... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...
Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M
In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.
Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves
In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.
Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel
There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.
Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo
This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The
Eun Kyung CHOI
Full Text Available This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in
of sufficient severity, infectious hepatitis may produce hypoglycemia or hepatic failure. Severe hypoglycemia is also a common danger in neonatal ...emergency situations geoier~3ly involve the correction of severe fluid and electrolyte or acid-base ;atbnormalities. Severe hypoglycemia or anoxia... causes widespread metabolic responses in the host and in addition, leads to nutritional deficiencies. Localized infections may also result in metabolic
Esron D. Karimuribo
Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.
Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M
Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.
This article describes two large, multisite infectious disease programs: the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) and the Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs). The links between biological anthropology and applied public health are highlighted using these programs as examples. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the TBESC and EIPs conduct applied public health research to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control efforts in the United States. They involve collaborations among CDC, public health departments, and academic and clinical institutions. Their unique role in national infectious disease work, including their links to anthropology, shared elements, key differences, strengths and challenges, is discussed.
Rutkow, Lainie; Paul, Amy; Taylor, Holly A; Barnett, Daniel J
Local health departments play a key role in emergency preparedness and respond to a wide range of threats including infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, tuberculosis, H1N1, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease. To successfully respond to an infectious disease outbreak, local health departments depend upon the participation of their workforce; yet, studies indicate that sizable numbers of workers would not participate in such a response. The reasons why local health department workers participate, or fail to participate, in infectious disease responses are not well understood. To understand why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. From April 2015 to January 2016, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with local health department directors, preparedness staff, and nonpreparedness staff. Interviews were conducted with individuals throughout the United States. We interviewed 28 individuals across 3 groups: local health department directors (n = 8), preparedness staff (n = 10), and nonpreparedness staff (n = 10). Individuals' descriptions of why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. Factors that facilitate willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included availability of vaccines and personal protective equipment; flexible work schedule and childcare arrangements; information sharing via local health department trainings; and perceived commitments to one's job and community. Factors that hinder willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included potential disease exposure for oneself and one's family; logistical considerations for care of children, the elderly, and pets; and perceptions about one's role during an infectious disease response. Our findings highlight opportunities for local health departments to revisit their internal policies and engage in
Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj
This study illustrates how Thailand adopted the One Health concept. Massive socio-economic and health consequences of emerging infectious diseases, especially Avian Influenza in 2004, led to recognition of the importance of and need for One Health. Based on collaboration and consultative meetings between the national actors and international development partners, Thailand adopted One Health to drive more effective containment of Emerging Infectious Diseases. This concept gained support from the non-governmental and civil society organizations through processes of the National Health Assembly. In 2012, a Cabinet resolution endorsed a National Strategic Plan for Emerging Infectious Diseases (2013-2016), in which One Health appeared as a core principle. Collaboration among multi-disciplinary groups of professionals, particularly epidemiologists trained in Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP), including FETP, FETP-veterinarian, and FETP-wildlife veterinarians, promoted implementation of One Health.
De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G
The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease
Bower, Wilma; And Others
Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…
Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.
Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.
Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E; Boyer, Nancy N; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J
Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1-100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs' large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host's complex networks underlie effects. Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification
Robert H. Zimmerman
Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.
Heesterbeek, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Anderson, Roy M; Andreasen, Viggo; Bansal, Shweta; De Angelis, Daniela; Dye, Chris; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Frost, Simon D W; Funk, Sebastian; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; House, Thomas; Isham, Valerie; Klepac, Petra; Lessler, Justin; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Mollison, Denis; Pellis, Lorenzo; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Roberts, Mick G; Viboud, Cecile
Despite some notable successes in the control of infectious diseases, transmissible pathogens still pose an enormous threat to human and animal health. The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of infections play out on a wide range of interconnected temporal, organizational, and spatial scales,
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable. Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/27/2008.
Full Text Available Objectives. Infectious disease knowledge and behaviors are key elements that ensure student health and safety. This study explores the impact of health education on student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases and determines the factors affecting infectious diseases knowledge and behaviors among students in Gansu, China. Methods. A cross-sectional study and three sampling methods were used in two counties, 12 schools, and 32 classes in Gansu, China, from 2012 to 2013. Collected data included the following: (1 sociodemographic characteristics of 2002 students (1001 participants in the intervention group and 1001 in the control group; (2 accuracy of student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases based on comparison of intervention and control groups through X2 test; and (3 mean scores on knowledge and behavior of students with different characteristics toward infectious diseases, as analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to analyze factors affecting student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed among eight items of infectious disease transmission and treatment knowledge between intervention and control groups (P<0.001. Average accuracies of knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases reached 72.23% and 60.03%. Significant differences were observed in six items on student behavior in rural and urban areas (P<0.001. Health education, household register, and county affected scores of student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases (P<0.05. Gender and education level also affected scores of student behaviors toward infectious diseases (P<0.001. Conclusions. Health education contributes to student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases. Students in the control group need intensified health education on infectious diseases. Health education needs to pay particular attention to
Cunningham, Andrew A; Daszak, Peter; Wood, James L N
Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions. Concurrently, infectious disease has been identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. A synthesis published in 2000 showed common anthropogenic drivers of disease threats to biodiversity and human health, including encroachment and destruction of wildlife habitat and the human-assisted spread of pathogens. Almost two decades later, the situation has not changed and, despite improved knowledge of the underlying causes, little has been done at the policy level to address these threats. For the sake of public health and wellbeing, human-kind needs to work better to conserve nature and preserve the ecosystem services, including disease regulation, that biodiversity provides while also understanding and mitigating activities which lead to disease emergence. We consider that holistic, One Health approaches to the management and mitigation of the risks of emerging infectious diseases have the greatest chance of success.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.
Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A
This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.
Sep 3, 2017 ... Welcome to this September 2017 issue of African Health. Sciences. We have three main ... cigarette smoke condensate attenuates phobol ester-me- diated neutrophil extracellular trap ... E, Ongolo-Zogo P, et al. Assessment of ...
Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata
Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.
Wang, Manli; Han, Xuemei; Fang, Haiqing; Xu, Chang; Lin, Xiaojun; Xia, Shuxu; Yu, Wenhan; He, Jinlu; Jiang, Shuai
Objectives Infectious disease knowledge and behaviors are key elements that ensure student health and safety. This study explores the impact of health education on student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases and determines the factors affecting infectious diseases knowledge and behaviors among students in Gansu, China. Methods A cross-sectional study and three sampling methods were used in two counties, 12 schools, and 32 classes in Gansu, China, from 2012 to 2013. Collected data included the following: (1) sociodemographic characteristics of 2002 students (1001 participants in the intervention group and 1001 in the control group); (2) accuracy of student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases based on comparison of intervention and control groups through X2 test; and (3) mean scores on knowledge and behavior of students with different characteristics toward infectious diseases, as analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multiple linear regression was conducted to analyze factors affecting student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases. Results Statistically significant differences were observed among eight items of infectious disease transmission and treatment knowledge between intervention and control groups (P knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases reached 72.23% and 60.03%. Significant differences were observed in six items on student behavior in rural and urban areas (P student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases (P student behaviors toward infectious diseases (P student knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases. Students in the control group need intensified health education on infectious diseases. Health education needs to pay particular attention to rural students, all male students, and students at senior high school level living on campus. PMID:29707573
Canyon, Deon V; Speare, Rick; Burkle, Frederick M
Climate change is expected to cause extensive shifts in the epidemiology of infectious and vector-borne diseases. Scenarios on the effects of climate change typically attribute altered distribution of communicable diseases to a rise in average temperature and altered incidence of infectious diseases to weather extremes. Recent evaluations of the effects of climate change on Hawaii have not explored this link. It may be expected that Hawaii's natural geography and robust water, sanitation, and health care infrastructure renders residents less vulnerable to many threats that are the focus on smaller, lesser developed, and more vulnerable Pacific islands. In addition, Hawaii's communicable disease surveillance and response system can act rapidly to counter increases in any disease above baseline and to redirect resources to deal with changes, particularly outbreaks due to exotic pathogens. The evidence base examined in this article consistently revealed very low climate sensitivity with respect to infectious and mosquito-borne diseases. A community resilience model is recommended to increase adaptive capacity for all possible climate change impacts rather an approach that focuses specifically on communicable diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:797-804).
Alsan, Marcella M; Westerhaus, Michael; Herce, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Farmer, Paul E
Poverty and infectious diseases interact in complex ways. Casting destitution as intractable, or epidemics that afflict the poor as accidental, erroneously exonerates us from responsibility for caring for those most in need. Adequately addressing communicable diseases requires a biosocial appreciation of the structural forces that shape disease patterns. Most health interventions in resource-poor settings could garner support based on cost/benefit ratios with appropriately lengthy time horizons to capture the return on health investments and an adequate accounting of externalities; however, such a calculus masks the suffering of inaction and risks eroding the most powerful incentive to act: redressing inequality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M
Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.
Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy; Andreasen, Viggo
The spread of infectious diseases can be unpredictable. With the emergence of antibiotic resistance and worrying new viruses, and with ambitious plans for global eradication of polio and the elimination of malaria, the stakes have never been higher. Anticipation and measurement of the multiple fa...... models used in epidemiology and how these can be harnessed to develop successful control strategies and inform public health policy...
Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Adams, Alex J; Jacobs, David M; Percival, Kelly M; Tallman, Gregory B
Health care professionals must continually identify collaborative ways to combat antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA)-waived point-of-care (POC) testing (POCT) services for infectious disease conducted in community pharmacies provide a means for pharmacists to collaborate with prescribers and/or public health officials combating antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. To provide a comprehensive literature review that explores the potential for pharmacists to collaborate with public health professionals and prescribers using pharmacy-based CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Comprehensive literature review. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for manuscripts and meeting abstracts for the following key words: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All relevant manuscripts and meeting abstracts utilizing POCT in community pharmacies for infectious disease were reviewed. Information regarding the most contemporary evidence regarding CLIA-waived POC infectious diseases tests for infectious diseases and their use in community pharmacies was synthesized to highlight and identify opportunities to develop future collaborations using community pharmacy-based models for such services. Evidence demonstrates that pharmacists in collaboration with other health care professionals can leverage their knowledge and accessibility to provide CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Testing for influenza may augment health departments' surveillance efforts, help promote rationale antiviral use, and avoid unnecessary antimicrobial therapy. Services for human immunodeficiency virus infection raise infection status awareness, increase access to health care, and facilitate linkage to appropriate care. Testing for group A streptococcal pharyngitis may curb inappropriate
Shiva Raj Adhikari
Full Text Available Objective: To measure the effectiveness of short term trainings in improving knowledge of health economics and application of economic way of thinking in policy research. Methods: The training focused to strengthen the capacity of public health practitioners to design and implement health policy and programmes especially for infectious diseases from health system and economic perspectives. We focused to measure the effects of gaining knowledge to understand the relationship between infectious diseases and poverty and to adopt a logical way of thinking to come up with a solution. This approach used in this paper to measure the “reflection” of the training is different from conventional way of evaluating training programmes. The effectiveness of the training was measured in three dimensions: (i general understanding of economics from health policy perspective; (ii application of economic analysis and appraisal tools and techniques; and (iii economic way of thinking for issues related to disease control and poverty. Results: There was a significant improvement in self-assessed knowledge after the training. Among seven knowledge related questions, in the pre-test, an average participant made 86% correct answers while in post-test, this figure increased to 100%. The results showed that there is a significant improvement in these three dimensions after the training intervention. Conclusions: The paper concluded that endogenizing knowledge of economics and way of thinking have important implications for designing alternative policy and resource utilization.
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.
Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing. Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference. This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...
Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L
Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University
Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J
Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)
Marie C. E. Hanin
Full Text Available Rooted in the recognition that emerging infectious diseases occur at the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS initiative aims to promote a trans-sectoral approach to address better infectious disease risk management in five countries of the Southern African Development Community. Nine years after SACIDS’ inception, this study aimed to evaluate the program by applying a One Health (OH evaluation framework developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH. The evaluation included a description of the context and the initiative, illustration of the theory of change, identification of outputs and outcomes, and assessment of the One Healthness. The latter is the sum of characteristics that defines an integrated approach and includes OH thinking, OH planning, OH working, sharing infrastructure, learning infrastructure, and systemic organization. The protocols made available by NEOH were used to develop data collection protocols and identify the study design. The framework relies on a mixed methods approach by combining a descriptive and qualitative assessment with a semi-quantitative evaluation (scoring. Data for the analysis were gathered during a document review, in group and individual interviews and in an online survey. Operational aspects (i.e., OH thinking, planning, and working were found to be balanced overall with the highest score in the planning dimension, whereas the infrastructure (learning infrastructure, systemic organization, and sharing infrastructure was high for the first two dimensions, but low for sharing. The OH index calculated was 0.359, and the OH ratio calculated was 1.495. The program was praised for its great innovative energy in a difficult landscape dominated by poor infrastructure and its ability to create awareness for OH and enthuse people for the concept; training of people and networking. Shortcomings were identified
Sedighi, Iraj; Nouri, Shahla; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Nemati, Reza; Shahbazi, Mojgan
The purpose of this study is to propose an innovative method of knowledge transfer that aims to improve health literacy about pediatric infectious diseases prevention in families. Children have an appreciable role in this scheme. This study is a before and after trial that has been conducted in Hamedan in 2009. After changing seven infectious disease topics into childish poems, we selected five kindergartens randomly and taught these poetries to the children. Teaching process held after a pretest containing 24 questions that examined 103 of parents about mentioned topics. The same post-test was given after 4 months of teaching process. The mean of correct answers to the pretest was 59.22% comparable with 81.00% for post-test (P<0.00). Gender and knowledge degree could not change the results significantly. Assuming one's correct answers to the questions as his/her Knowledge Mark, the mean of this variable increased to 5.32 by this method. This cost-effective and joyful method had successful results in promoting health knowledge. Children are able to play an active role in family's health situation. Learning within family atmosphere without any obligations makes our scheme a solution for paving the knowledge transferring way.
Full Text Available In an era of global health threats caused by epidemics of infectious diseases and rising multidrug resistance, microbiology laboratories provide essential scientific evidence for risk assessment, prevention, and control. Microbiology has been at the core of European infectious disease surveillance networks for decades. Since 2010, these networks have been coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. Activities delivered in these networks include harmonization of laboratory diagnostic, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, multicentre method validation, technical capacity mapping, training of laboratory staff, and continuing quality assessment of laboratory testing. Cooperation among the European laboratory networks in the past 7 years has proved successful in strengthening epidemic preparedness by enabling adaptive capabilities for rapid detection of emerging pathogens across Europe. In partnership with food safety authorities, international public health agencies and learned societies, ECDC-supported laboratory networks have also progressed harmonization of routinely used antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing methods, thereby significantly advancing the quality, comparability and precision of microbiological information gathered by ECDC for surveillance for zoonotic diseases and multidrug-resistant pathogens in Europe. ECDC continues to act as a catalyst for sustaining continuous practice improvements and strengthening wider access to laboratory capacity across the European Union. Key priorities include optimization and broader use of rapid diagnostics, further integration of whole-genome sequencing in surveillance and electronic linkage of laboratory and public health systems. This article highlights some of the network contributions to public health in Europe and the role that ECDC plays managing these networks.
Brabazon, E D
Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of these diseases in the Irish population at both a local and national level. Anecdotal evidence suggests, however, that the occurrence of notifiable infectious diseases is seriously underestimated. This study aims to assess the level of hospitalization for notifiable infectious diseases for a 6-year period in one health board region in Ireland and to assess whether or not there was any under-reporting during this period. All hospital in-patient admissions from 1997 to 2002 inclusive with a principal diagnosis relating to \\'infectious and parasitic diseases\\' (ICD codes 001-139) of residents from a health board region in Ireland were extracted from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry System (HIPE). All notifiable infectious diseases were identified based on the 1981 Irish Infectious Disease Regulations and the data were analysed in the statistical package, JMP. These data were compared with the corresponding notification data. Analysis of the hospital in-patient admission data revealed a substantial burden associated with notifiable infectious diseases in this health board region: there were 2758 hospitalizations by 2454 residents, 17,034 bed days and 33 deaths. The statutory notification data comprises both general practitioner and hospital clinician reports of infectious disease. Therefore, only in cases where there are more hospitalizations than notifications can under-reporting be demonstrated. This occurred in nine out of 22 notifiable diseases and amounted to an additional 18% of notifications (or 572 cases) which were \\'missed\\' due to hospital clinician under-reporting. The majority of these under-reported cases were for viral meningitis (45%), infectious mononucleosis (27%), viral hepatitis C unspecified (15%) and acute encephalitis (5.8%). This study has highlighted the extent of under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases, in a
Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.
The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.
Meyer, Diane; Kirk Sell, Tara; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Shearer, Matthew P; Chandler, Hannah; Thomas, Erin; Rose, Dale A; Carbone, Eric G; Toner, Eric
The domestic response to the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic from 2014-2016 provides a unique opportunity to distill lessons learned about health sector planning and operations from those individuals directly involved. This research project aimed to identify and integrate these lessons into an actionable checklist that can improve health sector resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease (HCID) events. Interviews (N = 73) were completed with individuals involved in the domestic EVD response in 4 cities (Atlanta, Dallas, New York, and Omaha), and included individuals who worked in academia, emergency management, government, health care, law, media, and public health during the response. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. Two focus groups were then conducted to expand on themes identified in the interviews. Using these themes, an evidence-informed checklist was developed and vetted for completeness and feasibility by an expert advisory group. Salient themes identified included health care facility issues-specifically identifying assessment and treatment hospitals, isolation and treatment unit layout, waste management, community relations, patient identification, patient isolation, limitations on treatment, laboratories, and research considerations-and health care workforce issues-specifically psychosocial impact, unit staffing, staff training, and proper personal protective equipment. The experiences of those involved in the domestic Ebola response provide critical lessons that can help strengthen resilience of health care systems and improve future responses to HCID events. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn
Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles. We also reviewed published data and policy documents from the Ministries of Health and Manpower, Singapore. A significant proportion of malaria, enteric fevers, hepatitis A and E and tuberculosis diagnosed in Singapore involve migrant workers. From the 1990-2000 through 2009-11, while malaria and hepatitis A cases have decreased and remain sporadic, enteric fevers and tuberculosis cases have increased, possibly due to greater influx of migrant workers. Hepatitis E numbers remain low but migrant workers account for half of diagnosed cases. In an interplay of immune naivete, work and living conditions, migrants in the construction industry are at higher risk of arboviral infections such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Infections such as chikungunya were likely introduced into Singapore by travellers including migrant workers from the Indian subcontinent but autochthonous transmission continued due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors. There is less data regarding sexual health, networks and infections amongst migrant workers, an area which merits further attention. Migrant workers appear to be at higher risk than Singaporeans for specific infectious diseases, probably due to a complex interplay of several factors, including higher disease prevalence in their countries of origin, socio-economic factors, their living conditions in Singapore and financial, language and cultural barriers to healthcare access. Receiving countries need improved surveillance, expansion of preventive measures and decreased
John M. Quinn
Full Text Available Timor-Leste is a very young and developing nation state. Endemic infectious disease and weakened health security coupled with its growing and inclusive public institutions keep Timor-Leste fragile and in transition on the spectrum of state stability. The objective here is to systematically review Timor-Leste's state and public health successes, showing how a fragile state can consistently improve its status on the continuum of stability and improve health security for the population. The case study follows a state case study approach, together with a disease burden review and a basic description of the health portrait in relation to Timor-Leste's fragile state status. Disease burden and health security are directly proportional to state stability and indirectly proportional to state failure. Timor-Leste is a clear example of how public health can feed into increased state stability. Our discussion attempts to describe how the weak and fragile island nation of Timor-Leste can continue on its current path of transition to state stability by increasing health security for its citizens. We surmise that this can be realized when public policy focuses on primary healthcare access, inclusive state institutions, basic hygiene and preventative vaccination programs. Based on our review, the core findings indicate that byÂ increasing health security, a positive feedback loop of state stability follows. The use of Timor-Leste as a case study better describes the connection between public health and health security; and state stability, development and inclusive state institutions that promote health security.
Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) affect more than one billion people worldwide, and are associated with poverty, geographic isolation of populations, social stigma, lack of precise data on estimates on both the global and local burden of disease (underreporting of the diseases), inadequate financial and political resources to effective control measures, lack of lobbying on behalf of the most vulnerable population, as well as scarce drug and diagnostic methods development. In this article we describe the relationship between NID, poverty and inequality, we propose a new concept of disease in the tropics, expanding the list of diseases that share characteristics with NID in the Peruvian context, discuss the limited availability of drugs and diagnostic tests to properly deal with these diseases, as well as highlight the contributions by the Peruvian National Institute of Health, and as final thoughts, we state that the solution for the prevention and control of NID must include an integrated approach, including the social determinants of health in the context of the fight against poverty and inequality.
Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Xue, Shulian; Zhao, Shufang; Bi, Peng
There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.
Full Text Available There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.
Beigi, Richard H
It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given
Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and
Djurić, M; Janović, A; Milovanović, P; Djukić, K; Milenković, P; Drasković, M; Roksandic, M
Although pattern of health in adults has been frequently assessed in past human populations, health status of adolescents as a distinct life stage has usually been overlooked. Inconsistency in number and meaning of recognised age categories in anthropological literature, as well as chronological age ranges used to define them, further complicate the interpretation of adolescent health. In this study, we analysed signs of pathological conditions on skeletal remains of 81 adolescents from a medieval site of Stara Torina (northern Serbia). Diagnostic palaeopathological procedures comprised gross examination, digital radiography, and histological analysis. Skeletal signs of anaemia such as cribra orbitalia and other porotic phenomena as well as signs of non-specific bone infection were observed frequently, while evidence of bone trauma was recorded in a very low percentage of individuals. In addition, we recorded two conditions relatively rarely observed in palaeopathological contexts: a case of skull and vertebral asymmetry indicative of congenital muscular torticollis, and a case of a fibrous cortical defect on distal femur. Comparison with available information from other medieval adolescent samples from Serbia demonstrated that while mortality was relatively constant throughout the sample, Stara Torina showed a much higher occurrence of bone disease. Characteristics of observed skeletal conditions, supported by available historical reports, suggest that the health of medieval adolescents in the examined population was most significantly affected by infectious processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.
Cristina de Albuquerque Possas
Full Text Available The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and their rapid dissemination worldwide are challenging national health systems, particularly in developing countries affected by extreme poverty and environmental degradation. The expectations that new vaccines and drugs and global surveillance would help reverse these trends have been frustrated thus far by the complexity of the epidemiological transition, despite promising prospects for the near future in biomolecular research and genetic engineering. This impasse raises crucial issues concerning conceptual frameworks supporting priority-setting, risk anticipation, and the transfer of science and technology's results to society. This article discusses these issues and the limitations of social and economic sciences on the one hand and ecology on the other as the main theoretical references of the health sciences in confronting the complexity of these issues on their own. The tension between these historically dissociated paradigms is discussed and a transdisciplinary approach is proposed, that of social ecosystem health, incorporating these distinct perspectives into a comprehensive framework.
Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Vatcher, Greg; Yue, Xin; Dong, Yan; Li, Mao Hua; Tam, Patrick H K; Tsang, Parker Y L; Wong, April K Y; Hui, Michael H K; Yang, Bin; Tang, Hao; Lau, Lok-Ting
Infectious diseases, mostly caused by bacteria and viruses but also a result of fungal and parasitic infection, have been one of the most important public health concerns throughout human history. The first step in combating these pathogens is to get a timely and accurate diagnosis at an affordable cost. Many kinds of diagnostics have been developed, such as pathogen culture, biochemical tests and serological tests, to help detect and fight against the causative agents of diseases. However, these diagnostic tests are generally unsatisfactory because they are not particularly sensitive and specific and are unable to deliver speedy results. Nucleic acid-based diagnostics, detecting pathogens through the identification of their genomic sequences, have shown promise to overcome the above limitations and become more widely adopted in clinical tests. Here we review some of the most popular nucleic acid-based diagnostics and focus on their adaptability and applicability to routine clinical usage. We also compare and contrast the characteristics of different types of nucleic acid-based diagnostics.
Sleator, Esther K.
Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…
This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.
... and Docket Office's normal business hours, 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., EST. Instructions: All submissions... infectious agents, radiation and chemicals. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that for 2008, the... infectious diseases to patients and HCWs. This fundamental approach is set forth in the guidelines of the...
Garza, Maria; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy; Rahman, Meezanur; Wieland, Barbara; Häsler, Barbara
The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is an important employer and a significant source of foreign exchange. In addition, it contributes significantly to food security due to the role of fish in peoples' diets, the most important source of protein and micronutrients. However, infectious diseases represent an important barrier to sector development due to economic losses and vulnerability of smallholders. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the impact of infectious diseases in the aquaculture sector, and to assess the usefulness and use of impact studies in decision making for animal health management and biosecurity governance in Bangladesh. A review of scientific and grey literature on infectious disease impact in different aquaculture systems was conducted and their methodologies and findings summarised. Subsequently, interviews with 28 stakeholders from the private and public sector were conducted to enquire about decision-making structures in animal health management. The data were analysed using the framework method to allow the development of themes, by using the information, experiences and opinions inductively obtained from interviewees, deductively through the reviewed literature. Results showed a substantial socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. The numerous stakeholders involved in the decision-making process explained that key barriers to effective aquaculture health management were insufficient resources to investigate and tackle infectious aquatic animal diseases, a dearth of legislation and capacity for disease surveillance, a reliance on reactive response, and a lack of impact and evidence-based approaches for prioritising problem-solving, commonly based on anecdotal evidence. Furthermore, communication among the multiple stakeholders involved was reported to be weak. This complex situation requires a multi-level response, which should span from strengthening the knowledge of farmers and professionals in the field to the
Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.
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Paudel, Prakash; Raina, C; Zwar, Nicholas; Seale, Holly; Worth, Heather; Sheikh, Mohamud; Heywood, Anita E
Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014. Details of pre-travel health preparation and disease-specific risk behaviours were collected. Among 180 cases associated with international travel, 28% were travellers and 22% were frequent travellers, having travelled ≥5 times in the past 5 years. 25% had sought pre-travel advice from a healthcare provider, and 16% reported a pre-travel vaccine. Seeking pre-travel health advice did not differ by immigrant status ( P = 0.22) or by reason for travel ( P = 0.13) but was more commonly sought by first time travellers ( P = 0.03). Travellers visiting friends and relatives were more likely to report at-risk activities of brushing teeth with tap water ( P food ( P = 0.03) during travel compared to other travellers. Pre-travel health advice seeking practices and vaccine uptake was suboptimal among cases of notified disease. The results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of barriers to pre-travel health seeking, particularly among high risk travellers, to reduce the importation of infectious diseases into Australia. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Satta, R; Biondi, G
Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally
MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.
Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844
... an ID Specialist? Facts about ID Pocketcard Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural ... from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow ... of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes ...
Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro
This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. © 2013 APJPH.
Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Morin, Magnus; Jenvald, Johan; Nyce, James M.; Gursky, Elin A.; Eriksson, Henrik
Computer simulations have emerged as important tools in the preparation for outbreaks of infectious disease. To support the collaborative planning and responding to the outbreaks, reports from simulations need to be transparent (accessible) with regard to the underlying parametric settings. This paper presents a design for generation of simulation reports where the background settings used in the simulation models are automatically visualized. We extended the ontology-management system Protégé to tag different settings into categories, and included these in report generation in parallel to the simulation outcomes. The report generator takes advantage of an XSLT specification and collects the documentation of the particular simulation settings into abridged XMLs including also summarized results. We conclude that even though inclusion of critical background settings in reports may not increase the accuracy of infectious disease simulations, it can prevent misunderstandings and less than optimal public health decisions.
Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter
The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.
Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.
Assefa, Ayalew; Abunna, Fufa
Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture. Among the effective prevention and control strategies, vaccination is one of the key practices. Types of vaccines for use in fish include killed vaccines, attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant technology vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines. Administration techniques of vaccines in fish include oral, injection, or immersion methods. Antibiotics are also in use in aquaculture despite their side effects in the development of drug resistance by microorganisms. Biological and chemical disease control strategies such as using probiotics, prebiotics, and medicinal plants are widely in use. Biosecurity measures in aquaculture can keep the safety of a facility from certain disease-causing agents that are absent in particular system. Farm-level biosecurity measures include strict quarantine measures, egg disinfection, traffic control, water treatments, clean feed, and disposal of mortalities. In conclusion, rather than trying to treat every disease case, it advisable to follow a preventive approach before the event of any disease outbreaks.
Full Text Available Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture. Among the effective prevention and control strategies, vaccination is one of the key practices. Types of vaccines for use in fish include killed vaccines, attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant technology vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines. Administration techniques of vaccines in fish include oral, injection, or immersion methods. Antibiotics are also in use in aquaculture despite their side effects in the development of drug resistance by microorganisms. Biological and chemical disease control strategies such as using probiotics, prebiotics, and medicinal plants are widely in use. Biosecurity measures in aquaculture can keep the safety of a facility from certain disease-causing agents that are absent in particular system. Farm-level biosecurity measures include strict quarantine measures, egg disinfection, traffic control, water treatments, clean feed, and disposal of mortalities. In conclusion, rather than trying to treat every disease case, it advisable to follow a preventive approach before the event of any disease outbreaks.
Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11, 2012...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
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... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence, Basic and Clinical Components... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants and Implementation..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 20, 2012...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Implementation Grants. Date: June... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Inner City Asthma Consortium: Statistical and Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 15, 2010...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; DAIDS Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia; Schaefer, Adam M; Reif, John S
From 2003 to 2015, 360 free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, n = 246), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS, n = 114), South Carolina, USA, were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. The aim of this review is to summarize the substantial health data generated by this study and to examine morbidity between capture sites and over time. The IRL and CHS dolphin populations are affected by complex infectious and neoplastic diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances. We found evidence of infection with cetacean morbillivirus, dolphin papilloma and herpes viruses, Chlamydiaceae, a novel uncultivated strain of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (recently identified as the causal agent of dolphin lobomycosis/lacaziasis), and other pathogens. This is the first long-term study documenting the various types, progression, seroprevalence, and pathologic interrelationships of infectious diseases in dolphins from the southeastern USA. Additionally, the study has demonstrated that the bottlenose dolphin is a valuable sentinel animal that may reflect environmental health concerns and parallel emerging public health issues.
McMichael, Anthony J
Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 35225
Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana; Girardi, Enrico; Piselli, Pierluca; Kentikelenis, Alexander
Systematic information on infectious disease services provided to refugees and asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) is sparse. We conducted a scoping study of experts in six EU countries in order to map health system responses related to infectious disease prevention and control among refugees and asylum seekers. We conducted 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews with first-line staff and health officials to collect information about existing guidelines and practices at each stage of reception in first-entry (Greece/Italy), transit (Croatia/Slovenia), and destination countries (Austria/Sweden). Thematic coding was used to perform a content analysis of interview material. Guidance on infectious disease screening and health assessments lack standardisation across and-partly-within countries. Data collection on notifiable infectious diseases is mainly reported to be performed by national public health institutions, but is not stratified by migrant status. Health-related information is not transferred in a standardized way between facilities within a single country. International exchange of medical information between countries along the migration route is irregular. Services were reported to be fragmented, and respondents mentioned no specific coordination bodies beyond health authorities at different levels. Infectious disease health services provided to refugees and asylum seekers lack standardisation in health assessments, data collection, transfer of health-related information and (partly) coordination. This may negatively affect health system performance including public health emergency preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marissa A. Valentine
Full Text Available In developing countries, public health professionals and scientists need targeted training and practical skills to respond to global emerging infectious disease threats. The Certificate in Emerging Infectious Disease Research was developed in 2008 to aid such professionals to respond to complex emerging disease problems. The short-course was modified slightly in 2013 and renamed the Certificate in One Health. To evaluate the immediate impact of the short-course, an online survey of 176 past participants from both the courses was conducted. The survey tool assessed the program’s process, impact, and outcome measures respectively via assessing the courses’ perceived strengths and weaknesses, perceived skills gained, and the participants’ current position, publication status, funding status, and educational attainment; 85 (48.3% participants completed the survey. Reported program strengths included the curriculum, expertise of lecturers, and diversity of the training cohort. The principal reported weakness was the compressed academic schedule. The most frequently reported benefits included: epidemiological and biostatistical skills, followed by One-Health knowledge, and research skills. Twenty-eight percent of the survey respondents reported publishing one or more manuscripts since completing the course and 21% reported receiving research funding. The course appears to have had a positive, immediate impact on the students’ self-perceived knowledge and capabilities.
Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health
Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.
Geller, Gail; Dvoskin, Rachel; Thio, Chloe L; Duggal, Priya; Lewis, Michelle H; Bailey, Theodore C; Sutherland, Andrea; Salmon, Daniel A; Kahn, Jeffrey P
Advances in genomics are contributing to the development of more effective, personalized approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Genetic sequencing technologies are furthering our understanding of how human and pathogen genomic factors - and their interactions - contribute to individual differences in immunologic responses to vaccines, infections and drug therapies. Such understanding will influence future policies and procedures for infectious disease management. With the potential for tailored interventions for particular individuals, populations or subpopulations, ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) may arise for public health and clinical practice. Potential considerations include balancing health-related benefits and harms between individuals and the larger community, minimizing threats to individual privacy and autonomy, and ensuring just distribution of scarce resources. In this Opinion, we consider the potential application of pathogen and host genomic information to particular viral infections that have large-scale public health consequences but differ in ELSI-relevant characteristics such as ease of transmission, chronicity, severity, preventability and treatability. We argue for the importance of anticipating these ELSI issues in advance of new scientific discoveries, and call for the development of strategies for identifying and exploring ethical questions that should be considered as clinical, public health and policy decisions are made.
Sehgal, R N M
In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.
Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K.; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Bedu-Addo, George
In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4–15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38–52%), for malnutrition 50% (43–57%) and for CRFs 16% (11–21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21–34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2–9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3–11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted. PMID:28727775
The African Journal of Infectious Diseases accepts original research papers on the ... Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018) ... oxygen treatment of HIV-1 infected on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCS) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art. Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 7/26/2017.
King, Osric S
There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.
Gwenan M. Knight
Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.
... such as SARS. David J BRADLEY is Ross Professor of Tropical Hygiene Emeritus at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University. He has worked on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne and infectious diseases, water in relation to health, and concepts in international h...
D'Angelo, Michael S; Arias, Jean
Healthcare Security should be considered an active component in an infectious disease event, the authors maintain, and security officers must be included in an Employee Health screening and N95 fit testing initiative to safely welcome the incoming infected patients. In this article, they spell out the different levels of precautions officers should become familiar with in order to protect themselves.
Sommerfeld, J; Oduola, A M J
The African continent is disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. Malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and more "neglected" diseases including African trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma continue to dramatically impact social and economic development on the continent. Health biotechnologies provide potential to develop effective strategies for the fight against the vicious circle of poverty and infections by helping in the development and improvement of novel affordable drugs, diagnostics and vaccines against these diseases. As the prospects of this emerging biotechnology research and deployment of its products become a reality in Africa, there is a need to consider the ethical, legal and social implications of both the scientific and technological advances and their use in the communities. The article provides a short overview of the potential values of biotechnology, issues involved in its transfer and presents the rationale, design and recommendations of the international workshop/symposium held in April 2005 at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Redditt, Vanessa J; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb
To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Retrospective chart review. Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P refugees (64%, P refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and therapeutics. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Lier EA van; Havelaar AH; LZO
Consequences of different infectious diseases cannot be adequately compared with each other on the basis of the number of patients or mortality data only. It is better to combine all health effects and express the total impact as disease burden, which also takes duration and severity of diseases
Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.
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Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin
Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.
William J. H. McBride
Full Text Available Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.
Hongoh, Valerie; Michel, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Samoura, Karim; Ravel, André; Campagna, Céline; Cissé, Hassane Djibrilla; Waaub, Jean-Philippe
The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.
Full Text Available The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA approach was used to assess multi-stakeholder expressed concerns around disease prioritization via focus groups held in Quebec and Burkina Faso. Stakeholders weighted criteria and comparisons were made across study sites. A pilot disease prioritization was done to examine effects on disease rankings. A majority of identified criteria were common to both sites. The effect of context specific criteria and weights resulted in similar yet distinct prioritizations of diseases. The presence of consistent criteria between sites suggests that common concerns exist for prioritization; however, context-specific adjustments reveal much regarding resource availability, capacity and concerns that should be considered as this impacts disease ranking. Participatory decision aid approaches facilitate rich knowledge exchange and problem structuring. Furthermore, given multiple actors in low- and middle-income countries settings, multi-actor collaborations across non-governmental organizations, local government and community are important. Formal mechanisms such as MCDA provide means to foster consensus, shared awareness and collaboration.
The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.
Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
Full Text Available Infectious diseases resemble a great threat to the human health according to World Health Organization where about 17% of all deaths (≈9.2 million deaths in 2013 recorded are related to infectious diseases. The pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are the principle causes of infectious diseases. Ebola, AIDS, dengue, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis are among 216 infectious diseases found where the immunity represents the first line defense in infection. Lipidomic includes examination of different biological lipids in the biological cell. The lipidomic research covers all aspects of individual lipid molecule including its structure, function, connection with other cell constituents such as protein, lipid, and metabolite in both health and disease conditions. Details of cell biology obtained from different pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites provide a great data on molecular structure of host-pathogen relation and consequently on infection process. The lipids here play a very important role in many processes involved in host-pathogen relations. The role of lipid in host-pathogen link includes many processes in (1 structural host constituents, (2 host recognition, (3 intracellular transferring, and (4 energy and resource homeostasis during pathogen duplication. There are many lipid phosphatases, kinases, and lipases molecules that greatly involved in these processes and controlling pathogen expression and infection progress. The cell lipid metabolism depends on an adequate energy stores that push the infection to be accelerated and disease symptoms to be appeared. Consequently, future lipidomics studies are the basic for detecting the lipid role in host-pathogen relations which help in therapy advances and biomarkers development.
Zhang, Zhizun; Gonzalez, Mila C; Morse, Stephen S; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
There are increasing concerns about our preparedness and timely coordinated response across the globe to cope with emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). This poses practical challenges that require exploiting novel knowledge management approaches effectively. This work aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge management framework that addresses the existing challenges in sharing and reusing public health knowledge. We propose a systems engineering-inspired ontology-driven knowledge management approach. It decomposes public health knowledge into concepts and relations and organizes the elements of knowledge based on the teleological functions. Both knowledge and semantic rules are stored in an ontology and retrieved to answer queries regarding EID preparedness and response. A hybrid concept extraction was implemented in this work. The quality of the ontology was evaluated using the formal evaluation method Ontology Quality Evaluation Framework. Our approach is a potentially effective methodology for managing public health knowledge. Accuracy and comprehensiveness of the ontology can be improved as more knowledge is stored. In the future, a survey will be conducted to collect queries from public health practitioners. The reasoning capacity of the ontology will be evaluated using the queries and hypothetical outbreaks. We suggest the importance of developing a knowledge sharing standard like the Gene Ontology for the public health domain. ©Zhizun Zhang, Mila C Gonzalez, Stephen S Morse, Venkat Venkatasubramanian. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 11.10.2017.
Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina
This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.
Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M
Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.
Mahy, Patrick; Collard, Jean-Marc; Gala, Jean-Luc; Herman, Philippe; Groof, Dirk De; Quoilin, Sophie; Sneyers, Myriam
The combination of changes in eating habits, ways of living, globalisation, extensive travelling and the migration of millions of people around the world may be contributing to increased health risks. Certainly, health crises today are proving highly complex. More and more people are travelling and may carry with them unexpected virus vectors such as mosquitoes. Preparedness is challenging and there is a need for action plans to safeguard the growing at-risk population. Health crises can potentially affect a large proportion of the population and may lead to a significant increase in mortality or to an abnormally high death rate. This should be integrated into the general concept of national and international surveillance in order to provide a prepared response in the event of crisis. This paper provides an inventory of the relevant laws, guidelines and tools in Europe (and to a lesser degree, beyond), and proposes answers to the health crisis problems associated with infectious and communicable diseases. In crisis management, communication is an important factor to consider. This paper can serve as a tool for people involved in crisis preparedness.
Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.
Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…
Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P
Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.
Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B
Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.
Cunha, Burke A
... to particular ﬂora and fauna. The purpose of Tickborne Infectious Diseases: Diagnosis and Management is to condense in a single book different approaches and paradigms of tickborne infectious diseases. Three chapters are devoted to background information, including the natural history of ticks, the diagnostic procedures of tickborne diseases, and the new tick-transm...
...] Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety and... public workshops entitled ``Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion... Office of Science and Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of...
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan
Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.
Stojkovic, Marija; Müller, Jan; Junghanss, Thomas; Weber, Tim Frederik
Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases. The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories. Radiological pertinent knowledge was compiled based on literature search. A small selection of frequently imported infectious diseases covers a considerable fraction of health care problems associated with migration. For cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis imaging is the most relevant diagnostic procedure defining also disease stages. Tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis are important differentials for malignant diseases. Imaging plays a meaningful role in diagnosis, treatment stratification, and follow-up of imported infectious diseases. Radiological skills concerning these diseases are important for providing health care for patients in context of migration. · Imaging plays a meaningful role in multidisciplinary care for imported infectious diseases.. · A small selection covers a considerable fraction of infectious diseases expected in context of migration.. · Stojkovic M, Müller J, Junghanss T et al. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 121 - 133. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B
We describe the incidence of some childhood infections in drought prone areas of southern Ethiopia. Our results are based on 24 months' biweekly observations of 828 children aged 0-5 years in the pastoralist community of Dubluk and the agricultural community of Elka. An average of 23% of the children in Dubluk and 13% in Elka were sick during any 2-week period. Diarrhoeal diseases represented the main cause of morbidity, but the yearly number of diarrhoeal episodes were lower than previously reported from Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infections and to a lesser extent diarrhoeal diseases, showed highest incidence rates during the main dry season. The highest incidence of lower respiratory tract infections coincided with an outbreak of measles. In Dubluk, children who lived near to the wells had higher incidence rates than those who lived further away, probably reflecting the importance of crowding on transmission rates. In Elka, literacy of mothers was associated with reduced incidence of both diarrhoeal and respiratory tract infections, whereas the use of open pit latrines was associated with increased diarrhoeal incidence. The decline in disease incidence in this region during the last months of our study may reflect an improvement of nutritional status.
Field, Vanessa; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Castelli, Francesco; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Weld, Leisa; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; de Vries, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Weber, Rainer; Cramer, Jakob; Pérignon, Alice; Odolini, Silvia; Carosi, Giampiero; Chappuis, François
Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we
Field, V.; Gautret, P.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Burchard, G.D.; Caumes, E.; Jensenius, M.; Castelli, F.; Gkrania-Klotsas, E.; Weld, L.; Lopez-Velez, R.; de Vries, P.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Loutan, L.; Parola, P.
Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in
Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal. Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/5/2012.
Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E.; Sharif, Omar
Context: Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. Objective: PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. Design: An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual report...
Full Text Available Infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae not only affect wild amphibian populations but also agriculture and international animal trade. Although, the prevalence of RV infections and die offs has markedly increased over the last decade, it is still unclear whether these viruses are direct causal agents of extinction or rather are the resulting (secondary consequences of weakened health of amphibian populations leading to increased susceptibility to viral pathogens. In either case, it is important to understand the critical role of host immune defense in controlling RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission; this is the focus of this review.
Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao
The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision.
Domínguez Aurrecoechea, B; Fernández Francés, M; Ordóñez Alonso, M Á; López Vilar, P; Pérez Candás, J I; Merino Ramos, L; Aladro Antuña, A; Fernández López, F J; Pérez López, A M
Parents often ask paediatricians for advice about the best way to care for their children. There are discrepancies in the literature on this subject. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of attending kindergartens on the risk of acute infections and the use of health care resources in children less than 24 months. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on two cohorts of children 0-24 months (born between 1 January and 30 September 2010), who were grouped according to whether they attended kindergarten or not, and were usually seen in 33 pediatric clinics of the Principality of Asturias Public Health Service. A total of 975 children were studied, of whom 43.7% attended a kindergarten at 24 months. Attending kindergarten increases the risk of pneumonia by 131%, recurrent wheezing by 69%, bronchitis by 57%, and otitis media by 64%. Early exposure to kindergarten increases the risk of pneumonia from 2.31 to 2.81, and the mean emergency room visits from 1 to 2.3. The mean antibiotic cycle is 1.7 in children who do not go to kindergarten, 3.4 if started within the first 6 months, and 2 if they start at 18 months. Day-care attendance is a risk factor of infectious diseases that increases if attending kindergartens from an early age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bibi, S.; Sajjad, I.; Akram, W.; Viqar, N.; Iqbal, M.S.; Iqbal, M.Z.
Serum of one hundred thirty normal subjects and 100 patients of different infections were analysed by electrophoresis and atomic absorption flame spectrophotometric technique. It was found that about sixty percent of zinc is bound to albumin and thirty percent is bound to alpha 2-globulins with a variation of 2-5%, beta-globulins and gamma-globulins with a variation of 2-5% in different normal subjects. While the determination of zinc in patients of different infections shows 20-30% decrease in the concentration of albumin bound zinc. The concentration of zinc in alpha 2-globulins remains the same in normal subjects as well as in patients of different infections. The results indicate that in low nourished normal subjects, there is a low concentration of zinc complexes of albumin and a greater chance of different infectious diseases it was further known that albumin works for the transport of zinc and possibly, alpha 2-globulins plays on intermediate role for the attachment of zinc to different body organs. From the above determinations, it is clear that it is the low concentration of zinc in normal subjects which favours the attack of infectious disease. So higher levels of zinc in serum means more resistance towards the attack of infectious diseases. (author)
Parhizgari, Najmeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan
Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans’ demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas. Because of the various types of geographic properties in Iran, substantial climatic variability, as well as unstable political situations and poor public health conditions in some of neighboring countries, EIDs and RIDs are serious public health problems; among them, zoonotic and drug resistant diseases are the most significant. Hence, this review provides an overview of the significant bacterial, viral and fungal EIDs and RIDs in Iran regarding their epidemiological aspects. PMID:29225752
López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena
Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning Grants (R34) and Implementation... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Clinical Trails Units for NIAID Network'' (Meeting 1). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 16, 2013. David...
... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a HIV Vaccines Clinical Network. Date: May... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation. Date: April 8, 2013. Time: 12... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
R. Zoleko Manego
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Methods Major causes for health care attendance were collected from local hospital records. Cross sectional population based surveys were performed for the assessment of local malaria epidemiology. Pregnant women attending antenatal care services were surveyed as a sentinel population for the characterization of chronic viral and parasitic infections in the community. Results Infectious diseases were responsible for 71% (7469 of a total of 10,580 consultations at the formal health care sector in 2010. Overall, malaria – defined by clinical syndrome – remained the most frequent cause for health care attendance. A cross sectional malaria survey in 840 asymptomatic individuals residing in Tsamba Magotsi resulted in a Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence of 37%. The infection rate in 2–10 year old asymptomatic children – a standard measure for malaria endemicity – was 46% (100 of 217 with P. falciparum as predominant species (79%. Infection with other plasmodial species (P. ovale and P. malariae presented most commonly as coinfections (23.2%. Prevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis were 6.2, 7.3, and 2.5%, respectively, in cross-sectional assessments of antenatal care visits of pregnant women. Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections
Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.
Wondwossen A Gebreyes
Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to
Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J
Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight
Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying
Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.
Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... to increase the public health impact of CDC's infectious disease prevention and control efforts...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; HLA Region Genetics in Immune- Mediated Diseases. Date: April 7-8... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trails''. Date: August 12... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
Dara L. Wegman-Geedey
Full Text Available Review of: Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and their Impact on Global Health and Development, 2nd Edition; Peter J. Hotez; (2013. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 255 pages.
Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg
Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced
Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka
Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...
Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat
Background Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. Methods We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Findings Between 1997–2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011–2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Interpretation Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment
Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat
Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Between 1997-2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011-2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment.
L. N. Mazankova
Full Text Available Based on statistical data, a comparative analysis of infectious morbidity and mortality in Moscow in 2015 and 2014 revealed a whole, the decline in these indicators. Made significant progress in reducing infectious morbidity in Moscow due to the vaccination of children, including — increased regional calendar of preventive vaccinations. However, analysis of the work of medical institutions indicates the feasibility of the development and introduction of technologies of management of patients with post-infectious syndromes, as well as improving the health care system for children with infectious diseases based on a multidisciplinary approach in close cooperation infectious disease and pediatricians of different specialties. To solve these problems is proposed a plan to improve the effectiveness of children's infectious diseases services relating to the reorganization of hospital beds and outpatient care, ensure the continuity of the different health facilities, implementation of modern methods of etiological diagnosis of infections, the organization of continuous vocational training of paediatricians in Moscow on a specialty «Infectious diseases».
Mayer, J D
Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis of the major characteristics of emerging diseases, in an interdisciplinary context. Political ecology is one framework for analysis that is promising in developing a modified ecology of disease.
Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming
The transmission of infectious diseases is a dynamic process determined by multiple factors originating from disease pathogens and/or parasites, vector species, and human populations. These factors interact with each other and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanisms of the disease transmission temporally, spatially, and socially. In this article, we provide a comprehensive perspective, named as systems thinking, for investigating disease dynamics and associated impact factors, by means of emphasizing the entirety of a system's components and the complexity of their interrelated behaviors. We further develop the general steps for performing systems approach to tackling infectious diseases in the real-world settings, so as to expand our abilities to understand, predict, and mitigate infectious diseases.
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Contract Review. Date: December 5, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 4, 2011...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Resource-Related Research Projects. Date: January 26, 2012. Time... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Beyond HAART: Innovative Therapies to Control HIV-1. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013...
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB... the infectious disease national centers; and focused discussions on 1) the public health use of...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 31, 2013. David Clary, Program...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 19, 2013...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``Investigator Initiated Program Project Application.'' Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.
Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768
Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo
The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...... of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...
Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo
We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.
A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de
Bailey, Charles L.
Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.
Eveillard, Matthieu; Ruvoen, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Fradet, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Krempf, Michel; Magras, Catherine
This report describes the integration of the microbiology and infectious diseases teaching courses in an international Master's level interdisciplinary programme based on the 'One world, one health' WHO concept, and reports the students and teachers' evaluation related to their feelings of about this innovative programme. The integration was evaluated by recording the positioning of these two topics in the five teaching units constituting the programme, and by identifying their contribution in the interactions between the different teaching units. The satisfaction of students was assessed by a quantitative survey, whereas the feelings of students and teachers were assessed by interviews. The study demonstrated that microbiology and infectious diseases were widely involved in interactions between the teaching units, constituting a kind of cement for the programme. The students assigned a mean score of 3.7 to the topics dealing with microbiology and infectious diseases. According to the qualitative data, students and teachers considered that the interdisciplinary approach provided new insights but reported problems of communication, probably inherent to the multiculturalism of the class. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M
BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...
Full Text Available Abstract We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs, using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.
Michael Xiaoliang Tong
Full Text Available China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.
Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng
China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.
Scientific and technological advances derived from the genomics revolution have a central role to play in dealing with continuing infectious disease threats in the developing world caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens. These techniques, coupled with increasing knowledge of host-pathogen interactions, can assist in the early identification and containment of outbreaks as well as in the development of preventive vaccination and therapeutic interventions, including the urgent need for new antibiotics. However, the effective application of genomics technologies faces key barriers and challenges which occur at three stages: from the research to the products, from the products to individual patients, and, finally, from patients to entire populations. There needs to be an emphasis on research in areas of greatest need, in facilitating the translation of research into interventions and, finally, the effective delivery of such interventions to those in greatest need. Ultimate success will depend on bringing together science, society and policy to develop effective public health implementation strategies to provide health security and health equity for all peoples.
Steenbergen, J.E. van; Timen, A.
Municipal health services (MHSs) carry out the control and prevention of communicable diseases, under the authority of the municipal councils. Mayors have the authority to enforce measures aimed at individuals, such as isolation and quarantine. The mandatory notification of infectious diseases by
Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kosmidis, John; Daikos, George K
About 2500 years ago, Hippocrates made noteworthy observations about the influence of climate on public health. He believed that people living in cities with different climate may suffer from different diseases. Hippocrates also observed that abrupt climatic changes or unusual weather conditions affect public health, especially the incidence and severity of various infectious diseases, including gastrointestinal infections, tuberculosis, and central nervous system infections. We believe that Hippocrates' scientific observations are great early historic examples that stress to modern infectious diseases researchers and clinicians the need to study intensively the effect of the occurring global climate changes to infectious diseases in order to help in the prevention of possible epidemics of infections. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P
The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season
... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.
... medical professionals? When do I need an ID specialist? Many common infections can be treated by your ... diseases. Back to Top How was my ID specialist trained? Your ID Physician has 9-10 years ...
Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.
This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by
Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping
Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.
Lafferty, Kevin D.
The projected global increase in the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases with climate change suggests a pending societal crisis. The subject is increasingly attracting the attention of health professionals and climate-change scientists, particularly with respect to malaria and other vector-transmitted human diseases. The result has been the emergence of a crisis discipline, reminiscent of the early phases of conservation biology. Latitudinal, altitudinal, seasonal, and interannual associations between climate and disease along with historical and experimental evidence suggest that climate, along with many other factors, can affect infectious diseases in a nonlinear fashion. However, although the globe is significantly warmer than it was a century ago, there is little evidence that climate change has already favored infectious diseases. While initial projections suggested dramatic future increases in the geographic range of infectious diseases, recent models predict range shifts in disease distributions, with little net increase in area. Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate.
Berkley, Holly; Barnes, Matthew; Carnahan, David; Hayhurst, Janet; Bockhorst, Archie; Neville, James
To describe the use of template-based screening for risk of infectious disease exposure of patients presenting to primary care medical facilities during the 2014 West African Ebola virus outbreak. The Military Health System implemented an Ebola risk-screening tool in primary care settings in order to create early notifications and early responses to potentially infected persons. Three time-sensitive, evidence-based screening questions were developed and posted to Tri-Service Workflow (TSWF) AHLTA templates in conjunction with appropriate training. Data were collected in January 2015, to assess the adoption of the TSWF-based Ebola risk-screening tool. Among encounters documented using TSWF templates, 41% of all encounters showed use of the TSWF-based Ebola risk-screening questions by the fourth day. The screening rate increased over the next 3 weeks, and reached a plateau at approximately 50%. This report demonstrates the MHS capability to deploy a standardized, globally applicable decision support aid that could be seen the same day by all primary care clinics across the military health direct care system, potentially improving rapid compliance with screening directives. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas
For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures. A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated. The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars. By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.
Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding
Khor, Chiea C; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Chapman, Stephen J; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H; Walley, Andrew J; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K H; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J Anthony; Williams, Thomas N; Berkley, James A; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L S; Fine, Paul E M; Goh, Denise L M; Hill, Adrian V S
The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam. We had previously tested 20 other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (at positions -639, -292, -163, +1320, and +3415 [all relative to CISH]) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multiple-SNP score, we found an association between CISH genetic variants and susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (P=3.8x10(-11) for all comparisons), with -292 accounting for most of the association signal (P=4.58x10(-7)). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells obtained from adult subjects carrying the -292 variant, as compared with wild-type cells, showed a muted response to the stimulation of interleukin-2 production--that is, 25 to 40% less CISH expression. Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling have a role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of one of these infectious diseases was increased by at least 18% among persons carrying the variant CISH alleles. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.
Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391
[Recommendations for the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases in pediatric and adolescent refugees in Germany : Statement of the German Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the Society of Tropical Pediatrics and International Child Health, and the Professional Association of Pediatricians].
Pfeil, J; Kobbe, R; Trapp, S; Kitz, C; Hufnagel, M
Child and adolescent refugees in Germany represent a particularly vulnerable social group and treating infectious diseases forms a crucial part of providing their medical care. From an infectious diseases perspective, refugees themselves, as a result of their difficult personal circumstances, are the ones at highest risk. Even in crisis situations, medical practitioners are medically and ethically obliged to provide a high standard of care. The guidelines presented here propose recommendations for diagnosing and preventing infectious diseases among refugees under 18 in Germany. The guidelines are intended to assist in optimizing vaccine protection and treatment of diseases while taking into consideration factors such as refugees' challenging living conditions, cultural differences and potential language barriers.Upon refugees' arrival at the first housing sites, it is recommended that a basic clinical screening (and not just a brief visual inspection) be provided in order to identify and initiate treatment for acute medical problems and potentially contagious diseases (including tuberculosis), as well as to close gaps in vaccination coverage. Documentation of the clinical findings is critical, both to avoid redundant investigations and to optimize individual medical care. For this, an effective communication system must be established.Once refugees have been transferred into their destination community, outpatient and inpatient care providers should collaborate to bring refugees up-to-date with all vaccines recommended by STIKO (German Standing Committee on Vaccination). The same high standard of medical care should be delivered to refugees as would be to the general population. Due to the high prevalence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO) in the refugees' countries of origin, MRO screening is recommended for most patients receiving inpatient care.
Pierson, Duane L.
This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.
In the light of a double approach, at first empirical, later theoretical and comparative, illustrated by the example of the Buruli ulcer and its mycobacterial agent Mycobacterium ulcerans on which I focused my research activity these last ten years by studying determinants and factors of emerging infectious or parasitic diseases, the complexity of events explaining emerging diseases will be presented. The cascade of events occurring at various levels of spatiotemporal scales and organization of life, which lead to the numerous observed emergences, nowadays requires better taking into account the interactions between host(s), pathogen(s) and the environment by including the behavior of both individuals and the population. In numerous research studies on emerging infectious diseases, microbial hazard is described rather than infectious disease risk, the latter resulting from the confrontation between an association of threatening phenomena, or hazards, and a susceptible population. Beyond, the theme of emerging infectious diseases and its links with global environmental and societal changes leads to reconsider some well-established knowledge in infectiology and parasitology. © Société de Biologie, 2017.
Liu, Danhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Yang, Peng; Rao, Keqin
Exploring solutions for infectious disease information sharing among hospital and public health information systems is imperative to the improvement of disease surveillance and emergent response. This paper aimed at developing a method to directly transmit real-time data of notifiable infectious diseases from hospital information systems to public health information systems on the Internet by using a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. The mechanism and work flow by which notifiable infectious disease data are created, reported and used at health agencies in China was evaluated. The capacity of all participating providers to use electronic data interchange to submit transactions of data required for the notifiable infectious disease reporting was assessed. The minimum data set at national level that is required for reporting for national notifiable infectious disease surveillance was determined. The standards and techniques available worldwide for electronic health data interchange, such as XML, HL7 messaging, CDA and ATSM CCR, etc. were reviewed and compared, and an XML implementation format needed for this purpose was defined for hospitals that are able to access the Internet to provide a complete infectious disease reporting. There are 18,703 county or city hospitals in China. All of them have access to basic information infrastructures including computers, e-mail and the Internet. Nearly 10,000 hospitals possess hospital information systems used for electronically recording, retrieving and manipulating patients' information. These systems collect 23 data items required in the minimum data set for national notifiable infectious disease reporting. In order to transmit these data items to the disease surveillance system and local health information systems instantly and without duplication of data input, an XML schema and a set of standard data elements were developed to define the content, structure and semantics of the data set. These standards
Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile
We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as socia...
Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca
The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.
Lee, Bruce Y; Wong, Kim F; Bartsch, Sarah M; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Brown, Shawn T; Song, Yeohan; Singh, Ashima; Kim, Diane S; Huang, Susan S
As healthcare systems continue to expand and interconnect with each other through patient sharing, administrators, policy makers, infection control specialists, and other decision makers may have to take account of the entire healthcare 'ecosystem' in infection control. We developed a software tool, the Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA), that can accept user-inputted data to rapidly create a detailed agent-based simulation model (ABM) of the healthcare ecosystem (ie, all healthcare facilities, their adjoining community, and patient flow among the facilities) of any region to better understand the spread and control of infectious diseases. To demonstrate RHEA's capabilities, we fed extensive data from Orange County, California, USA, into RHEA to create an ABM of a healthcare ecosystem and simulate the spread and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Various experiments explored the effects of changing different parameters (eg, degree of transmission, length of stay, and bed capacity). Our model emphasizes how individual healthcare facilities are components of integrated and dynamic networks connected via patient movement and how occurrences in one healthcare facility may affect many other healthcare facilities. A decision maker can utilize RHEA to generate a detailed ABM of any healthcare system of interest, which in turn can serve as a virtual laboratory to test different policies and interventions.
Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J
A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD) occurred in a flock of 11-week old crossbreeds of Harco cocks and indigenous Nigerian hens (referred to as exotic and locals respectively in the text). Clinical signs observed include depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers and diarrhoea. Haemorrhages were present in the bursa ...
Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants. Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/15/2012.
Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong
Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.
of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...
Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee
The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.
Chowdhury, Q M Monzur Kader; Roy, Sawrab; Alam, Shahrul; Ahmed, Juned
Infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle cause great economic losses of farmers as well as country every year by reducing growth, production and mortality of cattle population. The objective of this research work was to find out the prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle at Moulvibazar, Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 2285 clinical cases were diagnosed at District Veterinary Hospital in Moulvibazar, Bangladesh during January to June, 2016. Disease diagnosis was ...
Plague epidemic is going on in Madagascar. Many countries are in constant worries that such deadly infectious diseases might be carried from one part of the world to them (3). Although member countries signed an international agreement to report outbreaks promptly to the. World Health Organization and take steps to.
Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong
Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of
Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards
Conclusions: Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients.
Vandenberg, Olivier; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Schrenzel, Jacques; Struelens, Marc Jean; Breuer, Judith
Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale "microbiology laboratories network." Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s) for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.
Full Text Available Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs, European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale “microbiology laboratories network.” Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.
Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M
Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.
Full Text Available A number of infectious diseases amongst travelers and the immigrant populations are a major public health concern. Some have a long incubation period or remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic for many years before leading to significant clinical manifestations and/or complications. HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis or latent syphilis are among the most significant persistent diseases in migrants. Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis, for instance, are persistent helminthic infections that may cause significant morbidity, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C. Chagas disease, which was initially confined to Latin America, must also now be considered in immigrants from endemic countries. Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria are other examples of parasitic diseases that must be taken into account by physicians treating incarcerated migrants. The focus of this review article is on the risk of neglected tropical diseases in particularly vulnerable correctional populations and on the risk of infectious diseases that commonly affect migrants but which are often underestimated.
Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao
Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James
It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.
Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A
Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.
Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.
Central America at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea...inferred that in Belize, 2 tropical infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan ,1 dengue and malaria are...Centro Americano) representatives in Belize City. Two ERC technologists and two CML technicians attended an INCAP (Instituto de Nutricion de Centro
Full Text Available Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery.
Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L
Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for...
Daniela Lydia Krause
Full Text Available There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS. We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 individuals were included (schizophrenic patients, Tourette patients and controls. We evaluated antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes-simplex virus (HSV, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis/pneumoniae. By comparing schizophrenia and TS, we found a higher prevalence of HSV (P=0.017 and CMV (P=0.017 antibodies in schizophrenic patients. Considering the relationship between schizophrenia, TS and healthy controls, we showed that there are associations for Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.007, HSV (P=0.027 and CMV (P=0.029. When all measured viruses, bacteria and protozoa were combined, schizophrenic patients had a higher rate of antibodies to infectious agents than TS patients (P=0.049. Tourette and schizophrenic patients show a different vulnerability to infectious agents. Schizophrenic patients were found to have a higher susceptibility to viral infections than individuals with TS. This finding might point to a modification in special immune parameters in these diseases.
Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.
Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)
Thompson, John Richard
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.
Full Text Available To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis; there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanisms and Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV/SIV. Date... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 1. Date: June 1, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 2. Date: June...
Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases. Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/13/2014.
Brown, Lisa; Murray, Virginia
Introduction Many infectious diseases are sensitive to climatic changes; specifically, flooding. This systematic literature review aimed to strengthen the quality and completeness of evidence on infectious diseases following flooding, relevant to Europe. Methods A systematic literature review from 2004-2012 was performed. Focused searches of the following databases were conducted: Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Evidence Aid. Personal communications with key informants were also reviewed. Results Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence suggested that water-borne, rodent-borne, and vector-borne diseases have been associated with flooding in Europe, although at a lower incidence than developing countries. Conclusion Disease surveillance and early warning systems, coupled with effective prevention and response capabilities, can reduce current and future vulnerability to infectious diseases following flooding.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeted Clinical Trials To Reduce the Risk of Antimicrobial... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Targeted Clinical Trials To Reduce the Risk of Antimicrobial Resistance... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Collaborative Network for Clinical Research on Immune Tolerance... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date: July 10, 2013. Time: 10:00..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 11, 2013. David...
Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite
The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.
Chennyfer Dobbins Paes da Rosa
Full Text Available The Health Service Waste Management is a set of technical and legal procedures for waste management in any type of health facilities. It is known about the limited resources, so reducing environmental costs can contribute to the management of hospital costs. The objective was to estimate the cost of the phases of HSWM to the Intensive Care Unit for public service. Data collecting was done through a script of questions and observations on site at the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute in Sao Paulo. The ABC costing method was used. The most costly step was wrapping (40.68%, followed by segregation (40.17%, which is justified by both being associated with health workers’ salaries. The daily cost of the management of health care waste from segregation to final disposal in the ICU was R$ 4,288.81 a day, being R$ 314.80/bed-patient/day. To know the cost of an activity allows for the analysis of strategies for price negotiation. Health care waste is little remembered when pricing a daily ICU, many managers believe this value to be irrelevant; but< if not measured, it may bring losses to the institution.
Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H
Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and
Rubio-Cirilo, Laura; Martín-Ríos, M Dolores; de Las Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Andrés-Prado, M José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil
Notifiable infectious diseases represent a public health hazard, which is why they are under surveillance and must be reported. We tried to assess hospital physicians' knowledge of hospital physicians on notifiable infectious diseases and their self-reported attitudes to notification. An observational study was conducted using a questionnaire with 11 multiple choice questions, two yes/no questions and one short-answer question. It was distributed to all senior doctors and residents in 19 medical and surgical departments. A total of 248 questionnaires were sent out, with a response rate of 79.84%. More than three-quarters (76.3%) of the respondents were senior doctors. As regards specific knowledge about whether a particular disease is a notifiable disease, 29.5% identified correctly 100% of the named diseases, 3.2% could not identify any of them. All urgent named notifiable infectious diseases were correctly identified by 25.3% of physicians. Statistically significant differences were found in the knowledge of notifiable diseases knowledge in medical and surgical departments, as well as for senior doctors (P=.047) and residents (P=.035). A high percentage of medical services (40%) and surgical (70%) department reported never failing to notify. When asked about the causes of under-reporting, 72% did not know whether notification was mandatory or not, and 88% did not know what diseases must be notified. Although many respondents are aware that diseases notification is part of their daily activity, many of them admit under-reporting. There is insufficient knowledge about what diseases are considered notifiable infectious diseases and how to notify them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G
A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van Lier, Alies; McDonald, Scott A; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first
Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.
Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.
Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.
Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A
The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams, Deborah A; Thomas, Kimberly R; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Foster, Loretta; Baroi, Gitangali; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana H; Schley, Alan W; Anderson, Willie J
The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphical form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2015. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2015 reported as of June 30, 2016. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territories, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at https://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/MMWR_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.
Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten
The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.
Gall, Gabriella Eva Cristina
Full Text Available Syphilis is considered as one of the most devastating sexually transmitted diseases in human history. Based on historical records, the (German for spread through Europe after 1495 and shared symptoms with what we know today as syphilis. Many cities took measures to protect their population. Here, transliterations of archival documents from the 15 and 16 century (provided in the appendix are used to trace the steps taken by the governing authorities in Zurich to deal with this emerging infectious disease. One of the central measures taken by the city was to establish a quarantine facility referred to as the The city doctors, including the well-known physician and naturalist Conrad Gessner, oversaw the obligatory quarantine and treatment of patients with symptoms. Treatment could range from better nutrition, herbal remedies and skin ointments to aggressive heat therapy and “smoking”. Furthermore, the affliction was suspected as a sexually acquired disease, hence prostitutes and infected foreigners were extradited from the city. Meanwhile, the church used its social influence to promote a more “Christian” behavior. In several respects, the public health measures taken in the 16 century against a new and menacing epidemic do not diverge in their basic rationale from approaches used during the 20 century and today.
Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile
We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
... and Clinical Coordinating Center (CoFAR SACCC) (U19 and U01). Date: March 11-12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to... Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired Immunodeficiency...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID SBIR Phase II Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U44) and Clinical Trial Planning Grant (R34). Date: January 7, 2014. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date: June 12, 2013... Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date: June 25, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 1, 2013. David...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Clinical Trail Planning and Implementation Grants. Date... Emphasis Panel, Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants. Date: September 30, 2011. Time: 10 a.m... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on... 20817(Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Edward W. Schroder, Ph.D., Chief, Microbiology Review..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 2, 2013. David...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Centers for AIDS Research & Developmental Centers for AIDS Research. Date: September 27-28, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Centers for AIDS Research and Developmental Centers for AIDS Research (P30). Date: January 13-14, 2014. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia
Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814
Zheng Lung Ling
Full Text Available Despite their clear relationship to immunology, few existing studies have examined potential role of microparticles (MP in infectious disease. Infection with pathogens usually leads to the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as significant stress in both infected and uninfected cells. It is thus reasonable to infer from studies to date that infection-associated inflammation also leads to MP production. MP are produced by most of the major cell types in the immune system, and appear to be involved at both the innate and adaptive levels, potentially serving different functions at each level. Thus, MP do not appear to have a universal function; instead their functions are source- or stimulus-dependent, although likely to be primarily either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Importantly, in infectious diseases MP may have the ability to deliver antigen to APC via the biological cargo acquired from their cells of origin. Another potential benefit of MP would be to transfer and/or disseminate phenotype and function to target cells. However, MP may also potentially be manipulated, particularly by intracellular pathogens for survival advantage.
Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara
The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.
Milinovich, Gabriel J; Avril, Simon M R; Clements, Archie C A; Brownstein, John S; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao
Internet-based surveillance systems provide a novel approach to monitoring infectious diseases. Surveillance systems built on internet data are economically, logistically and epidemiologically appealing and have shown significant promise. The potential for these systems has increased with increased internet availability and shifts in health-related information seeking behaviour. This approach to monitoring infectious diseases has, however, only been applied to single or small groups of select diseases. This study aims to systematically investigate the potential for developing surveillance and early warning systems using internet search data, for a wide range of infectious diseases. Official notifications for 64 infectious diseases in Australia were downloaded and correlated with frequencies for 164 internet search terms for the period 2009-13 using Spearman's rank correlations. Time series cross correlations were performed to assess the potential for search terms to be used in construction of early warning systems. Notifications for 17 infectious diseases (26.6%) were found to be significantly correlated with a selected search term. The use of internet metrics as a means of surveillance has not previously been described for 12 (70.6%) of these diseases. The majority of diseases identified were vaccine-preventable, vector-borne or sexually transmissible; cross correlations, however, indicated that vector-borne and vaccine preventable diseases are best suited for development of early warning systems. The findings of this study suggest that internet-based surveillance systems have broader applicability to monitoring infectious diseases than has previously been recognised. Furthermore, internet-based surveillance systems have a potential role in forecasting emerging infectious disease events, especially for vaccine-preventable and vector-borne diseases.
Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa
Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.
Maslow, Joel N
The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.
Pauline van den Driessche
Full Text Available This primer article focuses on the basic reproduction number, â0, for infectious diseases, and other reproduction numbers related to â0 that are useful in guiding control strategies. Beginning with a simple population model, the concept is developed for a threshold value of â0 determining whether or not the disease dies out. The next generation matrix method of calculating â0 in a compartmental model is described and illustrated. To address control strategies, type and target reproduction numbers are defined, as well as sensitivity and elasticity indices. These theoretical ideas are then applied to models that are formulated for West Nile virus in birds (a vector-borne disease, cholera in humans (a disease with two transmission pathways, anthrax in animals (a disease that can be spread by dead carcasses and spores, and Zika in humans (spread by mosquitoes and sexual contacts. Some parameter values from literature data are used to illustrate the results. Finally, references for other ways to calculate â0 are given. These are useful for more complicated models that, for example, take account of variations in environmental fluctuation or stochasticity. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Disease control, West Nile virus, Cholera, Anthrax, Zika virus
Peter Piot 1
Full Text Available Despite advances in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases and poor maternal– and child–health low– and middle–income countries now face an additional burden with the inexorable rise of non–communicable diseases.
Dipasquale, Valeria; Romano, Claudio
The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD. Areas covered: A broad review of the major infectious diseases that have been reported in children and adolescents with IBD was performed, and information regarding surveillance, diagnosis and management were updated. The possible correlations with IBD pharmacological tools are discussed. Expert commentary: Opportunistic infections are possible in pediatric IBD, and immunosuppressive and immunomodulator therapy seems to play a causative role. Heightened awareness and vigilant surveillance leading to prompt diagnosis and treatment are important for optimal management.
Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Nakamura, Jiro; Hanada, Kyo
Integration of disease-specific programmes into the primary health care (PHC) service has been attempted mostly in clinically oriented disease control such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis but rarely in vector control. Chagas disease is controlled principally by interventions against the triatomine vector. In Honduras, after successful reduction of household infestation by vertical approach, the Ministry of Health implemented community-based vector surveillance at the PHC services (health centres) to prevent the resurgence of infection. This paper retrospectively analyses the effects and process of integrating a Chagas disease vector surveillance system into health centres. We evaluated the effects of integration at six pilot sites in western Honduras during 2008-2011 on; surveillance performance; knowledge, attitude and practice in schoolchildren; reports of triatomine bug infestation and institutional response; and seroprevalence among children under 15 years of age. The process of integration of the surveillance system was analysed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for health programme planning. The model was employed to systematically determine influential and interactive factors which facilitated the integration process at different levels of the Ministry of Health and the community. Overall surveillance performance improved from 46 to 84 on a 100 point-scale. Schoolchildren's attitude (risk awareness) score significantly increased from 77 to 83 points. Seroprevalence declined from 3.4% to 0.4%. Health centres responded to the community bug reports by insecticide spraying. As key factors, the health centres had potential management capacity and influence over the inhabitants' behaviours and living environment directly and through community health volunteers. The National Chagas Programme played an essential role in facilitating changes with adequate distribution of responsibilities, participatory modelling, training and, evaluation and advocacy. We found that Chagas
Chalk, P; Brower, J
... Wolfenson, president of the World Bank, has remarked: Many of us used to think of AIDS as a health issue. We were wrong. AIDS can no longer be confined to the health or social sector portfolios. Across Africa, AIDS is turning back the clock on development. Nothing we have seen is a greater challenge to the peace and stabilities of African societies ...
Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng
Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar
Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for
Impact of infectious diseases on population health using incidence-based disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): results from the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe study, European Union and European Economic Area countries, 2009 to 2013
Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Pini, Alessandro; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; Maringhini, Guido; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Havelaar, Arie H; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E
Background and aims The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) study aimed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 31 selected diseases in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: DALYs were estimated using an incidence-based and pathogen-based approach. Incidence was estimated through assessment of data availability and quality, and a correction was applied for under-estimation. Calculation of DALYs was performed with the BCoDE software toolkit without applying time discounting and age-weighting. Results: We estimated that one in 14 inhabitants experienced an infectious disease episode for a total burden of 1.38 million DALYs (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.25–1.5) between 2009 and 2013; 76% of which was related to the acute phase of the infection and its short-term complications. Influenza had the highest burden (30% of the total burden), followed by tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Men had the highest burden measured in DALYs (60% of the total), adults 65 years of age and over had 24% and children less than 5 years of age had 11%. Age group-specific burden showed that infants (less than 1 year of age) and elderly people (80 years of age and over) experienced the highest burden. Conclusions: These results provide baseline estimates for evaluating infectious disease prevention and control strategies. The study promotes an evidence-based approach to describing population health and assessing surveillance data availability and quality, and provides information for the planning and prioritisation of limited resources in infectious disease prevention and control. PMID:29692315
Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D
Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.
Ethnomedical and ethnobotanical investigations on the response capacities of Guinean traditional health practioners in the management of outbreaks of infectious diseases: The case of the Ebola virus epidemic.
Baldé, A M; Traoré, M S; Baldé, M A; Barry, M S; Diallo, A; Camara, M; Traoré, S; Kouyaté, M; Traoré, S; Ouo-Ouo, S; Myanthé, A L; Keita, N; Haba, N L; Goumou, K; Bah, F; Camara, A; Diallo, M S T; Sylla, M; Baldé, E S; Diané, S; Pieters, L; Oularé, K
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus infections has mostly remained confined to the West African countries Guinea-Conakry, Sierra-Leone and Liberia. Due to intense national and international mobilizations, a significant reduction in Ebola virus transmission has been recorded. While international efforts focus on new vaccines, medicines and diagnostics, no coherent national or international approach exists to integrate the potential of the traditional health practitioners (THPs) in the management of infectious diseases epidemics. Nevertheless, the first contact of most of the Ebola infected patients is with the THPs since the symptoms are similar to those of common traditionally treated diseases or symptoms such as malaria, hemorrhagic syndrome, typhoid or other gastrointestinal diseases, fever and vomiting. In an ethnomedical survey conducted in the 4 main Guinean regions contacts were established with a total of 113 THPs. The socio-demographic characteristics, the professional status and the traditional perception of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) were recorded. The traditional treatment of the main symptoms was based on 47 vegetal recipes which were focused on the treatment of diarrhea (22 recipes), fever (22 recipes), vomiting (2 recipes), external antiseptic (2 recipes), hemorrhagic syndrome (2 recipes), convulsion and dysentery (one recipe each). An ethnobotanical survey led to the collection of 54 plant species from which 44 identified belonging to 26 families. The most represented families were Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Rubiaceae. Literature data on the twelve most cited plant species tends to corroborate their traditional use and to highlight their pharmacological potential. It is worth to document all available knowledge on the traditional management of EVD-like symptoms in order to evaluate systematically the anti-Ebola potential of Guinean plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin; Sheng, Hui-Feng; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert
Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012. Its aim is to identify and assess research and information gaps that hinder progress towards new interventions for a particular public health problem in the developing world. From the inaugural IDP issue of October 25, 2012, a total of 256 manuscripts have been published over the following five years. Apart from a small number of editorials, opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor, the predominant types of publications are research articles (69.5%) and scoping reviews (21.5%). A total of 1 081 contributing authors divided between 323 affiliations across 68 countries, territories and regions produced these 256 publications. The journal is indexed in major international biomedical databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. In 2015, it was assigned its first impact factor (4.11), which is now 2.13. During the past five years, IDP has received manuscripts from 90 countries, territories and regions across six continents with an annual acceptance rate of all contributions maintained at less than 40%. Content analysis shows that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), followed by the "Big Three" (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis) and infectious diseases in general comprise 88% of all publications. In addition, a series of 10 thematic issues, covering 118 publications
Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel
Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harries, A D; Jensen, P M; Zachariah, R; Rusen, I D; Enarson, D A
Weak and dysfunctional health systems in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, are recognised as major obstacles to attaining the health-related Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Some progress is being made towards achieving the targets of Millennium Development Goal 6 for tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria, with the achievements largely resulting from clearly defined strategies and intervention delivery systems combined with large amounts of external funding. Thi...
Seibt, Silvia; Gilchrist, Catherine A; Reed, Peter W; Best, Emma J; Harnden, Anthony; Camargo, Carlos A; Grant, Cameron C
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors for infectious disease readmission following hospital admission with an infectious disease in the first two years of life. We performed a national cohort study of New Zealand children, born 2005-2009, with an infectious disease admission before age 24 months. Children readmitted with an infectious disease within 12 months of the first infectious disease admission were identified. Every infectious disease admission was categorised as a respiratory, enteric, skin and soft tissue, urinary or other infection. Independent associations of demographic and child health factors with infectious disease readmission were determined using multiple variable logistic regression. From 2005 to 2011, there were 69,902 infectious disease admissions for 46,657 children less than two years old. Of these 46,657 children, 10,205 (22%) had at least one infectious disease readmission within 12 months of their first admission. The first infectious disease admission was respiratory (54%), enteric (15%), skin or soft tissue (7%), urinary (4%) or other (20%). Risk of infectious disease readmission was increased if the first infectious disease admission was respiratory (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.78-1.95) but not if it was in any other infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission were male gender, Pacific or Māori ethnicity, greater household deprivation, presence of a complex chronic condition, or a first respiratory infectious disease admission during autumn or of ≥3 days duration. Fewer factors (younger age, male gender, presence of a complex chronic condition) were associated with enteric infection readmission. The presence of a complex chronic condition was the only factor associated with urinary tract infection readmission and none of
Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Cameron, Scott; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Bi, Peng
Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in China. The capacity of hospitals to deal with the challenge from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change is of great importance to population health. This study aimed to explore the capacity of hospitals in China to deal with such challenges. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was utilized to gauge information regarding capacity of hospitals to deal with infectious diseases in the context of climate change among 611 clinical professionals whose roles pertained to infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and management in Anhui Province of China. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed on the data. More than 90% of participants believed climate change would have an adverse influence on population health and infectious disease control in China. Most indicated that their hospitals were well prepared for emerging infectious diseases at present, and they considered that logistical support in hospitals (e.g. administrative and maintenance services) should be strengthened for future capacity building. The majority of participants suggested that effective prevention and control measures, more interdisciplinary collaborations, more funding in rural areas for health care, and improved access to facilities enabling online reporting of infectious diseases, were extremely important strategies in building capacity to curb the population health impact of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change in China. Clinical professionals recognized that climate change will likely increase the transmission of infectious diseases. Although rural health care and hospitals' logistical support need to be improved, most professionals believed their hospitals to be capable of dealing with emerging diseases. They thought that interdisciplinary and cross-regional collaborations, together with necessary resource support (e.g. improved facilities for
Styczynski, Jan; Tridello, Gloria; Donnelly, J Peter; Iacobelli, Simona; Hoek, Jennifer; Mikulska, Malgorzata; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Gil, Lidia; Cesaro, Simone
International guidelines on protective environment for HSCT recipients proposed a set of 10 global recommendations in 2009 on protective environment (GRPE) concerning hospital room design and ventilation. The EBMT Infectious Diseases Working Party undertook a survey on the status on protective environment for HSCT recipients with the aim of surveying current practices and their agreement with GRPE recommendations. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions divided into 5 sections about filtration, air changes, maintenance, and the protective environment in rooms and the surrounding unit. Overall, 177 centres (response rate 33%) from 36 countries responded, indicating that 99.4% of patient rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, but only 48.6% of the centre's staff were aware of, and could confirm, regular replacement of filters based on manufacturers' recommendations. Well-sealed rooms were used in terms of windows (70.6%), ceilings (35%), and plumbing pipes (51.4%). The sensor monitors in the patient room used to determine when the HEPA filters require changing were installed only in 18.1% of centres. Only 1 centre fulfilled all 10 GRPE recommendations, while 62 centres fulfilled the 3 level "A" recommendations. In conclusion, HEPA-filtered rooms are available in almost all centres, while fewer centres fulfilled other requirements. Knowledge on the details and maintenance of protective environments in the HSCT setting was inadequate, reflecting a lack of communication between the health personnel involved, hospital infection control and the hospital maintenance services.
Underhill, R A
; various infectious diseases preceding the onset of ME/CFS; and occupational exposure of health care professionals. The hypothesis implies that ME/CFS patients should not donate blood or tissue and usual precautions should be taken when handling patients' blood and tissue. No known pathogen has been shown to cause ME/CFS. Confirmation of the hypothesis requires identification of a causal pathogen. Research should focus on a search for unknown and known pathogens. Finding a causal pathogen could assist with diagnosis; help find a biomarker; enable the development of anti-microbial treatments; suggest preventive measures; explain pathophysiological findings; and reassure patients about the validity of their symptoms.
Experience of !ntcrnal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future lntCctious Di~casc Fcllo\\vship Application Sb. GRANT N_UMBER...undefined. Since 2008 at our institution. internal medicine (!!vi) residents have been required to do a four-\\\\’eek inpatient !D rotation as an intern... Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Fut ure Infectious Disease Fellowship Application ~ Poeter# 1440 .,...._,: OVfil"S~ ti
Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua
With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353
Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R
Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W
Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.
Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P
BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious...... mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of infectious mononucleosis patients in Denmark and Sweden were...... statistical tests including the trend tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1381 cancers were observed during 689 619 person-years of follow-up among 38 562 infectious mononucleosis patients (SIR = 1. 03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.09). Apart from Hodgkin's disease (SIR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1...
Matsumoto, Kayo; Hirayama, Chifumi; Sakuma, Yoko; Itoi, Yoichi; Sunadori, Asami; Kitamura, Junko; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi
Objectives Detecting outbreaks early and then activating countermeasures based on such information is extremely important for infection control at childcare facilities. The Sumida ward began operating the Nursery School Absenteeism Surveillance System (NSASSy) in August 2013, and has since conducted real-time monitoring at nursery schools. The Public Health Center can detect outbreaks early and support appropriate intervention. This paper describes the experiences of Sumida Public Health Center related to early detection and intervention since the initiation of the system.Methods In this study, we investigated infectious disease outbreaks detected at 62 nursery schools in the Sumida ward, which were equipped with NSASSy from early November 2013 through late March 2015. We classified the information sources of the detected outbreak and responses of the public health center. The sources were (1) direct contact from some nursery schools, (2) messages from public officers with jurisdiction over nursery schools, (3) automatic detection by NSASSy, and (4) manual detection by public health center officers using NSASSy. The responses made by the health center were described and classified into 11 categories including verification of outbreak and advice for caregivers.Results The number of outbreaks detected by the aforementioned four information sources was zero, 25, 15, and 7 events, respectively, during the first 5 months after beginning NSASSy. These numbers became 5, 7, 53, and 25 events, respectively, during the subsequent 12 months. The number of outbreaks detected increased by 47% during the first 5 months, and by 87% in the following 12 months. The responses were primarily confirming the situation and offering advice to caregivers.Conclusion The Sumida Public Health Center ward could achieve early detection with automatic or manual detection of NSASSy. This system recently has become an important detection resource, and has contributed greatly to early
Full Text Available Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya. 3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion.
Taruscio, Domenica; Baldi, Francesca; Carbone, Pietro; Neville, Amanda J; Rezza, Giovanni; Rizzo, Caterina; Mantovani, Alberto
Congenital anomalies (CA) represent an important fraction of rare diseases, due to the critical role of non-genetic factors in their pathogenesis. CA are the main group of rare diseases in which primary prevention measures will have a beneficial impact. Indeed, since 2013 the European Union has endorsed a body of evidence-based recommendations for CA primary prevention; the recommendations aim at facilitating the inclusion of primary prevention actions the National Rare Disease Plans of EU Member States and encompass different public health fields, from environment through to maternal diseases and lifestyles.The chapter overviews and discusses the assessment of main risk factors for CA, such as environmental toxicants, maternal health and lifestyles and infections, with a special attention to issues that are emerging or need more knowledge.Overall, the availability of CA registries is important for estimating the health burden of CA, identifying possible hotspots, assessing the impact of interventions and addressing further, fit-to-purpose research.The integration of relevant public health actions that are already in place (e.g., control of noxious chemicals, vaccination programmes, public health services addressing chronic maternal conditions) can increase the affordability and sustainability of CA primary prevention. In developing countries with less primary prevention in place and limited overall resources, a first recognition phase may be pivotal in order to identify priority targets. In the meanwhile, policy makers should be made aware that primary prevention of RD supports publicly endorsed societal values like the knowledge-based promotion of health, empowerment, equity and social inclusiveness.
Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat
International funding for global health research is not systematically documented. We have assessed the level of research funding awarded by UK funders of international research to low- and middle-income countries or research institutions in these countries. We analysed 6165 studies; from these we selected 522 that matched our criteria and used them to evaluate research funding by pathogen, disease, research and development value chain, funding organisation and country. Investment in infectious disease research in the countries studied totalled £264 million. Distribution of research investments closely mirrored that of the UK's former colonial territories; the top five countries, and eight of the top 10, have historical links with the UK, being current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations. HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases attracted the greatest investment (£219 million; 82.8%), with most studies focussing on operational and epidemiological research (£109 million; 41.3%). International financing of infectious disease research by UK funding organisations follows former colonial ties. Funding institutions should review their funding policies to ensure that they also assist low- and middle-income countries without colonial ties to address their disease burden. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding for international research and guide the allocation of scarce resources to reduce the global disease burden.
Modelling of infectious disease systems has entered a new era in which disease modellers are increasingly turning to multiscale modelling to extend traditional modelling frameworks into new application areas and to achieve higher levels of detail and accuracy in characterizing infectious disease systems. In this paper we present a categorization framework for categorizing multiscale models of infectious disease systems. The categorization framework consists of five integration frameworks and five criteria. We use the categorization framework to give a complete categorization of host-level immuno-epidemiological models (HL-IEMs). This categorization framework is also shown to be applicable in categorizing other types of multiscale models of infectious diseases beyond HL-IEMs through modifying the initial categorization framework presented in this study. Categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems in this way is useful in bringing some order to the discussion on the structure of these multiscale models.
Full Text Available For the last seven years, the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC has conducted a series of projects defining and clarifying priorities for European policy in infectious disease. Both human and animal populations are increasingly threatened by emerging and re-emerging infections, including zoonoses, partly attributable to the impact of environmental change on the distributions of pathogens, hosts and vectors. Among the key challenges to be faced are the impact of climate change, the increase of antibiotic resistance and the need to develop novel global surveillance and early warning systems worldwide. Multidisciplinary approaches are required to build the new interfaces between human and animal medicine (One Health, with new connections between epidemiological and environmental data for surveillance, communication and risk assessment. This multidisciplinarity involves integration between microbiology, immunology, genetics and genomics, entomology, ecology and the social sciences, among other disciplines. Improved understanding of patterns of both human and animal disease also requires commitment to standardisation of surveillance methodologies and better analysis, co-ordination and use of the data collected. There must be sustained support for fundamental research, for example to explore how pathogens cross the species barrier, encouragement for industry innovation in developing diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, and the increased use of scientific evidence to inform coherent strategic development across different policy-making functions and to support international leadership. Our paper is intended as an introduction to some of the issues for building collaboration between human and animal medicine, to be discussed in greater detail in the other contributions to this Issue....
Swaan, Corien; van den Broek, Anouk; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik
Timely notification of infectious diseases is crucial for prompt response by public health services. Adequate notification systems facilitate timely notification. A systematic literature review was performed to assess outcomes of studies on notification timeliness and to determine which aspects of
...; ``Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program.'' Date: March 9, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...
...-sponsored Strategic Working Group (SWG). Presentations and discussion of current and future plans of the HIV..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011...
Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T
The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.
Biemans, Floor; Jong, de Mart C.M.; Bijma, Piter
Background: Infectious diseases in farm animals affect animal health, decrease animal welfare and can affect human health. Selection and breeding of host individuals with desirable traits regarding infectious diseases can help to fight disease transmission, which is affected by two types of
Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh
Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the
Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim; Penttinen, Pasi; Lindgren, Elisabet
Emerging infectious diseases are of international concern because of the potential for, and impact of, pandemics; however, they are difficult to predict. To identify the drivers of disease emergence, we analyzed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) detected through epidemic intelligence collected at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) between 2008 and 2013, and compared the observed results with a 2008 ECDC foresight study of projected drivers of future IDTEs in Europe. Among 10 categories of IDTEs, foodborne and waterborne IDTEs were the most common, vaccine-preventable IDTEs caused the highest number of cases, and airborne IDTEs caused the most deaths. Observed drivers for each IDTE were sorted into three main groups: globalization and environmental drivers contributed to 61% of all IDTEs, public health system drivers contributed to 21%, and social and demographic drivers to 18%. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that four of the top five drivers for observed IDTEs were in the globalization and environment group. In the observational study, the globalization and environment group was related to all IDTE categories, but only to five of eight categories in the foresight study. Directly targeting these drivers with public health interventions may diminish the chances of IDTE occurrence from the outset. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal. Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 3/17/2015.
Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe. Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/4/2016.
Van Segbroeck, Sven; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M
Human societies are organized in complex webs that are constantly reshaped by a social dynamic which is influenced by the information individuals have about others. Similarly, epidemic spreading may be affected by local information that makes individuals aware of the health status of their social contacts, allowing them to avoid contact with those infected and to remain in touch with the healthy. Here we study disease dynamics in finite populations in which infection occurs along the links of a dynamical contact network whose reshaping may be biased based on each individual's health status. We adopt some of the most widely used epidemiological models, investigating the impact of the reshaping of the contact network on the disease dynamics. We derive analytical results in the limit where network reshaping occurs much faster than disease spreading and demonstrate numerically that this limit extends to a much wider range of time scales than one might anticipate. Specifically, we show that from a population-level description, disease propagation in a quickly adapting network can be formulated equivalently as disease spreading on a well-mixed population but with a rescaled infectiousness. We find that for all models studied here--SI, SIS and SIR--the effective infectiousness of a disease depends on the population size, the number of infected in the population, and the capacity of healthy individuals to sever contacts with the infected. Importantly, we indicate how the use of available information hinders disease progression, either by reducing the average time required to eradicate a disease (in case recovery is possible), or by increasing the average time needed for a disease to spread to the entire population (in case recovery or immunity is impossible).
Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women's access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis. PMID:15550218
Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim
The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in
S. V. Ilina
Full Text Available Despite the huge and seamingly undisputable success of vaccinal prevention, a critical situation is developing today in the context of immunization-controlled infections control. Increasing antivaccination propahanda leads to a decrease in the collective immunity and the occurance of high-contagenous infectious diseases in various places of the world. It is a disturbing tendency — the usage of antivaccinal ideas for populist purposes. This article contains several examples of how such tactics lead to severe consequences for public health: pertussis and morbilli epidemia in Europe, poliomyelitis epidemia in African and Asian countries.
Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa
Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify what information triggered social media users' responses regarding infectious diseases. Chinese microblogs in 2012 regarding 42 infectious diseases were obtained through a keyword search in the Weiboscope database. Qualitative content analysis was performed for the posts pertinent to each keyword of the day of the year with the highest daily count. Similar posts were grouped and coded. We identified five categories of information that increased microblog traffic pertaining to infectious diseases: news of an outbreak or a case; health education/information; alternative health information/Traditional Chinese Medicine; commercial advertisement/entertainment; and social issues. News unrelated to the specified infectious diseases also led to elevated microblog traffic. Our study showcases the diverse contexts from which increased social media traffic occur. Our results will facilitate better health communication as causes underlying increased social media traffic are revealed.
Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Hao, Yi; Cai, Jingxian; Ying, Yuchen; Schaible, Braydon James; Yu, Cynthia Mengxi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa
This study aimed to identify what information triggered social media users' responses regarding infectious diseases. Chinese microblogs in 2012 regarding 42 infectious diseases were obtained through a keyword search in the Weiboscope database. Qualitative content analysis was performed for the posts pertinent to each keyword of the day of the year with the highest daily count. Similar posts were grouped and coded. We identified five categories of information that increased microblog traffic pertaining to infectious diseases: news of an outbreak or a case; health education/information; alternative health information/Traditional Chinese Medicine; commercial advertisement/entertainment; and social issues. News unrelated to the specified infectious diseases also led to elevated microblog traffic. Our study showcases the diverse contexts from which increased social media traffic occur. Our results will facilitate better health communication as causes underlying increased social media traffic are revealed.
Full Text Available Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease, the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors, as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes, while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.
Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.
Orlova, Marianna; Di Pietrantonio, Tania; Schurr, Erwin
Since the completion of the human genome sequence, the study of common genetic polymorphisms in complex human diseases has become a main activity of human genetics. Employing genome-wide association studies, hundreds of modest genetic risk factors have been identified. In infectious diseases the identification of common risk factors has been varied and as in other common diseases it seems likely that important genetic risk factors remain to be discovered. Nevertheless, the identification of disease-specific genetic risk factors revealed an unexpected overlap in susceptibility genes of diverse inflammatory and infectious diseases. Analysis of the multi-disease susceptibility genes has allowed the definition of shared key pathways of inflammatory dysregulation and suggested unexpected infectious etiologies for other "non-infectious" common diseases.
Kretzschmar Mirjam EE
Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely reporting of infectious disease cases to public health authorities is essential to effective public health response. To evaluate the timeliness of reporting to the Dutch Municipal Health Services (MHS, we used as quantitative measures the intervals between onset of symptoms and MHS notification, and between laboratory diagnosis and notification with regard to six notifiable diseases. Methods We retrieved reporting data from June 2003 to December 2008 from the Dutch national notification system for shigellosis, EHEC/STEC infection, typhoid fever, measles, meningococcal disease, and hepatitis A virus (HAV infection. For each disease, median intervals between date of onset and MHS notification were calculated and compared with the median incubation period. The median interval between date of laboratory diagnosis and MHS notification was similarly analysed. For the year 2008, we also investigated whether timeliness is improved by MHS agreements with physicians and laboratories that allow direct laboratory reporting. Finally, we investigated whether reports made by post, fax, or e-mail were more timely. Results The percentage of infectious diseases reported within one incubation period varied widely, between 0.4% for shigellosis and 90.3% for HAV infection. Not reported within two incubation periods were 97.1% of shigellosis cases, 76.2% of cases of EHEC/STEC infection, 13.3% of meningococcosis cases, 15.7% of measles cases, and 29.7% of typhoid fever cases. A substantial percentage of infectious disease cases was reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis, varying between 12% for meningococcosis and 42% for shigellosis. MHS which had agreements with physicians and laboratories showed a significantly shorter notification time compared to MHS without such agreements. Conclusions Over the study period, many cases of the six notifiable diseases were not reported within two incubation periods, and many were
Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim
Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.
Stacy, Robin; Begley, Darren W.; Phan, Isabelle; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Varani, Gabriele; Buchko, Garry W.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.
An introduction and overview of the focus, goals and overall mission of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is given. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium of researchers at Seattle BioMed, Emerald BioStructures, the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that was established to apply structural genomics approaches to drug targets from infectious disease organisms. The SSGCID is currently funded over a five-year period by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to determine the three-dimensional structures of 400 proteins from a variety of Category A, B and C pathogens. Target selection engages the infectious disease research and drug-therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. The protein-expression systems, purified proteins, ligand screens and three-dimensional structures produced by SSGCID constitute a valuable resource for drug-discovery research, all of which is made freely available to the greater scientific community. This issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F, entirely devoted to the work of the SSGCID, covers the details of the high-throughput pipeline and presents a series of structures from a broad array of pathogenic organisms. Here, a background is provided on the structural genomics of infectious disease, the essential components of the SSGCID pipeline are discussed and a survey of progress to date is presented
Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Perry, Paul J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Newsom, Lindsay; Mann, Amber A; Mkrtchyan, Hermine; Pope, Harrison G
Limited studies based in England and Australia reported misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among homosexual men to enhance body image. Anecdotally, AAS are also being misused by homosexual men in the United States. Since many AAS and certain performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are administered via injection, this poses a potential vector for the spread of infectious disease in an already at-risk population. This study compared and contrasted homosexual and heterosexual male gym clients regarding use of AAS and PEDs, use of alcohol and illicit drugs, seroprevalence of infectious disease, engagement in risky injection practices and sexual behaviors, and presence of psychiatric conditions. Recruitment and data collection occurred outside four exercise gyms in the San Francisco Castro District area between October 25, 2014 and March 10, 2015. Two hundred and twenty homosexual men and 73 heterosexual men completed the 114-item cross-sectional survey. Ten percent of homosexual men reported lifetime AAS use. Homosexual men had almost four times more sexual partners and were over 14 times more likely to knowingly have unprotected intercourse with a known HIV positive person than heterosexual men. In addition, a quarter of homosexual men who injected drugs admitted to sharing used syringes or needles with another person. Conclusions/Importance: The current study is the first to confirm AAS use among homosexual men in the United States. Homosexual men partook in high-risk sexual behaviors and injection practices which may place them at greater risks for contracting and spreading HIV and other infectious diseases.
Senanayake, Sanjaya N; Daveson, Kathryn L
The 2010 Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting took place in May in the Northern Territory (Australia) and focussed on infections in the region. The meeting highlights included the changing spectrum of malaria and dengue in endemic regions, the latest on influenza epidemiology, multidrug-resistant organisms and infectious diseases in the Australian indigenous population. This was complemented by subspeciality interest group research encompassing mycobacterial disease, infection control, mycology and virology.
Jensen, Per Moestrup; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard
demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according...... and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish his- torical...... have the opposite effect. Accordingly changes in CFR may occur in parallel with demographic transitions. Methodology: We explored the predictability of CFR using data obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) disease databases for four human diseases: mumps, malaria, tuberculosis...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian
and dendritic cell polarization, and subsequent priming, activation, and proliferation of pathogen-specific T- and B-cells may also be important elements associated with infectious disease outcomes. This review summarizes the emerging details of the IFN-λ immunobiology in the context of the host immune response and viral and bacterial infections.
Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.
Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107
Full Text Available The Healthy Hospital Project, an international collaboration, aimed to strengthen Ecuador's capacity to promote healthier and safer hospitals by reducing occupational transmission of infectious diseases. Team members conducted a needs assessment to identify workplace hazards and health risks in three hospitals. A survey of health care workers' knowledge and practices of occupational health (OH and infection control (IC revealed positive practices such as a medical waste disposal program and widespread dissemination of health information. Challenges identified included a high frequency of recapping needles and limited resources for workers to apply consistent IC measures. The survey revealed underreporting of needlestick injuries and limited OH and safety (OHS training. Therefore, project collaborators organized a training workshop for health care workers that aimed to overcome the identified obstacles by integrating interdisciplinary local, national, and international stakeholders to build capacity and institutionalize work-related infection prevention and control measures. The knowledge transferred and experience gained led to useful hospital-based projects and serves as a basis for implementation of other OHS projects nationwide. International interdisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration in OHS and IC can build capacity to address OHS concerns in health care.El objetivo del Proyecto Hospitales Saludables, resultado de una colaboración internacional, fue fortalecer la capacidad del Ecuador de promover hospitales más saludables y seguros al reducirse la transmisión ocupacional de las enfermedades infecciosas. Los miembros del equipo realizaron una evaluación en tres hospitales para detectar los peligros y los riesgos para la salud en el lugar de trabajo. Tras llevar a cabo una encuesta de conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores sanitarios en lo que se refiere a salud ocupacional y control de infecciones, se encontraron aspectos
Full Text Available Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the integration of genome-based knowledge into clinical practice. It also examines various networks and biobanks that specialize in infectious diseases (including HIV, HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis, and provides examples of successful research and clinical uptake stemming from these biobanks. Finally, it outlines key issues with respect to data privacy in infectious disease genomics, as well as the utility of adequately designed and maintained electronic health records. We maintain that the public should be able to easily access a clear and detailed outline of regulations and procedures for sample and data utilization by academic or commercial investigators, and also should be able to understand the precise roles of relevant governing bodies. This would ultimately facilitate uptake by researchers and clinics. As a result of the efforts and resources invested by several networks and consortia, there is an increasing awareness of the prospective uses of biobanks in advancing infectious disease genomic research, diagnostics and their clinical management.
Branković, Ivan; Malogajski, Jelena; Morré, Servaas A
Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the integration of genome-based knowledge into clinical practice. It also examines various networks and biobanks that specialize in infectious diseases (including HIV, HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis), and provides examples of successful research and clinical uptake stemming from these biobanks. Finally, it outlines key issues with respect to data privacy in infectious disease genomics, as well as the utility of adequately designed and maintained electronic health records. We maintain that the public should be able to easily access a clear and detailed outline of regulations and procedures for sample and data utilization by academic or commercial investigators, and also should be able to understand the precise roles of relevant governing bodies. This would ultimately facilitate uptake by researchers and clinics. As a result of the efforts and resources invested by several networks and consortia, there is an increasing awareness of the prospective uses of biobanks in advancing infectious disease genomic research, diagnostics and their clinical management.
Willem, Lander; Stijven, Sean; Tijskens, Engelbert; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel; Broeckhove, Jan
Infectious disease modeling and computational power have evolved such that large-scale agent-based models (ABMs) have become feasible. However, the increasing hardware complexity requires adapted software designs to achieve the full potential of current high-performance workstations. We have found large performance differences with a discrete-time ABM for close-contact disease transmission due to data locality. Sorting the population according to the social contact clusters reduced simulation time by a factor of two. Data locality and model performance can also be improved by storing person attributes separately instead of using person objects. Next, decreasing the number of operations by sorting people by health status before processing disease transmission has also a large impact on model performance. Depending of the clinical attack rate, target population and computer hardware, the introduction of the sort phase decreased the run time from 26% up to more than 70%. We have investigated the application of parallel programming techniques and found that the speedup is significant but it drops quickly with the number of cores. We observed that the effect of scheduling and workload chunk size is model specific and can make a large difference. Investment in performance optimization of ABM simulator code can lead to significant run time reductions. The key steps are straightforward: the data structure for the population and sorting people on health status before effecting disease propagation. We believe these conclusions to be valid for a wide range of infectious disease ABMs. We recommend that future studies evaluate the impact of data management, algorithmic procedures and parallelization on model performance.
Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown
Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing
Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Ralph, Anna P; Wyber, Rosemary; Carapetis, Jonathan R
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic cardiac condition with an infectious aetiology, causing high disease burden in low-income settings. Affected individuals are young and associated morbidity is high. However, RHD is relatively neglected due to the populations involved and its lower incidence relative to other heart diseases. In this narrative review, we describe how RHD care can be informed by and integrated with models of care developed for priority non-communicable diseases (coronary heart disease), and high-burden communicable diseases (tuberculosis). Examining the four-level prevention model (primordial through tertiary prevention) suggests primordial and primary prevention of RHD can leverage off existing tuberculosis control efforts, given shared risk factors. Successes in coronary heart disease control provide inspiration for similarly bold initiatives for RHD. Further, we illustrate how the Chronic Care Model (CCM), developed for use in non-communicable diseases, offers a relevant framework to approach RHD care. Systems strengthening through greater integration of services can improve RHD programs. Strengthening of systems through integration/linkages with other well-performing and resourced services in conjunction with policies to adopt the CCM framework for the secondary and tertiary prevention of RHD in settings with limited resources, has the potential to significantly reduce the burden of RHD globally. More research is required to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy and service design.
Prevention and assessment of infectious diseases among children and adult migrants arriving to the European Union/European Economic Association: a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews for public health and health systems.
Pottie, Kevin; Mayhew, Alain D; Morton, Rachael L; Greenaway, Christina; Akl, Elie A; Rahman, Prinon; Zenner, Dominik; Pareek, Manish; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Meerpohl, Joerg; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Hui, Charles; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Agbata, Eric; Noori, Teymur; Schünemann, Holger J
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis. The search strategy will identify evidence from existing systematic reviews and then update the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence using prospective trials, economic evaluations and/or recently published systematic reviews. Interdisciplinary teams have designed logic models to help define study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy and identifying relevant outcomes. We will assess the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. There are no ethical or safety issues. We anticipate disseminating the findings through open-access publications, conference abstracts and presentations. We plan to publish technical syntheses as GRADEpro evidence summaries and the systematic reviews as part of a special edition open-access publication on refugee health. We are following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols reporting guideline. This protocol is registered in PROSPERO: CRD42016045798. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... discussions on CDC's safe water activities, immunization infrastructure, and sexually transmitted diseases... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases (CCID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) Notice of Cancellation: A notice was... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation. Date: February..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants and..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Opportunities for Collaborative Research at the NIH Clinical..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials. Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation (U01) Cooperative Agreement..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U01....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Antibacterial..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trails. Date..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
Alex Jones Flores Cassenote
Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.
Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent
Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...
So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin
Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health.
Jonathan E. Suk
Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.
The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.
Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Martinez, Pamela P; Pascual, Mercedes
Urbanization and climate change are the two major environmental challenges of the 21st century. The dramatic expansion of cities around the world creates new conditions for the spread, surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. In particular, urban growth generates pronounced spatial heterogeneity within cities, which can modulate the effect of climate factors at local spatial scales in large urban environments. Importantly, the interaction between environmental forcing and socioeconomic heterogeneity at local scales remains an open area in infectious disease dynamics, especially for urban landscapes of the developing world. A quantitative and conceptual framework on urban health with a focus on infectious diseases would benefit from integrating aspects of climate forcing, population density, and level of wealth. In this paper, we review what is known about these drivers acting independently and jointly on urban infectious diseases; we then outline elements that are missing and would contribute to building such a framework. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, 350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day. Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events.
Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G
The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...
Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to...
Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A
Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.
Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.
Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.
Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi
Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.
Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.
Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.
Y.P. Li (Ya-pin); L.Q. Fang (Lily); S.Q. Gao (Su-qing); Z. Wang (Zheng); P. Liu (Peng); X.G. Zhu (Xu-guang); B. Xu (Bing); H. Yang (Honghui); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); T.X. Shi (Tao-xing); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun)
textabstractBackground: For years, emerging infectious diseases have appeared worldwide and threatened the health of people. The emergence and spread of an infectious-disease outbreak are usually unforeseen, and have the features of suddenness and uncertainty. Timely understanding of basic
Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turnquist, Mark A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wyte-Lake, Tamar [Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center; Griffin, Ann R. [Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center; Ricci, Karen J. [Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center; Plotinsky, Rachel [Providence Health and Services, Renton, WA (United States)
This report presents a mathematical model of the way in which a hospital uses a variety of resources, utilities and consumables to provide care to a set of in-patients, and how that hospital might adapt to provide treatment to a few patients with a serious infectious disease, like the Ebola virus. The intended purpose of the model is to support requirements planning studies, so that hospitals may be better prepared for situations that are likely to strain their available resources. The current model is a prototype designed to present the basic structural elements of a requirements planning analysis. Some simple illustrati ve experiments establish the mo del's general capabilities. With additional inve stment in model enhancement a nd calibration, this prototype could be developed into a useful planning tool for ho spital administrators and health care policy makers.
Wood, Chelsea L; McInturff, Alex; Young, Hillary S; Kim, DoHyung; Lafferty, Kevin D
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet 380 , 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationships between DALYs lost to infectious disease and potential demographic, economic, environmental and biotic drivers, for the 60 intermediate-sized countries where data were available and comparable. Most drivers had unique associations with each disease. For example, temperature was positively associated with some diseases and negatively associated with others, perhaps due to differences in disease agent thermal optima, transmission modes and host species identities. Biodiverse countries tended to have high disease burdens, consistent with the expectation that high diversity of potential hosts should support high disease transmission. Contrary to the dilution effect hypothesis, increases in biodiversity over time were not correlated with improvements in human health, and increases in forestation over time were actually associated with increased disease burden. Urbanization and wealth were associated with lower burdens for many diseases, a pattern that could arise from increased access to sanitation and healthcare in cities and increased investment in healthcare. The importance of urbanization and wealth helps to explain why most infectious diseases have become less burdensome over the past three decades, and points to possible levers for further progress in improving global public health.This article is part
van Lier, Alies; McDonald, Scott A; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E
Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands. The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007-2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911-9961) and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468-8874), which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five diseases can be attributed to the
Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E.
Background Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands. Methods and Findings The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007–2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911–9961) and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468–8874), which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five
Alies van Lier
Full Text Available Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands.The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007-2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911-9961 and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468-8874, which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five diseases can be
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS and TB are among the major infectious diseases and defining public health problems in developing countries. This book aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and also provide an understanding of the pathology of these diseases. It also...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...
Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.
van Velsen, Lex; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wentzel, Jobke; van Steenbergen, Jim E
Web 2.0 media (eg, Facebook, Wikipedia) are considered very valuable for communicating with citizens in times of crisis. However, in the case of infectious disease outbreaks, their value has not been determined empirically. In order to be able to take full advantage of Web 2.0 media in such a situation, the link between these media, citizens' information behavior, and citizens' information needs has to be investigated. The goal of our study was to assess citizens' Web 2.0 media use during an infectious disease outbreak and to determine which Web 2.0 medium is used for which goal. With this information, we wanted to formulate recommendations for health organizations that consider using Web 2.0 media as part of their communication strategy during an infectious disease outbreak. A total of 18 student participants kept an information diary for 4 weeks during the 2011 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak in Germany. Of them, 9 lived at the epicenter of the outbreak and 9 of them at some distance. The diaries were supplemented by a qualitative pre-survey (demographics) and postsurvey (questioning their satisfaction with information provision during the outbreak). The Internet appeared to be the most popular medium for passively receiving EHEC-related information, with news websites and websites of newspapers as the most consulted sources. Twitter was used for receiving information to a small degree, while Facebook played virtually no role. Participants indicated that they thought information posted on Twitter or Facebook was not reliable or was out of place. When actively seeking information, online newspapers and wikis were important sources. Several causes for (dis)satisfaction with information provision were uncovered: source credibility, contradicting messages, and a need for closure. During an infectious disease outbreak, our small sample of students did not see social media (like Facebook and Twitter) as suitable or reliable sources for communicating
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the AIDS Research Advisory Committee, NIAID, June 05, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to June 05, 2013, 5:00 p.m., National...
Liu, Qiyong; Xu, Wenbo; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhou, Jieping; Shao, Zhujun; Liu, Xiaobo; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Yanwen; Zheng, Han; Jin, Sun; Jiang, Hai; Cao, Wuchun; Xu, Jianguo
For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.
Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger...
Bygbjerg, I C
On top of the unfinished agenda of infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, development, industrialization, urbanization, investment, and aging are drivers of an epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Malnutrition and infection in early life increase the risk of chronic NCDs...... for limited funds, is an important policy consideration requiring new thinking and approaches....
Michael G. Head
Interpretation: Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment.
Hayama, Yoko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki
For determining surveillance programs or infectious disease countermeasures, risk evaluation approaches have been recently undertaken in the field of animal health. In the present study, to help establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases, we evaluated the potential risk of equine infectious disease transmission in non-race horses from the viewpoints of horse movements and health management practices by conducting a survey of non-race horse holdings. From the survey, the non-race horse population was classified into the following five sectors based on their purposes: the equestrian sector, private owner sector, exhibition sector, fattening sector and others. Our survey results showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had the largest population sizes, and movements between and within these sectors occurred quite frequently, while there was little movement in the other sectors. Qualitative evaluation showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had relatively high risks of equine infectious disease transmission through horse movements. Therefore, it would be effective to concentrate on these two sectors when implementing surveillance or preventative measures. Special priority should be given to the private owner sector because this sector has not implemented inspection and vaccination well compared with the equestrian sector, which possesses a high compliance rate for these practices. This qualitative risk evaluation focused on horse movements and health management practices could provide a basis for further risk evaluation to establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases.
Full Text Available The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention.
Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent
Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931
Anche, M.T.; Bijma, P.; Jong, de M.C.M.
Background: Genetic selection of livestock against infectious diseases can complement existing interventions to control infectious diseases. Most genetic approaches that aim at reducing disease prevalence assume that individual disease status (infected/not-infected) is solely a function of its
Rumi, M A; Siddiqui, M A; Salam, M A; Iqbal, M R; Azam, M G; Chowdhury, A K; Khan AYM; Hasan, K N; Hassan, M S
Individuals seeking jobs abroad need health fitness certificates before entering into those countries. Medical screening of 43,213 Bangladeshi job seekers (M/F: 42,290/923) was carried out in our reference center during the period August, 1994 to May, 1996. Albeit male predominance, they represented middle and lower middle socio-economic class of the population from all over the country. All were young adults (age: 27.05+/-3.56 years; mean+/-SD) applying for job visas to different Asian countries. Physical examination and laboratory investigations including markers for several infectious diseases and drugs of abuse were carried out as required by countries recruiting the workers. Serological tests revealed that 1,884 (4.4%) of individuals were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 737 (1.7%) for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) and only 83 (0.2%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV). However, we could not confirm any case of infection with HIV. Chest X-ray suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 162 (0.4%) and on blood film, malarial parasites could be observed only in 4 cases. Their urine analysis revealed the presence of opiates or cannabinoids in 471 (1.1%) individuals. HBsAg-positive cases (p = 0.003) and abuse of opiates (p = 0.024) or cannabinoids (p = 0.002) were significantly higher among males. TPHA reactivity and chest X-ray suggestive of tuberculosis were found to be higher among opiates (p = 0.002 and 0.027) and cannabinoids (p = 0.000 for both) abused as well as with increasing age (p = 0.000). These results may represent a cross-sectional view of the prevalence of different infectious diseases and abuse of drugs among the young adult population of Bangladesh.
Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Black, P F; Ward, M P
Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease (EID) events can have devastating human, animal and environmental health impacts. The emergence of EIDs has been associated with interconnected economic, social and environmental changes. Understanding these changes is crucial for EID preparedness and subsequent prevention and control of EID events. The aim of this review is to describe tools currently available for identification, prioritization and investigation of EIDs impacting human and animal health, and how these might be integrated into a systematic approach for directing EID preparedness. Environmental scanning, foresight programmes, horizon scanning and surveillance are used to collect and assess information for rapidly responding to EIDs and to anticipate drivers of emergence for mitigating future EID impacts. Prioritization of EIDs - using transparent and repeatable methods - based on disease impacts and the importance of those impacts to decision-makers can then be used for more efficient resource allocation for prevention and control. Risk assessment and simulation modelling methods assess the likelihood of EIDs occurring, define impact and identify mitigation strategies. Each of these tools has a role to play individually; however, we propose integration of these tools into a framework that enhances the development of tactical and strategic plans for emerging risk preparedness.
Eckhoff, Philip A.; Gates, William H., III; Myhrvold, Nathan P.; Wood, Lowell
The past century has seen tremendous advances in global health, with broad reductions in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Science has fundamentally advanced our understanding of disease etiology and medicine has provided remarkable capabilities to diagnose many syndromes and to target the causative pathogen. The advent and proliferation of antibiotics has dramatically lowered the impact of infections that were once near certain death sentences. Vaccination has provided a route to protect each new birth cohort from pathogens which once killed a substantial fraction of each generation, and in some countries, vaccination coverage has been raised to sufficiently high levels to fully interrupt transmission of major pathogens. There were 7 million deaths among children under 5 years of age in 2010, substantially down from decades past, and even more so in terms of deaths per capita per year of populations at risk. However, the annual rate globally is 1,070 per 100,000, while in developed countries the rate is only 137 per 100,000 (IHME GBD, 2010). Therefore, bringing global rates down to rates already achieved in developed countries represents the huge gains currently available via means such as vaccination and access to modern health care...
Tucci, Veronica; Moukaddam, Nidal; Meadows, Jonathan; Shah, Suhal; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kapur, G Bobby
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection. Current EVD literature does not demonstrate a strong association of mental illness symptoms or diseases but there is a necessity of care that extends beyond the illness. Patients and their families experience depression, anxiety, trauma, suicidal ideation, panic and other manifestations. Zika virus has been associated neuronal injury, genetic alteration that affects fetal development and detrimental maternal mental health symptoms are being documented. While funding calls from the international community are present, there are no specific epidemiological data or fiscal estimates solely for mental health during or after infectious diseases epidemics or disasters that support health care providers and strengthen policies and procedures for responding to such situations. Therefore, those on the frontlines of epidemics including emergency physicians, primary care providers and infectious disease specialists should serve communicate this need and advocate for sustained and increased funding for mental health programs to heighten public awareness regarding acute psychiatric events during infectious diseases outbreaks and offer treatment and support when necessary.
Identification of a causative pathogen is essential for the choice of treatment for most infectious diseases. Many FDA approved molecular assays; usually more sensitive and specific compared to traditional tests, have been developed in the last decade. A new trend of high throughput and multiplexing assays are emerging thanks to technological developments for the human genome sequencing project. The applications of microarray and ultra high throughput sequencing technologies for diagnostic microbiology are reviewed. The race for the $1000 genome technology by 2014 will have a profound impact in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:18782035
Li, Michael Y
This text provides essential modeling skills and methodology for the study of infectious diseases through a one-semester modeling course or directed individual studies. The book includes mathematical descriptions of epidemiological concepts, and uses classic epidemic models to introduce different mathematical methods in model analysis. Matlab codes are also included for numerical implementations. It is primarily written for upper undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematical sciences who have an interest in mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. Although written in a rigorous mathematical manner, the style is not unfriendly to non-mathematicians.
Yan, Q L; Tang, S Y; Xiao, Y N
Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of emerging infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour changes on epidemics can be key to improving control efforts. However, how the dynamics of individual behaviour changes affects the development of emerging infectious disease is a key public health issue. To develop different formula for individual behaviour change and introduce how to embed it into a dynamic model of infectious diseases, we choose A/H1N1 and Ebola as typical examples, combined with the epidemic reported cases and media related news reports. Thus, the logistic model with the health belief model is used to determine behaviour decisions through the health belief model constructs. Furthermore, we propose 4 candidate infectious disease models without and with individual behaviour change and use approximate Bayesian computation based on sequential Monte Carlo method for model selection. The main results indicate that the classical compartment model without behaviour change and the model with average rate of behaviour change depicted by an exponential function could fit the observed data best. The results provide a new way on how to choose an infectious disease model to predict the disease prevalence trend or to evaluate the influence of intervention measures on disease control. However, sensitivity analyses indicate that the accumulated number of hospital notifications and deaths could be largely reduced as the rate of behaviour change increases. Therefore, in terms of mitigating emerging infectious diseases, both media publicity focused on how to guide people's behaviour change and positive responses of individuals are critical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rowell, Jessica L; Dowling, Nicole F; Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Zhang, Lyna; Gwinn, Marta
Pathogen genetics is already a mainstay of public health investigation and control efforts; now advances in technology make it possible to investigate the role of human genetic variation in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. To describe trends in this field, we analyzed articles that were published from 2001 through 2010 and indexed by the HuGE Navigator, a curated online database of PubMed abstracts in human genome epidemiology. We extracted the principal findings from all meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with an infectious disease-related outcome. Finally, we compared the representation of diseases in HuGE Navigator with their contributions to morbidity worldwide. We identified 3,730 articles on infectious diseases, including 27 meta-analyses and 23 GWAS. The number published each year increased from 148 in 2001 to 543 in 2010 but remained a small fraction (about 7%) of all studies in human genome epidemiology. Most articles were by authors from developed countries, but the percentage by authors from resource-limited countries increased from 9% to 25% during the period studied. The most commonly studied diseases were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection, sepsis, and malaria. As genomic research methods become more affordable and accessible, population-based research on infectious diseases will be able to examine the role of variation in human as well as pathogen genomes. This approach offers new opportunities for understanding infectious disease susceptibility, severity, treatment, control, and prevention.
Multani, Ashrit; Gomez, Carlos A; Montoya, José G
Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking. Good syndrome usually occurs in adult patients between the ages of 40 and 70 years. Immunologically, it is characterized by low or absent peripheral blood B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, and variable defects in cell-mediated immunity including low CD4 T counts, inverted CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio, and reduced T-lymphocyte mitogen proliferative responses. Patients with Good syndrome are susceptible to a variety of infectious diseases, of which the most common are recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and CMV tissue-invasive disease. Preventive guidelines including targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination strategies can mitigate infectious complications in patients with Good syndrome. Immunological deficits and infectious complications in Good syndrome have been described for over 60 years. Further research is needed to elucidate its exact pathogenesis and define the mechanistic relationship between thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, tailored prophylactic strategies can be recommended for patients with Good syndrome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several
Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.
McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin
A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.
Beltz, Lisa A
"This important resource offers a comprehensive introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, including the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect...
Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....
methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Operation MECACAR 1998 was highlighted as a successful example of cross-border coordination...training courses, no joint public health investigation teams) and illegal animal transportation across borders were identified as some of the existing...Work (2007), including fostering global partnerships; strengthening public health security in travel and transport ; improving the WHO global alert
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa claimed the lives of tens of thousands of people, with Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone severely hit by this crisis. The World Health Organization called the epidemic the most severe acute public health emergency since the discovery of HIV. In addition, this humanitarian disaster has ...
The research team is exploring the potential of mathematical modelling to ... to China's health system and improvements to its medical research capacity. ... and on the scientific board of the Gates Foundation's Global Health program. ... He has published more than 400 research papers in national and international journals.
Carroll, Lauren N; Au, Alan P; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Painter, Ian S; Abernethy, Neil F
A myriad of new tools and algorithms have been developed to help public health professionals analyze and visualize the complex data used in infectious disease control. To better understand approaches to meet these users' information needs, we conducted a systematic literature review focused on the landscape of infectious disease visualization tools for public health professionals, with a special emphasis on geographic information systems (GIS), molecular epidemiology, and social network analysis. The objectives of this review are to: (1) identify public health user needs and preferences for infectious disease information visualization tools; (2) identify existing infectious disease information visualization tools and characterize their architecture and features; (3) identify commonalities among approaches applied to different data types; and (4) describe tool usability evaluation efforts and barriers to the adoption of such tools. We identified articles published in English from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2013 from five bibliographic databases. Articles with a primary focus on infectious disease visualization tools, needs of public health users, or usability of information visualizations were included in the review. A total of 88 articles met our inclusion criteria. Users were found to have diverse needs, preferences and uses for infectious disease visualization tools, and the existing tools are correspondingly diverse. The architecture of the tools was inconsistently described, and few tools in the review discussed the incorporation of usability studies or plans for dissemination. Many studies identified concerns regarding data sharing, confidentiality and quality. Existing tools offer a range of features and functions that allow users to explore, analyze, and visualize their data, but the tools are often for siloed applications. Commonly cited barriers to widespread adoption included lack of organizational support, access issues, and misconceptions about tool
Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Shengyong
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented. Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative. Infection control in healthcare settings, in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus disease, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated, are often imperfect. When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases, before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported, cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.
Dec 13, 2010 ... Ecohealth Works: Health in Urban Environments ... To respond to this complexity, researchers from many disciplines need to work collaboratively with ... the house, where they fed on animals at a safe distance from people.
... Term Health Consequences of Ebola Virus Infection Director, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci About the Director Media Appearance: Video: ... español Employee Information Connect with NIAID Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google+ Youtube Flickr Instagram Pinterest Email Website Policies & ...
Admani, Shehla; Jinna, Sphoorthi; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Sloan, Brett
The changes in immune response that occur with age play a significant role in disease presentation and patient management. Evolution of the innate and adaptive immune systems throughout life, influenced partly by hormonal changes associated with puberty, plays a role in the differences between pediatric and adult response to disease. We review a series of manifestations of dermatologic infectious diseases spanning bacterial, viral, and fungal origins that can be seen in both pediatric and adult age groups and highlight similarities and differences in presentation and disease course. Therapeutic options are also discussed for these infectious diseases, with particular attention to variations in management between these population subgroups, given differences in pharmacokinetics and side effect profiles. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C
Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.
Hyams, K C; Riddle, J; Trump, D H; Graham, J T
Infectious diseases were one of the first health threats confronted by Coalition troops deployed to the Arabian desert in August 1990. On the basis of experiences in World War II, the major endemic infectious disease risks were thought to be sandfly fever, cutaneous leishmaniasis, diarrheal disease, and malaria. Although there was active surveillance, no case of sandfly fever and few other endemic infectious diseases were identified among over 500,000 U.S., British, and Canadian ground troops. In addition, there was no diagnosis of biological warfare (BW) exposure, and BW agents were not detected in clinical, environmental, or veterinary samples. The most common infectious disease problems were those associated with crowding (acute upper respiratory infections) and reduced levels of sanitation (travelers-type diarrhea). Only one endemic infectious disease has been confirmed as causing chronic health problems: visceral Leishmania tropica infection (viscerotropic leishmaniasis). However, this protozoan infection was diagnosed in only 12 U.S. veterans, and no new cases have been identified during the last 8 years. Infectious diseases were not a serious problem for Gulf War troops because of extensive preventive medicine efforts and favorable weather and geographic factors. Moreover, it is unlikely that an endemic infectious disease or a BW agent could cause chronic health problems and remain undetected over a 10-year period.
... to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/zika . To prevent getting the Zika virus, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Sexual transmission of the virus can be prevented by using condoms ...
ranging from eczema vaccinatum, to myocarditis, to accinial encephalitis, resulting in fatal complications and ubstantial morbidity in some...1893, when it was known locally as ‘boohoo fever’, a name arising from the emotional distress that usually accompanies the disease. The first
Grácio, A J Dos Santos; Grácio, Maria Amélia A
Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease.
A. J. dos Santos Grácio
Full Text Available Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease.
Full Text Available In this paper we review the status of new applications research of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA for global health promotion using information derived from Earth observation data by satellites in cooperation with inter-disciplinary collaborators. Current research effort at JAXA to promote global public health is focused primarily on the use of remote sensing to address two themes: (i prediction models for malaria and cholera in Kenya, Africa; and (ii air quality assessment of small, particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3. Respiratory and cardivascular diseases constitute cross-boundary public health risk issues on a global scale. The authors report here on results of current of a collaborative research to call attention to the need to take preventive measures against threats to public health using newly arising remote sensing information from space.
de Gier B; Nijsten DRE; Duijster JW; Hahne SJM; SIS; I&V
The most notable infectious disease outbreak in 2016 was the large Zika virus outbreak in Latin America. During this outbreak it was discovered that the Zika virus can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, and that infection during pregnancy can lead to severe congenital disorders. In the Caribbean
The paper presents a robust epidemiological compartment model on infectious diseases. The model obviates the limitations of the classical epidemiological model by accommodating different levels of vulnerability and susceptibility to infections within different social class and spatial structures. Unlike the classical model ...
Buonaguro, Franco M.
The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...
of the effects of African game diseases as it is only possible here, in view of lack of .... The latter is highly infectious and fatal for domestic poultry and was described .... tations of animals takes place with the'ingestion of muscle meat, containing ...
This project aims to understand the relationship between emerging infectious diseases of potentially pandemic proportions, and the agricultural, land utilization and ecosystem management practices that give rise to .... Disability weight of Clonorchis sinensis infection : captured from community study and model simulation ...
The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...
The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...
Halloran, M Elizabeth; Auranen, Kari; Baird, Sarah; Basta, Nicole E; Bellan, Steven E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cooper, Ben S; DeGruttola, Victor; Hughes, James P; Lessler, Justin; Lofgren, Eric T; Longini, Ira M; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Özler, Berk; Seage, George R; Smith, Thomas A; Vespignani, Alessandro; Vynnycky, Emilia; Lipsitch, Marc
Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process. In an increasingly complex world, simulations can explicitly represent transmission dynamics, which are critical for proper trial design and interpretation. Certain ethical aspects of a trial can also be quantified using simulations. Further, after a trial has been conducted, simulations can be used to explore the possible explanations for the observed effects. Much is to be gained through a multidisciplinary approach that builds collaborations among experts in infectious disease dynamics, epidemiology, statistical science, economics, simulation methods, and the conduct of clinical trials.
Infectious diseases and chronic care in Africa. JK Tumwine. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C
The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may......., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses....
Necropsy revealed a markedly enlarged, oedematous and haemorrhagic bursa. Histopathologic findings including lympho-cytolysis and oedema were characteristic of an acute bursitis and a positive agar-gel precipitation test were used to confirm the diagnosis of Infectious bursal disease. Keywords: Agar gel precipitation, ...
van de Beek, Diederik; Kremers, Walter K.; del Pozo, Jose L.; Daly, Richard C.; Edwards, Brooks S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Patel, Robin
OBJECTIVE: To determine how often cardiac allograft recipients develop infectious diseases and how the infections affect these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 313 patients who underwent heart transplant at Mayo Clinic's site in Rochester, MN, from January 1, 1988, through
Yeh, Sylvia H; Vijayan, Vini; Hahn, Andrea; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Kirkwood, Suzanne; Phillips, Terri Christene; Harrison, Christopher J
Almost 20 years have elapsed since the last workforce survey of pediatric infectious disease (PID) subspecialists was conducted in 1997-1998. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Infectious Diseases in collaboration with the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society sought to assess the status of the current PID workforce. A Web-based survey conducted in 2015 collected data on demographics, practice patterns, and job satisfaction among the PID workforce, and identified factors related to job placement among recent fellowship graduates. Of 946 respondents (48% response rate), 50% were female. The average age was 51 years (range, 29-88 years); 63% were employed by an academic center/hospital, and 85% provided direct patient care; and 18% were not current PID practitioners. Of the 138 (21%) respondents who had completed a PID fellowship within the previous 5 years, 83% applied for maintain the pipeline and improve satisfaction among its physicians. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P
15-34 years was 3.49 (95% CI = 2.46-4.81; n = 37), which was statistically significantly higher than the SIR for any other age group (P: for difference =.001). CONCLUSION: The increased risk of Hodgkin's disease after the occurrence of infectious mononucleosis appears to be a specific phenomenon....
Koeijer, A.A. de
To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the
Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...
Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.
In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate
Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients.
Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.
High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).
. Benvinda XP, Bruno P. Emotional distress in An- golan patients with several types of tuberculosis. Afri. Health Sci. 2015; 15(2):378-384. 9. Mohammed S, Nagla S, Morten S, Asma E, Arja. A. Illness perceptions and quality of life among tuber-.
Iliolfiman-LaRoche, Nutleyý. N.1) three tablets at once on the last day of quinine Although ongoing research may ultimately yield an effec- a1diniiistiation...resistance ’Tuberculosis to isoniazid , rilanipin, streptomycin, and ethambutol; 78% of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the four drugs...administration of streptomycin, isoniazid , The leishmanial diseases of humans are commonly divided and thiacetazone followed by a 9-month maintenance regi
Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu
Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO and partners are collaborating to eradicate poliomyelitis. To monitor progress, countries perform surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP. The WHO African Regional Office (WHO-AFRO and the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also involved in strengthening infectious disease surveillance and response in Africa. We assessed whether polio-eradication initiative resources are used in the surveillance for and response to other infectious diseases in Africa. Methods During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel. Results We obtained responses from 32 (84% of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97% of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78% used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87% countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44% had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged Conclusions Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.
Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro
Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benfield, Thomas; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen
.24 to 1.56], and 2.21 [95% CI, 1.84 to 2.64], respectively; p=0.001). In subgroup analysis, the increased risk was associated with lower and upper respiratory tract infections, pyothorax, and tuberculosis, but not with influenza, sepsis, skin infections, urinary tract infections, diarrheal disease......BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are a frequent complication of COPD, but little is known about the incidence, association, and risk of infectious diseases related to impaired lung function. METHODS: Participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study had lung function measured at baseline......, or other infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of obstructive lung disease is a significant predictor of IDH caused by respiratory tract infections, but not of hospitalizations due to infections outside the respiratory system....
Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.
The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.
Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na
For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375-382).
Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R
New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of notifications of infectious disease in Germany and Austria as a European Union member state. All the elements of a notification were analyzed, starting from doctors and bacteriological laboratories, local health departments to regional and national levels. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of notification of infectious disease in European Union member states in terms of cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union after the signing of the economic component of the association agreement.
Scientists and professionals from multiple governmental agencies recently gathered at NCI at Frederick for a forum on newly emerging infectious diseases, threats to public health, and ongoing efforts to study high-risk pathogens. During the one-day event, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research’s Scientific Interaction
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.
This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…
te Kulve, M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Huisman, E.; Kort, H.S.M.
Not much is known about the favourable indoor air conditions in long term care facilities (ltcf’s), where older adults suffering from dementia live. Due to the decrease in cognition function, it is hard to evaluate comfort and health in this group. Nevertheless, infectious diseases are a persistent
Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard
With over two billion airline passengers annually, in-flight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Many instances of in-flight transmission have been documented, but the relative influence of the many factors (see below) affecting in-flight transmission has not been quantified. Long-standing guidance by public health agencies is that the primary transmission risk associated with air travel for most respiratory infectious diseases is associated with sitting within two rows of an infectious passenger. The effect of proximity may be one of these factors. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of infection within and beyond the 2-row rule given by public health guidance. We searched the literature for reports of in-flight transmission of infection which included seat maps indicating where the infectious and infected passengers were seated. There is a ∼ 6% risk to passengers seated within the 2-rows of infected individual(s) and there is ∼ 2% risk to passengers seated beyond 2-rows from the infectious individual. Contact tracing limited to passengers within 2-rows of the infectious individual(s) could fail to detect other cases of infections. This has important consequences for assessing the spread of infectious diseases. Infection at a distance from the index case indicates other factors, such as airflow, movement of passenger/crew members, fomites and contacts between passengers in the departure gate before boarding, or after deplaning, are involved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garattini, C.; Raffle, J.; Aisyah, D. N.; Sartain, F.; Kozlakidis, Z.
The exponential accumulation, processing and accrual of big data in healthcare are only possible through an equally rapidly evolving field of big data analytics. The latter offers the capacity to rationalize, understand and use big data to serve many different purposes, from improved services modelling to prediction of treatment outcomes, to greater patient and disease stratification. In the area of infectious diseases, the application of big data analytics has introduced a number of changes ...
Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony
It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.
Noni E Macdonald
Full Text Available The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1. There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases (2-4. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfeeding, particularly unnecessary ones. The present article summarizes the maternal infectious diseases in which continuing breastfeeding is recommended, the very few infectious diseases in which it is not recommended, the rare instances in which maternal antimicrobial therapy indicates a caution for breastfeeding, and the continuation of breastfeeding when a mother or her infant is receiving a routine recommended immunization.
Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata
Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0
This project goes directed to the applications of the techniques of molecular biology in hepatitis virus.A great advance of these techniques it allows its application to the diagnose molecular and it becomes indispensable to have these fundamental tools in the field of the Health Public for the detection precocious, pursuit of the treatment, the one predicts and the evolution of the patient hepatitis bearing virus technical.Use of molecular biology to increase the handling and the control of the patients with hepatitis B and C and to detect an adult numbers of positive cases by means of the training and integration of all the countries participating.Implement the technique of PCR to identify the virus of the hepatitis B and C,implement quantification methods and genotipification for these virus
Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J
Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.
Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James
As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.
Zhu, Bin; Fu, Yang; Liu, Jinlin; Mao, Ying
China is the largest developing country with a relatively developed public health system. To further prevent and eliminate the spread of infectious diseases, China has listed 39 notifiable infectious diseases characterized by wide prevalence or great harm, and classified them into classes A, B, and C, with severity decreasing across classes. Class A diseases have been almost eradicated in China, thus making class B diseases a priority in infectious disease prevention and control. In this retrospective study, we analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases that remain active all over China. Global and local Moran's I and corresponding graphic tools are adopted to explore and visualize the global and local spatial distribution of the incidence of the selected epidemics, respectively. Inter-correlations of clustering patterns of each pair of diseases and a cumulative summary of the high/low cluster frequency of the provincial units are also provided by means of figures and maps. Of the 12 most commonly notifiable class B infectious diseases, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis show high incidence rates and account for more than half of the reported cases. Almost all the diseases, except pertussis, exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation at the provincial level. All diseases feature varying spatial concentrations. Nevertheless, associations exist between spatial distribution patterns, with some provincial units displaying the same type of cluster features for two or more infectious diseases. Overall, high-low (unit with high incidence surrounded by units with high incidence, the same below) and high-high spatial cluster areas tend to be prevalent in the provincial units located in western and southwest China, whereas low-low and low-high spatial cluster areas abound in provincial units in north and east China. Despite the various distribution patterns of 12 class B notifiable infectious diseases, certain similarities between
Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco
Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... and the three infectious disease national centers, a report from the OID/BSC Food Safety Modernization...
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and... reports from the BSC OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the... reports from the BSC, OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the..., the meeting will include a focused discussion on ``Transitioning Infectious Disease Prevention...
Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien
The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat "hotspots"--places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups--can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure.
Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A
The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (i) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (ii) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, for example, gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (iii) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes and (iv) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasize that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional 'landscapes' such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential
Friedman, Herman; Pross, Susan; Klein, Thomas W
The use of drugs of abuse, both recreationally and medicinally, may be related to serious public health concerns. There is a relationship between addictive drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in cigarette smoke, as well as illegal drugs such as opiates, cocaine and marijuana, and increased susceptibility to infections. The nature and mechanisms of immunomodulation induced by such drugs of abuse are described in this review. The effects of opiates and marijuana, using animal models as well as in vitro studies with immune cells from experimental animals and humans, have shown that immunomodulation induced by these drugs is mainly receptor-mediated, either directly by interaction with specific receptors on immune cells or indirectly by reaction with similar receptors on cells of the nervous system. Similar studies also show that cocaine and nicotine have marked immunomodulatory effects, which are mainly receptor-mediated. Both cocaine, an illegal drug, and nicotine, a widely used legal addictive component of cigarettes, are markedly immunomodulatory and increase susceptibility to infection. The nature and mechanism of immunomodulation induced by alcohol, the most widely used addictive substance of abuse, are similar but immunomodulatory effects, although not receptor-mediated. The many research studies on the effects of these drugs on immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, including AIDS, are providing a better understanding of the complex interactions between immunity, infections and substance abuse.
Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration
Full Text Available Introduction We analyze how infectious disease physicians perceive and manage invasive candidosis in Brazil, in comparison to intensive care unit specialists. Methods A 38-question survey was administered to 56 participants. Questions involved clinicians' perceptions of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidosis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The perception that candidemia not caused by Candida albicans occurs in less than 10% of patients is more commonly held by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.018. Infectious disease physicians almost always use antifungal drugs in the treatment of patients with candidemia, and antifungal drugs are not as frequently prescribed by intensive care unit specialists (p=0.006. Infectious disease physicians often do not use voriconazole when a patient's antifungal treatment has failed with fluconazole, which also differs from the behavior of intensive care unit specialists (p=0.019. Many intensive care unit specialists use fluconazole to treat candidemia in neutropenic patients previously exposed to fluconazole, in contrast to infectious disease physicians (p=0.024. Infectious disease physicians prefer echinocandins as a first choice in the treatment of unstable neutropenic patients more frequently than intensive care unit specialists (p=0.013. When candidemia is diagnosed, most infectious disease physicians perform fundoscopy (p=0.015, whereas intensive care unit specialists usually perform echocardiograms on all patients (p=0.054. Conclusions This study reveals a need to better educate physicians in Brazil regarding invasive candidosis. The appropriate management of this disease depends on more drug options being available in our country in addition to global coverage in private and public hospitals, thereby improving health care.
Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew
Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.
Nicola J. Mulder
Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks.
Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201
Zemp, Franz; Rajwani, Jahanara; Mahoney, Douglas J
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms. Currently, the rVSV vector is in preclinical development for vaccination against numerous high-priority infectious diseases, with clinical evaluation underway for HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease. Indeed, the success of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine during the 2014-15 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa highlights the therapeutic potential of rVSV as a vaccine vector for acute, life-threatening viral illnesses. The rVSV and rMaraba platforms are also being tested as 'oncolytic' cancer vaccines in a series of phase 1-2 clinical trials, after being proven effective at eliciting immune-mediated tumour regression in preclinical mouse models. In this review, we discuss the biological and genetic features that make RVs attractive vaccine platforms and the development and ongoing testing of rVSV and rMaraba strains as vaccine vectors for infectious disease and cancer.
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation and Planning (U01, R34). Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G
The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....
Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA.
Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy
Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism.
Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists.
Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E
The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032
Kuzmin, Ivan V; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E
The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be 'orphan' but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.
Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.
Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.
Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh; Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Spencer, James; Lam, Nguyen; Finucane, Melissa; Duc Vien, Tran; Wilcox, Bruce
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transiti...
Artenstein, Andrew W; Opal, Jason M; Opal, Steven M; Tramont, Edmund C; Peter, Georges; Russell, Phillip K
The U.S. military has a long and illustrious history of involvement with vaccines against infectious diseases. For more than 200 years, the military has been actively engaged in vaccine research and has made many important contributions to the development of these products for use in disease prevention and control. Through the efforts of military researchers, numerous serious threats to the health of American troops and their families have been mitigated.
Ivan Branković; Jelena Malogajski; Servaas A. Morré
Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the int...
Masuda, Naoki; Holme, Petter
Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended anal...
Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.
Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact inf...
of Human Influenza A( H1N2 ) Reassortant Viruses during the 2001–2002 Influenza Season. Journal Infectious Diseases 2002;186:1490–1493...X, Smith CB, Mungall BA, Lindstrom SE, Hall HE, Subbarao K, et al. Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reas- sortant viruses...numerous samples containing highly pathologic avian influenza and other select agents (dual-use). With FY07 (available), FY08 (available) and FY 09
Coordination and resource-related difficulties encountered by Quebec's public health specialists and infectious diseases/medical microbiologists in the management of A (H1N1 - a mixed-method, exploratory survey
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Quebec, the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic was managed using a top-down style that left many involved players with critical views and frustrations. We aimed to describe physicians' perceptions - infectious diseases specialists/medical microbiologists (IDMM and public health/preventive medicine specialists (PHPMS - in regards to issues encountered with the pandemics management at the physician level and highlight suggested improvements for future healthcare emergencies. Methods In April 2010, Quebec IDMM and PHPMS physicians were invited to anonymously complete a web-based learning needs assessment. The survey included both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive statistics were used to report on the frequency distribution of multiple choice responses whereas thematic content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data generated from the survey and help understand respondents' experience and perceptions with the pandemics. Results Of the 102 respondents, 85.3% reported difficulties or frustrations in their practice during the pandemic. The thematic analysis revealed two core themes describing the problems experienced in the pandemic management: coordination and resource-related difficulties. Coordination issues included communication, clinical practice guidelines, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, epidemiological investigation, and public health expert advisory committees. Resources issues included laboratory resources, patient management, and vaccination process. Conclusion Together, the quantitative and qualitative data suggest a need for improved coordination, a better definition of roles and responsibilities, increased use of information technologies, merged communications, and transparency in the decisional process. Increased flexibility and less contradiction in clinical practice guidelines from different sources and increased laboratory/clinical capacity were felt critical to the proper
Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Generous, Nicholas; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death globally. Decisions surrounding how to control an infectious disease outbreak currently rely on a subjective process involving surveillance and expert opinion. However, there are many situations where neither may be available. Modeling can fill gaps in the decision making process by using available data to provide quantitative estimates of outbreak trajectories. Effective reduction of the spread of infectious diseases can be achieved through collaboration between the modeling community and public health policy community. However, such collaboration is rare, resulting in a lack of models that meet the needs of the public health community. Here we show a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model modified to include control measures that allows parameter ranges, rather than parameter point estimates, and includes a web user interface for broad adoption. We apply the model to three diseases, measles, norovirus and influenza, to show the feasibility of its use and describe a research agenda to further promote interactions between decision makers and the modeling community.
Infectious mononucleosis is usually a benign self-limiting disease, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the Herpes virus family. EBV virions have a double-stranded, linear DNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid. EBV is transmitted primarily through saliva, but transmission via blood and droplets also occurs. Infectious mononucleosis is the most frequent clinical manifestation of EBV infection and occurs during primary infection with the virus. With some exceptions, only children older than 10 years, adolescents and young adults are suffering from the disease. Primary EBV infection in children up to 10 years is usually asymptomatic or shows unspecific courses. After an incubation period of up to seven weeks, a sore throat, mild fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck area are the first signs of symptomatic infection. Further course of the disease often leads to hepatitis and swelling of the spleen. The symptoms usually subside after a few weeks, but protracted courses and clinical active infection also occur. The Epstein-Barr virus is distributed worldwide. At least 90% of all adults are seropositive to EBV. The treatment of infectious mononucleosis is mainly symptomatic, a generally effective specific therapy does not exist. A vaccine is currently not available.
Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly disparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology, and is based on the shared presence of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in host as well as in the microorganism. The ability of microorganisms to not only respond to, but also produce, many of the same neurochemicals that are produced by the host, such as during periods of stress, has led to the introduction of this evolutionary-based mechanism which has a role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The consideration of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms has demonstrated, for example, that the prevalent use of catecholamine-based synthetic drugs in the clinical setting contributes to the formation of biofilms in indwelling medical devices. Production of neurochemicals by microorganisms most often employs the same biosynthetic pathways as those utilized by the host, indicating that acquisition of host neurochemical-based signaling system in the host may have been acquired due to lateral gene transfer from microorganisms. That both host and microorganism produce and respond to the very same neurochemicals means that there is bidirectionality contained with the theoretical underpinnings of microbial endocrinology. This can be seen in the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis and its relevance to infectious disease. Such shared pathways argue for a role of microorganism-neurochemical interactions in infectious disease.
Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe
In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology...
... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Infectious Diseases Council. Date: May 24, 2010. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda: Report from the...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 27, 2014. Open...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 7, 2011. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda: Report from the...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Network. Date....gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date...
... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Integrated... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Network..., 301-496-2550, [email protected] . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics Autoimmunity. Date: June 22, 2010. Time... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Review of proposals received in response to NIH-NHLBI-HB-11-02...
... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics of Lupus. Date: March 11, 2011. Time: 11... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date...
Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A
Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.
Huh, Ae Jung; Kwon, Young Jik
Despite the fact that we live in an era of advanced and innovative technologies for elucidating underlying mechanisms of diseases and molecularly designing new drugs, infectious diseases continue to be one of the greatest health challenges worldwide. The main drawbacks for conventional antimicrobial agents are the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. Drug resistance enforces high dose administration of antibiotics, often generating intolerable toxicity, development of new antibiotics, and requests for significant economic, labor, and time investments. Recently, nontraditional antibiotic agents have been of tremendous interest in overcoming resistance that is developed by several pathogenic microorganisms against most of the commonly used antibiotics. Especially, several classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosized carriers for antibiotics delivery have proven their effectiveness for treating infectious diseases, including antibiotics resistant ones, in vitro as well as in animal models. This review summarizes emerging efforts in combating against infectious diseases, particularly using antimicrobial NPs and antibiotics delivery systems as new tools to tackle the current challenges in treating infectious diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design
Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R.; Olson, Don
, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying...... of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection...
Notani, N K
Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design
Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone
We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data...... issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity...
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Mokdad, Ali H; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W; Morozoff, Chloe; Shirude, Shreya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J L
Infectious diseases are mostly preventable but still pose a public health threat in the United States, where estimates of infectious diseases mortality are not available at the county level. To estimate age-standardized mortality rates and trends by county from 1980 to 2014 from lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. This study used deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the US Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database. Validated small-area estimation models were applied to these data to estimate county-level infectious disease mortality rates. County of residence. Age-standardized mortality rates of lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis by county, year, and sex. Between 1980 and 2014, there were 4 081 546 deaths due to infectious diseases recorded in the United States. In 2014, a total of 113 650 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 108 764-117 942) deaths or a rate of 34.10 (95% UI, 32.63-35.38) deaths per 100 000 persons were due to infectious diseases in the United States compared to a total of 72 220 (95% UI, 69 887-74 712) deaths or a rate of 41.95 (95% UI, 40.52-43.42) deaths per 100 000 persons in 1980, an overall decrease of 18.73% (95% UI, 14.95%-23.33%). Lower respiratory infections were the leading cause of infectious diseases mortality in 2014 accounting for 26.87 (95% UI, 25.79-28.05) deaths per 100 000 persons (78.80% of total infectious diseases deaths). There were substantial differences among counties in death rates from all infectious diseases. Lower respiratory infection had the largest absolute mortality inequality among counties (difference between the 10th and 90th percentile of the distribution, 24.5 deaths per 100 000 persons). However, HIV/AIDS had the highest relative mortality inequality between counties (10.0 as the
Beltrame, Marcia H; Boldt, Angelica B W; Catarino, Sandra J; Mendes, Hellen C; Boschmann, Stefanie E; Goeldner, Isabela; Messias-Reason, Iara
The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.