pedagogical, cognitive, technical, developmental aspects. However, the relationship and interactions that take place between the teachers and students in that setting deserve more extensive exploration. This study approaches the singing teacher-student relationship with a particular focus on the observation of personality traits and the levels of attachment identified between teacher and student. Eleve...

  5. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data from bone

  6. Longitudinal evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF): Measurement invariance across demographics, physical illness, and mental illness

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), a 14-item self-report questionnaire for measuring emotional, social, and psychological well-being. The study draws on data of a representative panel (Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social

  7. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variations of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Low-Latitude Topside Ionosphere Observed by KOMPSAT-1

    Heejun Kim

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere are observed by the Ionosphere Measurement Sensor (IMS onboard the KOMPSAT-1, which has the sun-synchronous orbit of the altitude of 685 km and the orbital inclination of 98deg with a descending node at 22:50LT. Observations have been analyzed to determine the seasonal variations of the electron density and temperature in the low-latitude region. Only the night-time (22:50LT behavior on magnetically quiet days (Kp < 4 has been examined. Observations show a strong longitudinal and seasonal variation. Generally, in the dip equator the density increases and the temperature decreases. In equinox the latitudinal distributions of the electron density and temperature are quite symmetric about the dip equator. However, the local maximum of the density and the local minimum of the temperature shift toward the Northern hemisphere in summer solstice but the Southern hemisphere in winter solstice. Such variations are due to the influences of field-aligned plasma transport induced by F region neutral wind. Compared with the IRI95 model, the observed electron density and temperature show significant differences from those predicted by the IRI95 model.

  9. Age-related changes relevant to health in women: design, recruitment, and retention strategies for the Longitudinal Assessment of Women (LAW) study.

    Khoo, Soo Keat; O'Neill, Sheila; Travers, Catherine; Oldenburg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim was to assess the age-related changes that occur in older women. This paper describes the study rationale and methods, recruitment, and retention strategies. The Longitudinal Assessment of Women (LAW) Study was a longitudinal, observational, and multidisciplinary evaluation of a population-based cohort of urban-living women, aged between 40 and 80 years at recruitment and randomly invited from a district in Brisbane (a city in Australia) via the electoral roll. Five hundred eleven women were recruited and stratified into four age groups (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 years) and were assessed on three or four occasions each year, using interviews and diagnostic instruments (echocardiography, applination tonometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) Retention strategies included flexibility, accessibility, personalized attention, and feedback. From a sample frame of 1598 names, there were 1082 respondents, of whom 511 (47%) were successfully recruited from those eligible to participate. Recruitment was quickest for the oldest age group, 70-79 years, and slowest for the age group 40-49 years; all age groups achieved their required quota. A scheduling program was developed to minimize the number of visits and maximize the use of allocated time. The largest dropout was seen in year 1 of the study, with very few thereafter. Of the 9 deaths, cancer was the cause in 7. The retention rate after 5 years was 95.5%. The design of the present study, with careful attention to coordination and a personal approach, facilitated the completion of a 5-year study, enabling a collection of a set of wide-ranging data from almost all the women recruited. The information thus collected will form the basis of cross-linking analysis of the risk factors associated with health problems in aging women.

  10. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed.

  11. Objectively measured work load, health status and sickness absence among Danish ambulance personnel. A longitudinal study

    Hansen, Claus D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reviews show that ambulance personnel (AP) have an increased risk of work-related health problems especially musculoskeletal disorders. Because of the unpredictable character of the AP’s work environment, standard measures of work environment exposures are imprecise. The aim...... of this presentation is to examine the associations between objectively measured work load taken from the company register, health and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in 1-year follow up period. Methods: Data is taken from the first round of MARS – Men, accidents, risk and safety, a two wave panel study of AP...... workers in Denmark (n = 1606) collected in winter 2010/11. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62% in the baseline. The respondents were asked about health status, physical (DMQ) and psychosocial work environment factors (COPSOQ). Information from the company register about work load (e.g. mean...

  12. Seizure Recognition and Observation: A Guide for Allied Health Professionals.

    Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

    Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…

  13. Longitudinal observation of treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with fibromyalgia: 12-month findings from the reflections study.

    Robinson, Rebecca L; Kroenke, Kurt; Williams, David A; Mease, Philip; Chen, Yi; Faries, Douglas; Peng, Xiaomei; Hann, Danette; Wohlreich, Madelaine; McCarberg, Bill

    2013-09-01

    To describe 12-month treatment patterns and outcomes for patients starting a new medication for fibromyalgia in routine clinical practice. Data from 1,700 patients were collected at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Repeated measures and Poisson regression models controlling for demographic, clinical, and baseline outcomes were used to assess changes in health outcomes (Brief Pain Inventory severity and interference, Sheehan Disability Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), satisfaction, and economic factors for patients who initiated on pregabalin (214, 12.6%), duloxetine (264, 15.5%), milnacipran (134, 7.9%), or tricyclic antidepressants (66, 3.9%). Sensitivity analyses were run using propensity-matched cohorts. Patients started on 145 unique drugs for fibromyalgia, and over 75% of patients took two or more medications concurrently for fibromyalgia at each time point assessed. Overall, patients showed improvement on the four health outcomes, with few differences across medication cohorts. At baseline, patients reported annual averages of 20.3 visits for outpatient care, 27.7 missed days of work, and 32.6 days of care by an unpaid caregiver. The duloxetine and milnacipran (vs pregabalin or tricyclic antidepressant) cohorts had fewer outpatient visits during the 12-month study. Patients reported satisfaction with overall treatment and their fibromyalgia medication (46.0% and 42.8%, respectively). In this real-world setting, patients with fibromyalgia reported modest improvements, high resource, and medication use, and were satisfied with the care they received. Cohort differences were difficult to discern because of the high rates of drug discontinuation and concomitant medication use over the 12-month study period. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in

  15. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  16. Longitudinal Associations of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cancer Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1986–2006

    Niyati Parekh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and overall cancer mortality were evaluated within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–2006; n=15,535. Mortality status was ascertained using the National Death Index. Self-reported LTPA was divided into inactive, regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity. A frequency-weighted metabolic equivalents (METS/week variable was also computed. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for overall cancer mortality in the whole sample, by body mass index categories and insulin resistance (IR status. Nonsignificant protective associations were observed for regular low-to-moderate and vigorous activity, and for the highest quartile of METS/week (HRs range: 0.66–0.95. Individuals without IR engaging in regular vigorous activity had a 48% decreased risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28–0.98 in multivariate analyses. Conversely, nonsignificant positive associations were observed in people with IR. In conclusion, regular vigorous activity may reduce risk of cancer mortality among persons with normal insulin-glucose metabolism in this national sample.

  17. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods:

  18. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  19. Self-reported health status predicting resilience and burnout in longitudinal study

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 222-227 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22474S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sense of coherence * self-rated health * alcohol consumption * physical fatigue Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016

  20. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  1. Longitudinal Residential Ambient Monitoring: Correlating Sensor Data to Functional Health Status

    Robben, S.; Kröse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular in the field of ambient assisted living. In this paper we report our study on the relationship between a functional health metric and features derived from the sensor data. Sensor systems are installed in the houses of nine people who are also quarterly

  2. Social organizational stressors and post-disaster mental health disturbances : A longitudinal study

    van der Velden, P.G.; Bosmans, M.W.G.; Bogaerts, S.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Social organizational stressors are well-known predictors of mental health disturbances (MHD). However, to what extent these stressors predict post-disaster MHD among employed victims hardly received scientific attention and is clearly understudied. For this purpose we examined to what extent these

  3. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and

  4. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms

    Gum, Amber M.; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use

  5. DISABILITY AND DEPRESSION AMONG HIGH UTILIZERS OF HEALTH-CARE - A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS

    VONKORFF, M; ORMEL, J; KATON, W; LIN, EHB

    We evaluated, among depressed medical patients who are high utilizers of health care, whether improved vs unimproved depression is associated with differences in the course of functional disability. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, depression and disability were assessed among a sample of

  6. Are financial factors more important than health in early retirement? A longitudinal study

    Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, social factors, and financial factors to the transition from work to early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  7. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  8. Changes in hope and health-related quality of life in couples following acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative longitudinal study.

    Eriksson, Monica; Asplund, Kenneth; Hochwälder, Jacek; Svedlund, Marianne

    2013-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-changing event that affects both the patient and the family and can have an influence on hope as well as HRQoL during the recovery period. To compare self-rated scores of hope and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 1, 7, 13 and 25 months, after an AMI with regard to (i) differences across time, and (ii) differences between patients and their partners. Explorative and longitudinal study. In this nonrandomized study, Short Form 36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36) and Herth Hope Index-Swedish (HHI-S) questionnaires were completed by thirteen post-AMI patients and their partners. Data were collected on four occasions. In general, hope as well as HRQoL scores increased over time. A 2 (groups) × 4 (times) anova for mixed design showed significant changes in mental as well as in physical health over time but no significant effect of group on mental or physical health. Calculation of the minimum detectable change (MDC-index) for HHI-S and SF-36 revealed that scores between data collection points were not stable. conclusion: Our results show that although hope and HRQoL scores increased, only a few of the changes were statistically significant. Neither HHI-S nor SF-36 seems to measure stable states. Changes in hope and HRQoL levels may be due to participants striving to adapt to the current situation. These results can be used in the training of nursing staff to enhance their understanding of the significance of a family-centred approach after an AMI. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. The influence of management and environment on local health department organizational structure and adaptation: a longitudinal network analysis.

    Keeling, Jonathan W; Pryde, Julie A; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    The nation's 2862 local health departments (LHDs) are the primary means for assuring public health services for all populations. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of organizational network analysis on management decisions in LHDs and to demonstrate the technique's ability to detect organizational adaptation over time. We conducted a longitudinal network analysis in a full-service LHD with 113 employees serving about 187,000 persons. Network survey data were collected from employees at 3 times: months 0, 8, and 34. At time 1 the initial analysis was presented to LHD managers as an intervention with information on evidence-based management strategies to address the findings. At times 2 and 3 interviews documented managers' decision making and events in the task environment. Response rates for the 3 network analyses were 90%, 97%, and 83%. Postintervention (time 2) results showed beneficial changes in network measures of communication and integration. Screening and case identification increased for chlamydia and for gonorrhea. Outbreak mitigation was accelerated by cross-divisional teaming. Network measurements at time 3 showed LHD adaptation to H1N1 and budget constraints with increased centralization. Task redundancy increased dramatically after National Incident Management System training. Organizational network analysis supports LHD management with empirical evidence that can be translated into strategic decisions about communication, allocation of resources, and addressing knowledge gaps. Specific population health outcomes were traced directly to management decisions based on network evidence. The technique can help managers improve how LHDs function as organizations and contribute to our understanding of public health systems.

  10. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  11. Prevalence, diagnosis, and management of diabetes mellitus among older Chinese: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Zhao, Yaohui; Crimmins, Eileen M; Hu, Peifeng; Shen, Yang; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Wang, Yafeng; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), success in diagnosing, and methods of diabetes management in China. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a representative survey of the Chinese population at least 45 years old, is used to estimate diabetes and prediabetes prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment and their associations with residence, socioe-conomic, and demographic factors. Almost 60 % of middle-aged and elderly Chinese have prediabetes or diabetes in 2011-2012. DM prevalence increases with age, but the oldest group is least likely to be diagnosed. Prevalence is higher with higher body mass index, fasting cholesterol, and larger waist circumference. Higher prevalence is found in urban areas among residents with urban registration status (the Chinese administrative registration system or hukou), especially in coastal regions. Better rates of diagnosis, management, and education regarding diabetes are strongly associated with urban hukou, living in coastal areas, and in families with higher per capita expenditures, the appropriate economic resources measure in China. Diagnosis and management of diabetes is highly differential within China but recent efforts to improve health systems are succeeding in reducing undiagnosed disease. Current high prevalence of prediabetes suggests a more intensive effort is required in the future.

  12. Frequencies and Predictors of Barriers to Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Fink, David S.; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of disaster survivors suffering from psychological symptoms do not receive mental health services. Research on barriers to service use among disaster survivors is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies of representative samples and investigations of predictors of barriers. The purpose of this study was to address these limitations through analysis of a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Methods Frequencies of preference, outcome expectancy, resource, and stigma barriers among participants with unmet mental health needs were documented and logistic regression using a generalized estimating equations approach explored predisposing (e.g., age), illness-related (e.g., posttraumatic stress) and enabling (e.g., insurance coverage) factors as predictors of each type of barrier. Results Preference barriers were most frequently cited at each wave, whereas stigma barriers were least frequently cited. Older age and higher emotional support predicted preference barriers; being a parent of a child under 18-years old at the time of the hurricane, higher generalized anxiety, and lack of insurance predicted resource barriers; and higher posttraumatic stress predicted stigma barriers. Conclusions These findings suggest that postdisaster practices targeting subpopulations most likely to have barriers to service use may be indicated. PMID:24929355

  13. Frequencies and predictors of barriers to mental health service use: a longitudinal study of Hurricane Ike survivors.

    Lowe, Sarah R; Fink, David S; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The majority of disaster survivors suffering from psychological symptoms do not receive mental health services. Research on barriers to service use among disaster survivors is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies of representative samples and investigations of predictors of barriers. The purpose of this study was to address these limitations through analysis of a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Frequencies of preference, outcome expectancy, resource, and stigma barriers among participants with unmet mental health needs were documented and logistic regression using a generalized estimating equations approach explored predisposing (e.g., age), illness-related (e.g., posttraumatic stress) and enabling (e.g., insurance coverage) factors as predictors of each type of barrier. Preference barriers were most frequently cited at each wave, whereas stigma barriers were least frequently cited. Older age and higher emotional support predicted preference barriers; being a parent of a child under 18-years old at the time of the hurricane, higher generalized anxiety, and lack of insurance predicted resource barriers; and higher posttraumatic stress predicted stigma barriers. These findings suggest that postdisaster practices targeting subpopulations most likely to have barriers to service use may be indicated.

  14. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Kosmidis, Mary H; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Giorgos M; Sakka, Paraskevi; Arampatzi, Xanthi; Bougea, Anastasia; Labropoulos, Ioannis; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi) scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients) and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece. Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire. Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male), 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore) was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the associations were

  16. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Costas A Anastasiou

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece.Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD, an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55, derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire.Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male, 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the

  17. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established {sup S}afety Culture{sup ,} the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established S afety Culture , the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  20. The role of self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism for using routine health check-ups in a population-based sample. A longitudinal perspective.

    Hajek, André; Hans-Helmut-König

    2017-12-01

    While several cross-sectional studies have shown that self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism are associated with the use of routine health check-ups, little is known about this relationship based on longitudinal studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether these factors are associated with routine health check-ups longitudinally. Data were retrieved from a population-based longitudinal study of individuals (≥40years of age) residing in private households in Germany (two waves: 2008 and 2011). Widely established scales were used to quantify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism. Respondents reported whether they used a health check-up in the last two years. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions were used (n=1504), adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. After adjusting for various potential confounders, regression analysis revealed that the use of routine health check-ups increased with self-efficacy [OR: 1.71 (95%-CI: 1.14-2.55)], self-esteem [OR: 1.78 (1.16-2.73)], and optimism [OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.86)]. Furthermore, the use of routine health check-ups increased with changes from employment to retirement [OR: 2.60 (1.34-5.03)], whereas it was not associated with changes in age, marital status, smoking status, the number of physical illnesses, self-rated health and body-mass index. The current study stresses the importance of an association between screening behavior and self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism longitudinally. Interventions aiming at modifying these psychological factors might help to increase the use of routine health check-ups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  2. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  3. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea

    2014-01-01

    -infant relations, and there was no significant difference between the two groups according to intentions, self-efficacy, age, years educated and working part or full time. Certificated Marte Meo-therapists had significantly higher skills assessing mother- infant interactions and they scored significantly higher...... high intention and self-efficacy to work with parent-infant relation, professionals certified as Marte Meo-therapists are 8-12% superior in terms of observation skills and knowledge. Further research is needed to determinate whether the level of knowledge and observation skills is associated...

  4. Identification and Progression of Heart Disease Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients from Longitudinal Electronic Health Records

    Jitendra Jonnagaddala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risk of its occurrence is a crucial step in predicting serious cardiac events. Identifying heart disease risk factors and tracking their progression is a preliminary step in heart disease risk assessment. A large number of studies have reported the use of risk factor data collected prospectively. Electronic health record systems are a great resource of the required risk factor data. Unfortunately, most of the valuable information on risk factor data is buried in the form of unstructured clinical notes in electronic health records. In this study, we present an information extraction system to extract related information on heart disease risk factors from unstructured clinical notes using a hybrid approach. The hybrid approach employs both machine learning and rule-based clinical text mining techniques. The developed system achieved an overall microaveraged F-score of 0.8302.

  5. The oral microbiota of Irish children in health and disease: a longitudinal and cross sectional study

    Hurley, Eimear

    2017-01-01

    The oral cavity harbours a very rich and diverse microbial community. In the last decade, the oral microbiota of children and adults has been studied in detail using continuously developing DNA sequencing methods. In particular focusing on the oral microbiome changes in the presence of diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease and the relationship of the oral microbiome with oral health and disease states. The overall aim of these studies was to unravel the complexity of the oral ec...

  6. Stock-outs of essential health products in Mozambique-longitudinal analyses from 2011 to 2013

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Gimbel, Sarah; Hoek, Roxanne; Pfeiffer, James; Michel, Cathy; Manuel, João Luis; Cuembelo, Fatima; Quembo, Titos; Afonso, Pires; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    objectives To assess the relationship between health system factors and facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique. methods Service provisions were assessed in 26 health facilities and 13 district warehouses in Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August in 2011–2013. Generalised estimating equations were used to model factors associated with facility-level availability of essential drugs, supplies and equipment. results Stock-out rates for drugs ranged from 1.3% for oral rehydration solution to 20.5% for Depo-Provera and condoms, with a mean stock-out rate of 9.1%; mean stock-out rates were 15.4% for supplies and 4.1% for equipment. Stock-outs at the district level accounted for 27.1% (29/107) of facility-level drug stock-outs and 44.0% (37/84) of supply stock-outs. Each 10-km increase in the distance from district distribution warehouses was associated with a 31% (CI: 22–42%), 28% (CI: 17–40%) or 27% (CI: 7–50%) increase in rates of drug, supply or equipment stock-outs, respectively. The number of heath facility staff was consistently negatively associated with the occurrence of stock-outs. conclusions Facility-level stock-outs of EHPs in Mozambique are common and appear to disproportionately affect those living far from district capitals and near facilities with few health staff. The majority of facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique occur when stock exists at the district distribution centre. Innovative methods are urgently needed to improve EHP supply chains, requesting and ordering of drugs, facility and district communication, and forecasting of future EHP needs in Mozambique. Increased investments in public-sector human resources for health could potentially decrease the occurrence of EHP stock-outs. PMID:24724617

  7. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Efficacy of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents - An observational, longitudinal study.

    Hausman-Kedem, Moran; Menascu, Shay; Kramer, Uri

    2018-04-16

    The objective of this observational study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Fifty-seven patients (age 1-20 years) with epilepsy of various etiologies were treated with Cannabis oil extract (CBD/THC ratio of 20:1) for at least 3 months (Median follow up time-18 months). Forty-Six Patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Average CBD dose was11.4 mg/kg/d. Twenty-six patients (56%) had ≤50% reduction in mean monthly seizure frequency. There was no statistically significant difference in response rate among various epilepsy etiologies, and cannabis strain used. Younger age at treatment onset (CBD dose (>11 mg/kg/d) were associated with better response to treatment. Adverse reactions were reported in 46% of patients and were the main reason for treatment cessation. Our results suggest that adding CBD-enriched cannabis extract to the treatment regimen of patients with refractory epilepsy may result in a significant reduction in seizure frequency according to parental reports. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess its true efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria; Bergstroem, Jakob; Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan; Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders; Ekbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  11. Investigating the Associations among Overtime Work, Health Behaviors, and Health: A Longitudinal Study among Full-time Employees

    Taris, T.W.; Ybema, J.F.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Verheijden, M.W.; Geurts, S.A.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has often been suggested that high levels of overtime lead to adverse health outcomes. One mechanism that may account for this association is that working overtime leads to elevated levels of stress, which could affect worker's behavioral decisions or habits (such as smoking and lack

  12. Investigating the Associations among Overtime Work, Health Behaviors, and Health: A Longitudinal Study among Full-time Employees

    Taris, T.W.; Ybema, J.F.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Verheijden, M.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has often been suggested that high levels of overtime lead to adverse health outcomes. One mechanism that may account for this association is that working overtime leads to elevated levels of stress, which could affect worker's behavioral decisions or habits (such as smoking and lack of physical

  13. Maternal late pregnancy anxiety and stress is associated with children's health: a longitudinal study.

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-09-01

    Maternal prenatal anxiety and stress (PNS) have been positively associated to physical health prob lems in offspring in the first year of life. Whether these associations are transient, persistent, or even progressive over time, is as yet unknown. The goal of this study is to investigate associations between late pregnancy PNS and child health from 18 months to age 6. Mothers were recruited in late pregnancy, and had uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without physical health problems. Around week 37 of pregnancy, mothers reported on their PNS by means of questionnaires, and provided saliva for determination of circadian cortisol concentrations. Children's illnesses in the preceding year were assessed using maternal reports at 30, 48, 60, and 72 months. Antibiotic use was obtained from medical records between one and six years. Multilevel models (N¼174) showed a positive relation between maternal prenatal general and pregnancy-specific anxiety during late pregnancy and offspring respiratory illnesses and symptoms. Interaction effects with time indicated that more PNS was related to more respiratory illnesses until toddlerhood, but not later in life. Furthermore, maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations were related to child digestive illnesses. A steeper maternal cortisol decline over the day was related to more child digestive illnesses, until around three years of age. Finally, children of mothers who suffered more from daily hassles during pregnancy received more antibiotics between one and six years of age. PNS was not related to general and skin illnesses. Summarizing, this study showed that late pregnancy anxiety and cortisol was associated with children's respiratory and digestive illnesses till the age of 3.0-3.5 years. Additionally, more daily hassles were related to more prescribed antibiotics between one and six years. These findings point in the direction of possible effects of PNS persisting beyond the first year of life and into toddlerhood, but

  14. Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding. Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations. In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008. Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.

  15. Unstable employment and health in middle age in the longitudinal 1970 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Waynforth, David

    2018-01-01

    Jobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure. These responses may have evolved by natural selection as beneficial to individuals in the short-term, but are damaging in the longer term. This study tested whether job losses experienced between ages 30 and 42 are associated with increased body weight, hypertension and diabetes diagnosis in the 1970 British Birth Cohort, which consists of all registered births in a one-week period in April 1970. Each job loss experienced increased the odds of developing diabetes by 1.39 times (CI 1.08-1.80), and of hypertension by 1.28 times (CI 1.07-1.53). Another economic variable, higher personal debt, was associated with all three of these health outcomes: every £100 000 of debt roughly doubled the odds of gaining at least 5 kg between ages 30 and 42. These associations between job loss and health-risk factors suggest that our changing economy results in increases in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. At a broader level, they are consistent with evolutionary understandings of environmental stochasticity, and are a reminder that economic policy is also health policy.

  16. Access to health-care in Canadian immigrants: a longitudinal study of the National Population Health Survey.

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants often lose their health advantage as they start adapting to the ways of the new society. Having access to care when it is needed is one way that individuals can maintain their health. We assessed the healthcare access in Canadian immigrants and the socioeconomic factors associated with access over a 12-year period. We compared two measures of healthcare access (having a regular doctor and reporting an unmet healthcare need in the past 12 months) among immigrants and Canadian-born men and women, aged more than 18 years. We applied a logistic random effects model to evaluate these outcomes separately, in 3081 males and 4187 females from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006). Adjusting for all covariates, immigrant men and women (white and non-white) had similar odds of having a regular doctor than the Canadian-born individuals (white immigrants: males OR: 1.32, 95% C.I.: 0.89-1.94, females OR: 1.14, 95% C.I.: 0.78-1.66; non-white immigrants: males OR: 1.28, 95% C.I.: 0.73-2.23, females OR: 1.23, 95% C.I.: 0.64-2.36). Interestingly, non-white immigrant women had significantly fewer unmet health needs (OR: 0.32, 95% C.I.: 0.17-0.59). Among immigrants, time since immigration was associated with having access to a regular doctor (OR per year: 1.02, 95% C.I.: 1.00-1.04). Visible minority female immigrants were least likely to report an unmet healthcare need. In general, there is little evidence that immigrants have worse access to health-care than the Canadian-born population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Longitudinal changes in sexual functioning as women transition through menopause: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Avis, Nancy E; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    Sexual functioning is an important component of women's lives. The extent to which the menopausal transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopausal transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N = 3,302) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort-eligible women had an intact uterus, had at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study's designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; and degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. With adjustment for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause but declined during postmenopause. The menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. With adjustment for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional

  18. Longitudinal changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: Results from the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT).

    Tu, Andrew W; Humphries, Karin H; Lear, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined whether longitudinal changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), independent of each other, are associated with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of VAT and SAT on MetS and metabolic risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of Canadians followed for 5-years. In total, 598 adults of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT) were included in this study. Assessments of body composition using computed tomography (CT) and metabolic risk factors were conducted at baseline, 3-, and 5-years. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to model the longitudinal effects of VAT and SAT on MetS and metabolic risk factors. There were significant between-person (cross-sectional) effects such that for every 10cm 2 higher VAT, the odds of MetS, high-risk fasting glucose levels and high-risk HDL-C levels significantly increased by 16% (95% CI: 9-24%), 11% (3-20%), and 7% (0-14%) respectively. Significant within-person (longitudinal) effects were also found such that for every 10cm 2 increase in VAT the odds of MetS and high-risk triglyceride levels significantly increased by 23% (9-39%) and 30% (14-48%), respectively. Cross-sectional or longitudinal changes in SAT were not associated with MetS or metabolic risk factors. This study found a direct relationship between longitudinal change in VAT and MetS risk independent of changes in SAT. Clinical practice should focus on the reduction of VAT to improve cardiovascular health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  20. Adolescent mental health and subsequent parenting: a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct and emotional problems at age 13 and 15 years and adult outcome measures of parenting included intellectual environment, cognitive stimulation, coercive discipline, parental interest and parental aspiration. In regression models adjusted for the confounding effects of social background, cognition and education, adolescent conduct problems predicted coercive parenting behaviours in adulthood. The effects of adolescent emotional problems on the development of coercive discipline practices were explained by covariates. Likewise, the inability of parents who displayed conduct problems in adolescence to provide an intellectually stimulating home environment was fully explained by the adjustment for education. Adolescents who exhibit conduct problems are more likely to develop coercive styles of parenting.

  1. [Using consumer panels in public health observational studies].

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    Consumer panels are a market research method useful for gathering information about low-frequency or difficult-access customers. The objective of this field-note is to explain our experience using this method in a cross-sectional public health study on the use of electronic cigarettes. After taking into account other non-probabilistic sampling techniques to obtain a huge sample of electronic-cigarette users (n=600), in the end we decided to use consumer panels (recruiters) because of the relative short duration of the field work and the high representativeness of the sample. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The organizational work factors' effect on mental health among hospital workers is mediated by perceived effort-reward imbalance: result of a longitudinal study.

    Lamy, Sébastien; De Gaudemaris, Régis; Lepage, Benoit; Sobaszek, Annie; Caroly, Sandrine; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lang, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to test the hypothesis that organizational work factors (OWFs) may be related to depressive symptoms through an increased effort-reward imbalance (ERI) ratio among registered nurses (RNs) and nursing assistants working in hospitals. We studied 2117 female RNs and nursing assistants who stayed in the same work unit and position during the follow-up from the ORSOSA (ORganisation des SOins-SAnté) longitudinal study. The work characteristics and workers' health were assessed in 2006 and 2008. We confirmed our hypothesis of both direct and mediated effects of OWFs on workers' health. We showed that issues about patient-related information exchanges increased RNs' depressive disorders by increasing first a perceived ERI. Our results advocate integrating both the work organizational level and the individual level into preventive actions to improve workers' mental health.

  3. Optimal health insurance: the case of observable, severe illness.

    Chernew, M E; Encinosa, W E; Hirth, R A

    2000-09-01

    We explore optimal cost-sharing provisions for insurance contracts when individuals have observable, severe diseases with a discrete number of medically appropriate treatment options. Variation in preferences for alternative treatments is unobserved by the insurer and non-contractible. Interest in such situations is increasingly common, exemplified by disease carve-out programs and shared decision-making (SDM) tools. We demonstrate that optimal insurance charges a copay to patients choosing the high-cost treatment and provides consumers of the low-cost treatment a cash payment. A simulation of the effect of such a policy, based on prostate cancer, indicates a substantial reduction in moral hazard.

  4. Retirement and mental health: does social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis

    Koichiro Shiba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical evidence investigating heterogeneous impact of retirement on mental health depending on social backgrounds is lacking, especially among older adults. Methods We examined the impact of changes in working status on changes in mental health using Japanese community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study between 2010 and 2013 (N = 62,438. Between-waves changes in working status (“Kept working”, “Retired”, “Started work”, or “Continuously retired” were used to predict changes in depressive symptoms measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. First-difference regression models were stratified by gender, controlling for changes in time-varying confounding actors including equivalised household income, marital status, instrumental activities of daily living, incidence of serious illnesses and family caregiving. We then examined the interactions between changes in working status and occupational class, changes in marital status, and post-retirement social participation. Results Participants who transitioned to retirement reported significantly increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21–0.45 for men, and β = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13–0.45 for women compared to those who kept working. Men who were continuously retired reported increased depressive symptoms (β = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05–0.20, whereas males who started work reported decreased depressive symptoms (β = −0.20, 95% CI: -0.38–-0.02. Men from lower occupational class (compared to men from higher class reported more increase in depressive symptoms when continuously retired (β = −0.16, 95% CI: -0.25–-0.08. Those reporting recreational social participation after retirement appeared to be less influenced by transition to retirement. Conclusions Retirement may increase depressive symptoms among Japanese older adults, particularly men from lower occupational class backgrounds

  5. Engagement as a Driver of Growth of Online Health Forums: Observational Study.

    Gopalsamy, Rahul; Semenov, Alexander; Pasiliao, Eduardo; McIntosh, Scott; Nikolaev, Alexander

    2017-08-29

    The emerging research on nurturing the growth of online communities posits that it is in part attributed to network effects, wherein every increase in the volume of user-generated content increases the value of the community in the eyes of its potential new members. The recently introduced metric engagement capacity offers a means of quantitatively assessing the ability of online platform users to engage each other into generating content; meanwhile, the quantity engagement value is useful for quantifying communication-based platform use. If the claim that higher engagement leads to accelerated growth holds true for online health forums (OHFs), then engagement tracking should become an important tool in the arsenal of OHF managers. Indeed, it might allow for quantifying the ability of an OHF to exploit network effects, thus predicting the OHF's future success. This study aimed to empirically analyze the relationship between internal OHF use (quantified using engagement measurement), and external growth. We collected data from 7 OHFs posted between the years 1999 and 2016. Longitudinal analyses were conducted by evaluating engagement in the OHFs over time. We analyzed 2-way causality effects between the engagement value and metrics evaluating OHF growth using Granger causality tests. User activity metrics per week were correlated with engagement metrics, followed by linear regression analyses. Observational data showed a 1-way causal relationship between the OHF engagement value and reach (P=.02). We detected a 2-way causal relationship between the engagement value and delurking, with further analysis indicating that the engagement value was more likely to cause delurking (PUsers who engaged each other more were more likely (up to 14 times, depending on how much one user engaged another) to develop personal connections. Finally, we found that the more engaging an OHF user was in a given week, the more likely (up to 2 times, depending on their ability to engage

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Importance Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Objective To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Design, setting and participants Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). Exposures BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. Main Outcome Measure(s) At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Conclusions and Relevance Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications. PMID:26731527

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP in a large sample of Korean adults.Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits.BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2, waist circumference (6.20 cm, and percent fat mass (3.40% were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19, 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29, and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11, respectively (all P < 0.001. The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001 and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  9. What do health coaches do? Direct observation of health coach activities during medical and patient-health coach visits at 3 federally qualified health centers.

    Johnson, Christopher; Saba, George; Wolf, Jessica; Gardner, Heather; Thom, David H

    2018-05-01

    To examine activities of health coaches during patient medical visits and when meeting one-on-one with patients at 3 urban federally qualified health centers. Encounters were videotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a matrix analysis approach that allowed a priori identification of expected categories of activity, based on the health coach training model and previously developed conceptual framework, which were modified based on activities observed. A total of 10 medical visits (patient, clinician and health coach), and 8 patient-coach visits were recorded. We identified 9 categories common to both medical and patient-coach visits and 2 categories unique to the medical visit. While observed activities were generally consistent with expected categories, some activities were observed infrequently or not at all. We also observed additional activity categories, including information gathering and personal conversation. The average amount of time spent on some categories of coaching activities differed substantially between medical visits and patient-coach visits. Health coaching activities observed differed in several respects to those expected, and differed between medical visits and coaching only visits. These results provide insights into health coaching behaviors that can be used to inform training and improve utilization of health coaches in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The health impacts of women's low control in their living environment: A theory-based systematic review of observational studies in societies with profound gender discrimination.

    Pennington, Andy; Orton, Lois; Nayak, Shilpa; Ring, Adele; Petticrew, Mark; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review of observational evidence on the health impacts of women's low control/autonomy in the living environment in societies with profound gender discrimination and gender bias. Thirty observational studies of varying methodological quality were included. Overall, the evidence suggests that women's lower control or autonomy (for example lack of freedom of movement outside the home, lack of authority to access healthcare for sick children) was associated with poorer mental and physical health for women and higher morbidity and mortality for their children, after adjusting for their socioeconomic circumstances. Further studies are needed to disentangle and understand the pathways between low control and health outcomes in contexts of profound gender discrimination. This systematic review has highlighted the general low quality of the evidence base on this research question. It identifies the pressing need for high quality, longitudinal studies in the future. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trajectories of physical and mental health among persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD: a longitudinal comparative study

    Bonsaksen T

    2016-04-01

    of HRQoL was found for persons with morbid obesity than for persons with COPD, possibly due to the obese persons' better chances of recovery.Keywords: health-related quality of life, longitudinal study, SF 12, change patterns, patient education course

  12. The value of pragmatic and observational studies in health care and public health.

    Barnish, Maxwell S; Turner, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is an important component of health care service delivery. However, there is a tendency, embodied in tools such as Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, to focus principally on the classification of study design, at the expense of a detailed assessment of the strengths and limitations of the individual study. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and in particular the classical "explanatory" RCT, have a privileged place in the hierarchy of evidence. However, classical RCTs have substantial limitations, most notably a lack of generalizability, which limit their direct applicability to clinical practice implementation. Pragmatic and observational studies can provide an invaluable perspective into real-world applicability. This evidence could be used more widely to complement ideal-condition results from classical RCTs, following the principle of triangulation. In this review article, we discuss several types of pragmatic and observational studies that could be used in this capacity. We discuss their particular strengths and how their limitations may be overcome and provide real-life examples by means of illustration.

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): a narrative review.

    Santos, Eduardo Henrique Sena; Santos Neto, Pedro José Dos; Santos, Itamar de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has been used in large studies as a non-invasive marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a cohort of 15,105 civil servants in six Brazilian cities that included CIMT evaluation in its baseline assessment. The aim of the present narrative review was to provide an overview of ELSA-Brasil CIMT articles published up to July 31, 2017. Narrative review of ELSA-Brasil CIMT studies using baseline assessment data. We searched PubMed for the terms "ELSA-Brasil" and "intima-media". This search yielded 21 published articles using CIMT data from the ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment, which were included in this review. We also present information about intima-media thickness assessment from ongoing onsite reevaluations of the study participants. Most published studies focused on the association with traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Studies also presented information about the ELSA-Brasil CIMT protocol at baseline and CIMT value distribution in this large sample. Analyses on the ELSA-Brasil data led to important insights on CIMT interpretation and physiology. Besides the highlighted contributions which have already been made in this field, new data gathered during the ongoing third onsite assessment will enable investigation of substantially new research questions.

  14. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008-2013 Korean Community Health Survey.

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-08-01

    To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83-3.10). The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  15. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  16. Young adult outcomes of children growing up with chronic illness: an analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Maslow, Gary R; Haydon, Abigail A; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-03-01

    To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults growing up with a chronic illness. Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from wave III (in 2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. United States. The analytic sample comprised 13 236 young adults aged 18 to 28 years at wave III. Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with asthma or nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) were compared with individuals without these conditions. Self-report of high school graduation, ever having employment, currently having employment, living with a parent/guardian, and ever receiving public assistance. Three percent of young adults had nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy), and 16.0% had asthma. Most young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81.3%) and currently had employment (60.4%). However, compared with healthy young adults, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have had employment, or currently have employment and were more likely to receive public assistance. Compared with young adults with asthma, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Most young adults growing up with a chronic illness graduate high school and have employment. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones.

  17. The Relationship between Costs and Quality in Veterans Health Administration Community Living Centers: An Analysis Using Longitudinal Data.

    Burgess, James F; Shwartz, Michael; Stolzmann, Kelly; Sullivan, Jennifer L

    2018-05-18

    To examine the relationship between cost and quality in Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes (called Community Living Centers, CLCs) using longitudinal data. One hundred and thirty CLCs over 13 quarters (from FY2009 to FY2012) were studied. Costs, resident days, and resident severity (RUGs score) were obtained from the VA Managerial Cost Accounting System. Clinical quality measures were obtained from the Minimum Data Set, and resident-centered care (RCC) was measured using the Artifacts of Culture Change Tool. We used a generalized estimating equation model with facilities included as fixed effects to examine the relationship between total cost and quality after controlling for resident days and severity. The model included linear and squared terms for all independent variables and interactions with resident days. With the exception of RCC, all other variables had a statistically significant relationship with total costs. For most poorer performing smaller facilities (lower size quartile), improvements in quality were associated with higher costs. For most larger facilities, improvements in quality were associated with lower costs. The relationship between cost and quality depends on facility size and current level of performance. © Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention.

    Welty, Leah J; Harrison, Anna J; Abram, Karen M; Olson, Nichole D; Aaby, David A; McCoy, Kathleen P; Washburn, Jason J; Teplin, Linda A

    2016-05-01

    To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)--alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug--in youths during the 12 years after detention. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse--during incarceration and after release--would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population.

  19. Association between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality: results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Chor, Dóra; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Maria; Aquino, Estela M L; Diez-Roux, Ana; de Pina Castiglione, Débora; Santos, Simone M

    2016-08-09

    The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form was used to characterize physical activity during leisure time and commuting; additional questions assessed how often fruit and vegetables were consumed, as a proxy for diet quality. Neighbourhood characteristics were evaluated by the "Walking Environment" and "Availability of Healthy Foods" scales originally used in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Associations were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was positively associated with engaging in leisure time physical activity and doing so for longer weekly. Compared with those who saw their neighbourhood as less walkable, those who perceived it as more walkable had 1.69 (95 % CI 1.57-1.83) and 1.39 (1.28-1.52) greater odds of engaging in leisure time physical activity for more than 150 min/week or up to 150 min/week (vs. none), respectively. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was also positively associated with transport-related physical activity. The same pattern was observed for diet: compared with participants who perceived healthy foods as less available in their neighbourhood, those who saw them as more available had odds 1.48 greater (1.31-1.66) of eating fruits, and 1.47 greater (1.30-1.66) of eating vegetables, more than once per day. Perceived walkability and neighbourhood availability of healthy food were

  20. Observational longitudinal study of symptom burden and time for recovery from community-acquired pneumonia reported by older adults surveyed nationwide using the CAP Burden of Illness Questionnaire

    Wyrwich KW

    2015-07-01

    the recovery process, and the pursuit of CAP prevention strategies.Keywords: burden of illness, community-acquired pneumonia, symptoms, patient-reported outcomes, longitudinal study, health-related quality of life

  1. Study protocol for a longitudinal study evaluating the impact of rape on women's health and their use of health services in South Africa.

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Seedat, Soraya; Lombard, Carl; Kengne, Andre P; Myers, Bronwyn; Sewnath, Alesha; Mhlongo, Shibe; Ramjee, Gita; Peer, Nasheeta; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-09-29

    South Africa is a country known for its high levels of HIV infection and sexual violence. Although the interface between gender-based violence, HIV and mental health has been described, there are substantial gaps in knowledge of the medium-term and long-term health impact. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease study excluded many health outcomes associated with rape and other forms of gender-based violence because systematic reviews revealed huge gaps in data and poor evidence of health effects. This study aims to describe the incidence and attributable burden of physical and mental health problems (including HIV acquisition) in adult women over a 2-year postrape period, through comparison with a cohort of women who have not been raped. The study will substantially advance our understanding of the impact of rape and will generate robust data to assist in the development of postrape health services and the delivery of evidence-based care. This longitudinal study seeks to recruit 1008 rape-exposed and 1008 rape non-exposed women. Women were recruited from health services, and assessments were carried out at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Outcome measures include exposure to risk factors; mental health status; cardio-metabolic risks; and biomarkers for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy and stress. The primary analysis will be to compare HIV incidence in the two groups using log-rank tests. Appropriate models to predict health outcomes over time will also be applied. The South African Medical Research Council's Ethics Committee approved the study. As rape is a key element of the study, the safety and protection of participants guides the research process. We will adopt a research uptake strategy to ensure dissemination to policy makers, service providers and advocacy groups. Peer-reviewed journal articles will be published. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  2. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil's baseline assessment. Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension.

  3. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  4. Fetal and infant exposure to severe Chinese famine increases the risk of adult dyslipidemia: Results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study.

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Changwei; Yang, Zhongping; Ma, Jun; Zou, Zhiyong

    2017-06-14

    To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol): HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) ratio ≥ 5.0 or use cholesterol lowering drugs. Famine exposure cohorts were categorized by birthdates of participants. Binary logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of early-life famine exposure with the risk of dyslipidemia. The dyslipidemia prevalence of the non-exposed cohort, fetal stage-, infant stage-, and preschool stage-exposed cohorts in adulthood was 15.7%, 23.1%, 22.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine significantly increased LDL cholesterol concentrations in adulthood after adjusted for age. The risks of dyslipidemia in fetal (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23-2.03; P dyslipidemia in female adults. However, the similar association was not observed for male adults. Early-life exposure to severe Chinese famine could link with the higher dyslipidemia risk in female adulthood, but not in male adulthood. This gender-specific effect might be associated with the hypothesis that parents in China prefer boys to girls traditionally or survivors' bias.

  5. Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study.

    Jørgensen, Vivien; Butler Forslund, Emelie; Opheim, Arve; Franzén, Erika; Wahman, Kerstin; Hultling, Claes; Seiger, Åke; Ståhle, Agneta; Stanghelle, Johan K; Roaldsen, Kirsti S

    2017-04-01

    What is the 1-year incidence of falls and injurious falls in a representative cohort of community-dwelling ambulatory individuals with chronic spinal cord injury? What are the predictors of recurrent falls (more than two/year) and injurious falls in this population? One-year longitudinal observational multi-centre study. A representative sample of 68 (of 73 included) community-dwelling ambulatory individuals with traumatic SCI attending regular follow-up programs at rehabilitation centres. Primary outcome measures were incidence and predictors of recurrent falls (more than two/year) and injurious falls reported every 2 weeks for 1year. A total of 48% of participants reported recurrent falls. Of the 272 reported falls, 41% were injurious. Serious injuries were experienced by 4% of participants, all of whom were women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that recurrent falls in the previous year (OR=111, 95% CI=8.6 to 1425), fear of falling (OR=6.1, 95% CI=1.43 to 26) and longer time taken to walk 10m (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.0 to 1.7) were predictors of recurrent falls. Fear of falling (OR=4.3, 95% CI=1.3 to 14) and recurrent falls in the previous year (OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2 to 14) were predictors of injurious falls. Ambulatory individuals have a high risk of falling and of fall-related injuries. Fall history, fear of falling and walking speed could predict recurrent falls and injurious falls. Further studies with larger samples are needed to validate these findings. [Jørgensen V, Butler Forslund E, Opheim A, Franzén E, Wahman K, Hultling C, Seiger Å, Ståhle A, Stanghelle JK, Roaldsen KS (2017) Falls and fear of falling predict future falls and related injuries in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal observational study. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 108-113]. Copyright © 2017 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reductions in employee productivity impairment observed after implementation of web-based worksite health promotion programs.

    Silberman, Jordan; Schwartz, Steven; Giuseffi, Danielle L; Wang, Chun; Nevedal, Dana; Bedrosian, Richard

    2011-12-01

    To assess changes in employee productivity impairment observed after the implementation of several Web-based health promotion programs. Health risk assessments and self-report measures of productivity impairment were administered on-line to more than 43,000 participants of Web-based health promotion programs. Reductions in productivity impairment were observed after 1 month of program utilization. Productivity impairment at 90- and 180-day follow-ups also decreased relative to baseline. Improvements in employee health were associated with reductions in employee productivity impairment. The use of Web-based health promotion programs was associated with reductions in productivity impairment and improvements in employee health. After the implementation of Web-based health promotion programs, reductions in productivity impairment may be observed before reductions in direct health care costs.

  7. Longitudinal effect of a program to change lifestyle on health indicators in adults.

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of individuals participating in a long-lasting LSC program with obvious benefits in physical fitness, obesity and related feeding undetected. One hundred and four individuals (54.04 ± 7.7 years, of whom 74% were females with exercise / nutritional counseling for two years, there was random sub-sample comprising 24 individuals (16 females and 8 males was formed, and open non-structured interviews were conducted by using a guiding question. Within the categories found, 96% of respondents mentioned changes related to the physical domain after participating in the project; 67% reported psychological changes, and 83% mentioned changes in the social domain. Males and females showed a similar behavior to the feeling of better health, more energy and weight reduction or maintenance in the physical domain, the feeling of joy and satisfaction for the psychological realm and increased number of friends concerns the social domain. It is concluded that improvements by participating from participating in the LSC program was predominantly related to physical, psychological and social aspects, leading to the assumption that these are important factors that motivate individuals to continue participating in the preventive and therapeutic approach.

  8. Longitudinal Trajectories of Metabolic Control across Adolescence: Associations with Parental Involvement, Adolescents’ Psychosocial Maturity, and Health Care Utilization

    King, Pamela S.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Butner, Jonathan; Drew, Linda M.; Foster, Carol; Donaldson, David; Murray, Mary; Swinyard, Michael; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To predict trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence from parental involvement and adolescent psychosocial maturity, and to link metabolic control trajectories to health care utilization. Methods 252 adolescents (M age at study initiation = 12.5, SD=1.5, range 10–14 years) with type 1 diabetes (54.4% female, 92.8% Caucasian, length of diagnosis M=4.7 years, SD=3.0, range 1–12) participated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Metabolic control was gathered from medical records every three months. Adolescents completed measures of self-reliance (functional autonomy and extreme peer orientation), self-control (self-control and externalizing behavior), and parental involvement in diabetes care (acceptance, monitoring, and frequency of help). At the end of the study, mothers reported health care utilization (diabetes-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations) over the past six months. Results Latent class growth analyses indicated two distinct trajectories of metabolic control across adolescence: moderate control with slight deterioration (92% of the sample; average HbA1c = 8.18%) and poor control with rapid deterioration (8% of the sample; average HbA1c of 12.09%). Adolescents with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control reported lower paternal monitoring and frequency of help with diabetes management, lower functional autonomy, and lower self-control than others. Those with poor and rapidly deteriorating metabolic control were 6.4 times more likely to report diabetes-related emergency room visits, and 9.3 times more likely to report diabetes-related hospitalizations near the end of the study. Conclusions Parental involvement and adolescents’ psychosocial maturity predict patterns of deteriorating metabolic control across adolescence and could be targeted for intervention. PMID:22525113

  9. Teen Pregnancy Among Sexual Minority Women: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Goldberg, Shoshana K; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between sexual orientation and teen pregnancy (before age 20 years) in a U.S. nationally representative cohort of young adult females aged 24-32 years. A total of 5,972 participants in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were included. Self-reported sexual orientation identity was categorized as heterosexual, and three sexual minority (SM) groups: mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian (combining "mostly homosexual" and "100% homosexual"). Stepwise multivariate regression models were fit to compare odds of teen pregnancy and relative risk ratios of timing of teen pregnancy, between heterosexual and SM groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual victimization history, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for sociodemographics and sexual victimization, bisexual women had significantly higher odds than heterosexual peers of teen pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.75); this association was marginally significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. Bisexuals were also more likely to have an early (before age 18 years) teen pregnancy (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.56). In contrast, lesbian women were significantly less likely to have a teen pregnancy than heterosexual (OR = .47; 95% CI = .23-.97), mostly heterosexual (OR = .46; 95% CI = .21-.99), and bisexual (OR = .29; 95% CI = .12-.71) women in final models. Expanding on extant literature, we found opposing risk patterns for teen pregnancy between bisexual and lesbian women, likely due to distinct patterns of sexual risk taking. Findings suggest that SM-inclusive teen pregnancy prevention efforts tailored to meet the unique needs of SM young women, particularly bisexuals, are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental health problems among children and adolescents experiencing two major earthquakes in remote mountainous regions: A longitudinal study.

    Tang, Wanjie; Zhao, Jingdong; Lu, Yi; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jiuping

    2017-01-01

    Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder. A total of 435 Chinese children and adolescents who survived the 2013 Ya'an earthquake were recruited from six primary, secondary and high schools in Baoxing County. All survivors were assessed at 12months after the disaster, when a trained psychiatrist assessed mental health problems in a face-to-face structured interview, and 153 survivors were followed up at 30months after the earthquake via telephone. The 12-month assessment indicated a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence of 43.9% as well as depression (20.9%) or the criteria for both PTSD and depression (18.2%) and the other disorder (0.9%). The 30-month assessment indicated that 15.7% of subjects met the criteria for PTSD, 21.6% met the criteria for depression. No subjects met the criteria for other affective or anxiety disorders. Significant predictors of PTSD and depression were death in the family, previous earthquake experience, a poor parent-child relationship and economic pressure or poverty. Clinical interview face to face is quite different from via telephone and the attrition rate in the longitudinal cohort is high, which would directly affect our results of the assessment. PTSD and depression may be as prevalent and persistent in disaster victims in China as elsewhere, and high co-comorbidities remain poorly understood. Although many adolescents recover over time, some exhibit chronic, delayed-onset PTSD and depression, especially those with poor relationships with their parents or those living

  11. Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

    Luke Amy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS is a cohort study designed to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25-45, were enrolled in the study; 500 from sites in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. At baseline, physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometry and a questionnaire in all participants and by doubly labeled water in a subsample of 75 per site. We assessed dietary intake using two separate 24-hour recalls, body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and health history, social