WorldWideScience

Sample records for health impacts offshore

  1. Occupational health offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.

    2002-07-01

    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  2. Unique ecological impacts associated with offshore floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; McLean, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological impacts that could occur as a result of site construction and operation of an offshore floating nuclear power plant are identified by comparing the principal ecological features associated with offshore siting with those associated with the siting of onshore estuarine plants. In general, the ecological impacts of offshore nuclear plants should be relatively smaller than those of estuarine plants. Possible factors that could increase the relative impacts of offshore plants are high frequency of contact with schools of fish, siting near inlets to estuaries or other ecologically important areas, and the persistence of halogen residuals. Identifying the potential ecological impacts associated with the siting of offshore plants permits the development of various monitoring programs and measures to minimize these impacts

  3. Healthy offshore workforce? A qualitative study on offshore wind employees' occupational strain, health, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Janika; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Harth, Volker; Preisser, Alexandra M; Mache, Stefanie

    2018-01-23

    Offshore work has been described as demanding and stressful. Despite this, evidence regarding the occupational strain, health, and coping behaviors of workers in the growing offshore wind industry in Germany is still limited. The purpose of our study was to explore offshore wind employees' perceptions of occupational strain and health, and to investigate their strategies for dealing with the demands of offshore work. We conducted 21 semi-structured telephone interviews with employees in the German offshore wind industry. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed in a deductive-inductive approach following Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Workers generally reported good mental and physical health. However, they also stated perceptions of stress at work, fatigue, difficulties detaching from work, and sleeping problems, all to varying extents. In addition, physical health impairment in relation to offshore work, e.g. musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complaints, was documented. Employees described different strategies for coping with their job demands. The strategies comprised of both problem and emotion-focused approaches, and were classified as either work-related, health-related, or related to seeking social support. Our study is the first to investigate the occupational strain, health, and coping of workers in the expanding German offshore wind industry. The results offer new insights that can be utilized for future research in this field. In terms of practical implications, the findings suggest that measures should be carried out aimed at reducing occupational strain and health impairment among offshore wind workers. In addition, interventions should be initiated that foster offshore wind workers' health and empower them to further expand on effective coping strategies at their workplace.

  4. The environmental impact from an offshore plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.-K.

    1994-01-01

    Wind measurements in different countries have shown the existence of a large energy potential in offshore winds. Taking into consideration the limited suitable area on land for wind power plants it is essential to know the environmental influence from and on an offshore plant. The first offshore wind power plant was built in Sweden in 1990 in order to examine the influence on birds, fish and fishing, shipping, public opinion, maintenance and the effects on foundation from waves and ice. So far, the programme shows that the birds try to avoid the plant by flying further away from it out over the sea. (Author)

  5. Too much or too little of R&D offshoring : The impact of captive offshoring and contract offshoring on innovation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberg, Philip; Procher, Vivien D.; Urbig, Diemo

    2017-01-01

    Innovating firms may acquire foreign knowledge and improve their innovation performance by offshoring their R&D activities to their own foreign affiliates (captive offshoring) as well as by contracting out their R&D to external foreign parties (contract offshoring). This study examines the impact of

  6. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  7. Offshoring and access to location-specific advantages - the impact of governance mode and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    how access to particular offshoring advantages may provide this link. The results of a quantitative survey of more than 1000 Scandinavian firms show that certain offshoring factors (governance mode and type of offshored function) indeed impact the access a company acquires to certain offshoring...... advantages, which may explain the unpredictability of previous performance outcomes....

  8. [Relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongtao; Xiao, Taiqin; Zou, Jianfang; Shan, Yongle; Li, Zijian

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers and to provide a scientific basis for protection of their mental health. A total of 768 workers on offshore oil platform were surveyed with the Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The total score of Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) for the workers (160.27±24.63) was significantly lower than the national norm (166.52±27.01) (P 0.05), but the items of recreation, social support, and rational/cognitive found significant difference (P work seniority, education background, drinking, role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, responsibility, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct impacted the score of SCL-90 (P mental health of workers on offshore oil platform is related to occupational stress, and role overload, role ambiguity, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct, etc, are closely associated with the workers' mental health.

  9. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  10. Offshore windfarms and their impact on fish abundance and community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Dinesen, Grete E.; Deurs, Mikael van

    2012-01-01

    Deployment of offshore windfarms (OWF) is rapidly expanding. A before–after control impact (BACI) approach was used to study the impact of one of the world’s largest offshore windfarms (Horns Rev Offshore Windfarm) on fish assemblages and species diversity. Fish were generally more abundant in th...

  11. Atmospheric Characterization of the US Offshore Sites and Impact on Turbine Performance (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Ehrmann, Robert [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Zuo, Delong [Texas Tech University; Xiao, Jingting [Texas Tech University

    2016-10-25

    Reliable, long term offshore atmospheric data is critical to development of the US offshore wind industry. There exists significant lack of meteorological, oceanographic, and geological data at potential US offshore sites. Assessment of wind resources at heights in the range of 25-200m is needed to understand and characterize offshore wind turbine performance. Data from the US Department of Energy owned WindSentinel buoy from two US offshore sites and one European site is analyzed. Low Level Jet (LLJ) phenomena and its potential impact on the performance of an offshore wind turbine is investigated.

  12. Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoux, Aurore; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tecchio, samuele; Degraer, Steven; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Niquil, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The French government is planning the construction of three offshore wind farms in Normandy. These offshore wind farms will integrate into an ecosystem already subject to a growing number of anthropogenic disturbances such as transportation, fishing, sediment deposit, and sediment extraction. The possible effects of this cumulative stressors on ecosystem functioning are still unknown, but they could impact their resilience, making them susceptible to changes from one stable state to another. Understanding the behaviour of these marine coastal complex systems is essential in order to anticipate potential state changes, and to implement conservation actions in a sustainable manner. Currently, there are no global and integrated studies on the effects of construction and exploitation of offshore wind farms. Moreover, approaches are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species. Here, we develop a holistic and integrated view of ecosystem impacts through the use of trophic webs modelling tools. Trophic models describe the interaction between biological compartments at different trophic levels and are based on the quantification of flow of energy and matter in ecosystems. They allow the application of numerical methods for the characterization of emergent properties of the ecosystem, also called Ecological Network Analysis (ENA). These indices have been proposed as ecosystem health indicators as they have been demonstrated to be sensitive to different impacts on marine ecosystems. We present here in detail the strategy for analysing the potential environmental impacts of the construction of the Courseulles-sur-Mer offshore wind farm (Bay of Seine) such as the reef effect through the use of the Ecopath with Ecosim software. Similar Ecopath simulations will be made in the future on the Le Tréport offshore wind farm site. Results will contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the offshore wind farms on ecosystems. They also allow to

  13. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miles, J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Zammit, D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Loomis, D. [Great Lakes Wind Network, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  14. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  15. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel; Resor, Brian Ray; White, Jonathan Randall; Paquette, Joshua A.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2012-12-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are expected to be significantly higher than the current costs for onshore plants. One way in which these costs may be able to be reduced is through the use of a structural health and prognostic management system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management. To facilitate the creation of such a system a multiscale modeling approach has been developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. The developed methodology was used to investigate the effects of a candidate blade damage feature, a trailing edge disbond, on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine and the measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage were the local pitching moments around the disbond. The multiscale method demonstrated that these changes were caused by a local decrease in the blades torsional stiffness due to the disbond, which also resulted in changes in the blades local strain field. Full turbine simulations were also used to demonstrate that derating the turbine power by as little as 5% could extend the fatigue life of a blade by as much as a factor of 3. The integration of the health monitoring information, conceptual repair cost versus damage size information, and this load management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  16. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R.; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions—both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios. PMID:27513754

  17. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates...... the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system...

  18. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  19. The market value and impact of offshore wind on the electricity spot market: Evidence from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Market value of offshore wind based on feed-in and weather data is assessed. • Merit order effect caused by wind energy is simulated for 2006–2014. • Results indicate same impact of on- and offshore wind on market price and value. • Steadier wind resource offshore imposes less variability on market price. • Characteristic of variable wind feed-in cannot be blamed for price deterioration. - Abstract: Although the expansion of offshore wind has recently increased in Germany, as in other countries, it is still forced to defend its role in long-term energy policy plans, particularly against its onshore counterpart, to secure future expansion targets and financial support. The objective of this article is to investigate the economic effects of offshore wind on the electricity spot market and thus open up another perspective that has not been part of the debate about offshore vs. onshore wind thus far. A comprehensive assessment based on a large amount of market, feed-in and weather data in Germany revealed that the market value of offshore wind is generally higher than that of onshore wind. Simulating the merit order effect on the German day-ahead electricity market for the short term and long term in the years 2006–2014 aimed to identify the reason for this observation and show whether it is also an indication of a lower impact on the electricity spot market due to a steadier wind resource prevailing offshore. Although the results suggest no difference regarding the impact on market price and value, they indeed reveal that offshore wind imposes less variability on the spot market price than onshore wind. In addition, the long-term simulation proved that the ongoing price deterioration cannot be blamed on the characteristic of variable wind production

  20. The offshore accords and Hibernia's impact on the Newfoundland treasury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, W.

    1992-01-01

    The provincial governments of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia have each signed an accord with the government of Canada to manage and share revenues from the development of their respective offshore oil and gas fields. Negotiated provisions for offsetting equalization payments were an important component of each of these accords. The potential effectiveness of these provisions in sheltering offshore oil revenues derived from the Hibernia project under various oil price scenarios is reviewed. Both mathematical and simulation analyses demonstrate that the provisions negotiated by Nova Scotia shelter significantly more revenue than those by Newfoundland. Recommendations for future negotiating positions are presented. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kang, Seong-Gil; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO_2), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO_2 levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO_2 gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO_2 leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO_2 leakage (ocean acidification, hypercapnia) on marine

  2. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu [Division of Biology and Paleo Environment, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com [RPS ASA, 55 Village Square Drive, South Kingstown, RI 02879 (United States); Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr [Offshore CCS Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, 32 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Deaejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ypark@kiost.ac.kr [Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  3. The Impact On The Product Development Process When Offshoring Or Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on the product development process when a company offshores or outsources a part of it abroad. Data was collected through interviews conducted in fi ve companies. The study showed that the impact can be both negative and positive. The key impact was the possibil......This paper investigates the impact on the product development process when a company offshores or outsources a part of it abroad. Data was collected through interviews conducted in fi ve companies. The study showed that the impact can be both negative and positive. The key impact...... was the possibility of a more complex development process due to cross-cultural virtual communication and collaboration. This meant a spiral development process is harder to offshore or outsource than a generic one. However, this complexity can be lessened by making the process or product simpler and by codifying...

  4. Design methods to assess the resistance of Offshore wind Turbine Structures impacted by a ship

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverry Jaramillo, Sara; Le Sourne, Hervé; Bela, Andreea; Pire, Timothée; Rigo, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic modes of jacket, monopile and Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT) after a collision event are presented. The authors have developed simplified analytical formulations based on plastic limit analysis to assess the resistance of an offshore wind turbine jacket impacted by a ship. For the case of collisions with monopile foundations and FOWT, the crushing behavior and structure dynamics are studied by means of finite element simulations. Numerical results for both monopile and flo...

  5. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  6. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore wind farm: Health and Safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L

    2002-07-01

    Experiences during the construction, operation and maintenance of the wind farm off the coast of Blyth in Northumberland are used to assess the practicality of implementing existing draft British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) guidelines. These best practice guidelines, which were drawn up in consultation with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) offer advice on health and safety issues specific to the wind industry in the UK. The guidelines are intended to cover both onshore and offshore sites; common advice is followed by advice specific to offshore sites. The Blyth Offshore project, the first offshore wind farm in the UK, features two 2 MW turbines installed on a submerged rocky outcrop about 1 km from the coast in a depth of about 6 m at low tide and a tidal range of about 5 m. The report concluded that, from the experience at Blyth, the draft guidelines will provide a useful tool for those involved in all stages of a wind farm project.

  8. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  9. Review report 2003. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Homs Rev and Nysted, with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on methods, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports. This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmentally impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Hors Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated at the bdsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  10. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  11. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  12. The Relationship between Offshoring Strategies and Firm Performance: Impact of innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to

  13. Environmental impact assessment of offshore wind farms: a simulation-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Lapena, Blanca; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stein, A.

    2010-01-01

    1.  Assessing and monitoring the impact of offshore wind farms on marine fauna is vital if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Given the complexity of the marine environment, a method capable of accommodating spatio-temporal behaviour of

  14. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  15. Impact of an offshore wind farm on wave conditions and shoreline development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    the shoreline’s sensitivity to the distance from the OWF to the shoreline was studied. The effect of the reduced wind speed inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm was incorporated in a parameterized way in a spectral wind wave model. The shoreline impact was studied with a one-line model....

  16. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  17. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen; Brookes, Kate L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions. Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1) Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2) The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3) Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4) Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation.

  18. Impacts of a large array of offshore wind farms on precipitation during hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Archer, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey brought to the Texas coast possibly the heaviest rain ever recorded in U.S. history, which then caused flooding at unprecedented levels. Previous studies have shown that large arrays of offshore wind farms can extract kinetic energy from a hurricane and thus reduce the wind and storm surge. This study will quantitatively test weather the offshore turbines may also affect precipitation patterns. The Weather Research Forecast model is employed to model Harvey and the offshore wind farms are parameterized as elevated drag and turbulence kinetic energy sources. The turbines (7.8 MW Enercon-126 with rotor diameter D=127 m) are placed along the coast of Texas and Louisiana within 100 km from the shore, where the water depth is below 200 meters. Three spacing between turbines are considered (with the number of turbines in parenthesis): 7D×7D (149,936), 9D×9D (84,339), and 11D×11D (56,226). A fourth case (9D×9D) with a smaller area and thus less turbines (33,363) is added to the simulations to emphasize the impacts of offshore turbines installed specifically to protect the city of Houston, which was flooded heavily during hurricane Harvey. The model is integrated for 24 hours from 00UTC Aug 26th, 2017 to 00UTC Aug 27th, 2017. Model results indicate that the offshore wind farms have a strong impact on the distribution of 24-hour accumulated precipitation, with an obvious decrease onshore, downstream of the wind farms, and an increase in the offshore areas, upstream of or within the wind farms. A sector covering the metro-Houston area is chosen to study the sensitivity of the four different wind farm layouts. The spatial-average 24-hour accumulated precipitation is decreased by 37%, 28%, 20% and 25% respectively for the four cases. Compared with the control case with no wind turbines, increased horizontal wind divergence and lower vertical velocity are found where the precipitation is reduced onshore, whereas increased horizontal wind convergence and

  19. Impact of offshore nuclear generating stations on recreational behavior at adjacent coastal sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.J.; Moss, D.J.; West, S.G.; Weyant, J.K.

    1977-12-01

    A multi-faceted investigation was undertaken to project the impact of offshore nuclear power plants on beach visitation at adjacent beaches. 1. Related literature was reviewed concerning human adjustment to natural hazards, risk-taking behavior, and public attitudes toward nuclear power. 2. Approximately 2400 people were interviewed at beaches in three states with respect to: (a) intended avoidance of beaches near a hypothetical floating nuclear plant (FNP), (b) relative importance of proximity to a FNP, when compared to other beach attributes, (c) onshore-offshore preference for coastal nuclear plant location, (d) behavioral impact of NRC licensing of FNP's, (e) relative tourism impact of coastal nuclear plant compared to coastal coal-fired plant, (f) public concerns about nuclear safety, (g) public attitudes toward alternative energy sources, (h) public confidence in sources of information about nuclear power, (i) visual impact of a FNP, and (j) knowledge about nuclear power. 3. Four beach areas near currently operating coastal nuclear power plants were studied to assess impacts on tourism resulting from plant construction. Data suggest that proximity of a FNP is less important than other beach attributes in determining beach attractiveness, probably no more than (and perhaps less than) 5% to 10% of current beach patrons would avoid a beach after FNP siting three miles directly offshore, and impact of a FNP would decrease exponentially as distance away increased

  20. Impact of offshore nuclear generating stations on recreational behavior at adjacent coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.J.; West, S.G.; Moss, D.J.; Weyant, J.K.

    1977-10-01

    A multi-faceted investigation was undertaken to project the impact of offshore nuclear power plants on beach visitation at adjacent beaches. Related literature was reviewed concerning human adjustment to natural hazards, risk-taking behavior, and public attitudes toward nuclear power. Approximately 2400 people were interviewed at beaches in three states with respect to: intended avoidance of beaches near a hypothetical floating nuclear plant (FNP), relative importance of proximity to a FNP, when compared to other beach attributes, onshore-offshore preference for coastal nuclear plant location, behavioral impact of NRC licensing of FNPs, relative tourism impact of coastal nuclear plant compared to coastal coal-fired plant, public concerns about nuclear safety, public attitudes toward alternative energy sources, public confidence in sources of information about nuclear power, visual impact of a FNP, and knowledge about nuclear power. Four beach areas near currently operating coastal nuclear power plants were studied to assess impacts on tourism resulting from plant construction. Data suggest that proximity of a FNP is less important than other beach attributes in determining beach attractiveness, probably no more than (and perhaps less than) 5% to 10% of current beach patrons would avoid a beach after FNP siting three miles directly offshore, and impact of a FNP would decrease exponentially as distance away increased

  1. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow...... on a horizontal inspection platform is computed for five different platform levels. The computational results show details of monopile impact such as slamming pressures from the overturning wave front and the formation of run-up flow. The results show that vertical platform impacts can occur at 20 m water depth....... The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...

  2. Influence of occupational stress on mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qing; Wong, Tze-Wai; Yu, Tak-Sun

    2009-09-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress on mental health in off-shore oil production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 561 Chinese off-shore oil workers. The workers were invited to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress levels, and 12-item general health questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression procedure was used to assess the effects of occupational stress on mental health. After controlling for age, educational level, marital status and years of off-shore work, poor mental health was found to have a significant positive association with seven of the nine identified sources of occupational stress. They were: conflict between job and family/social life, poor development of career and achievement at work, safety problems at work, management problems and poor relationship with others at work, poor physical environment of the work place, uncomfortable ergonomic factors at work, and poor organizational structure at work. All of these occupational stress sources together explained 19.9% of the total variance. The results confirmed that occupational stress was a major risk factor for poor mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers. Reducing or eliminating occupational stressors at work would benefit workers' mental health.

  3. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife-a generalized impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrom, L.; Kautsky, L.; Malm, T.

    2014-01-01

    study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range......, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating...... that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity...

  4. Breaking wave impacts on offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2010-01-01

    that for the impacts of spilling breakers the peak force gets smaller the more developed the breaking is. This is in qualitative agreement with a finding from shallow water impacts on vertical walls: the strongest wave loads are associated with breakers that hit the structure with slightly overturning front...

  5. Proposed amendments to the Accord Acts to incorporate an offshore occupational health and safety regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    The Canada Atlantic Accords signed in 1985 with Newfoundland and Labrador and in 1986 with Nova Scotia facilitate the orderly development of petroleum resources in Canada's Atlantic offshore area. These accords established the Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and made them responsible, on behalf of the federal government and the respective provincial government, for the joint management of petroleum resources in the offshore area. While the federal and provincial governments are responsible for establishing the regime for operational safety and occupational health and safety to be administered by the 2 boards, there is no division of responsibilities between the provincial occupational health and safety regime and the Accord Acts. There is agreement amongst governments that the accord acts should be amended to clarify responsibilities and vest sole authority for occupational health and safety in the accord acts. This document outlined the policy intent of the proposed amendments to the Accord Acts to ground an occupational health and safety regime for the east coast offshore areas in legislation. The document discussed legislation to be amended; governance; and provisions of the occupational health and safety regime. General matters such as the application of the policy, allocation of responsibility and interpretation were also discussed. The general duties of the operators were identified along with specific duties of operators; duties related to transportation; occupational health and safety policy; health and safety management system; codes of practice; notification of accidents; duties of employers; and occupational health and safety program. Compliance and enforcement provisions were also summarized.

  6. French offshore wind power - Impact studies: how to make them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rap, C.

    2014-01-01

    The first public inquiries for the installation of wind farms off French coasts will take place in 2015 and impact studies appear to be key elements to back discussions and debates. These studies will have to assess the impact of the wind turbines on different aspects of the natural environment. For the landscape aspect, the visual perception of the wind farm from the coast and coastal villages will have to be studied. As for natural life, the impact on the fish resource will have to be assessed as well as the effects on bird, bat and sea mammal populations. The risk of accident with ships or planes will have to be considered. Some impacts will be positive or negative, permanent or temporary, direct or indirect. The final report will have to propose measures to mitigate negative impacts or even remedial measures if necessary to compensate for them. Impact studies imply to make a preliminary study of the environment prior the installation in order to draw the reference situation. (A.C.)

  7. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier

    2016-08-29

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physicochemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A.; Tremblay, Louis A.; Ellis, Joanne; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physicochemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...

  10. Structural health monitoring tools for late and end of life management of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; McKirdy, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The late and end of life stages in an offshore wind turbines (OWT) life cycle have unique features that must be considered. The initial focus on risks associated with start-up issues due to design, manufacturing or process elements gives way to a stable period of operation and maintenance...... margins and the predominance of low redundancy structures, accurate structural health monitoring can play a strong role in safe management and enable increased operating time at end of life and decommissioning. Late life operations of offshore wind farms can pose significant challenges, balancing...

  11. Impact assessment of offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    The global demand for oil and gas has lead to a notable increase in interest for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the legislation for impact assessment in Greenland, Denmark, Norway, Alaska (USA) and Canada. The point of departure...

  12. Effects on birds of an offshore wind park at Horns Rev: Environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noer, H.; Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [DMU, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the technical background to the ornithological environmental impact assessment for the construction of an offshore windpark at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, Denmark. Construction of the park is planned to commence in 2001. The park will consist of c. 80 wind turbines, each of at least 1.8 MW, and cover an area of 27.5 km{sup 2} (including the 200 m exclusion zone around the park). (au)

  13. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  14. Environmental Impact of Offshore Gas Activities on the Benthic Environment: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, E; Gomiero, A; Tassetti, A N; Strafella, P; Santelli, A; Salvalaggio, V; Spagnolo, A; Scarcella, G; De Biasi, A M; Kozinkova, L; Fabi, G

    2017-08-01

    Multidisciplinary monitoring of the impact of offshore gas platforms on northern and central Adriatic marine ecosystems has been conducted since 1998. Beginning in 2006, 4-5 year investigations spanning the period before, during, and after rig installation have explored the effects of its construction and presence on macrozoobenthic communities, sediment, water quality, pollutant bioaccumulation, and fish assemblages. In this study, sediment samples collected at increasing distance from an offshore gas platform before, during and after its construction were subjected to chemical analysis and assessment of benthic communities. Ecological indices were calculated to evaluate the ecological status of the area. Ecotoxicological analysis of sediment was performed to establish whether pollutants are transferred to biota. The study applied a before-after control-impact design to assess the effects of rig construction and presence and provide reference data on the possible impacts of any further expansion of the gas extraction industry in the already heavily exploited Adriatic Sea. Only some of the metals investigated (barium, chromium, cadmium, and zinc) showed a different spatial and/or temporal distribution that may be platform-related. In the early phases, the sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were below the detection limit at all sites; they then became detectable, but without significant spatial differences. The present findings suggest that the environmental effects of offshore gas platforms may be difficult to quantify, interpret, and generalize, because they are influenced by numerous, often local, abiotic, and biotic variables in different and unpredictable ways.

  15. Environmental Impact of Offshore Gas Activities on the Benthic Environment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, E.; Gomiero, A.; Tassetti, A. N.; Strafella, P.; Santelli, A.; Salvalaggio, V.; Spagnolo, A.; Scarcella, G.; De Biasi, A. M.; Kozinkova, L.; Fabi, G.

    2017-08-01

    Multidisciplinary monitoring of the impact of offshore gas platforms on northern and central Adriatic marine ecosystems has been conducted since 1998. Beginning in 2006, 4-5 year investigations spanning the period before, during, and after rig installation have explored the effects of its construction and presence on macrozoobenthic communities, sediment, water quality, pollutant bioaccumulation, and fish assemblages. In this study, sediment samples collected at increasing distance from an offshore gas platform before, during and after its construction were subjected to chemical analysis and assessment of benthic communities. Ecological indices were calculated to evaluate the ecological status of the area. Ecotoxicological analysis of sediment was performed to establish whether pollutants are transferred to biota. The study applied a before-after control-impact design to assess the effects of rig construction and presence and provide reference data on the possible impacts of any further expansion of the gas extraction industry in the already heavily exploited Adriatic Sea. Only some of the metals investigated (barium, chromium, cadmium, and zinc) showed a different spatial and/or temporal distribution that may be platform-related. In the early phases, the sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were below the detection limit at all sites; they then became detectable, but without significant spatial differences. The present findings suggest that the environmental effects of offshore gas platforms may be difficult to quantify, interpret, and generalize, because they are influenced by numerous, often local, abiotic, and biotic variables in different and unpredictable ways.

  16. Proposing an approach for the assessment of environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedeke, Jens

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Analyses of numerous EIS and EIA in the chosen countries, which have been worked out by the authors, have documented that the assessments failed to standardize both the prognosis and the assessment method. The assessment and the relevance of the manifold provided data tends to remain vague and can only hardly been used by the authorizing bodies. Thus, decision makers need an appropriate, transparent and comparable decision-making 'portfolio' to provide at best bullet-proofed EIA documents, based on a systematic analysis of research results, baseline surveys and a prognosis of the expected impacts. A satisfactory state of research or good practice for the assessment of the environmental impacts, which also enables comparability and cumulative considerations of the impacts of offshore wind farms in an international context, should be reached. A transparent evaluation approach of data for the analysis of the relevant issues therefore was essential. Carrying this in mind the Technische Universitaet Berlin developed proposals for semi-quantitative assessment models for migratory birds, sea and resting birds and harbour porpoises that, if used within the EIA, could provide the permit requirements more transparent with relevant data and assessments to the necessary decision-making basics. Because of the differences of impact correlations between the diverse natural assets and the offshore wind farms, individual models have been developed for several impact correlations, which have been identified as especially significant for the real decision making process. The numerous influencing factors of each impact therefore have been compiled. With the elaborated models these factors are linked systematically. The obtained data can be used for a comparison with the social given objectives (in form of legal thresholds). Therefore the presented models have to be established inside the EIS as well as in the approval system. So it could bring advantages in the

  17. Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chien; Prinn, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    The vast availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as a potential near-zero greenhouse gas emission technology for meeting future world energy needs while addressing the climate change issue. However, in order to provide even a fraction of the estimated future energy needs, a large-scale deployment of wind turbines (several million) is required. The consequent environmental impacts, and the inherent reliability of such a large-scale usage of intermittent wind power would have to be carefully assessed, in addition to the need to lower the high current unit wind power costs. Our previous study (Wang and Prinn 2010 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 2053) using a three-dimensional climate model suggested that a large deployment of wind turbines over land to meet about 10% of predicted world energy needs in 2100 could lead to a significant temperature increase in the lower atmosphere over the installed regions. A global-scale perturbation to the general circulation patterns as well as to the cloud and precipitation distribution was also predicted. In the later study reported here, we conducted a set of six additional model simulations using an improved climate model to further address the potential environmental and intermittency issues of large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines for differing installation areas and spatial densities. In contrast to the previous land installation results, the offshore wind turbine installations are found to cause a surface cooling over the installed offshore regions. This cooling is due principally to the enhanced latent heat flux from the sea surface to lower atmosphere, driven by an increase in turbulent mixing caused by the wind turbines which was not entirely offset by the concurrent reduction of mean wind kinetic energy. We found that the perturbation of the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines to the global climate is relatively small compared to the case of land

  18. Simulation Based Investigation of the Impact of Information Sharing on the Offshore Wind Farm Installation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Quandt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the introduction of a sustainable and green energy infrastructure, and, by this, the reduction of emissions caused by fossil energy generation, has been focused on by industry-oriented nations worldwide. Among the technologies of renewable energy generation, wind energy has the highest deployment rate, due to the high wind resource availability and the high technology maturity reached mainly by the onshore installation of wind turbines. However, the planning and the installation of offshore wind farms are a challenging task, because of harsh weather conditions and limited resource availability. Due to the current practice of decentralised information acquisition by the supply chain partners, we investigate the impact of sharing information on the installation process of offshore wind farms by means of a simulation model. Therefore, relevant information items will be identified in order to improve the installation process.

  19. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-01-01

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10 6 SM 3 ) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment

  20. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  1. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Åstrand Capetillo, Nastassja; Rosenberg, Rutger; Wahlberg, Magnus; Wilhelmsson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Marine management plans over the world express high expectations to the development of offshore wind energy. This would obviously contribute to renewable energy production, but potential conflicts with other usages of the marine landscape, as well as conservation interests, are evident. The present study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range of salinity conditions from marine to nearly fresh waters. Hence, the conclusions are potentially applicable to marine planning situations in various aquatic ecosystems. The assessment considered impact with respect to temporal and spatial extent of the pressure, effect within each ecosystem component, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as the fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for a sustainable marine spatial planning. (paper)

  2. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Rosenberg, Rutger; Wahlberg, Magnus; Åstrand Capetillo, Nastassja; Wilhelmsson, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Marine management plans over the world express high expectations to the development of offshore wind energy. This would obviously contribute to renewable energy production, but potential conflicts with other usages of the marine landscape, as well as conservation interests, are evident. The present study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies. The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range of salinity conditions from marine to nearly fresh waters. Hence, the conclusions are potentially applicable to marine planning situations in various aquatic ecosystems. The assessment considered impact with respect to temporal and spatial extent of the pressure, effect within each ecosystem component, and level of certainty. Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning. Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as the fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for a sustainable marine spatial planning.

  3. Unstructured grid modelling of offshore wind farm impacts on seasonally stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Pierre William; Torres, Ricardo; Allen, J. Icarus

    2016-06-01

    Shelf seas comprise approximately 7% of the world's oceans and host enormous economic activity. Development of energy installations (e.g. Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs), tidal turbines) in response to increased demand for renewable energy requires a careful analysis of potential impacts. Recent remote sensing observations have identified kilometre-scale impacts from OWFs. Existing modelling evaluating monopile impacts has fallen into two camps: small-scale models with individually resolved turbines looking at local effects; and large-scale analyses but with sub-grid scale turbine parameterisations. This work straddles both scales through a 3D unstructured grid model (FVCOM): wind turbine monopiles in the eastern Irish Sea are explicitly described in the grid whilst the overall grid domain covers the south-western UK shelf. Localised regions of decreased velocity extend up to 250 times the monopile diameter away from the monopile. Shelf-wide, the amplitude of the M2 tidal constituent increases by up to 7%. The turbines enhance localised vertical mixing which decreases seasonal stratification. The spatial extent of this extends well beyond the turbines into the surrounding seas. With significant expansion of OWFs on continental shelves, this work highlights the importance of how OWFs may impact coastal (e.g. increased flooding risk) and offshore (e.g. stratification and nutrient cycling) areas.

  4. Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Haggett, Claire; Aitken, Mhairi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project evaluating community benefit models for offshore renewables. We identify and analyse UK and international case studies of different forms of community benefit, and provide evidence of how such benefits are delivered. In particular we consider......, and impact are understood is crucial in determining whether or how benefits should be apportioned and delivered; and that these definitions are closely connected to each other. We develop a new series of typologies as a way to understand this. Finally, we assess different mechanisms and schemes of community...

  5. Loss of health certificates among offshore petroleum workers on the Norwegian Continental Shelf 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneland, Alf Magne; Moen, Bente E; Holte, Kari Anne; Merkus, Suzanne L; Ellingsen, Kjersti Lunde; Carter, Tim; Aas, Randi W; Ulven, Arne Johan

    2011-01-01

    A health certificate is required to work on the offshore petroleum installations of the Norwegian Shelf. Loss of health certificate (loss of licence, LOL) may cause economic problems for the individual worker. A private compensation system (OSO) was established for Norwegian offshore workers in 2002, comprising 8000-11,000 individual members of workers organisations: approximately one third of the population offshore. This study aims at describing the reasons for compensation of offshore workers who have lost their certificates. Of 595 workers who applied for compensation in the period 2002-2010, 38 declined to participate in the study. Of the remaining 557, 507 were granted and 50 were denied compensation. All medical records held by the scheme concerning the 507 compensated applicants were examined. Health data were systematically extracted, analysed, and compared with general population statistics. Musculoskeletal conditions were the most frequent conditions causing LOL for both sexes (42.5%), followed by psychiatric, neurological, and malignant diseases for women, and cardiovascular (19%), neurological, and psychiatric conditions for men. Musculoskeletal disorders were more prevalent than in the general population, and the prevalence of knee problems was particularly high. Among malignant diseases we found a high proportion of brain tumours and renal cancer. The causes are unknown and warrant further investigation in this population. Among women granted compensation, 78% were catering workers, while 50% of the men were process workers, reflecting the gender distribution in these working groups. Musculoskeletal conditions were the most frequent cause of application for LOL compensation for both sexes, followed by psychiatric, neurological, and malignant diseases for women, and cardiovascular, neurological, and psychiatric conditions for men. The cause of the higher incidence of musculoskeletal diseases, brain tumours, and renal cancer found in this study

  6. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  7. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S B

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  8. Review of potential impacts to sea turtles from underwater explosive removal of offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viada, Stephen T.; Hammer, Richard M.; Racca, Roberto; Hannay, David; Thompson, M. John; Balcom, Brian J.; Phillips, Neal W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize existing information relevant to the explosive removal of offshore structures (EROS) in aquatic environments. Data sources were organized and summarized by topic - explosive removal methods, physics of underwater explosions, sea turtle resources, documented impacts to sea turtles, and mitigation of effects. Information was gathered via electronic database searches and literature source review. Bulk explosive charges are the most commonly used technique in EROS. While the physical principles of underwater detonations and the propagation of pressure and acoustic waves are well understood, there are significant gaps in the application of this knowledge. Impacts to sea turtles from explosive removal operations may range from non-injurious effects (e.g. acoustic annoyance; mild tactile detection or physical discomfort) to varying levels of injury (i.e. non-lethal and lethal injuries). Very little information exists regarding the impacts of underwater explosions on sea turtles. Effects of explosions on turtles often must be inferred from documented effects to other vertebrates with lungs or other gas-containing organs, such as mammals and most fishes. However, a cautious approach should be used when determining impacts to sea turtles based on extrapolations from other vertebrates. The discovery of beached sea turtles and bottlenose dolphins following an explosive platform removal event in 1986 prompted the initiation of formal consultation between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), authorized through the Endangered Species Act Section 7, to determine a mechanism to minimize potential impacts to listed species. The initial consultation resulted in a requirement for oil and gas companies to obtain a permit (through separate consultations on a case-by-case basis) prior to using explosives in Federal waters. Because many offshore

  9. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts in Oregon Coastal Counties from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This analysis examines the employment and potential economic impacts of large-scale deployment of offshore wind technology off the coast of Oregon. This analysis examines impacts within the seven Oregon coastal counties: Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry. The impacts highlighted here can be used in county, state, and regional planning discussions and can be scaled to get a general sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other deployment scenarios.

  10. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-01

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be affected in a minor way

  11. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  12. Impacto da participação especial em campos gigantes offshore de petróleo Impact of special participation tax in offshore petroleum giant fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mendes Gandra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando um cenário como estudo de caso, objetiva-se explorar o impacto econômico da Lei que rege a cobrança da Participação Especial (PE pela Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP sobre a decisão de investimento em projetos situados exclusivamente em campos gigantes de petróleo no Brasil. Embora este seja um exercício indutivo sem maiores pretensões, ele pode ser tomado como representativo para retratar a realidade das grandes empresas que têm em seu portfolio oportunidades de desenvolvimento de concessões com grande potencial petrolífero. Subsidiariamente, propõe-se uma alternativa ao modelo de tributação vigente.The main objective of this technical study is to show the economic impact of Special Participation Tax on decisions at projects of investments at Brazilian offshore fields with high production of petroleum. An alternative estimation approach is proposed in this paper for Special Participation Tax to facilitate the economic viability of offshore projects. This technical study is only a exercise of a real situation which big companies face when it have the opportunity to develop concessions with high potential of petroleum. Above all, we propose an alternative way to calculate the assessment.

  13. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius free-fall penetrometer Nimrod was deployed at the same spots, and furthermore, in the areas close to the tripod foundations (down to a distance of ~ 5 m from the central pile). Before construction, CPT as well as Nimrod deployments confirm a flat, homogenous sandy area with tip resistance values ranging from 1200 - 1600 kPa (CPT with a mass of ~ 100 kg and an impact velocity of ~ 1 m/s) and quasi-static bearing

  14. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I; Dervilis, N; Papatheou, E; Maguire, A E; Worden, K

    2015-02-28

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector.

  15. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I.; Dervilis, N.; Papatheou, E.; Maguire, A. E.; Worden, K.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector. PMID:25583864

  16. Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and optimize tools for designing large wind farm arrays for deployment offshore. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make more accurate power output predictions for large offshore wind farms...

  17. The Impact of R&D Offshoring on the Home Knowledge Production of OECD Investing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Agostino, Lorena M.; Laursen, Keld; Santangelo, Grazia

    countries, we explicitly focus on Brazil, Russia, India, China, Singapore and Taiwan. We suggest that complementarity should obtain, when home region and offshore R&D activities are dissimilar as well as when offshore R&D activities is about modular and less complex technologies. We ground our predictions...

  18. Impacts of offshore grid developments in the North Sea region on market values by 2050: How will offshore wind farms and transmission lines pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traber, Thure; Koduvere, Hardi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani

    2017-01-01

    on the substantial differences in the expected economic exposure of wind power plants and transmission lines to the development of the electricity grid in the North Sea. Since details of the prospective energy system around the North Sea region shape these revenue expectations, we further develop and apply...... market values of wind farms on hub level due to impacts of different options for grid structures. The results aim to inform the discussion on possibilities for the allocation of grid expansion costs to the different connected countries including Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway......Increasing the integration of renewable energy in Northern and Central Europe markets is greatly influenced by the development of electricity transmission grid infrastructure. On the background of the fast development of offshore wind energy and its connection to the onshore electricity systems...

  19. Floating Offshore Wind in Hawaii: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Three Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to be anchored to the deeper seafloor if deployed in Hawaiian waters. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind off Hawaii's coasts, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical deployment scenarios for Hawaii: 400 MW of offshore wind by 2050 and 800 MW of offshore wind by 2050. The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scale of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development.

  20. Outsourcing software development offshore making IT work

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2004-01-01

    THE OFFSHORE IMPERATIVECrunching the Offshore Numbers: What the Financials PortendWelcome to the Definitive Guide on Offshore OutsourcingSetting the Stage: The Compelling Offshore StoryOffshore Outsourcing versus Traditional IT OutsourcingChallenges of Offshore OutsourcingChapter SummaryGetting Started in OffshoreExecutive Support and Communications: The Key to SuccessA Look at an Example of Enlightened Leadership: Handling Employee Impact at a Northeast Utilities CompanyWell-Planned and Executed Communications: A Critical Success Factor for Offshore Program InitiationEstablishing the Offshore

  1. Potential impacts of offshore oil spills on polar bears in the Chukchi Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Perham, Craig; French-McCay, Deborah P; Balouskus, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice decline is anticipated to increase human access to the Arctic Ocean allowing for offshore oil and gas development in once inaccessible areas. Given the potential negative consequences of an oil spill on marine wildlife populations in the Arctic, it is important to understand the magnitude of impact a large spill could have on wildlife to inform response planning efforts. In this study we simulated oil spills that released 25,000 barrels of oil for 30 days in autumn originating from two sites in the Chukchi Sea (one in Russia and one in the U.S.) and tracked the distribution of oil for 76 days. We then determined the potential impact such a spill might have on polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their habitat by overlapping spills with maps of polar bear habitat and movement trajectories. Only a small proportion (1-10%) of high-value polar bear sea ice habitat was directly affected by oil sufficient to impact bears. However, 27-38% of polar bears in the region were potentially exposed to oil. Oil consistently had the highest probability of reaching Wrangel and Herald islands, important areas of denning and summer terrestrial habitat. Oil did not reach polar bears until approximately 3 weeks after the spills. Our study found the potential for significant impacts to polar bears under a worst case discharge scenario, but suggests that there is a window of time where effective containment efforts could minimize exposure to bears. Our study provides a framework for wildlife managers and planners to assess the level of response that would be required to treat exposed wildlife and where spill response equipment might be best stationed. While the size of spill we simulated has a low probability of occurring, it provides an upper limit for planners to consider when crafting response plans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  3. Impact assessment of an off-shore wind park on sea ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette, M.; Kyed Larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1998-03-01

    As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunoe Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect and maintain these populations of aquatic birds and such shallow coastal areas are precisely the type of areas in which future wind parks are planned. Two general approaches were adopted for the investigation: the before-after-control-impact design (BACI) and After studies conducted around the wind park. The aim of the BACI studies was to compare bird abundance and distribution before and after the construction of the wind park and between the area presumably affected by the development and a control area. This was carried out on three spatial scales: (i) conducting aerial surveys in two large zones (about 5,000 ha), Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, while controlling the total number of birds in Aarhus Bay (88,000 ha), (ii) conducting ground surveys of two areas of about 700-800 ha coverage at Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, using the latter as a control area and (iii) within Tunoe using three sub areas (160-250 ha) as controls compared to the construction area. The after experiments were conducted around the wind park with the aim of controlling the confounding effect of food supply and to establish (a) the short-term possible effects of noise and rotor movements generated by the turbines on the distribution and abundance of sea ducks and (b) the long-term scaring effect of the wind park (the impact of revolving rotors and the presence of the standing towers). Finally, an

  4. Impact of the oil price and fiscal facilities on offshore mining at the Dutch Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, Arie ten; Mulder, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    The surge in the oil price has raised questions about the magnitude of global reserves of oil. According to some analysts, the current high oil prices indicate a looming decline in the global production of oil. Others believe, however, that the increased level of the oil price encourages exploration and production activities, bringing the oil price to a lower equilibrium level in the near future. In this paper, we assess the impact of the unit profit (depending on the oil price) as well as fiscal facilities on the level of exploration and development drillings in the Dutch Continental Shelf. We conducted an econometric analysis of exploration and development drillings in the Dutch Continental Shelf over the period 1981-2003. Except a few fiscal changes, the regulatory framework for offshore activities in the Netherlands, the so-called 'small fields policy' was unchanged in this period. We find that the expected unit profit based on a moving average of the oil price significantly explains the level of both exploration and development drillings. In addition, the analysis suggests that fiscal facilities have only a temporary effect on exploration activities but are more important for development activities. We conclude that the oil price is a major economic incentive for activities of the mining industry

  5. Impact of offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) on the sediment size and heavy minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Fernandes, D.

    Two offshore placer mining experiments (PLAMEX) were conducted using submersible pumps specially designed by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur (India) at 8 m water depth in Kalbadevi Bay (PLAMEX-I), Ratnagiri...

  6. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for Oregon: 5,500 megawatts (MW) of offshore wind deployment in Oregon by 2050 (Scenario A), and 2,900 MW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). These levels of deployment could power approximately 1,600,000 homes (Scenario A) or 870,000 homes (Scenario B). Offshore wind would contribute to economic development in Oregon in the near future, and more substantially in the long term, especially if equipment and labor are sourced from within the state. According to the analysis, over the 2020-2050 period, Oregon floating offshore wind facilities could support 65,000-97,000 job-years and add $6.8 billion-$9.9 billion to the state GDP (Scenario A).

  7. Interannual Variation in Offshore Advection of Amazon-Orinoco Plume Waters: Observations, Forcing Mechanisms, and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vandemark, D. C.; Gaultier, L.; Lee, T.; Jonsson, B. F.; Gierach, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Atlantic east of the Lesser Antilles, a region impacted by freshwater advection from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers have potential implications to late-summer tropical cyclones (TCs). This study examines these variations during late summer and their forcing mechanisms using observations. During the period 2010-2014, the largest difference in plume-affected area, defined as the extent covered by SSS lower than 35.5 pss, is found between 2011 and 2014. Plume waters covered 92% (60%) of the study region in 2011 (2014) with the averaged SSS in the study region being 2-pss lower in 2011. Lagrangian particle tracking based on satellite-derived ocean currents is used to diagnose the impacts of the river plumes on SSS and SST during 2010-2014. Northward freshwater flux in the summer of 2014 is significantly weaker than those in 2010-2013. This is not due to interannual discharge variability, but significant changes in eddy-driven transport and cross-shore winds. In particular, the stronger cross-shore wind in May 2014 restricted offshore freshwater flow, leading to a smaller extent of the plume-affected area. Persistent SST gradients are often found near the plume edge, which may have implication to ocean-atmosphere coupling associated with TC-related convection. SST in the study region is 1°C higher in 2010 than in other years, and is related to basin-scale ocean-atmosphere processes. Interannual variation in Amazon advective pathways and the associated SSS changes are also influenced by changes in the ITCZ position between 2011 and 2014.

  8. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Wave Impact underneath Decks of Offshore Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baarholm, Rolf Jarle

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis has been to study the phenomenon of water impact underneath the decks of offshore platforms due to propagating waves. The emphasis has been on the impact loads. Two theoretical methods based on two-dimensional potential theory have been developed, a Wagner based method (WBM) and a nonlinear boundary element method (BEM). A procedure to account for three-dimensional effects is suggested. The deck is assumed to be rigid. Initial studies of the importance of hydroelasticity for wave loads on an existing deck structure have been performed. For a given design wave, the local structural responses were found to behave quasi-static. Global structural response has not been studied. In the Wagner based method gravity is neglected and a linear spatial distribution of the relative impact velocity along the deck is assumed. The resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically for each time step. A numerical scheme for stepping the wetted deck area in time is presented. The nonlinear boundary element method includes gravity, and the exact impact velocity is considered. The incident wave velocity potential is given a priori, and a boundary value problem for the perturbation velocity potential associated with the impact is defined. The boundary value problem is solved for each time step by applying Green's second identity. The exact boundary conditions are imposed on the exact boundaries. A Kutta condition is introduced as the fluid flow reaches the downstream end of the deck. At present, the BEM is only applicable for fixed platform decks. To validate the theories, experiments have been carried out in a wave flume. The experiments were performed in two-dimensional flow condition with a fixed horizontal deck at different vertical levels above the mean free surface. The vertical force on the deck and the wetting of the deck were the primary parameters measured. Only regular propagating waves were applied. When a wave hits the deck, the

  10. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gdańsk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both

  11. Global offshore pipeline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  12. Regulating Future Offshore Grids: Economic Impact Analysis on Wind Parks and Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    the respective countries. This study focuses on how investors in wind parks and transmission systems are affected by the choice of regulatory regime in offshore grids with one to four countries connected. In order to capture the uncertainties related to the exposure to market prices as well as risks related...

  13. Reliability of transmission networks : Impact of EHV underground cables & interaction of offshore-onshore networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinema, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    For the future, several developments of the power system are expected. The transition towards a more sustainable energy supply puts new requirements on the design and operation of power systems, and the transmission network in particular. Offshore, a transmission grid will be implemented to collect

  14. Offshore VSC-HVDC Networks : Impact on Transient Stability of AC Transmission Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition towards a sustainable society calls for the massive deployment of renewable energy sources such as large wind parks located far offshore. High-voltage direct current transmission based on voltage sourced converter technology (VSC-HVDC) offers a wide range of technological benefits

  15. A Coupled VOF-Eulerian Multiphase CFD Model to Simulate Breaking Wave Impacts on Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    Breaking wave-induced loads on offshore structures can be extremely severe. The air entrainment mechanism during the breaking process plays a not well-known role in the exerted forces. This paper present a CFD solver, developed in the Open-FOAM environment, capable of simulating the wave breaking...

  16. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Social impact assessment: identification, management and follow-up of community concerns associated with construction of the Hibernia offshore platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, K.

    2003-01-01

    Social impact Assessment (SIA) is the systematic analysis, in advance of the likely impacts of a proposed action, that considers 'all social and cultural consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs, and generally cope as members of society' (US Department of Commerce 1994). Through the SIA for the construction of the Hibernia offshore oil platform concern, and values of local area residents were identified and a management strategy designed to minimise social disruption associated with the project. Monitoring studies showed that the strategy was effective and that few negative social impacts occurred. The Hibernia offshore oil field, was discovered on the Grand Banks, east of the island of Newfoundland, in 1979. The distance from shore (315 km), its isolation, the periodic presence of sea ice, icebergs and fog, and frequently severe wave and wind conditions, make these waters an extremely hostile work environment. Primarily to maximize human safety, the final engineering design chosen for the project was a fixed, gravity base system (GBS). The platform functions as the main drilling and production unit, the first stage processing facility, oil storage and accommodations base for the offshore crews. The concrete base of the platform, one of the five super-modules that make up the top-sides of the platform and eight of tile smaller top-sides-mounted modules, were fabricated in Newfoundland and the entire platform assembled at Bull Arm, Trinity Bay. (author)

  18. Psychosocial aspects of work and health in the North Sea oil and gas industry. Pt. 5: offshore work/leave schedules: data analyses and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, K.R.; Clark, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this report draws on a variety of sources to examine the psychosocial implications of three-week offshore tours as compared with the more usual two-week tour duration. Little of the information currently available about the psychosocial environment offshore, and the mental and physical health of offshore employees, relates to personnel working three-week tours. The present study, intended as a preliminary exploration of responses to three-week offshore schedules, brings together the several different kinds of information. The report includes: A brief review of relevant literature; a comparison of different work/leave patterns in terms of the attitudes and preferences of offshore personnel (N=1462); Analysis of questionnaire data evaluating the reactions of offshore personnel (N=113) to plans to change from two-week to three-week tours; A pilot study of mood and sleep patterns among personnel working either a two-week or a three-week tour at the time of data collection; material from interviews with wives of offshore personnel, focusing on family issues associated with offshore employment, including work/leave cycles. (UK)

  19. Impact Assessment of an Off-Shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    of the study with a marked difference between Tunø Knob and Ringebjerg Sand in the size available. This was associated with a general impoverishment of the whole benthic community. This suggests that the decrease observed in sea duck abundance over the three years was caused by the availability of food supply......As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunø Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds...... in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect...

  20. The Impact of Financial Crisis on the Transactions in Off-Shore Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Ispas Roxana

    2013-01-01

    In the following paper we have started from the premises that in the “money-wash” phenomenon analysis, the resulted money circulate in the entire world, through some geographic and institutional channels. Starting from the fiscal paradise characteristics we have accomplished a parallel between that and the financial paradise characteristics. In the second part of the paper, we have analyzed the offshore zones, showing also the methods of income placement in the respective countries with some ...

  1. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  2. The Impact of R&D Offshoring on the Home Knowledge Production of OECD Investing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. D'Agostino, Lorena; Laursen, Keld; D. Santangelo, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    production. Using a theoretical framework based on economic geography and the literature on international knowledge sourcing, we conjecture that high-income regions would have a comparative advantage in high-tech R&D, while emerging economies would have an advantage in medium/low R&D. Complementarity should......We investigate the effect of research and development (R&D) offshoring from high-income regions to prominent emerging economies. Specifically, we examine whether there is a complementary relationship between a region’s home and foreign investments in R&D that affects home’s regional knowledge...

  3. The economic impact of proposed regulations on the discharge of drilling muds and cuttings from the offshore facilities on US undiscovered crude oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential economic impact of proposed regulations. on the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings on US offshore undiscovered crude oil resources. These regulations include proposed Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT) and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) effluent limitations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas drilling operations. The impact of the proposed RAT/NSPS regulations for the drilling fluids and drill cuttings disposal on the cost of funding, developing, and producing Lower-48 offshore undiscovered crude oil resources will depend significantly on operators perceptions on the chances of failing toxicity or static sheen tests. If operators, in economically justifying their projects, assume that the fluids fail one of these tests, thereby prohibiting them from being discharged, up to 11% of the economically recoverable offshore resource would be considered uneconomic to produce. This would amount to 845 million barrels of oil at an oil price around $25 per barrel. On the other hand, if operators are willing co take their chances and see if their fluids fail one of these tests, then, based on EPA's assumptions concerning forecast fluid use and static sheen and toxicity test failure rates, up to 4% of the offshore undiscovered resource would be impacted, amounting to lost reserves of up to 270 million barrels

  4. Breaking wave impact on offshore tripod structures. Comparison of large scale experiments, CFD simulations, and DIN recommended practice; Wellenbrechen an Offshore Tripod-Gruendungen. Versuche und Simulationen im Vergleich zu Richtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Arndt; Schlurmann, Torsten [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Franzius-Institut fuer Wasserbau und Kuesteningenieurwesen

    2012-05-15

    Coastal and near shore areas offer a large potential for offshore wind energy production due to strong and steady wind conditions. Thousands of offshore wind energy converters are projected for mass production within the next years. Detailed understanding of the extreme, dynamic wave loads on offshore structures is essential for an efficient design. The impact on structures is a complex process and further studies are required for more detailed load assessments, which is why breaking wave loads were investigated by the research project ''GIGAWIND alpha ventus - Subproject 1'' within the network ''Research at Alpha VEntus'' (RAVE). Large scale laboratory tests (1:12) with breaking waves have been carried out at the Large Wave Flume of the ''Forschungszentrum Kueste'' (FZK, Hanover) to reveal more detailed insights on the impact area, duration and development of the wave induced momentum, and intensity of pressures. In addition, local pressures calculated by a three-dimensional numerical impact simulation are compared to the Large Wave Flume experiments. Slamming coefficients have been derived from the physical model tests and CFD simulations for the comparison to load calculations based on guidelines. (orig.)

  5. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  6. The impact of water depth on safety and environmental performance in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Cohen, Mark A.; Gerarden, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical analysis of company-reported incidents on oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico between 1996 and 2010. During these years, there was a dramatic increase in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. Controlling for platform characteristics such as age, quantity of oil and gas produced, and number of producing wells, we find that incidents (such as blowouts, injuries, and oil spills) are positively correlated with deeper water. Controlling for these and other characteristics, for an average platform, each 100 feet of added depth increases the probability of a company-reported incident by 8.5%. While further research into the causal connections between water depth and platform risks is warranted, this study highlights the potential value of increased monitoring of deeper water platforms. - Highlights: ► Analysis of performance indicators for oil production platforms in Gulf of Mexico. ► In recent years there have been dramatic increases in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. ► Self-reported incidents (e.g. blowouts, injuries, spills) increase with water depth

  7. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care.

  8. Offshore environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Degraer, S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in

  9. Development of a product screening protocol to minimize marine environmental impacts of oil production chemicals used offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik, E.A.; Berg, J.D.; Bakke, S.; Oefjord, G.D.; Reinhard, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a research project initiated by Conoco Norway, Inc. (CNI) late in 1989. The objective of the project is to develop a screening protocol for determining the potential environmental impacts of five types of chemicals typically used in offshore oil and gas production operations in the North Sea. The protocol includes tests for determination of bioaccumulation potential, oil-water distribution factor, biodegradation potential, and toxicity. When fully developed, the protocol represents one possible approach to implementing the proposed PARCOM standard testing program. Only the results for the bioaccumulation potential and oil-water distribution factor are presented here. For determination of bioaccumulation potential, the High Performance Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) is recommended. The oil-water distribution factor can be determined by surrogate parameters as total organic carbon (TOC), UV-absorption or gas chromatography (GC). (Author)

  10. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  11. Impact of Offshore Wind Power Integrated by VSC-HVDC on Power Angle Stability of Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiyang; Tang, Xisheng

    2017-05-01

    Offshore wind farm connected to grid by VSC-HVDC loses frequency support for power system, so adding frequency control in wind farm and VSC-HVDC system is an effective measure, but it will change wind farm VSC-HVDC’s transient stability on power system. Through theoretical analysis, concluding the relationship between equivalent mechanical power and electromagnetic power of two-machine system with the active power of wind farm VSC-HVDC, then analyzing the impact of wind farm VSC-HVDC with or without frequency control and different frequency control parameters on angle stability of synchronous machine by EEAC. The validity of theoretical analysis has been demonstrated through simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC.

  12. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...

  13. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  14. Offshoring R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...... case studies from Danish multinational corporations with R&D activities in China, India or Eastern Europe this paper analyses the impact observed in these companies in regard to communication structures and knowledge sharing in management of offshored R&D activities. The findings show that companies...... attempt to increase transparency through formalisation of knowledge and clear communication structures. However, the influence of tacit knowledge, horizontal communication and culture seem largely overlooked. Therefore the authors suggest a context based approach to transparency accustomed...

  15. Environmental impacts of cable connections of offshore wind power parks at the electric power network. Impacts of operational electrical and magnetic fields; Umweltauswirkungen der Kabelanbindung von Offshore-Windenergieparks an das Verbundstromnetz. Effekte betriebsbedingter elektrischer und magnetischer Felder sowie thermischer Energieeintraege in den Meeresgrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pophof, Blanka; Geschwentner, Dirk

    2013-02-15

    According to the offshore network development plan from August 2012, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) is responsible for a strategic environmental impact assessment of offshore wind power plants. The contribution under consideration deals exclusively with electrical and magnetic fields emitted by submarine cables in operation as well as with the possible impacts of electrical and magnetic fields on marine organisms and the general population. Some marine organisms may perceive electrical fields and orientate themselves by magnetic fields. Changes in behaviour of marine organisms are possible. Thermal impacts may result in sedimentary changes. The consequences of these changes are assessable only partly at present.

  16. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  17. Operational and contractual impacts in E and P offshore during predicted natural hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benevides, Paulo Roberto Correa de Sa e [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Generally, when E and P operators using DP (Dynamic Positioning) are advised previously of a possible natural hazard occurrence, usually they consider it like an emergency situation and their main action is oriented only to prepare the first response and use the 'force majeure' argumentation to protect itself from any additional responsibility. When the natural phenomenon actually happens, the expenses due to the losses will be accepted because it was already considered in its budget as 'Losses due to accident' and it will be shared by the partners of the project according to the correspondent contractual terms. This paper describes real cases of the evolution of predictions for natural hazards in offshore basins in Brazil, Western Africa and Gulf of Mexico where PETROBRAS and many other oil companies have used DP operations. It proposes some alternative procedures through the BCM (Business Continuity Management) to manage natural crisis instead of the common use of the traditional 'force majeure' argumentation. (author)

  18. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  19. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  20. A field investigation to determine the impact of offshore drilling activities on natural larval settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, A.; Krause, P.R.; Raimondi, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The authors used a manipulative field experiment to test the effects of offshore drilling activities on the natural settlement of invertebrate larvae in the deep ocean (180 m) off southern California. This experiment was conducted in conjunction with other in situ experiments at a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception. At each study site the authors exposed settling plates to the natural environment on moorings at each of two depths near the sea floor. The two mooring depths were used to simulate differences in natural relief found in the study area. These plates were covered with a mesh to allow only natural bacterial ''filming'' to occur and prevent settlement of larger invertebrate larvae. After filming the plates were transplanted to all sites near the bottom such that each site had plates filmed at all other sites. Sterile plates (without filming) were also placed at each site. Plates were left uncovered for periods up to three years. Settling plates were retrieved at specific intervals over the length of the experiment. Upon retrieval some plates were photographed and returned to the bottom, others were returned to the laboratory. The results showed that the overall settlement rate was very slow with little settlement occurring in the first 6 months of exposure. Settlement was higher in periods of exposure lasting between one and two years. The authors also found significant effects on the number and type of larvae that settled on the plates with respect to the location of the plates (rig vs. reference), and the height from the bottom where they were located

  1. Beach impacts of shore-parallel breakwaters backing offshore submerged ridges, Western Mediterranean Coast of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Moheb M; Frihy, Omran E; El Ansary, Ahmed E; El Mooty, Mohamed M Abd; Nagy, Hossam M

    2007-12-01

    Seven breakwaters were constructed behind offshore submerged ridges to create a safe area for swimming and recreational activities west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Morphodynamic evaluation was based on the modified Perlin and Dean numerical model (ImSedTran-2D) combined with successive shoreline and beach profile surveys conducted periodically between April 2001 and May 2005. Results reveal insignificant morphologic changes behind the detached breakwaters with slight coastline changes at the down and up-drift beaches of the examined breakwaters (+/-10 m). These changes are associated with salient accretion (20-7 0m) in the low-energy leeside of such structures. Concurrent with this sand accretion is the accumulation of a large amount of benthic algae (Sargassum) in the coastal water of the shadow area of these structures, which in turn have adverse effects on swimmers. Practical measures proposed in this study have successfully helped in mitigating such accumulation of algae in the recreation leeside of the breakwaters. The accumulation of Sargassum, together with the virtual insignificant changes in the up-drift and down-drifts of these structures, is a direct response to both coastal processes and the submerged carbonate ridges. Coastal processes encompass reversal of the directions of long-shore sand transport versus shoreline orientation, the small littoral drift rate and sand deficiency of the littoral zone. The beach response to the breakwaters together with the submerged ridges has also been confirmed by applying the ImSedTran-2D model. Results indicate that submerged ridges play a principal role in the evolution of beach morphology along the west coast of Alexandria. Although the study area is exposed to more than 70% wave exposures, the morphodynamic behavior of the beaches indicates that the submerged ridges act in a similar way as an additional natural barrier together with the artificial detached structures.

  2. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  3. Impacts of offshore oil industry on the marine biota and mitigating measures; Impactos das atividades offshore da industria do petroleo sobre a comunidade biologica marinha e as medidas mitigadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, Patricia S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio SMS

    2004-07-01

    The growth of industrialization is generating an increase in environmental change, mainly in the marine environment.The petroleum industry is performing a great search for petroleum fields resulting in a transference from land activity to the sea and to deeper water layers (offshore). The offshore exploration in Brazil corresponds to 80% of the national petroleum production. This increasing production is raising questions about the impacts caused by its activities on aquatic biological communities. The potentially impactant activities of the petroleum industry are oil exploration, drilling and production. To mitigate and to accompany the potential environment impacts of its activities, the petroleum industry is implementing environmental monitoring projects whose guidelines directives are established by the responsible environmental agency. These projects aim at accompanying the effects of the continuos discharge of effluents on the local oceanic ecosystem through environmental characterization before, during and after the production activities, physical and chemical characterizations of sea water, qualitative and quantitative analyses of the biological monitoring, accompaniment of the environmental conditions during all oil rig activity and characterization of produced water, through physical, chemical and eco toxicological assays. (author)

  4. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J

    2007-01-01

    health status of the population. There was a lack of multi-intersectoral knowledge, co-operation and function between sectors and actors. Enablers on the other hand were the membership of international organizations which called for new solutions, and the strong political commitment and belief...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute...

  5. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to internatio...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations.......While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...

  6. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  7. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  8. Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuina Chipindula

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The last decade witnessed a quantum increase in wind energy contribution to the U.S. renewable electricity mix. Although the overall environmental impact of wind energy is miniscule in comparison to fossil-fuel energy, the early stages of the wind energy life cycle have potential for a higher environmental impact. This study attempts to quantify the relative contribution of individual stages toward life cycle impacts by conducting a life cycle assessment with SimaPro® and the Impact 2002+ impact assessment method. A comparative analysis of individual stages at three locations, onshore, shallow-water, and deep-water, in Texas and the gulf coast indicates that material extraction/processing would be the dominant stage with an average impact contribution of 72% for onshore, 58% for shallow-water, and 82% for deep-water across the 15 midpoint impact categories. The payback times for CO2 and energy consumption range from 6 to 14 and 6 to 17 months, respectively, with onshore farms having shorter payback times. The greenhouse gas emissions (GHG were in the range of 5–7 gCO2eq/kWh for the onshore location, 6–9 CO2eq/kWh for the shallow-water location, and 6–8 CO2eq/kWh for the deep-water location. A sensitivity analysis of the material extraction/processing stage to the electricity sourcing stage indicates that replacement of lignite coal with natural gas or wind would lead to marginal improvements in midpoint impact categories.

  9. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available .12 Noise pathway exposures 12-33 12.12.1 Worker 12-33 12.12.2 Community 12-34 12.13 Direct physical contact (traffic or machine injury) 12-34 12.13.1 Worker 12-34 12.13.2 Community 12-34 12.14 Dermal exposure to chemicals 12-34 12.14.1 Worker 12..., with air, water, noise, direct contact resulting from traffic or machine injuries, and dermal contact were considered. These were considered separately for workers and community members. The four scenarios were found to yield health risks as ranging from...

  10. A cross-taxa study using environmental DNA/RNA metabarcoding to measure biological impacts of offshore oil and gas drilling and production operations

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Standardized ecosystem-based monitoring surveys are critical for providing information on marine ecosystem health. Environmental DNA/RNA (eDNA/eRNA) metabarcoding may facilitate such surveys by quickly and effectively characterizing multi-trophic levels. In this study, we assessed the suitability of eDNA/eRNA metabarcoding to evaluate changes in benthic assemblages of bacteria, Foraminifera and other eukaryotes along transects at three offshore oil and gas (O&G) drilling and production sites, and compared these to morphologically characterized macro-faunal assemblages. Bacterial communities were the most responsive to O&G activities, followed by Foraminifera, and macro-fauna (the latter assessed by morphology). The molecular approach enabled detection of hydrocarbon degrading taxa such as the bacteria Alcanivorax and Microbulbifer at petroleum impacted stations. Most identified indicator taxa, notably among macro-fauna, were highly specific to site conditions. Based on our results we suggest that eDNA/eRNA metabarcoding can be used as a stand-alone method for biodiversity assessment or as a complement to morphology-based monitoring approaches.

  11. A cross-taxa study using environmental DNA/RNA metabarcoding to measure biological impacts of offshore oil and gas drilling and production operations

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A.; Tremblay, Louis A.; Ellis, Joanne; Lear, Gavin; Pochon, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Standardized ecosystem-based monitoring surveys are critical for providing information on marine ecosystem health. Environmental DNA/RNA (eDNA/eRNA) metabarcoding may facilitate such surveys by quickly and effectively characterizing multi-trophic levels. In this study, we assessed the suitability of eDNA/eRNA metabarcoding to evaluate changes in benthic assemblages of bacteria, Foraminifera and other eukaryotes along transects at three offshore oil and gas (O&G) drilling and production sites, and compared these to morphologically characterized macro-faunal assemblages. Bacterial communities were the most responsive to O&G activities, followed by Foraminifera, and macro-fauna (the latter assessed by morphology). The molecular approach enabled detection of hydrocarbon degrading taxa such as the bacteria Alcanivorax and Microbulbifer at petroleum impacted stations. Most identified indicator taxa, notably among macro-fauna, were highly specific to site conditions. Based on our results we suggest that eDNA/eRNA metabarcoding can be used as a stand-alone method for biodiversity assessment or as a complement to morphology-based monitoring approaches.

  12. Accounting for uncertainty and risk in assessments of impacts for offshore oil and gas leasing proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildermann, R.; Beittel, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior prepares an environmental impact statement (EIS) for each proposal to lease a portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for oil and gas exploration and development. The nature, magnitude, and timing of the activities that would ultimately result from leasing are subject to wide speculation, primarily because of uncertainties about the locations and amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons that exist on most potential leases. These uncertainties create challenges in preparing EIS's that meet National Environmental Policy Act requirements and provide information useful to decision-makers. This paper examines the constraints that uncertainty places on the detail and reliability of assessments of impacts from potential OCS development. It further describes how the MMS accounts for uncertainty in developing reasonable scenarios of future events that can be evaluated in the EIS. A process for incorporating the risk of accidental oil spills into assessments of expected impacts is also presented. Finally, the paper demonstrates through examination of case studies how a balance can be achieved between the need for an EIS to present impacts in sufficient detail to allow a meaningful comparison of alternatives and the tendency to push the analysis beyond credible limits

  13. An analysis of the economic impact of non-pipeline options for developing Newfoundland's offshore natural gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, W.; Millan, S.; Rodgers, B.

    2001-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of four non-pipeline development options for Newfoundland's offshore natural gas resources are examined. The options are: compressed natural gas (CNG) that is incremental to FPSO oil development (CNG FPSO Incremental); CNG as part of a Grand Bank System Gas Hub( CNG GBS Gas Hub); liquefied natural gas (LNG) that is incremental to FPSO oil development (LNG FPSO Incremental) and combined Fischer-Tropsch (gas-to-liquid technology) that is incremental to FPSO oil development (combined methanol/F-T). The economic impacts of each development option were considered in terms of project viability, employment and income impacts created through the supply of goods and services, employment effects resulting from project expenditures, incomes generated to Newfoundland factors of production, GDP impacts, and provincial treasury impacts, net of equalization losses. Results indicate that the largest employment and income impacts on the Newfoundland economy would be generated by the CNG GBS Gas Hub option (2,000 person-years of employment per year and $110 million income annually). The other three cases provide an equivalent level of benefits with an annual average of 1,650 person-years of employment and $90 million in incomes to business and labour. Each option is expected to generate between $16 and $21 million per annum to the Newfoundland treasury, net of equalization losses. GDP impacts are also close for all all four options, and provide no basis for preference of any option. In terms of project viability, the CNG FPSO Incremental option is considered by far the most attractive with a 33.7 per cent rate of return and a net present value of $1 billion, followed by the CNG GBS Gas Hub option at 18.3 per cent rate of return and a net present value of $317 million. The LNG FPSO incremental option has an internal rate of return of 17.8 per cent and a net present value of $263 million. The combined methanol/F-T option is not considered

  14. Aeroelastic impact of above-rated wave-induced structural motions on the near-wake stability of a floating offshore wind turbine rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven; Jaworski, Justin

    2017-11-01

    The impact of above-rated wave-induced motions on the stability of floating offshore wind turbine near-wakes is studied numerically. The rotor near-wake is generated using a lifting-line free vortex wake method, which is strongly coupled to a finite element solver for kinematically nonlinear blade deformations. A synthetic time series of relatively high-amplitude/high-frequency representative of above-rated conditions of the NREL 5MW referece wind turbine is imposed on the rotor structure. To evaluate the impact of these above-rated conditions, a linear stability analysis is first performed on the near wake generated by a fixed-tower wind turbine configuration at above-rated inflow conditions. The platform motion is then introduced via synthetic time series, and a stability analysis is performed on the wake generated by the floating offshore wind turbine at the same above-rated inflow conditions. The stability trends (disturbance modes versus the divergence rate of vortex structures) of the two analyses are compared to identify the impact that above-rated wave-induced structural motions have on the stability of the floating offshore wind turbine wake.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  16. On the Impact of using Mixed Integer Programming Techniques on Real-world Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind power is a leading technology in the transition to sustainable energy. Being a new and still more competitive field, it is of major interest to investigate new techniques to solve the design challenges involved. In this paper, we consider optimization of the inter-array cable routing...... optimization problem considers two objectives: minimizing immediate costs (CAPEX) and minimizing costs due to power losses. This makes it possible to perform various what-if analyses to evaluate the impact of different preferences to CAPEX versus reduction of power losses. Thanks to the close collaboration...... with a leading energy company, we have been able to report results on a set of real-world instances, based on six existing wind parks, studying the economical impact of considering power losses in the cable routing design phase....

  17. Deep impact : destruction and sinking of Deepwater Horizon a blow to offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In the weeks following the blowout in British Petroleum's (BP) Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, the implications for the industry spread quickly, impacting operations around the world. When the Deepwater Horizon exploded, killing 11 crew members, the immediate impact of the blowout resulted in at least 5,000 barrels per day of oil leaking out of the wellbore. This article discussed the impacts of the oil blowout from the well and the response from BP, rig owner Transocean Ltd., and Haliburton. As of mid-May, 2010, several attempts to plug the well were unsuccessful. Solutions that attempted to block the well from leaking were presented, including several low-tech solutions to attack the two main sources of oil which were the failed blowout preventer and the crumpled up riser resting on the sea floor. The article noted that as a last solution the well could be intersected with a relief well that could block the flow at depth. This option could take two or three months to reach the required depth. The article then discussed the costs of the oil spill to BP, fisheries, the tourism industry, and other hard-hit sectors. It was concluded that similar to the spill caused by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska 21 years ago, the Gulf disaster will affect the image of the industry for years to come. 5 figs.

  18. Impacts of renewable energy on landscape. Alternative of offshore wind in marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Moraci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects determined in the landscape by plants powered by renewable sources represent some unresolved issues in terms of visual and landscape impact mitigation in general. These aspects relate to the landscape are recognized in all types of impact with due attention to the various components and dynamics involved identifiable in the landscape of reference.The wind power plants, in particular, while making unquestionable environmental benefits thanks to the production of energy from renewable sources, but imposes a significant cost to the landscape with the installation of wind turbines in contexts necessarily favorable to impact,  interrupting the skyline, creating territorial discontinuities, "subtracting" and altering the landscape in the absence of effective mitigation works.The environmental compatibility of the proposed solutions depends primarily on the location of wind farms.Is necessary indicate  an overall strategy, a shared model of planning and land management, as in other European countries such as Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom where the choice of locating wind farms has resulted in a new draft territory, construction and redesign of the landscape.

  19. Impacts of globalization in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Andriani; Mechili, Aggelos; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Globalization describes the interplay of macro-social forces across cultures. The purpose of this study is a systematic review of the bibliography on the impacts of globalization in health. The consequences of globalization on health present a twofold dimension, on the one hand affects the health of the population and on the other hand organization and functioning of health systems. As a result of globalization, there has been an undeniable economic development and technological progress to support the level of health around the world, improving the health status of certain populations with a beneficial increase in life expectancy. In many aspects globalization is good but there are many problems too.

  20. General document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) oil and gas exploitation industry. Update and supplement of the general document; Generiek document m.e.r. offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie. Update en aanvulling van het generiek document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) offshore, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    The generic environmental impact assessment (EIA or MER in Dutch) in 1999 is intended to serve as a template for specific environmental impact assessments for oil and gas exploitation projects at sea. Since 1999, a number of innovations and changes were implemented. Particularly in offshore technologies and regulations new insights and ideas came up in recent years. Therefore the existing generic document has to be updated with new information, relevant in the preparation of specific environmental impact assessments in the offshore oil and gas exploitation industry in the Dutch part of the Continental Shelf [Dutch] De generieke milieu effect rapportage (MER) uit 1999 is bedoeld om te dienen als een sjabloon voor specifieke Milieueffectrapportages bij olie- en gaswinningprojecten op zee. Sinds 1999 is een aantal vernieuwingen en veranderingen doorgevoerd. Met name in offshore technologieen en wet- en regelgeving zijn de afgelopen jaren nieuwe inzichten en ideeen ontstaan. Hierdoor is de wens ontstaan om het bestaande generieke document aan te vullen met nieuwe informatie die relevant is voor het opstellen van specifieke Milieueffectrapportages in de offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie op het Nederlands deel van het Continentaal Plat.

  1. Offshoring: Impacts on the Nordic welfare states and industrial relations - Survey based evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    with much lower wages and other costs as well as less strict labour market regulation as well as other regulation e.g. environmental than found in the Nordic countries. The integration of e.g. the Chinese and Indian labour markets in the world economy, but more importantly for the Nordic economies...... (ICT) as well as transportation, this has made the process of relocation even more accessible. This adds yet another dimension to the impact internationalisation is having on national industrial relations as well as welfare state policies and general labour market regulation. Other central features...... of the more internationalised economy are increasing trade in intermediates, rising FDI and increasing competition. In this context where international relocation is increasingly accessible the phenomenon attracts much attention in both academic analysis, media reports as well as policy analysis. But our...

  2. NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL OFFSHORING IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION TO MADRID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Tobarra Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of delocalization on a national economy has been widely studied, however subnational delocalization remains as an unvisited field for researchers. This paper studies the effects of fragmentation and the subsequent localization outside or abroad on the level of industrial and services employment in Madrid region. We work with Madrid data from regional input-output tables and estimate a labour demand function using panel data. Our results show a significant and small negative effect on regional employment of intra-industrial inputs from the national economy and abroad, while imported inputs from other sectors and origins are complementary to employment, resulting in a positive net effect on employment. The increasing specialization in main activities and the use of external providers by firms have a positive impact on the employment of Madrid region.

  3. Approches pour la reduction de l'impact de defaut dans le transport d'energie du parc eolien offshore via VSC-HVDC =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadja, Mounir

    Dans ce travail est presente un systeme de generation d'energie d'un parc eolien offshore et un systeme de transport utilisant les stations VSC-HVDC connectees au reseau principal AC onshore. Trois configurations ont ete etudiees, modelisees et validees par simulation. Dans chacune des configurations, des contributions ameliorant les cotes techniques et economiques sont decrites ci-dessous : La premiere contribution concerne un nouvel algorithme MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) utilise pour l'extraction de la puissance maximale disponible dans les eoliennes des parcs offshores. Cette technique d'extraction du MPPT ameliore le rendement energetique de la chaine de conversion des energies renouvelables notamment l'energie eolienne a petite et a grande echelles (parc eolien offshore) qui constitue un probleme pour les constructeurs qui se trouvent confrontes a developper des dispositifs MPPT simples, moins couteux, robustes, fiables et capable d'obtenir un rendement energetique maximal. La deuxieme contribution concerne la reduction de la taille, du cout et de l'impact des defauts electriques (AC et DC) dans le systeme construit pour transporter l'energie d'un parc eolien offshore (OWF) vers le reseau principal AC onshore via deux stations 3L-NPC VSCHVDC. La solution developpee utilise des observateurs non-lineaires bases sur le filtre de Kalman etendu (EKF). Ce filtre permet d'estimer la vitesse de rotation et la position du rotor de chacune des generatrices du parc eolien offshore et de la tension du bus DC de l'onduleur DC-AC offshore et des deux stations 3L-NPC-VSC-HVDC (offshore et onshore). De plus, ce developpement du filtre de Kalman etendu a permis de reduire l'impact des defauts AC et DC. Deux commandes ont ete utilisees, l'une (commande indirect dans le plan abc) avec EKF integre destinee pour controler le convertisseur DC-AC offshore et l'autre (commande d-q) avec EKF integre pour controler les convertisseurs des deux stations AC-DC et DC-AC tout en

  4. The impact of fluid advection on gas hydrate stability: Investigations at sites of methane seepage offshore Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Planert, L.; Bialas, J.; Berndt, C.; Papenberg, C.; Hensen, C.; Hornbach, M. J.; Krastel, S.; Brueckmann, W.

    2014-09-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments drives a wide range of processes, from gas hydrate formation and dissociation, to seafloor methane seepage including the development of chemosynthetic ecosystems, and ocean acidification. Here, we present new seismic data that reveal the 3D nature of focused fluid flow beneath two mound structures on the seafloor offshore Costa Rica. These mounds have formed as a result of ongoing seepage of methane-rich fluids. We show the spatial impact of advective heat flow on gas hydrate stability due to the channelled ascent of warm fluids towards the seafloor. The base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) imaged in the seismic data constrains peak heat flow values to ∼60 mW m and ∼70 mW m beneath two separate seep sites known as Mound 11 and Mound 12, respectively. The initiation of pronounced fluid flow towards these structures was likely controlled by fault networks that acted as efficient pathways for warm fluids ascending from depth. Through the gas hydrate stability zone, fluid flow has been focused through vertical conduits that we suggest developed as migrating fluids generated their own secondary permeability by fracturing strata as they forced their way upwards towards the seafloor. We show that Mound 11 and Mound 12 (about 1 km apart on the seafloor) are sustained by independent fluid flow systems through the hydrate system, and that fluid flow rates across the BGHS are probably similar beneath both mounds. 2D seismic data suggest that these two flow systems might merge at approximately 1 km depth, i.e. much deeper than the BGHS. This study provides a new level of detail and understanding of how channelled, anomalously-high fluid flow towards the seafloor influences gas hydrate stability. Thus, gas hydrate systems have good potential for quantifying the upward flow of subduction system fluids to seafloor seep sites, since the fluids have to interact with and leave their mark on the hydrate system before reaching the seafloor.

  5. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  6. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, D.R.; Isaacs, L.R. [Central Queensland Univ., Gladstone (Australia). Centre for Environmental Management

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m{sup 2} Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling. (author)

  7. Danish offshore wind - Key environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Danish experience from the past 15 years shows that offshore wind farms, if placed right, can be engineered and operated without significant damage to the marine environment and vulnerable species. The comprehensive environmental monitoring programmes of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm confirm that, under the rieght conditions, even big wind farms pose low risk to birds, mammals and fish, even though there will be changes in the living conditions of some species by an increase in habitat heterogeneity. The monitoring also shows that appropriate siting of offshore wind farms is an essential precondition for ensuring limited impact on nature and the environment, and that careful spatial planning is necessary to avoid damaging cumulative impacts. Due consideration to limiting the impacts on nature together with positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms in local communities and challenging energy policy objectives at national and international levels mean that prospects look bright for future offshore expansion. (au)

  8. Shift schedules, work factors, and mental health among onshore and offshore workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERTHELSEN, Mona; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; KNARDAHL, Stein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007

  9. Health Impacts of Environmental Mycobacteria†

    OpenAIRE

    Primm, Todd P.; Lucero, Christie A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread chlorination of water has likely selected more resistant environmental mycobacteria species and potentially explains the shift from M. scrof...

  10. Characterisation of impacts on the environment of an idealised offshore wind farm foundation, under waves and the combination of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermosa, Isabel; Abcha, Nizar; Brossard, Jérôme; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ezersky, Alexander; Gross, Marcus; Iglesias, Gregorio; Magar, Vanesa; Miles, Jon; Mouazé, Dominique; Perret, Gaële; Pinon, Grégory; Rivier, Aurélie; Rogan, Charlie; Simmonds, David

    2015-04-01

    Offshore wind technology is currently the most widespread and advanced source of marine renewable energy. Offshore wind farms populate waters through the North Sea and the English Channel. The UK and French governments devised deadlines to achieve percentages of electricity from renewable sources by 2020, these deadlines and the direct translation of land based wind farm technology to the offshore environment resulted in the rapid expansion of the offshore wind energy. New wind farms have been designed with a larger number of masts and are moving from shallow offshore banks to deeper waters and in order to produce more power the diameters of monopoles masts are becoming larger to support larger turbines. The three-partner EU INTERREG funded project OFELIA (http://www.interreg-ofelia.eu/) aims to establish a cross-channel (between the UK and France) research collaboration to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of offshore wind farm foundations. The objective of the present study is to characterise changes in the hydrodynamics and sea bed in the vicinity of an offshore wind farm mast and in the wake area under wave and wave-current conditions corresponding to events in the French wind farm site of Courseulles-sur-mer (offshore of Lower Normandy, in the English Channel). Experiments were carried out in two laboratory facilities: a wave flume of 35 m long, 0.9 m wide and 1.2 m in depth with regular and irregular waves (García-Hermosa et al., 2014); and a wave and current flume of 17 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.4 m depth with regular waves, currents from 180° to the waves and a mobile bed (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Flow velocity measurements were taken with an Acoustic Dopple Velocimeter (ADV) at various points around the cylinder and Particle Image Velocitmetry (PIV) techniques were applied to larger areas upstream and downstream of the cylinder. During the assessment of waves and currents' effects on the bed evolution were assessed using a laser and camera

  11. Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health Workers and Quality of Health Care in Tanzania: the Perspectives of Healthcare Workers and District Council Health Managers in Four Districts.

  12. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  13. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  14. What is Health Impact Assessment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA was disseminated by World Health Organization (WHO European Region in Gothenburg consensus paper in 1999. In this consensus, HIA is defined as ‘a combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of population and the distribution of those effects within the population’. HIA was accepted as a goal for 4th phase of healthy city projects between 2003- 2008. HIA is a new process for our country and especially municipal boroughs, local authorities interest with it. There is no legal base for HIA in our country. EIA practices conducted since 1993 showed us that, environmental and public health was postponed. Functional and decisive implementation of HAI depends on legal basis and national acceptance. If legal basis is supplied, society must take care about it, work for strict application and have to put a crimp in going back. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 689-694

  15. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms.......Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...

  16. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  17. The Impact of Health Insurance on Health Care Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the impact of the NHIS scheme in promoting access to health care. It identifies a need for all stakeholders to engage in the active promotion of awareness on health insurance as option of health care provisioning. It argues that health insurance can make health care more accessible to a wider segment ...

  18. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  19. Advancing Social Work Education for Health Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  1. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Turbines: Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Fault and Blade Damage with O&M Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrent, Noah J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Barrett, Natalie C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Adams, Douglas E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Griffith, Daniel Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technology Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling and simulation approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for the detection strategies of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond developed in prior work by evaluating the robustness of key measurement parameters in the presence of varying wind speeds, horizontal shear, and turbulence. Detection strategies were refined for these fault mechanisms and probabilities of detection were calculated. For all three fault mechanisms, the probability of detection was 96% or higher for the optimized wind speed ranges of the laminar, 30% horizontal shear, and 60% horizontal shear wind profiles. The revised cost model provided insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs as they relate to the characteristics of the SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability

  2. Getting the most from offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize this scenario and propose how its adverse impacts can be addressed. From previous studies we know that the roles and mandates of home based sites of offshoring companies are changing from broad scoped manufacturing towards innovation and network...... orchestration. On the basis of the findings from the survey, series of workshops and case studies of Danish companies presented in this paper, we seek to determine the longer term effects of offshoring for home based sites. We conceptualize the findings in a framework and close with discussing the need...

  3. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  4. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  5. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new iss...

  6. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  7. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring over time. The paper employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish companies, it develops a framework conceptualizing the stages of offshoring and highlights the factors driving the transition...... between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather...

  8. Change in morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York between 2011 and 2014: Analysis of hurricane impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey; Denny, Jane F.; Liste Munoz, Maria; Safak, Ilgar

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor mapping investigations conducted on the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011 and 2014, the period encompassing the impacts of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, provide an unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics during large storm events. Analyses of these studies demonstrate that storm-induced erosion and sediment transport occurred throughout the study area in water depths up to 30 m. Acoustic backscatter patterns were observed to move from ~1 m to 450 m with a mean of 20 m and movement tended to decrease with increasing water depth. These patterns indicate that both of the primary inner continental shelf sedimentary features in the study area, linear sorted bedforms offshore of eastern Fire Island and shoreface-attached sand ridges offshore of central and western Fire island, migrated alongshore to the southwest. The migration of the sorted bedforms represents the modification of an active ravinement surface and is thought to have liberated a significant volume of sediment. Comparison of isopach maps of sediment thickness show that the volume of modern sediment composing the lower shoreface and shoreface-attached sand ridges decreased by ~2.8 × 106 m3 across the ~73 km2 of common seafloor mapped in both surveys. However, a similar analysis for the relatively calmer 15-yr period prior to 2011 revealed significant accretion. This allows speculation that the shoreface-attached sand ridges are maintained over decadal timescales via sediment supplied through erosion of Pleistocene outwash and lower Holocene transgressive channel-fill deposits exposed on the inner continental shelf, but that the sand ridges also periodically erode and move to the southwest during large storm events. Analyses show that significant storminduced erosion and sediment transport occurs far seaward of the 5 to 9 m depth of closure assumed for Fire Island, where it is thought that an onshore

  9. Do benthic biofilters contribute to sustainability and restoration of the benthic environment impacted by offshore cage finfish aquaculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado-Gimenez, F.; Piedecausa, M.A.; Carrasco, C.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Aliaga, V.; Garcia-Garcia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benthic biofilters were deployed under an offshore fish farm and in control locations. → We checked the farm influence on fouling, wild fish and sediment near the biofilters. → Fouling under the cages used fish farm-derived wastes, but at low efficiency. → Wild fish were more abundant in the biofilters located below the cages. → Despite these clear benefits, sediment quality around the biofilters did not improve. - Abstract: Benthic biofilters were deployed under a cage fish farm and in two reference locations to assess the influence of the farm on the biofilters and the surroundings, as well as to verify the usefulness of this technology as a mitigation tool. The biofilters underneath the farm recruited a fouling community practically identical to that of the control biofilters, which included a variety of trophic strategies. The former showed a higher 15 N enrichment, indicating that fouling beneath the farm was benefiting from the farm waste. The waste retention efficiency was low (0.02 g N m -2 month -1 ) beneath the farm. Benthic biofilters aggregated demersal wild fish around and within them. Pelagic wild fish also frequently used the biofilters beneath the farm, forming compact shoals around them. The increased complexity of the habitat below the fish farm enhanced biodiversity, but this improvement did not lead to the recovery of the sediments around the biofilters.

  10. Impact of oil on the marine environment: policy of the Paris Commission on operational discharges from the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihoul, C.; Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The input of oil to the North Sea due to the offshore industry has been estimated at 29% of the total input of oil. The operational discharges consist of production water and drilling cuttings. An overview of statistics collected over the last 10 years shows that although the amount of oil discharged via production water is increasing as platforms are getting older, cuttings still account for 75% of the oil entering the sea as a result of normal operations. Spills represent a relatively small source of oil. The effects on the marine environment of discharges of production water and of discarded oily cuttings have been extensively studied, by national authorities as well as by the industry. Although it has not always been possible to reach consensus about the significance of the observed effects, a number of 'agreed facts' have led to the establishment of regulations in the framework of the Paris Commission. The 'decisions' and 'recommendations' adopted by the Commission are regularly reviewed in the light of new developments. (author)

  11. Atmospheric metallic and arsenic pollution at an offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea: A health risk assessment for the workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Han, Suqin; Bi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenjie; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the ambient metal pollution at the offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea, which few studies have focused on, PM2.5 samples were collected and ten heavy metals, as well as As, were analyzed. High concentration levels of metals were observed, and the heavy metal pollution was quite serious compared to air quality standards and other marine areas. Back trajectories and wind dependent and PCA analyses showed that the marine sources included ship traffic emissions and corrosive stainless steels from the equipment at the platform as well as industrial emissions from stainless steel production and coal combustion sources, which were transported from the surrounding mainland. Both contributed greatly to the ambient metallic particles at the offshore platform. The Hazard Index values of the metals, which were much less than 1, the Carcinogenic Risk data, which were lower than the EPA's acceptable range, and the fact that the metal concentrations did not the exceed the permissible exposure limits of OSHA, indicated that the health risks from the ambient metallic particles for the oil-drilling workers were not significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological research on offshore wind energy development in the North and Baltic sea. Part: Environmental planning instruments: Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA), Habitats Assessment and Strategic Environmetnal Assessment (SEA). Volumes 1-4 and final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zur Windenergienutzung im Offshore-Bereich der Nord- und Ostsee. Teilbereich 'Instrumente des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes: Strategische Umweltpruefung, Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Flora-Fauna-Habitat-Vertraeglichkeitspruefung'. Band 1-4 und Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppel, J.; Langenheld, A.; Peters, W.; Wende, W.; Sommer, S.; Finger, A.; Koeller, J.; Kraetzschmer, D.; Kerber, N.; Mahlburg, S.; Mueller, C.

    2003-07-01

    Within the licensing procedure of offshore wind farms several environmental planning instruments have to be taken into account to assess the probable effects of turbines on the marine environment. So far only little experiences were available on how to fulfil legal and methodical demands with regard to these environmental planning instruments offshore. Hence it was the principle task of this project to analyse how instruments like the environmental impacts assessment (EIA), the habitats assessment and the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can be adapted to the special conditions of the marine environment and the legal requirements of the licensing procedure in the German EEZ according to the offshore installations ordinance. Since according to the offshore installations ordinance the construction and operation of offshore wind farms can only be refused for environmental reasons when the marine environment is endangered, the project first investigated for different aspects of the marine environment (e.g. marine mammals, birds, benthos, visual landscape) which kind of conflicts can possibly be caused by the construction and operation of turbines and of which legal significance they are with regard to the licensing procedure. Referring to those environmental impacts which have been considered as relevant for the licensing procedure the state of knowledge has been investigated by means of expert interviews and literature research. Practicable starting points for the impact assessment were suggested. With regard to the required environmental assessment within the licensing procedure one result of the project is a structured documentation of the standard of knowledge (volume I). Further on the project developed proposals for the application of the planning instruments EIA, habitats assessment and SEA offshore based on legal regulations. The result is a catalogue of requirements regarding the content and proceedings of the instruments implementation in connection

  13. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.

  14. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maslak Olga; Grishko Natalya; Hlazunova Olha; Vorobiova Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researc...

  15. High-velocity basal sediment package atop oceanic crust, offshore Cascadia: Impacts on plate boundary processes and fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Differences in fluid pressure and mechanical properties at megathrust boundaries in subduction zones have been proposed to create varying seismogenic behavior. In Cascadia, where large ruptures are possible but little seismicity occurs presently, new seismic transects across the deformation front (COAST cruise; Holbrook et al., 2012) image an unusually high-wavespeed sedimentary unit directly overlying oceanic crust. Wavespeed increases before sediments reach the deformation front, and the well-laminated unit, consistently of 1 km thickness, can be traced for 50 km beneath the accretionary prism before imaging quality declines. Wavespeed is modeled via iterative prestack time migration (PSTM) imaging and increases from 3.5 km/sec on the seaward end of the profile to >5.0 km/s near the deformation front. Landward of the deformation front, wavespeed is low along seaward-dipping thrust faults in the Quaternary accretionary prism, indicative of rapid dewatering along faults. The observed wavespeed of 5.5 km/sec just above subducting crust is consistent with porosity intersects the plate boundary at an oblique angle and changes the degree of hydration of the oceanic plate as it subducts within our area. Fluid flow out of oceanic crust is likely impeded by the low-porosity basal sediment package except along the focused thrust faults. Decollements are present at the top of oceanic basement, at the top of the high-wavespeed basal unit, and within sedimentary strata at higher levels; the decollement at the top of oceanic crust is active at the toe of the deformation front. The basal sedimentary unit appears to be mechanically strong, similar to observations from offshore Sumatra, where strongly consolidated sediments at the deformation front are interpreted to facilitate megathrust rupture to the trench (Hupers et al., 2017). A uniformly strong plate interface at Cascadia may inhibit microseismicity while building stress that is released in great earthquakes.

  16. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia

    2012-01-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowle......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...

  17. Polychaete/amphipod ratio as an indicator of environmental impact related to offshore oil and gas production along the Norwegian continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Hector; Renaud, Paul E

    2011-12-01

    Benthic faunal data is regularly collected worldwide to assess the ecological quality of marine environments. Recently, there has been renewed interest in developing biological indices able to identify environmental status and potential anthropogenic impacts. In this paper we evaluate the performance of a general polychaete/amphipod ratio along the Norwegian continental shelf as an environmental indicator for offshore oil and gas impacts. Two main trends are apparent: first, a contamination gradient is discernible from where production takes place compared to stations 10,000 m away. Second, the quality of the marine environment has improved over time. These results are consistent with monitoring reports employing a combination of uni- and multi-variate statistics. Thus, we consider this ratio as a relatively simple, useful and potentially cost-effective complement to other more demanding assessment techniques. Because of its strong theoretical basis, it may also be useful for detecting ecological change as a result of other activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPACT OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES ON HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Pejnović, Natalija

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper explores adverse impacts of wireless technologies on user health. A wide range of situations in which radiation may influence the user was investigated. Emphasis was placed on the adverse impact of non-ionizing radiation. Thermal and non-thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation were explained in accordance with the operating principle of wireless devices. It is necessary to implement appropriate forms of protection in order to eliminate health risks or reduce them to the ...

  19. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbutoviez, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  20. Offshore Transmission Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  1. Climate and Offshore Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-30

    SECuRITY CL.ASSIPIcaTIoN OF, TIns PA@elm VaeVa CLMATE ANID OFFSHORE ENERGY RESOUACES A distinguished group of government officials, scientists, engineers...about the mech- anisms of climatic systems, and gaining a better understanding of the impact of climatic change on human resources.* He continued by...atmospheric constit- uents, but he particularly emphasized " changes " in C02. He suggested that the atmospheric conditions may be better now than they were half

  2. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  3. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  4. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Events Weekly AMD Clips News Events/ Training/ Web Resources Concepts/ Comments Pathogenicity/ Antimicrobial Resistance Evolution/ Ecology/ ... target=”_blank” class=”noLinking noscript”>3.0/images/TwitterFailoverButton.png” alt=”Follow CDC on Twitter” ...

  5. Understanding public responses to offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggett, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about understanding the role and importance of public responses to offshore wind power. It builds on a framework for understanding social acceptance and opposition to onshore turbines, and reviews the emerging research on offshore wind. While less is known about how people will respond to offshore than onshore wind, there is now an emerging body of research. From this literature, several common factors which influence responses have emerged and are discussed here: the (continued) role of visual impact; place attachment to the local area; lack of tangible benefits; relationships with developers and outsiders; and the role of the planning and decision-making systems. The paper argues that, as with onshore developments, the public should be included in decision-making about offshore wind farms, and that they have a key role which should not be underestimated. The paper concludes with some thoughts about the means to involve people and how effected communities might be effectively acknowledged, identified and engaged. - Research Highlights: →Comprehensive review of public responses to offshore wind literature. →Applies key lessons and analytic insights from onshore wind to offshore wind. →Emphasizes the role and importance of the public in the planning and implementation of offshore wind energy.

  6. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  7. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  8. Health impact of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further

  9. Non-flood season neap tides in the Yangtze estuary offshore: Flow mixing processes and its potential impacts on adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taoyuan; Wang, Zhanghua; Chen, Jing; Li, Maotian

    2018-02-01

    How flow mixing process influences the wetlands of the Yangtze Estuary is still poorly understood. Hydrological fieldwork was conducted on five vessel-anchored sites (S1-S2; M1-M2-M3) near the major wetlands of the Yangtze Estuary offshore (121°57‧-122°30‧E, 30°50‧-31°23‧N) on May 8-11 2004, to examine the dynamics of neap tides in the non-flood season of the Yangtze (∼24, 700 m3s-1 at Datong) and their impacts on adjacent wetlands. Based on the measurement of the acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), direct-reading current meter and optical backscattering sensor (OBS-3A), two flow patterns were revealed: 1) well mixing flow pattern caused by the turbulent tidal currents, and 2) weak mixing flow pattern resulted by the estuarine circulation in the North Port of the estuary. The characteristics of such different flow patterns were analyzed and resultant sediment dispersals were discussed in relation to the adjacent wetlands. It is suggested that the estuarine circulation might be the important process to nourish the eastern wetland of the Yangtze Estuary which has been neglected before.

  10. Nurse Bullying: Impact on Nurses' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Penny A; McCoy, Thomas P

    2017-12-01

    Workplace bullying has been experienced by 27% to 80% of nurses who have participated in studies. Bullying behaviors negatively impact the health of nurses. This study examined whether nurses' resilience had an impact on the effects of bullying on the nurse's health. This cross-sectional descriptive study surveyed licensed registered nurses in one state. The sample ( N = 345) was predominately female (89%) and Caucasian (84%), with an average age of 46.6 years. In this sample, 40% of nurses were bullied. Higher incidence of bullying was associated with lower physical health scores ( p = .002) and lower mental health scores ( p = .036). Nurses who are bullied at work experience lower physical and mental health, which can decrease the nurses' quality of life and impede their ability to deliver safe, effective patient care.

  11. Warm Water Entrainment Impacts and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Pilot Plant Offshore Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Whitney Blanchard

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology that uses the temperature difference of large volumes of cold deep and warm surface seawater in tropical regions to generate electricity. One anticipated environmental impact of OTEC operations is the entrainment and subsequent mortality of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae) from the withdrawal of cold and warm seawater. The potential ichthyoplankton loss from the warm water intake was estimated for a proposed 10 MW OTEC pilot plant offshore Oahu, HI based on ambient vertical distribution data. The estimated losses due to entrainment from the warm water intake were 8.418E+02 larvae/1000 m3, 3.26E+06 larvae/day, and 1.19E+09 larvae/year. The potential entrained larvae/year is 1.86 X greater than at the Kahe Generating Station (Kapolei, HI), a 582 MW oil-fired power plant. Extrapolating to age-1 equivalence (9.2E+02 and 2.9E+02 yellowfin and skipjack tuna, respectively), the estimated yearly losses from warm water entrainment of yellowfin and skipjack tuna fish eggs and larvae represent 0.25-0.26 % and 0.09-0.11 % of Hawaii's commercial yellowfin and skipjack tuna industry in 2011 and 2012. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed for the proposed OTEC plant operating for 20 and 40 years with availability factors of 0.85, 0.95, and 1.0 to determine the global warming potential (GWP) and cumulative energy demand (CED) impacts. For a 20 year operational OTEC plant, the GWP, CED, energy return on investment (EROI), and energy payback time (EPBT) ranged from 0.047 to 0.055 kg CO2eq/kWh, 0.678 to 0.798 MJ/kWh, 4.51 to 5.31 (unitless), and 3.77 to 4.43 years, respectively. For a 40 year operational OTEC plant, the GWP, CED, EROI, and EBPT ranged from 0.036 to 0.043 kg CO2eq/kWh, 0.527 to 0.620 MJ/kWh, 5.81 to 6.83 (unitless), and 5.85 to 6.89 years, respectively. The GWP impacts are within the range of renewable energy technologies and less than conventional electricity

  12. Offshoring research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing and offshoring provide companies with ways to achieve their business objectives better or more cost effectively or despite a shortage of specific resources. From a research point of view, outsourcing and offshoring have mostly been studied as something that large companies do, not small

  13. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Offshoring offers managers the promise of substantial economic benefits, but also comes with the risk of increased complexity and coordination challenges. We argue that offshoring firms must accumulate architectural knowledge to keep the cost of coordination of the geographically separated activi...

  14. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  15. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  16. Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Tegen, S. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Beiter, P. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-01

    To begin understanding the potential economic impacts of large-scale WEC technology, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct an economic impact analysis of largescale WEC deployment for Oregon coastal counties. This report follows a previously published report by BOEM and NREL on the jobs and economic impacts of WEC technology for the entire state (Jimenez and Tegen 2015). As in Jimenez and Tegen (2015), this analysis examined two deployment scenarios in the 2026-2045 timeframe: the first scenario assumed 13,000 megawatts (MW) of WEC technology deployed during the analysis period, and the second assumed 18,000 MW of WEC technology deployed by 2045. Both scenarios require major technology and cost improvements in the WEC devices. The study is on very large-scale deployment so readers can examine and discuss the potential of a successful and very large WEC industry. The 13,000-MW is used as the basis for the county analysis as it is the smaller of the two scenarios. Sensitivity studies examined the effects of a robust in-state WEC supply chain. The region of analysis is comprised of the seven coastal counties in Oregon—Clatsop, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Lane, Lincoln, and Tillamook—so estimates of jobs and other economic impacts are specific to this coastal county area.

  17. How have Global Health Initiatives impacted on health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) on health equity, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. It is a summary of a literature review commissioned by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. GHIs have emerged during the past decade as a mechanism in development assistance for health. The review focuses on three GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the World Bank's Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. All three have leveraged significant amounts of funding for their focal diseases - together these three GHIs provide an estimated two-thirds of external resources going to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines their impact on gender equity. An analysis of these Initiatives finds that they have a significant impact on health equity, including gender equity, through their processes of programme formulation and implementation, and through the activities they fund and implement, including through their impact on health systems and human resources. However, GHIs have so far paid insufficient attention to health inequities. While increasingly acknowledging equity, including gender equity, as a concern, Initiatives have so far failed to adequately translate this into programmes that address drivers of health inequity, including gender inequities. The review highlights the comparative advantage of individual GHIs, which point to an increased need for, and continued difficulties in, harmonisation of activities at country level. On the basis of this comparative analysis, key recommendations are made. They include a call for equity-sensitive targets, the collection of gender-disaggregated data, the use of policy-making processes for empowerment, programmes that explicitly address causes of health inequity and impact assessments of interventions' effect on social inequities.

  18. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  19. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  20. Tuno Knob Offshore Wind Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 Midtkraft Power Company built Denmark's second offshore wind farm as a demonstration project. The project purpose is first of all to investigate the environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. The two primary objects are to study the impact on bird life and to test different methods for predicting the visual effect. The wind farm consists of 10 pitch-regulated Vestas V39 500 kW wind turbines placed on box caisson foundations in a shallow water area 6 km east of Jutland. The project has been implemented successfully under a very narrow time schedule, and during the first 6 months in operation, the production has been approx. 30% higher than expected. (author)

  1. Impacts on power reactor health physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The impacts on power reactor health physics programs form implementing the revised 10 CFR Part 20 will be extensive and costly. Every policy, program, procedure and training lesson plan involving health physics will require changes and the subsequent retraining of personnel. At each power reactor facility, hundreds of procedures and thousands of people will be affected by these changes. Every area of a power reactor health physics program will be affected. These areas include; ALARA, Respiratory Protection, Exposure Control, Job Coverage, Dosimetry, Radwaste, Effluent Accountability, Emergency Planning and Radiation Worker Training. This paper presents how power reactor facilities will go about making these changes and gives possible examples of some of these changes and their impact on each area of power reactor health physics program

  2. Offshore wind energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, Gaetano

    1999-01-01

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  3. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...

  4. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researched. It has been defined that the general anti-offshore regulation vector should be based on the principles of financial transparency, active cooperation with the international community, an optimal combination of instruments that restrict the capital outflows and the effective instruments that stimulate the business development in the country. It has been also established that the mechanism of deoffshorization should be aimed not only at elimination of the territories with the preferential taxation, but also at receiving benefits from their use on the basis of the existing financial infrastructure of the leading world offshore centers. The experience of China in attracting additional foreign investments, gaining wider access to financial resources through the cooperation with an offshore financial centre has been researched.

  5. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  6. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the

  7. Lightweight Efficient Offshore Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    At offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions from supply vessels.Normally the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not normally capable of resisting the impact load from of the boat. Therefore...... alternative designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often-used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillingsincrease the weight of the finder beyond the crane capacity of the platform. This causes the need of crane boats...... for installation of the fender and eventually for removing it if new oil-risers are to be installed. The use of crane oats is expensive and weather dependent.Having these effects in mind a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for a furtherdevelopment...

  8. Development application guidelines : Newfoundland offshore area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has created a set of guidelines which describe the information needed by the Board to process a development application by a proponent of an offshore hydrocarbon development project. The guidelines also describe the review process that will be followed in considering a proponent`s application. Proponents must also refer to the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation (Newfoundland) Act. These guidelines also describe the requirements for the Canada-Newfoundland benefits plan, the environmental impact statement, the socio-economic impact statement, the safety plan, and the environmental protection plan.

  9. Medical status of the offshore population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleshaw, S.R.K.; Harris, R.A.

    1998-06-01

    The offshore workforce are generally considered to be a healthy occupational group due to regular medical screening, a degree of health surveillance, self-selection, and an increasing number of health promotion programmes being run both onshore and offshore. That said, factors such as the increasing age of the workforce, the often poor lifestyle and the sometimes difficult psychosocial environment remain areas of concern when considering the physical and mental well-being of the workforce. The medical status of offshore workers was investigated by surveying the information collected during the medical screening process, over a cross-section of the population assessed by an independent health service provider. Demographic information, medical history and the results of medical examination were entered into a relational database, to allow analysis and interrogation of the data. (UK)

  10. Whether and What to Offshore?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ørberg; Pedersen, Torben

    In this article, we explore the idea that offshoring of services and technical work should be regarded as a dynamic process that evolves over time. Firms gradually move from offshoring of simple, standardized activities towards offshoring of advanced activities when they accumulate experience...... with offshoring, and this type of offshoring comes with an entirely different set of characteristics compared to traditional, cost-seeking offshoring. Based on a unique survey among the total population of firms in the eastern region of Denmark, we analyze some of the dynamics of this process through a model...... that incorporates two different aspects of the process of offshoring. First, we approach the question of whether to offshore and establish a baseline that investigates the determinants of firms’ participation—or lack thereof—in offshoring. Secondly, we approach the question of what to offshore and the subsequent...

  11. The onshore influence of offshore fresh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater contained within the submarine extensions of coastal aquifers is increasingly proposed as a freshwater source for coastal communities. However, the extent to which offshore freshwater supports onshore pumping is currently unknown on a global scale. This study provides the first attempt to examine the likely prevalence of situations where offshore freshwater influences onshore salinities, considering various sites from around the world. The groundwater conditions in twenty-seven confined and semi-confined coastal aquifers with plausible connections to inferred or observed offshore freshwater are explored. The investigation uses available onshore salinities and groundwater levels, and offshore salinity knowledge, in combination with analytical modelling, to develop simplified conceptual models of the study sites. Seven different conceptual models are proposed based on the freshwater-saltwater extent and insights gained from analytical modelling. We consider both present-day and pre-development conditions in assessing potential modern contributions to offshore fresh groundwater. Conceptual models also include interpretations of whether offshore freshwater is a significant factor influencing onshore salinities and well pumping sustainability. The results indicate that onshore water levels have declined between pre-development and present-day conditions in fourteen of the fifteen regions for which pre-development data are available. Estimates of the associated steady-state freshwater extents show the potential for considerable offshore fresh groundwater losses accompanying these declines. Both present-day and pre-development heads are insufficient to account for the observed offshore freshwater in all cases where adequate data exist. This suggests that paleo-freshwater and/or aquifer heterogeneities contribute significantly to offshore freshwater extent. Present-day heads indicate that active seawater intrusion (SWI) will eventually impact onshore pumping

  12. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  13. Offshore Q & A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmberStohr

    2003-01-01

    Equity International, Asia, is a leading financial service provider in China, offering planning expertise for expatriates on investing their income and savings. I recently sat down with four senior wealth managers in Shanghai to discuss Equity's approach to offshore investing.

  14. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  15. Health impacts of coal: facts and fallacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R.B. [University of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Coal has contributed enormously to the advance of civilization by providing an abundant, inexpensive, and convenient source of energy. Concurrent with its contributions, coal has extracted a high cost in terms of environmental damage and human health impacts. Unfortunately, the links between coal use and human health are distorted by a great deal of ignorance and misinformation. This paper discusses the facts and fallacies of the direct health impacts caused by coal. These include health problems caused by arsenic, fluorine, mercury and selenium released in coal use in the residential sector. The trace element iodine however may help prevent iodine deficiency disorder. Lignite in the ground in some Balkan areas has been associated with a urinary tract cancer known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Uncontrolled burning coal seams and coal waste piles contribute to global warming and to respiratory problems. The 10-fold enrichment of trace elements in fly ash and the fine particles released from power plants could present a health threat but where good pollution control technology and disposal practices are applied the health threat is probably minimal. Radioactivity levels in coal are thought to be too low to cause concern. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Offshoring in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  17. Direct Measurements of the Evolution and Impact of Sediment Density Flows as they Pass Through Monterey Submarine Canyon, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Talling, P.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Xu, J.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Gales, J. A.; McGann, M.; McCann, M. P.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows flushing through submarine canyons carry globally significant amounts of material into the deep sea to form many of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Despite their global significance, these flows remain poorly understood because they have rarely been directly measured. Here we provide an initial overview of the recently completed Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE), which was undertaken specifically to provide detailed measurements of sediment density flows and their impact on seafloor morphology and sedimentology. No previous study has deployed as extensive an array of monitoring sensors along a turbidity current pathway. During the 18 months of the CCE, at least 15 sediment density flows were recorded within the axis of Monterey Canyon. Because no external triggers (i.e., earthquakes or floods) correlate with these flows, they must have originated as failures in the canyon floor or canyon flanks. Three flows ignited and ran out for > 50 km from water depths of 1,860 m, reaching velocities up to 8.1 m/s. The rest of the flows died out within the array. During these events, large objects on or in the canyon floor were displaced substantial distances downslope, including a 7.1 km downslope movement of an entire mooring; a 4.6 km displacement of an 860 kg instrument frame followed by repeated down canyon displacements of this same frame after it was entombed in sediment; and multiple depth changes of man-made boulders containing acceleration and pressure sensors. During this same time interval the canyon floor was mapped six times with autonomous underwater vehicles covering the canyon thalweg at the upper and lower end of the instrument array (200-540 and 1350-1880 m water depths). The repeated mapping surveys reveal that flows caused +3 to -3 m bathymetric changes within a continuous clearly defined 200 m wide swath running along the canyon axis in 540 m water depth. This study shows that sediment density flows caused massive

  18. How Offshoring Elicits Reconfiguration of the Service Production System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.; Petersen, Bent

    Service production systems can be seen as a structure consisting of task execution, resources executing tasks and the service output received by the client. Offshoring acts as an exogenous shock to such a service production system. Drawing on practice theory and applying a multiple case methodology...... of the impact of offshoring and to practice theory....

  19. Analysis of North Sea Offshore Wind Power Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buatois, A.; Gibescu, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates, for a 2030 scenario, the impact on onshore power systems in terms of the variability of the power generated by 81 GW of offshore wind farms installed in the North Sea. Meso-scale reanalysis data are used as input for computing the hourly power production for offshore wind

  20. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  1. Offshore in depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebdon, J F

    1968-08-01

    The world-wide scope of offshore areas is discussed. Offshore areas of the U.S. and the world are where one of the ''hottest'' hydrocarbon booms--drilling, production, and pipelining--are in action today. Most of the current activity in offshore exploration and drilling is crude oil directed. However, big non-associated natural gas finds have been made. Additionally, for every barrel of crude oil produced, either or both associated natural gas and dissolved natural gas are produced in some varying ratio as casinghead gas. Thus, with worldwide production of some 2.5-million bbl of crude oil per day from offshore areas of Free-World countries, there are vast volumes of casinghead natural gas produced, over and above that produced from non-associated natural gas wells to the seaward of land masses. If offshore gas of any classification is produced in commercial volumes close to onshore population centers, then the possibility of marketing is fairly good. If remote from population centers, it is usually flared or shut-in. The development of gas liquefaction and cryogenic tankers has started, but international ocean traffic in LNG is still in its infancy. Current offshore gas pipelines are described.

  2. Health impact of air pollution to children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, B.; Dostál, Miroslav; Merkerová-Dostálová, M.; Líbalová, Helena; Milcová, Alena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Schmuczerová, Jana; Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 5 (2013), s. 533-540 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005; GA ČR GAP503/11/0084; GA ČR GAP503/11/0142 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PM2.5 * carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * pregnancy outcome Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2013

  3. Sleep and health in oil rig workers--before and after a two week work period offshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This study compared subjective sleep and subjective health complaints among Norwegian oil rig workers, before and after a two week work period. The study also compared differences between two different work schedules. The workers worked either two weeks of day shift (n=90) or two weeks of a swing shift schedule (n=93), involving one week of night shifts, immediately followed by one week of day shifts. Overall, the workers reported significantly poorer sleep quality and more complaints of insomnia at the end compared to the start of the work period. However, there was no significant difference in terms of subjective health complaints. Furthermore, there were no clear differences in changes in sleep quality, insomnia or subjective health complaints during the work period between day- and swing shift workers. However, at the end of the work period a higher proportion of insomniacs were seen among swing shift workers compared with day workers. To conclude, sleep quality and complaints of insomnia became worse during the work period. However, there were few differences in changes in terms of sleep or subjective health complaints between day- and swing shift, suggesting that 12 h day shift affected sleep and health similarly to the schedule involving night work.

  4. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  5. Offshore Aquaculture: I Know It When I See It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E. Froehlich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable

  6. Impact of Information Technologies on Adolescents’ Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Yeshchenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents recent data concerning the impact of computer technologies, long Internet surfing, mobile phone use on adolescents’ health. The development of addictive behaviors in adolescents — personal computer users is described. The recommendations concerning rational computer and mobile phone use by adolescents have been offered. A necessity of special doctors’ training in medical and social assistance to adolescents has been accentuated.

  7. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the ``Commission''). Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The... impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling, taking into consideration the environmental...

  8. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  9. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure ...

  10. Fluctuations of offshore wind generation: Statistical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Christensen, Lasse E.A.; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms has a significant impact on the control and management strategies of their power output. If focusing on the minute scale, one observes successive periods with smaller and larger power fluctuations. It seems that different regimes yi...

  11. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  12. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    and economic costs. However, the influence of tropical cyclone risks on these regions and detailed assessments at regional or local scale are worth of further discussions. Nevertheless, the models and results provide a foundation for a more comprehensive regional planning framework that would address......This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on the available potential of offshore wind energy at or below a given cost, and its corresponding geographical locations. The GIS-based models also reflect the impacts...

  13. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  14. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  16. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  17. Offshoring and financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the nature and extent of the offshore world, a grey area that is playing a major role in present-day economy. The main institutions moulding this peculiar environment are discussed: preferential tax regimes, tax havens and offshore financial centers. Their role in the globalised world is outlined after a scrutiny of the specialized literature, reports by non-governmental bodies and companies’ advertisings. Finally, we present a tentative reconstruction of its geographical organization, inclusive of cartographic representations of the main international networks.

  18. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  19. Gela offshore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliughi, G

    1965-06-01

    The field of Gela, off the southern shore of Sicily, is the only producing offshore field in the Mediterranean. It produces from Triassic dolimite limestones of 434-m thickness, water level at -3517 m. It is a water-drive reservoir producing 10/sup 0/F API oil and has 79 wells, some of them on shore. Most offshore wells are directional wells from shore; there are also 2 fixed platforms and a special mobile platform. The wells are on pump (stroke, 72 in.; capacity 200 tons per day). The crude goes directly to a combination refinery-petrochemical complex at Gela.

  20. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  1. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  2. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  3. Uranium mining: Environmental and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is important not only to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity in the coming decades - particularly in the developing world - enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This was the objective of a recent NEA report entitled Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining, providing a non-technical overview of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that it was first mined for military purposes until today. (author)

  4. The SPOT Project (Potentially Triggerable Offshore Seismicity and Tsunamis): a First Appraisal of the Possible Impact of Oil and Gas Platforms on the Seismic and Tsunami Risks along the Italian Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.; Di Bucci, D.; Antoncecchi, I.; Ciccone, F.; Teofilo, G.; Argnani, A.; Rovere, M.; Ligi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Lorito, S.; Borzi, B.; Germagnoli, F.; Di Ludovico, M.; Lignola, G. P.; Prota, A.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of oil and gas production in Europe takes place offshore and Italy is one of the European countries with the longest coastlines facing these operations. Given the generally growing energy demand, and the increasing concern toward human-driven hazards, scientists are called to provide background information for helping ensure a safe energy supply. We here present the activities of the project SPOT, which is aimed to help Italian authorities comply with the application of the Safety of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations European Directive (2013/30/EU) and the ensuing Italian codes. We carry out a reconstruction of offshore geological structures to assess the existence of potentially seismogenic faults in the surroundings of off-shore platforms. This study is a propaedeutic step for the assessment of potentially triggered seismicity connected with operations on such platforms. The descriptive parameters (3D geometry and behavior) of the identified faults will be used to estimate their natural earthquake rates. The impact of these natural earthquakes along the coasts will then be modeled in terms of expected ground shaking and tsunamis. The tsunamis potentially generated by submarine landslides induced by earthquake shaking will also be analyzed. In turn, these models will be used to estimate potential human and economic losses in a multi-hazard approach to risk assessment. Wherever the combined earthquake and tsunami modeling indicates a relevant impact along the coasts, a more detailed analysis will be carried out, also involving the operators of the related platforms, to perform specific models which also take into account production and/or storage data. Activities with a consolidated background, such as those concerning the impact scenarios of earthquakes, and more innovative activities, such as those dedicated to build up the first vulnerability/fragility curves related to tsunamis for the Italian building stock, will be integrated within the project

  5. The impact of weather on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, F G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of weather on human health is a well-known fact, yet, alas, neglected in the past. Bioclimatology, a vast field of medical knowledge, has only been developed in the past few years. It shows that the air we breathe has a profound influence on our well-being. Electrical charges of the air, such as ions, spherics and electrofields can affect our endocrine, vegetative and autonomous nerve system. It may even be responsible for post-operative thromboembolism. The present article describes weather reactions, electric radiations, climate rhythm, medical aspects of weather changes, and their effect on health and disease. Special devotion is also given to the manifestations of evil winds.

  6. Offshore wind power grid connection-The impact of shallow versus super-shallow charging on the cost-effectiveness of public support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissensteiner, Lukas; Haas, Reinhard; Auer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Public support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources is commonly funded by non-voluntary transfers from electricity consumers to producers. Apparently, the cost-effective disposition of funds in terms of induced capacity deployment has to be regarded a key criterion for the success of renewable energy policy. Grid connection costs are a major cost component in the utilization of offshore wind energy for electricity generation. In this paper, the effect of different attribution mechanisms of these costs on overall cost-effectiveness from consumers' perspective is analyzed. The major result of this investigation is that an attribution of grid connection costs to grid operators - as against to generators - leads to a smaller producer surplus and, hence, to lower transfer costs for electricity consumers. Applying this approach to the deployment of UK Rounds II and III offshore wind farms could lead to annual savings of social transfers of Pounds 1.2b and an equal reduction of producer surplus. This amount would be sufficient to finance the deployment of additional 10% of the capacity under consideration. - Highlights: → Grid connection costs of marginal wind farm add to submarginal producer surplus. → Overall producer surplus to be paid for by electricity consumers (transfer costs). → Allocating grid connection costs to grid operators leads to transfer cost savings. → Savings for UK Rounds II and III offshore wind farm projects may reach Pounds 1.2b per year. → These savings could finance additional 10% capacity (+3.3 GW).

  7. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  8. Impact of the environment on reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The WHO workshop on the impact of the environment on reproductive health is summarized. Topics include the nature of environmental factors affecting reproductive health, environmental factors blamed for declining sperm quantity and quality, the effects of natural and man-made disasters on reproductive health, chemical pollutants, how the environment damages reproductive health, and research needs for better research methodologies and surveillance data. Recommendations are made to: 1) promote international research collaboration with an emphasis on consistency of methodological approaches for assessing developmental and reproductive toxicity, on development of improved surveillance systems and data bases, an strengthening international disaster alert and evaluation systems; 2) promote research capabilities for multidisciplinary studies, for interactive studies of the environment and cellular processes, and for expansion of training and education; and 3) take action on priority problems of exposure to chemical, physical, and biological agents, of exposure to pesticides among specific populations, and of inadequate screening methods for identification of environmental chemicals. The costs of environmental injury to reproduction include subfertility, intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, and various birth defects. Developed country's primary threats are from chemical pollution, radiation, and stress. There is a large gap in knowledge. Caution is urged in understanding the direct relationship between environmental causes and infertility. Sexual health is difficult to assess and research is suggested. Exposure to excessive vitamin A and toxic chemicals are cited as agents probably having serious effects on malformations. Sperm quality has declined over the decades; there is speculation about the potential causes. The effects of radiation such as at Chernobyl are described. Toxic chemical exposure such as in Bhopal, India killed thousands. Neurological

  9. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  10. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  11. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  12. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  13. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  14. Advanced Service Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg; Lind, Manya Jaura

    2018-01-01

    the capabilities, where the deficient development of one capability can be mitigated by the development of another capability (firm-internal determinants). Grounded in organization and service production theory, the paper contributes to the thematic literature on service offshoring and literature on organizational...

  15. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  16. Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States. Project November 2007 - October 2009. Final report. Advisory assistance programme for environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fammler, Heidrun; Kuris, Merle [Baltic Environmental Forum, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-12-15

    This is the final report of the project ''Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States'', which was co-funded by the German Environmental Agency (project No 380 01 173). The main outcomes of the project are: - The ''Guidelines for the investigation of the impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment in the Baltic States'' developed by the Baltic Environmental Forum and German consultant Dr. Jan Kube in consultation with experts from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The guidelines give an overview on potential negative impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment and general EIA and monitoring requirements as well as give detailed guidance on methodology for relevant field investigations. - The background paper ''Legal frame for the use of offshore wind energy in Germany'' prepared by RA'in Dr. Ursula Prall (April 2009) - 3 international workshops on different aspects related to establishment of offshore wind farms and assessment of their environmental impacts. (orig.)

  17. Offshore 2010. Final report; Offshore 2010. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An overview of the accomplishments of the various projects that have received support from the Norwegian Research Council's program 'Offshore 2010'. The following projects are presented, some have English and some Norwegian project names: 'Critical parameters influencing inhibitor performance in multiphase flow', 'Development of the drilling optimization simulator (DDS) and a totally integrated drilling optimization system', 'Produksjonsoptimalisering og automatisk styring av broenner og roerledninger (PETRONICS)', 'Termisk isolerte undervannsroer for sikring av broenntransport over store avstander', 'Utvikling av magnetisk frekvensformer for styring av store subsea pumper paa havdyp ned mot 4000 meter', 'Flerfase stroemningsmaaler for permanent nedihulls installasjon', 'Hastighetsmaaling i flerfase stroemning ved passiv akustikk', 'Oil/water seperation offshore: optimized flow- and seperation behavior', 'Stroemningshastighet', 'A rock mechanics based reservoir simulation', 'MultiTool fase 2 - et flerbruksverktoey for nedihulls applikasjoner', 'Utvikling av undervanns olje-i-vann monitor for kontinuerlig maaling av lave oljekonsentrasjoner basert paa TR-LIFS', 'Subsea multipath ultrasonic liquid flow meter', 'Fluid characterization at elevated pressures and temperatures (Flucha II)'. The two main goals for the research program are 1. The development of new technology and competency in the field of downhole- and subsea processing and multiphase transportation, and 2. Innovation and commercialisation in small and medium sized companies (less than 100 employees). Some details on the financing and results are included (ml)

  18. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  19. Environmental considerations of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryckman, A. [Natural Resource Solutions Inc., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The environmental considerations of offshore wind energy projects in the Great Lakes region were discussed from the viewpoint of an environmental consulting firm. Existing projects and proposals were discussed in relation to site-specific conditions and the environmental studies required at the proposed sites. North American facilities that are now undergoing baseline studies in the Great Lakes include the Cape Wind and Nai Kun wind farms. Impact to fisheries in the lakes is expected to occur largely during the construction phases of the developments. However, additional noise, sedimentation, and lakebed losses have the potential to impact local fish populations. Some turbine foundations create a a reef effect that increases local fish populations. Baseline fisheries data as well as substrate and habitat assessments of the lakebed are required. Impacts on birds include collision and displacement impacts. Migratory birds and staging or wintering waterfowl may be displaced from feeding areas. Radar- and plane-based surveys should be used to identify large rafts of birds in offshore habitats, while boat surveys can be used to confirm species and identify diurnal migrants. The migratory paths of bats over the Great Lakes are not well-understood. It is expected that offshore wind developments will have little impact on terrestrial vegetation. Impacts will be localized at shoreline connection points and construction areas. Shoreline habitats, wetlands, dunes and beach habitats may also be impacted. Post-construction surveys should include avian and bat mortality, waterfowl usage, and fish habitat and substrates. Further studies were recommended, as there are limited guidelines for determining the effects of offshore wind energy developments. tabs., figs.

  20. Offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power - different in terms of safety.?; Offshore Oel and Gas und Offshore Wind - mit Sicherheit ''anders''.?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, F.; Tatulinski, M. [DNV GL - Oil and Gas Germany, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Safety standards in the oil and gas industry have risen to a high level over the past decades, driven in part by momentous accidents. Furthermore, an expanded framework has recently been defined through the new EU Offshore Safety Directive, which in Germany is still in the process of its transposition into national law. The installation of offshore wind farms in the North and Baltic Sea has within the shortest of time brought forth an entirely new branch of industry, most of whose players have no significant experience with offshore operations. One of the greatest challenges is the working environment, which is being approached in different ways by those involved. The supervisory authorities responsible are only just beginning to develop the competence required for their tasks, with the effect that regulations pertaining to onshore operations are often simply adopted as they are. This is in some cases impacting on the oil and gas industry, as is discussed in the present lecture. [German] Die Oel und Gas Industrie hat in den vergangen Jahrzehnten einen hohen Sicherheitsstandard entwickelt, teilweise getrieben durch signifikante Unfallereignisse. Aktuell wurde zudem mit der neuen EU-Offshore Richtlinie ein erweiterter Rahmen definiert, der sich in Deutschland noch in der gesetzgeberischen Umsetzung befindet. Durch die Installation von Offshore-Windparks in der Nord- und Ostsee ist innerhalb kuerzester Zeit zusaetzlich ein neuer Industriebereich entstanden, dessen Marktteilnehmer mehrheitlich nicht ueber signifikante Offshore-Erfahrung verfuegen. Insbesondere das Arbeitsumfeld stellt dabei eine Herausforderung dar, die von den Beteiligten unterschiedlich geloest wird. Ferner beginnen auch die verantwortlichen Aufsichtsbehoerden erst mit dem Aufbau entsprechender Kompetenzen, so dass vielfach auch Regelungen aus dem Onshore-Bereich uebertragen werden. Dies fuehrt teilweise zu Auswirkungen auf die Oel- und Gasindustrie, die im Rahmen dieses Vortrages diskutiert werden.

  1. IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjedovic, Eida; Medjedovic, Senad; Deljo, Dervis; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride is natural element that strengthens teeth and prevents their decay. Experts believe that the best way to prevent cavities is the use of fluoride from multiple sources. Studies even show that in some cases, fluoride can stop already started damage of the teeth. In children younger than 6 years fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of permanent teeth, making the teeth more resistant to the action of bacterial and acids in food. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of improving the health status of teeth after six months treatment with the use of topical fluoridation 0.5% NaF, and the level and quality of the impact of treatment with chemical 0.5% NaF on the dental health of children at age from 8 to 15 years, in relation to gender and chronological age. This study included school children aged 8 to 15 years who visited health and dental services dependent in Mostar. It is obvious that after the implementation of treatment with 5% NaF by the method of topical fluoridation, health status of subjects from the experimental group significantly improved, so that at the final review 89.71% or 61 subjects of the experimental group had healthy (cured teeth), tooth with dental caries only 5.88% or 4 respondents tooth with dental caries and filling 4.41% or 3 respondents, extracted baby tooth 14.71% or 10 respondents, while for 13.24% of respondents was identified state with still unerupted teeth. Our findings are indirectly confirmed that the six-month treatment of fluoridation with 5% NaF, contributed to statistically significant improvement in overall oral health of the experimental group compared to the control group which was not treated by any dental treatment. It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the evaluated parameters of oral health of children in the control group compared to the studied parameters of oral health the experimental group of children at the final dental examination.

  2. Current trends in offshore technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  3. Offshore concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  4. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  5. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  6. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  7. how do district health managers experience the impact of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KB Von Pressentin

    impact of family physicians within the South African district health system? ... paper (2015) described six aspirational roles of family physicians (FPs) working within the district health system. ... composition and deployment of the primary care workforce.5 ... mental health.30,31 In addition, FPs appear to have some impact.

  8. Offshore wind generators: realization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the French legal context for the different aspects of the development of offshore wind farms in France: procedures related to electricity production installations (authorization or tender like what has been done for six sites), other administrative authorizations, and connection to the grid. Then, she addresses the various constraints: environmental, social and technical constraints (protected marine areas, constraints related to the tendering process), coast planning documents, tax policy. She finally discusses the installation dismantling

  9. Conference on offshore wind energy in France and Germany: challenges of a promising segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrupek, Thierry; Falk, Thorsten; Hofmann, Stefanie; Gouverneur, Philippe; Le Visage, Christophe; Saint Martin, Gro de; Meyerjuergens, Tim; Dachicourt, Pierre-Georges; Hube, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the development of offshore wind energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 100 participants exchanged views on offshore wind energy development, and on the conflicts of usage between fishermen and offshore wind farms. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Offshore wind energy development in France (Thierry Chrupek); 2 - Present day situation of offshore wind energy development and use in Germany (Thorsten Falk); 3 - Risks and profitability of offshore wind energy (Philippe Gouverneur); 4 - Sea and shore integrated management: what impacts for offshore wind energy? (Christophe Le Visage); 5 - Towards and offshore grid? (Gro de Saint Martin); 6 - Grid connection of offshore wind farms in Germany (Tim Meyerjuergens); 7 - Conflicts of usage between professional fishing and offshore wind farms (Pierre-Georges Dachicourt); 8 - Ecological evaluative research for the use of offshore wind energy - Advantages, projects and studies. Environmental follow-up of wind energy projects (Stefanie Hofmann); 9 - Alpha Ventus offshore test park: context, progress of the installation and next steps (Wilfried Hube)

  10. Canadian offshore standards become world model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    Newfoundland's emerging offshore industry is becoming known not only for its frontier petroleum exploration and development expertise, but it is also gaining international recognition for making good use of its experience to provide advice to future developers on how to deal with multiple levels of governments and community groups, infrastructure development, adverse effects on the local environment, society and the economy. The companies active offshore-Newfoundland have acquired world-class expertise from working their offshore oil fields on the Grand Banks. There is a steady demand for that expertise for application in other regions, mostly from oil-industry personnel. Requests for sharing that experience have come from the United States, Norway and Australia, but also from within Canada, particularly from British Columbia. In British Columbia, coastal exploration has been going on since the early 1900s, with increasing concern for the impact of petroleum activity on the coastal environment, culminating with the imposition of a moratorium in 1959. Now, the British Columbia government is interested in learning about the procedures it should follow to reach a decision on whether to lift the moratorium in effect (on and off) since 1959. The interest in possible resumption of exploration and development activity is motivated by recent studies by the Geological Survey of Canada, which suggest a hydrocarbon potential five times greater than the Hibernia oil field off Newfoundland. An indication of this interest in opening up the west coast to offshore exploration is the recent seminar at Memorial University in St. John's. Speakers at the seminar presented an overview of the lessons learned from the east coast, the social and economic impacts of offshore oil and gas development and how such development might co-exist with British Columbia's marine ecosystem and fishery resources

  11. Global Warming and Its Health Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far as to speed it up

  12. Global Warming and Its Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rossati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far

  13. The impact of the special participation tax at offshore concessions with high production of hydrocarbons; O impacto da participacao especial na decisao de investimento em projetos de concessoes offshore com superproducao de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandra, Rodrigo Mendes; Poznyakov, Karolina Maria. E-mails: rodrigo_gandra@ig.com.br; karolina@ig.com.br

    2004-07-01

    The main objective this technical study is to show the economic impact of payment of Special Participation into capex of projects in fields with high production of hydrocarbons. We would like to show how the actual payment of Special Participation can be really hard to the economic viability of projects. Even so, this technical study take an induction, it mays be showed as a representation to retract the real situation in a big companies that which have considerable opportunities for development of concessions with high potential to produce hydrocarbons. We are willing to present a sample of an alternative assessment. (author)

  14. Assessing the impact of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy on the morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.

    2016-01-15

    This report documents the changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness detected on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, before and after Hurricanes Irene and Sandy made landfall. Comparison of acoustic backscatter imagery, seismic-reflection profiles, and bathymetry collected in 2011 and in 2014 show that sedimentary structures and depositional patterns moved alongshore to the southwest in water depths up to 30 meters during the 3-year period. The measured lateral offset distances range between about 1 and 450 meters with a mean of 20 meters. The mean distances computed indicate that change tended to decrease with increasing water depth. Comparison of isopach maps of modern sediment thickness show that a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges, which are the dominant sedimentary structures offshore of Fire Island, migrated toward the southwest because of erosion of the ridge crests and northeast-facing flanks as well as deposition on the southwest-facing flanks and in troughs between individual ridges. Statistics computed suggest that the modern sediment volume across the about 81 square kilometers of common sea floor mapped in both surveys decreased by 2.8 million cubic meters, which is a mean change of –0.03 meters, which is smaller than the resolution limit of the mapping systems used.

  15. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  16. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  17. Employees' perceptions of the impact of work on health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicola; Jones, Fiona; Harris, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Research examining the impact of work on health behaviours has rarely provided a complete picture of the impact across health behaviours. Twenty-four employees were interviewed about their smoking, drinking, exercise and eating. Themes included the impact of the work environment, including policy, convenience and workplace cultural norms; business events effecting one's routine and again convenience and workplace cultural norms; being busy at work effecting time and energy for healthy behaviour; and work stress leading to health behaviours being used as coping responses on bad and good days. The impact of work is similar across health behaviours and is primarily detrimental.

  18. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-03-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.

  19. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  20. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    when distinguishing between standardized and advanced activities. Asia attracts as many advanced activities as Western Europe while North America attracts more advanced activities even in manufacturing. Central and Eastern Europe attract offshoring in manufacturing and IT, but the activities...... that are offshored to these regions are typically not advanced. One important theoretical implication of this study is that a more detailed understanding of the nature of offshored activities is needed, since such attributes appear to be an important determinant of location choice....

  1. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kouwenhoven, H.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Bouma, S.; Brasseur, S.; Daan, R.; Fijn, R.C.; de Haan, D.; Dirksen, S.; van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; ter Hofstede, R.; Krijgsveld, K.L.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the

  2. The Impact of High-Turbidity Water's Seasonal and Decadal Variations on Offshore Phytoplankton and Nutrients Dynamics around The Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, J.; Torres, R.; Chen, C.; Bellerby, R. G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Changjiang Estuary is characterized as strong river discharge into the inner shelf of the East China Sea with abundant sediment load, producing significant high-turbidity water coverage from river mouth to deep region. The growth of offshore phytoplankton is dynamically controlled by river flushed low-salinity and high-turbidity water, and salter water from inner shelf of East China Sea. During last decade, the sediment and nutrients from the Changjiang River has significantly changed, which lead to the variation of offshore phytoplankton dynamics. The variations of sediment, nutrients, and their influenced phytoplankton has been simulated through a comprehensive modeling system, which integrated a multi-scale current-wave-sediment FVCOM model and generic marine biogeochemistry and ecosystem ERSEM model through The Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM). This model system has successfully revealed the seasonal and decadal variations of sediment, nutrients transport around the inner shelf of the East China Sea. The spring and autumn peaks of phytoplankton growth were correctly captured by simulation. The modeling results, as well as MODIS and GOCI remote sensing, shows a strong sediment decreasing from northern to southern region, which creates different patterns of Chlorophyll-a distribution and seasonal variations. These results indicate the high-turbidity water in northern region strongly influenced the light attenuation in the water column and limits the phytoplankton growth in this relatively higher-nutrient area, especially in the wintertime. The relatively low-turbidity southern region has significant productivity of phytoplankton, even during low-temperature winter. The phytoplankton growth increased in the northern region from 2005 to 2010, with the increase of the nutrient load during this period. Then it became a decreasing trend after 2010.

  3. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  4. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model......BACKGROUND: Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy...... consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power...

  5. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  6. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  7. Offshore floating windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to produce a general survey of the profitability of establishing floating offshore wind turbine arrays and to compare this with the cost and profitability of constructing offshore arrays with fixed foundations and arrays located on land sites. Aspects of design in all cases are described, also into relation to the special demands placed on dimensioning in relation to the types of location and foundation. The costs of the offshore arrays are evaluated in relation to capacity under conditions in Danish waters. The advantage of floating arrays is that they can be placed far out to sea where they can not be seen from the coast and thus not be considered to spoil the marine view. But as the water gets deeper the cost of floating foundations rises. It was found that it would not be technologically profitable to establish floating arrays at a depth of less than 30 - 40 meters which means that only the outer Danish waters can be taken into consideration. For depths of up to 70 meters, individual floating bases are more expensive than fixed ones but would be cheaper if a number of windmills could share the same anchor. For depths of more than 70 meters floating foundations would be the cheapest. The cost is dependent on the depth and distance from the coast and also on wind conditions. The main conclusion is that currently the cost of establishing wind turbine arrays in deeper outer waters on floating foundations is comparable to that of arrays sited at inner waters on solid foundations placed on the sea bed. (AB) (20 refs.)

  8. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  9. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  10. Gender and Health Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender and Health Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in Developing Countries ... exists, the gender and health impacts have so far received only cursory attention. ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  11. Personal health and consumer informatics. The impact of health oriented social media applications on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M C

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution in the world-wide use of Social Media tools suggests the emergence of a global phenomenon that may have implications in the Personal Health and Consumer Health Informatics domains. However the impact of these tools on health outcomes is not known. The goal of this research was to review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence of the impact of health oriented Social Media informatics tools on health outcomes. Evaluations of Social Media consumer health tools were systematically reviewed. Research was limited to studies published in the English language, published in Medline, published in the calendar year 2012 and limited to studies that utilized a RCT methodological design. Two high quality Randomized Controlled Trials among over 600 articles published in Medline were identified. These studies indicate that Social Media interventions may be able to significantly improve pain control among patients with chronic pain and enhance weight loss maintenance among individuals attempting to lose weight. Significantly more research needs to be done to confirm these early findings, evaluate additional health outcomes and further evaluate emerging health oriented Social Media interventions. Chronic pain and weight control have both socially oriented determinants. These studies suggest that understanding the social component of a disease may ultimately provide novel therapeutic targets and socio-clinical interventional strategies.

  12. Dutch offshore skills assessed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaap, P

    1988-11-01

    The position is described of the different Dutch industries involved in the oil and gas exploitation business in the North Sea. Mentioned are, in the first place, the activities of towing services Smit Tak, and Wijsmuller. A well known drilling contractor is Neddrill. Drilling rigs are often designed in cooperation with consulting engineers firms Protech International, Heerema Engineering, Global Engineering, KTI, Fluor, and Tebodin. Drilling rigs constructors Grootint, Mercon Steel Structures, Heerema Havenbedrijf, HCG, Boele, and IHC have a sound name in the offshore construction scene. Offshore contractors like Heerema, Smit Tak, Volker Stevin and Allseas Engineering should be mentioned too. Special attention is given to the operation of saving drilling rigs in the Ekofisk field. Years of exploitation of oil and gas from this field resulted in subsidence of the sea floor, which endangered the drilling rigs. Hydraudyne designed the hydraulic lifter necessary for this saving operation. Dutch firms in this field have an estimated yearly turnover of Dfl 3 x 10/sup 9/. 6 figs.

  13. Impact of marital status on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2017-11-01

    The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.

  14. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  15. Socio-economic Impacts—Offshore Activities/Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Drews, Martin; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2016-01-01

    sector and renewable electricity generation—mainly from offshore wind—is increasing. Energy and offshore activities in the North Sea are critically vulnerable to climate change along the full supply chain. The major vulnerabilities for offshore installations like rigs, offshore wind energy and pipelines......, it is highly uncertain how much the future potential of other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, terrestrial biomass, or emerging technologies like wave, tidal or marine biomass could be positively or negatively affected. Due to the different national energy supply mixes the vulnerability to climate......-related impacts will vary among North Sea countries. To ensure safe and reliable future operations comprehensive and systematic risk assessments are therefore needed which account for, for example, the high integration of power systems in the region....

  16. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  17. Employees’ perceptions of the impact of work on health behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Nicola; Jones, Fiona; Harris, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the impact of work on health behaviours has rarely provided a complete picture of the impact across health behaviours. Twenty-four employees were interviewed about their smoking, drinking, exercise and eating. Themes included the impact of the work environment, including policy, convenience and workplace cultural norms; business events effecting one’s routine, and again convenience and workplace cultural norms; being busy at work effecting time and energy for healthy behavi...

  18. OFFSHORING FOR SUSTAINABLE VALUE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Oforegbunam Ebiringa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates offshoring as a strategic value management initiative using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study. Through offshoring risks associated with inventory holding are hedged. A comparative analysis of in-house and offshored cost profiles as well as critical risk factors that affect firm value are evaluated. The result shows that offshoring led to immediate costs saving, freeing of funds previously held in inventory for other working capital investments as well as profitability for vendors. However, aside financial benefits to partners, it leads to increased stakeholders awareness, shared values, partnerships, teamwork and risk mitigation. It therefore follows that for sustainability of financial benefits of offshoring, concerted effort must be made by partners to ensure that critical drivers of value management are not compromised.

  19. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health resea...

  20. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health...... reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...... and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation....

  1. IFREMER-ADEME colloquium 'Offshore renewable energies: offshore wind energy - sea currents and waves. Collection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This document contains programme and abstracts of contributions presented during a colloquium. These contributions first addresses the context, and regulatory and economic aspects of offshore wind and sea energy: specificities related to the Public Maritime Domain for the implantation of offshore wind turbines, economy of sea energies within a perspective of de-carbonation of the world energy sector, case of offshore wind turbines and assessment of economic impacts of the implantation of sea renewable energy production units, financing stakes for offshore wind energy projects. A second set of contribution addresses the state-of -the-art and feedbacks for offshore wind energy installations. The third set addresses the assessment of resource potential, measurements, models and production prediction for offshore wind energy: case of French coasts, use of radar for remote sensing, wind climatology modelling, data acquisition for wind farm and data processing. The fourth set of contributions addresses the state-of-the-art, feedback, and R and D for sea current energy, while the fifth one addressed the same aspects for sea wave energy. Technology, installations, maintenance and storage in the field of wind energy are then addressed, and the last set deals with environmental and social-economical impacts of sea renewable energies

  2. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented or well researched, particularly in low-and middle-income countries with high rates of tobacco cultivation.

  3. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2001-01-01

    The increase in obesity worldwide will have an important impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, osteoarthritis, work disability, and sleep apnea. Obesity has a more pronounced impact on morbidity than on mortality. Disability due to

  4. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...... of potential “rightshoring” options fosters clarity about the phenomena studied and their implications. The main practical implications of the six papers are summarized in Table II. Originality/value: The overall conceptual framework highlights the positioning of the final papers included into the special...

  5. Social impact bonds and their application to preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John L

    2013-05-01

    Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their

  6. Coastal and offshore wind energy generation: is it environmentally benign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. C.; Elliott, M.; Cutts, N. D.; Mander, L.; Mendao, V.; Perez-Dominguez, R.; Phelps, A. [Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Wilson, J. C. [Amec, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Mendao, V. [Projecto Delfim, Centro Portugues de Estudo dos Mamiferos Marinhos, Rua Alto do Duque, 45, 1400-009 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas. (authors)

  7. The impact of migraine on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F

    PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than

  8. The impact of migraine on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than

  9. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  10. Impact evaluation on health: three case studies for Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviria Garces, Carlos Felipe

    2017-01-01

    The present work uses impact evaluation tools in health economics to analyze three different issues in Colombia. The first issue is how losing health insurance for young adults affects medical service usage and health outcomes. Results show that losing health insurance when turning 18 years old increases visits to the ED, reduces preventive care visits with a physician, and increases the usage of private medical services (out-of-pocket) for young adults. For the second issue, we measure how e...

  11. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  12. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  13. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Offshore vindenergi er i høj grad modnet i det seneste årti med en årligt installeret kapacitet på mere end1 GW. En vigtig faktor for den videre udvikling af offshore vindenergi i stor målestok, er en reduktion af de samlede udgifter til produceret energi. I betragtning af for eksempel faldet i olieprisen siden sommeren 2014 og dens fortsatte fald ind i 2015, er det endnu vigtigere at sænke omkostningerne til etablering af vedvarende energikilder såsom offshore vindenergi, for at nå frem til ...

  14. Simplified Technique for Predicting Offshore Pipeline Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yu, S. Y.; Park, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating the amount of expansion that occurs in subsea pipelines, which could be applied in the design of robust structures that transport oil and gas from offshore wells. We begin with a literature review and general discussion of existing estimation methods and terminologies with respect to subsea pipelines. Due to the effects of high pressure and high temperature, the production of fluid from offshore wells is typically caused by physical deformation of subsea structures, e.g., expansion and contraction during the transportation process. In severe cases, vertical and lateral buckling occurs, which causes a significant negative impact on structural safety, and which is related to on-bottom stability, free-span, structural collapse, and many other factors. In addition, these factors may affect the production rate with respect to flow assurance, wax, and hydration, to name a few. In this study, we developed a simple and efficient method for generating a reliable pipe expansion design in the early stage, which can lead to savings in both cost and computation time. As such, in this paper, we propose an applicable diagram, which we call the standard dimensionless ratio (SDR) versus virtual anchor length (L A ) diagram, that utilizes an efficient procedure for estimating subsea pipeline expansion based on applied reliable scenarios. With this user guideline, offshore pipeline structural designers can reliably determine the amount of subsea pipeline expansion and the obtained results will also be useful for the installation, design, and maintenance of the subsea pipeline.

  15. Domestic R&D and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    survey and register data. No evidence is found for a lower probability of own R&D after offshoring takes place compared to before. Moreover, offshoring does not lead to lower R&D intensity in general. However, firms that offshore R&D activity have larger R&D intensity after offshoring has taken place...

  16. Governance structures impact on eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background National eHealth implementation efforts need to move beyond the scope of making technology the primary focus and instead consider the broader spectrum of influences that can either hinder or facilitate eHealth adoption such as governance structures and policies. In this study, Denmark...... serves as an ideal candidate for further examination due to the country׳s rich history of intertwining events that have played an important role in the dynamic relationship between governance and eHealth success and failures. Methods A case study approach was used to gather a combination of primary...... and secondary data sources. All data collection was carried out through desk-research. Data collection relied on performing an extensive search of literature for relevant studies using combinations of keywords that reflected eHealth and governance-related topics. Inclusion and exclusion criteria׳s were applied...

  17. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  18. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  19. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... use of antibiotics in animal farming and insecticides accounts for high incidences of food poisoning and deaths of unsuspecting consumers ...

  20. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  1. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  2. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kubik, Jeremy F.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental ...

  3. The economics of offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  4. Some characteristics of offshore operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore operations are not on the margins of the world economy. They are an integral part of modern business practice. They have become one of the most important instruments in the contemporary globalized financial system. Offshore operations and tax havens are not only conduits for tax avoidance and evasion but belong more broadly to the world of finance, for the business of managing the monetary resources of an organization, country or individuals. Offshore business operating in tax havens is at the heart of a particular type of globalization that is characterized by a growing gap between the very rich and everyone else. Tax havens are financial conduits that, in exchange for a fee, use their one principal asset- their sovereignty to serve a nonresident constituency of accountants and lawyers, bankers and financiers, who bring a demand for offshore operations.

  5. The economics of offshore wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  6. Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    A corporation’s offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing...... in low-cost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporation’s outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time...... the outsourcing experience lessens the cognitive limitations of decision-makers as to the advantages that can be achieved through outsourcing in low-cost countries: the insourcer/vendor may not only offer cost advantages, but also quality improvement and innovation. The quality improvements that offshore...

  7. Current issues in the impacts of transport on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, M C I; Mindell, J S

    2018-03-01

    Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Health on the Move 2; Journal of Transport and Health. Benefits of travel for access and physical activity. Harms include health impacts of air and noise pollution; injuries and fatalities from falls or collisions; sedentary behaviour with motorized transport; community severance (barrier effect of busy roads and transport infrastructure); global climate change; impacts on inequalities; transport's role in facilitating spread of communicable diseases. Biofuels; cycle safety; driving by older people. Effects of default 20 mph speed limits; impacts of autonomous vehicles on health and inequalities.

  8. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshoring can be defined as the relocation of organizational tasks and services to foreign locations. At the same time as the scale and scope of offshoring have reached unprecedented levels in recent years, firms have increasingly been exposed to the challenges relating to managing an organizati...... implies an organizational reconfiguration consisting of three stages: disintegration, relocation and reintegration. We discuss the implications of this perspective and outline a research agenda....

  10. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  11. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) 1 and Integral Fast Reactor (IF) 2 technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle

  12. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The...

  13. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The...

  14. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Drilling AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY... and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory... to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the...

  15. Offshore industry executives meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska

  16. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  18. Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project Parameters in Nigeria: Consultants and Contractors View. ... The study recommends that better attention is given to health and safety should as a project parameter and that related practice notes and guidelines should be evolved for all project stakeholders.

  19. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Mekel, Odile C.L., E-mail: odile.mekel@lzg.nrw.de [Gesundheitsdaten und analysen, Versorgungsstrukturen, Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein-Westfalen (LZG.NRW), Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Fintan Hurley, J., E-mail: fintan.hurley@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackenbach, Johan P., E-mail: j.mackenbach@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  20. Impact of organisational characteristics on health and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry makes a contribution to occupational accidents and ill health records in Nigeria. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of organisational characteristics on health and safety (H&S) management practices of Nigerian small and medium-sized construction enterprises (SMEs). The study ...

  1. Impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary

  2. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax in the Philippines. A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by 215% will likely have implications for tobacco control and consumption, and public health, not just for that country but for the region. Although half of deaths due to ...

  3. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles. Empowering healthy food and beverage choices in the workplace. Download PDF. Journal articles. Modelling the potential impact of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax on stroke mortality, costs and health-adjusted life years in South Africa. Download PDF. Journal articles. Sugar and health in South Africa ...

  4. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile C.L.; Fintan Hurley, J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  5. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  6. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health

  7. Health Impacts Of Radiofrequency Exposure From Mobile Phone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The widespread use of mobile phones and indiscriminate siting of transmitter base stations near residential buildings in our environment may have serious health impacts. Objective: To investigate the possible health risks associated with radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones and other transmitter ...

  8. Climate change impacts health in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... Research is showing that climate change is having major impacts on human health. Weather-related disasters are on the rise and water- and vector-borne diseases are spreading. Strategies to adapt to the effects of climate change may also pose unforeseen health risks. Read more about a project in ...

  9. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  10. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  11. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-01-01

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO 2 and O 3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO 2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: ► Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. ► This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. ► Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. ► Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. ► At municipal level larger differences were found, influenced by gender and age.

  12. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.dhondt@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Beckx, Carolien, E-mail: Carolien.Beckx@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Degraeuwe, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Degraeuwe@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lefebvre, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Lefebvre@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kochan, Bruno, E-mail: Bruno.Kochan@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Bellemans@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc, E-mail: Luc.intpanis@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Macharis, Cathy, E-mail: cjmachar@vub.ac.be [Department MOSI-Transport and Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium); Putman, Koen, E-mail: kputman@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  13. The impact of mHealth interventions on health systems: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Jill; Salie, Faatiema; Abdullahi, Leila H; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-11-25

    Mobile health (mHealth) has been described as a health enabling tool that impacts positively on the health system in terms of improved access, quality and cost of health care. The proposed systematic review will examine the impact of mHealth on health systems by assessing access, quality and cost of health care as indicators. The systematic review will include literature from various sources including published and unpublished/grey literature. The databases to be searched include: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, NHS Health Technology Assessment Database and Web of Science. The reference lists of studies will be screened and conference proceedings searched for additional eligible reports. Literature to be included will have mHealth as the primary intervention. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data; discrepancies will be resolved by consensus and discussion with the assistance of the third author. The systematic review will inform policy makers, investors, health professionals, technologists and engineers about the impact of mHealth in strengthening the health system. In particular, it will focus on three metrics to determine whether mHealth strengthens the health system, namely quality of, access to and cost of health care services. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42015026070.

  14. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Failing to Estimate the Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates cost estimation errors in the context of offshoring. It is argued that an imprecise estimation of the costs related to implementing a firm activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred...... as operations are likely to be disrupted by managerial distraction and resource misallocation. It is also argued that this relationship is mitigated by the extent to which firms use modularity to coordinate the activity but worsened by the extent to which ongoing communication is used. The results, based...

  16. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay C. McCallum; Kathleen Souweine; Mary McDaniel; Bart Koppe; Christine McFarland; Katherine Butler; Christopher A. Ollson

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice b...

  17. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  18. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  19. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  20. Impacts of “metals” on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into the differences and uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions on human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different properties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity...... to humans and ecosystems. First, we defined a list of the most significant metals in terms of impacts on human health. This was done according to precise criteria accounting for both physical and toxic properties of the metals. Second, we performed a LCIA on different key processes using various existing...... to the total impact on human health changes greatly according to the LCIA method used. These differences are due mainly to the number of metals included in each method and to the technique used to calculate the characterization factors. Results obtained with USEtox show no apparent correlation with results...

  1. Noise Pollution and Impact on Children Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok; Gupta, Anant; Jain, Khushbu; Gupta, Sweta

    2018-04-01

    With rapid urbanization and life style changes, loud noise is omnipresent and has become a part of life. Indoor and outdoor environmental noise pollution have been documented as a serious health hazard with increasing adverse effects on fetus, infants, children, adolescents and adults. Noise induced hearing loss and non-auditory adverse effects due to noise pollution, are being increasingly diagnosed in all age groups including the fetus. Outdated motorized vehicles, machinery, increasing traffic, congested residential areas, crowded educational institutions and workplaces, unregulated commercial and industrial noise have become a source of noise pollution with long-term disability. Areas of noise pollution must be identified and corrective measures be taken. Toys, personal, domestic, commercial, industrial equipment should be within the safe sound intensity. Loudspeakers and vehicular horns should be banned except in emergencies. Nocturnal noise pollution must be avoided near residential areas as sleep disturbances have serious long-term health consequences. Pregnant women, fetus, newborns, infants and children are most susceptible to noise induced health hazards and should be given utmost protection. Educational institutions, workplaces, commercial and industrial areas should be regularly monitored for noise levels and protective ear muffs and plugs be used. Public be educated repeatedly regarding health hazards of noise. Traffic noise should be regulated to be within safe limits. Bus-stands, railway stations and airports should be moved away from residential areas. Houses should be sound proofed suitably. Long term studies should be conducted in pregnant women, newborn children and adults to have more data on hazards of noise pollution.

  2. Climate change and health: temperature and health impacts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available /heat waves are anticipated to increase in frequency and magnitude in the 21st century. excessive temperatures lead to excess morbidity and mortality (all cause, respiratory, cardiovascular system mortality). Figure 1 depicts the impact of summer 2003... mortality temperature threshold below or above which every 1?C change increases mortality by ~4% and ~0.5%, respectively (mcmichael, et al., 2008). temperature-related mortality rates (all cause, cardiovascular and respiratory) are modified by many...

  3. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment (NCA) and as called for under the President’s Climate Action Plan. The authors of this assessment have compiled and assessed current research on human health impacts of climate change and summarized the current “state of the science” for a number of key impact areas. This assessment provides a comprehensive update to the most recent detailed technical assessment for the health impacts of climate change, 2008 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (CCSP 2008). It also updates and builds upon the health chapter of the third NCA (Melillo et al. 2014). The lead and coordinating Federal agencies for the USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Available at https://health2016.globalchange.gov/ The interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of their National C

  5. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Psychological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy F. Kubik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.

  6. The impact of bariatric surgery on psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Jeremy F; Gill, Richdeep S; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient's sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.

  7. Offshore pipelaying dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Gullik Anthon

    2010-02-15

    This thesis considers three issues regarding modeling of of offshore pipe laying dynamics. These are: (i) the formulation of an offshore pipeline installation operation as a control problem, (ii) the development and passivity analysis of a robotic pipe model for a submerged pipe string, suitable for real-time applications in closed- loop control systems, and (iii) the development and validation of a nonlinear FEM model for simulation and control of the elastic pipeline dynamics, including FEM dynamics of a pipeline combined with vessel dynamics, for simulation and control of pipe lay operations under dynamic positioning Pipeline installation is defined as the operation of positioning a pipeline along a reference path on the seabed from a surface vessel. In control terms, this can be stated as a path-following control problem, where the pipe touchdown point tracks the reference path. However, the only controllers for the touchdown point are the pay-out of pipe into the water, and the motion of the surface vessel. Considering that the pipe is an elastic body, and that both the pipe and the vessel are subject to environmental loads, the control problem that must be considered is a dynamic target-tracking problem, where the surface vessel must track a moving target position on the surface in order to control the position of the touchdown point. A target-tracking controller may be implemented as a guidance system, by extending the dynamic positioning system that is common for pipe lay vessels. An important component in the guidance system is the dynamic pipe model mapping touchdown and surface vessel position. Motivated by robotics, a compact system formulation is derived for the suspended pipeline by considering it as a hyper-redundant manipulator with an arbitrary number of links. This model captures the main dynamics of the pipe, including its geometric configuration and top tension. The model is in the state- space, and on a vectorial form using minimal coordinates

  8. IS OFFSHORING AN INTERNATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyze the applicability of transaction cost economics - TCE (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1975, 1979 through its characteristic make-or-buy expression, considering the offshoring pace and emerging economy firms. The make-or-buy decision must be flexible enough to explain offshoring characteristics and developed and emerging economy firms scenarios. As secondary objectives, and to show the trail to the main purpose, two research questions were identified and discussed during the paper: Is offshoring process an international movement only from developed countries to emerging economies? Is the main reason of offshoring the looking for low-cost work / activities? To achieve the proposed objectives, the structure of this paper begins with a reasonable or acceptable definition of offshoring. Some reasons (or “the reason” for the process are also another important starting point. The majority of articles referee the idea that low-cost is the main reason for offshoring, and if it is correct, transaction cost economics seems to be a good basis for our analysis purpose and integrative intention. Also some literature connections between offshoring and TCE are presented and, naturally TCE is presented in highlights for understanding these connections. Ending this section, some different arguments based on newer researches are presented by some authors presenting another perspective as the main reason. After this theoretical approach, a scenario analysis and some discussions are presented based on all possible interactions among firm from developed (DC and emerging economies (EE and examples of international corporations are presented to clarify and improve the understanding of our research questions and to build new contributions to international business theory.

  9. Impact of Health Literacy on Senior Citizen Engagement in Health Care IT Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Noblin PhD, RHIA, CCS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patient engagement in health care information technology (IT is required for government reimbursement programs. This research surveyed one older adult group to determine their willingness to use health information from a variety of sources. Health literacy was also measured using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS and eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS tools. Method: Regression models determined engagement in health care IT usage and impact of literacy levels based on survey data collected from the group. Results: Although most participants have adequate literacy, they are not more likely to use health care IT than those with limited literacy scores. Knowledge of how to use the Internet to answer questions about health was statistically associated with IT usage. Discussion: Health care IT usage is important for healthy aging. The ability of older adults to understand information provided to them can impact population health including medication usage and other important factors.

  10. Impact of Health Literacy on Senior Citizen Engagement in Health Care IT Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblin, Alice M; Rutherford, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Patient engagement in health care information technology (IT) is required for government reimbursement programs. This research surveyed one older adult group to determine their willingness to use health information from a variety of sources. Health literacy was also measured using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) and eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) tools. Method: Regression models determined engagement in health care IT usage and impact of literacy levels based on survey data collected from the group. Results: Although most participants have adequate literacy, they are not more likely to use health care IT than those with limited literacy scores. Knowledge of how to use the Internet to answer questions about health was statistically associated with IT usage. Discussion: Health care IT usage is important for healthy aging. The ability of older adults to understand information provided to them can impact population health including medication usage and other important factors.

  11. New technology of subsea and offshore compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Subsea compressor is a hot topic. Subsea compressor offers tremendous potentials, but also some obstacles. Active magnetic bearings installed inside the process gas allow the elimination of lubrication and seal systems. High-speed permanent- magnet motor directly drives centrifugal compressor to meet optimum speed, eliminating gear box. This design offers inherent machinery health monitoring features and very compact and reliable train. New technology of hermitically sealed direct drive centrifugal compressor for offshore and subsea applications are discussed and case studies for horizontal and vertical compressor train arrangements are presented. (orig.)

  12. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    agencies, to assist in identifying policies with low effort and high impact (Chapter 3). Section 3.3 provides specific policy examples that have been demonstrated to be effective in removing barriers to development. (c) Current and potential domestic suppliers in the offshore wind market, in evaluating areas of opportunity and understanding requirements for participation (Chapter 4). Section 4.4 provides a step-by-step description of the qualification process that suppliers looking to sell components into a future U.S. offshore wind market will need to follow.

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmian M. Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  14. The impact of health information technology on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Yasser K; Federico, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Since the original Institute of Medicine (IOM) report was published there has been an accelerated development and adoption of health information technology with varying degrees of evidence about the impact of health information technology on patient safety.  This article is intended to review the current available scientific evidence on the impact of different health information technologies on improving patient safety outcomes. We conclude that health information technology improves patient's safety by reducing medication errors, reducing adverse drug reactions, and improving compliance to practice guidelines. There should be no doubt that health information technology is an important tool for improving healthcare quality and safety. Healthcare organizations need to be selective in which technology to invest in, as literature shows that some technologies have limited evidence in improving patient safety outcomes.

  15. The impact of health information technology on patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser K. Alotaibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the original Institute of Medicine (IOM report was published there has been an accelerated development and adoption of health information technology with varying degrees of evidence about the impact of health information technology on patient safety. This article is intended to review the current available scientific evidence on the impact of different health information technologies on improving patient safety outcomes. We conclude that health information technology improves patient’s safety by reducing medication errors, reducing adverse drug reactions, and improving compliance to practice guidelines. There should be no doubt that health information technology is an important tool for improving healthcare quality and safety. Healthcare organizations need to be selective in which technology to invest in, as literature shows that some technologies have limited evidence in improving patient safety outcomes.

  16. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  17. Extended impacts of climate change on health and wellbeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Felicity; Sabel, Clive E.; Morton, Katherine; Hiscock, Rosemary; Depledge, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Incorporates wellbeing into understandings of climate change impacts on health. • Considers a range of secondary impacts of climate change on health and wellbeing. • Examines co-benefits and dis-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies for health and wellbeing. • Emphasises the spatially and socially differentiated repercussions of adaptation and mitigation measures. - Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change is progressively transforming the environment despite political and technological attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to tackle global warming. Here we propose that greater insight and understanding of the health-related impacts of climate change can be gained by integrating the positivist approaches used in public health and epidemiology, with holistic social science perspectives on health in which the concept of ‘wellbeing’ is more explicitly recognised. Such an approach enables us to acknowledge and explore a wide range of more subtle, yet important health-related outcomes of climate change. At the same time, incorporating notions of wellbeing enables recognition of both the health co-benefits and dis-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies across different population groups and geographical contexts. The paper recommends that future adaptation and mitigation policies seek to ensure that benefits are available for all since current evidence suggests that they are spatially and socially differentiated, and their accessibility is dependent on a range of contextually specific socio-cultural factors

  18. Concept of waste and its impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Impact of the environment on human health is increasingly being paid attention both at the international level and at the level of individual countries. Among the factors that anyhow can affect it negatively, various objects are distinguished and waste is not of the last consequence. It has different nature of origin, ways of further utilization and a degree of impact on human health and the environment. Its generation, utilization and neutralization are determined by the relevant processes; their research allows continuous improvement and reduction of their negative impact on human health and the environment. To analyze provisions of the international legislation concerning the concept of waste and its classification, as well as its potential impacts on human health and the environment. The study analyzes and uses international legal documents, data of international organizations and scientists' deductions. Furthermore, the study integrates information from scientific journals with scientific methods from the medical and legal point of view. Within the framework of the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis, the concept of waste, its classification and impact on human health and the environment have been researched. In consequence of the conducted study, it has been found that at the European level, considerable attention is paid to waste in the context of its possible negative impact on human health and the environment. Solution of this problem is carried out with the integrated approach, which is expressed both in enacting statutory acts and amending existing ones, as well as elucidating various aspects at the scientific, methodological, statistical and other levels. Waste in itself has different nature of origin, negative impact, ways of its further utilization. Some kinds of it can be used further in order to achieve other goals and needs that are not related to their generation, others can no longer be used for human benefits taking into account

  19. Hunger: its impact on children's health and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Linda; Wehler, Cheryl; Perloff, Jennifer; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Sagor, Linda; Gundersen, Craig

    2002-10-01

    Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year--1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out

  20. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid affects the economics of an offshore wind park. It is shown that the spot market income is lower if an offshore wind farm is placed in an interconnector and subject to nodal pricing instead of having a national affiliation. Moreover, congestion in the interconnector can prevent the wind farm from correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less generation than expected at the closure of the day-ahead spot market. This can lead to a suboptimal utilisation of the infrastructure and associated socio-economic losses. These and possibly undesired reallocative effects between the parties can be avoided if the regulatory regime is adjusted to reflect special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment framework has also been addressed with a policy study about possible combinations of support schemes and international cooperation mechanisms between countries to achieve their

  1. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  2. The impact of gender roles on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, María del Pilar; Cuellar-Flores, Isabel; Dresch, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The present research focused on a sample of Spanish undergraduate women and men to evaluate whether gender was related to substance use and chronic illness. This research examined the associations of conformity to masculine norms for men and conformity to feminine norms for women with substance use in chronic illnesses. Spanish male (n = 226) and female (n = 234) college undergraduates completed measures of chronic diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and conformity to gender norms. Multivariable regression analyses demonstrated that being female was related to lower alcohol and cigarette consumption but a greater rate of chronic illnesses. Although masculinity did not explain the rate of chronic illnesses, specific feminine and masculine gender norms were related to alcohol and tobacco use and prevalence of chronic diseases. The present study provides insights for further cross-cultural psychological studies on the mediating effect of self-reported conformity to gender norms (rather than only sex) on health. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  3. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and equality of services. SIR creates the

  4. System impact research – increasing public health and health care system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  5. Life cycle assessment of the offshore wind farm alpha ventus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Hermann-Josef; Baack, Christoph; Eickelkamp, Timo; Epe, Alexa; Lohmann, Jessica; Troy, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Due to better wind conditions at sea, offshore wind farms have the advantage of higher electricity production compared to onshore and inland wind farms. In contrast, a greater material input, leading to increased energy consumptions and emissions during the production phase, is required to build offshore wind farms. These contrary effects are investigated for the first German offshore wind farm alpha ventus in the North Sea. In a life cycle assessment its environmental influence is compared to that of Germany's electricity mix. In comparison to the mix, alpha ventus had better indicators in nearly every investigated impact category. One kilowatt-hour electricity, generated by the wind farm, was burdened with 0.137 kWh Primary Energy-Equivalent and 32 g CO 2 -Equivalent, which represented only a small proportion of the accordant values for the mix. Furthermore, the offshore foundations as well as the submarine cable were the main energy intensive components. The energetic and greenhouse gas payback period was less than one year. Therefore, offshore wind power, even in deep water, is compatible with the switch to sustainable electricity production relying on renewable energies. Additional research, taking backup power plants as well as increasingly required energy storage systems into account, will allow further calculation. -- Highlights: → Offshore wind energy represents an environmentally friendly way of power generation. → The offshore foundations and the submarine cable are energy intensive components. → Alpha ventus emits 30 g CO 2 per kWh electricity over the entire life cycle. → Less specific emissions occur in comparison to the existing German electricity grid. → The energetic and greenhouse gas payback periods are less than one year.

  6. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  8. Offshore investments: Denmark shows the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of wind power in Denmark and discusses the tremendous growth in the manufacture of wind turbines since 1981 with Denmark holding some 60% of the worlds' wind turbine market. The move to offshore wind farms is explained in terms of the shortage of land and the quality of the offshore wind, and details of the Tuno Knob pilot offshore wind farm are given. Offshore wind power in Europe, the challenges to offshore operations, the costs involved, environmental effects of the use of offshore wind, and the growing amount of wind power capacity are discussed

  9. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  10. Health care: economic impact of caring for geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Preston B; Adams, Sasha D

    2015-02-01

    National health care expenditures constitute a continuously expanding component of the US economy. Health care resources are distributed unequally among the population, and geriatric patients are disproportionately represented. Characterizing this group of individuals that accounts for the largest percentage of US health spending may facilitate the introduction of targeted interventions in key high-impact areas. Changing demographics, an increasing incidence of chronic disease and progressive disability, rapid technological advances, and systemic market failures in the health care sector combine to drive cost. A multidisciplinary approach will become increasingly necessary to balance the delicate relationship between our constrained supply and increasing demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  12. Feasibility study of electromechanical cylinder drivetrain for offshore mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, D.; Pawlus, W.; Ebbesen, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing focus on the environmental impact and energy consumption of the oil and gas industry. In offshore drilling equipment, electric motors tend to replace traditionally used hydraulic motors, especially in rotational motion control applications. However, force densiti...

  13. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY: A SCOPING REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; De Angelis, Gino; Kaunelis, David; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2018-06-13

    The Health Technology Expert Review Panel is an advisory body to Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) that develops recommendations on health technology assessments (HTAs) for nondrug health technologies using a deliberative framework. The framework spans several domains, including the environmental impact of the health technology(ies). Our research objective was to identify articles on frameworks, methods or case studies on the environmental impact assessment of health technologies. A literature search in major databases and a focused gray literature search were conducted. The main search concepts were HTA and environmental impact/sustainability. Eligible articles were those that described a conceptual framework or methods used to conduct an environmental assessment of health technologies, and case studies on the application of an environmental assessment. From the 1,710 citations identified, thirteen publications were included. Two articles presented a framework to incorporate environmental assessment in HTAs. Other approaches described weight of evidence practices and comprehensive and integrated environmental impact assessments. Central themes derived include transparency and repeatability, integration of components in a framework or of evidence into a single outcome, data availability to ensure the accuracy of findings, and familiarity with the approach used. Each framework and methods presented have different foci related to the ecosystem, health economics, or engineering practices. Their descriptions suggested transparency, repeatability, and the integration of components or of evidence into a single outcome as their main strengths. Our review is an initial step of a larger initiative by CADTH to develop the methods and processes to address the environmental impact question in an HTA.

  15. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  16. Impact of culture on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2011-10-01

    The diagnosis of cancer creates anticipatory grief and fear for the patient and the family, and the x cancer care experience is fraught with physical, emotional and spiritual challenges. The palliative care literature in Europe and North American is rapidly growing, but such literature is sparse in other parts of the world. Translating the findings from the West however, may be problematic in non-Western, and particularly, non-Christian cultures, for many of the assumptions that underlie the approach to suffering and death in the West are culturally based in the values and beliefs of western European society. Therefore this paper provides a means to explore how such translation across cultures might occur by: (1) providing a definition of culture so that the context for the subsequent discussion is framed, (2) describing how culture impacts the cancer experience, (3) how culture affects communication to relieve suffering and improve quality of life for patients and families. The paper closes with 8 recommended steps to improve communication cross-culturally to provide effective quality palliative care for patients and families from diverse backgrounds.

  17. Health impacts of climate change and health and social inequalities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Jouni

    2017-12-05

    This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes. Age, pre-existing medical conditions and social deprivation are found to be the key (but not only) factors that make people vulnerable and to experience more adverse health outcomes related to climate change impacts. In the future, climate change, aging population and decreasing public spending on health and social care may aggravate inequality of health outcomes related to climate change. Health education and public preparedness measures that take into account differential exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of different groups help address health and social inequalities to do with climate change. Adaptation strategies based on individual preparedness, action and behaviour change may aggravate health and social inequalities due to their selective uptake, unless they are coupled with broad public information campaigns and financial support for undertaking adaptive measures.

  18. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...

  19. The impact of health insurance on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Temsah, Gheda; Mallick, Lindsay

    2017-04-01

    While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage-Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility. Although health insurance schemes in these three countries are mostly designed to focus on the poor, coverage has been highly skewed toward the rich, especially in Ghana and Rwanda. Indonesia shows less variation in coverage by wealth status. The analysis found significant positive effects of health insurance coverage on at least two of the four measures of maternal health care utilization in each of the three countries. Indonesia stands out for the most systematic effect of health insurance across all four measures. The positive impact of health insurance appears more consistent on use of facility-based delivery than use of antenatal care. The analysis suggests that broadening health insurance to include income-sensitive premiums or exemptions for the poor and low or no copayments can increase use of maternal health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  20. Identifying and assessing strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  2. Arms trade and its impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin

    2006-01-01

    The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts. Wealthy countries suffer damage to their health and human services when considerable resources are diverted to military expenditure. However, the relative impact of military expenditures and conflict on third world countries is much greater, and often devastating, by depriving a significant portion of the population of essential food, medicine, shelter, education, and economic opportunities. Further, the physical and psychological damage inflicted specifically on children is debilitating - through loss of (or separation from) families, loss of education, destruction of homes, exposure to murder and other violence, sexual abuse, abduction, torture, slavery, and forcible conscription as soldiers. This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.

  3. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  4. Health impact assessment of the Atlanta BeltLine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine L; Leone de Nie, Karen; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Beck, Laurie F; Marcus, Michelle J; Barringer, Jason

    2012-03-01

    Although a health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool that can provide decision makers with recommendations to promote positive health impacts and mitigate adverse health impacts of proposed projects and policies, it is not routinely conducted on most major projects or policies. To make health a decision criterion for the Atlanta BeltLine, a multibillion-dollar transit, trails, parks, and redevelopment project. An HIA was conducted in 2005-2007 to anticipate and influence the BeltLine's effect on health determinants. Changes in access and equity, environmental quality, safety, social capital, and physical activity were forecast, and steps to maximize health benefits and reduce negative effects were recommended. Key recommendations included giving priority to the construction of trails and greenspace rather than residential and retail construction, making health an explicit goal in project priority setting, adding a public health professional to decision-making boards, increasing the connectivity between the BeltLine and civic spaces, and ensuring that affordable housing is built. BeltLine project decision makers have incorporated most of the HIA recommendations into the planning process. The HIA was cited in the awarding of additional funds of $7,000,000 for brownfield clean-up and greenspace development. The project is expected to promote the health of local residents more than in the absence of the HIA. This report is one of the first HIAs to tie specific assessment findings to specific recommendations and to identifiable impacts from those recommendations. The lessons learned from this project may help others engaged in similar efforts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  6. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  8. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  9. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  10. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furitsu, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238 U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235 U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  11. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  12. Offshore oil and gas : a community development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.; Vodden, K.; House, D.

    2003-01-01

    A community perspective on offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia was presented. It was noted that local benefits depend greatly on the level of regulation and government intervention in the industry. Community preparedness, jurisdictional certainty and corporate ethics also play a vital role. It is also necessary to clearly understand legal, economic, environmental, social and industrial aspects of offshore development. Jurisdictional concerns include the International Free Trade Agreement, ambiguities over mineral rights, and claims by First Nations to seabed and ocean resources. It was emphasized that the impact of offshore development on ecotourism and fisheries should not be underestimated. Community-based planning is critical. Economic imperatives include international prices, recovery costs, distribution of royalties, and alternative opportunities. It was also noted that communities in British Columbia have much to learn from other gas dependent regions

  13. Current and future impact of osteoarthritis on health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, A; Petersson, I F; Björk, J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the current and future (to year 2032) impact of osteoarthritis (OA) health care seeking. METHOD: Population-based study with prospectively ascertained data from the Skåne Healthcare Register (SHR), Sweden, encompassing more than 15 million person-years of primary and specia......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the current and future (to year 2032) impact of osteoarthritis (OA) health care seeking. METHOD: Population-based study with prospectively ascertained data from the Skåne Healthcare Register (SHR), Sweden, encompassing more than 15 million person-years of primary...

  14. Oral health impact of periodontal diseases in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Baelum, V

    2007-11-01

    The need for treatment of destructive periodontal diseases is based on observations made by oral health professionals, who, prompted by clinical findings, recommend treatment. We hypothesized that clinical signs of periodontal destruction have an impact on the oral-health-related quality of life of adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 9203 Chilean high school students sampled by a multistage random cluster procedure. We recorded clinical attachment levels and the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. The students answered the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile and provided information on several socio-economic indicators. The results of multivariable logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, and tooth loss) showed that both attachment loss [OR = 2.0] and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis [OR = 1.6] were significantly associated with higher impact on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life of adolescents. Individuals in lower socioeconomic positions systematically reported a higher impact on their oral-health-related quality of life.

  15. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  16. Impact of ACA Health Reforms for People With Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathleen C; Shartzer, Adele; Kurth, Noelle K; Hall, Jean P

    2018-02-01

    This brief report explores the impact of health reform for people with mental illness. The Health Reform Monitoring Survey was used to examine health insurance, access to care, and employment for 1,550 people with mental health conditions pre- and postimplementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and by state Medicaid expansion status. Multivariate logistic regressions with predictive margins were used. Post-ACA reforms, people with mental health conditions were less likely to be uninsured (5% versus 13%; t=-6.89, df=50, peffects were experienced in both Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. Findings underscore the importance of ACA improvements in the quality of health insurance coverage.

  17. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  18. The Capabilities of the Offshore Middlemen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Wareham, Jonathan

    preliminary theoretical justification for the emergence of offshore intermediaries; describe how and why they develop intermediation capabilities; and offer initial evidence substantiating their function and processes in intermediating transnational offshoring relationships in software development...

  19. Metabarcoding monitoring analysis: the pros and cons of using co-extracted environmental DNA and RNA data to assess offshore oil production impacts on benthic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Laroche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes. A variety of pre-treatment techniques for screening eDNA and eRNA derived operational taxonomic units (OTUs have been employed prior to statistical analyses, including removing singleton taxa (i.e., OTUs found only once and discarding those not present in both eDNA and eRNA datasets. In this study, we used bacterial (16S ribosomal RNA gene and eukaryotic (18S ribosomal RNA gene eDNA- and eRNA-derived data from benthic communities collected at increasing distances along a transect from an oil production platform (Taranaki, New Zealand. Macro-infauna (visual classification of benthic invertebrates and physico-chemical data were analyzed in parallel. We tested the effect of removing singleton taxa, and removing taxa not present in the eDNA and eRNA libraries from the same environmental sample (trimmed by shared OTUs, by comparing the impact of the oil production platform on alpha- and beta-diversity of the eDNA/eRNA-based biological assemblages, and by correlating these to the morphologically identified macro-faunal communities and the physico-chemical data. When trimmed by singletons, presence/absence information from eRNA data represented the best proxy to detect changes on species diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, assessment of quantitative beta-diversity from read abundance information of bacteria eRNA did not, contrary to eDNA, reveal any impact from

  20. Metabarcoding monitoring analysis: the pros and cons of using co-extracted environmental DNA and RNA data to assess offshore oil production impacts on benthic communities

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier

    2017-05-17

    Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes. A variety of pre-treatment techniques for screening eDNA and eRNA derived operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been employed prior to statistical analyses, including removing singleton taxa (i.e., OTUs found only once) and discarding those not present in both eDNA and eRNA datasets. In this study, we used bacterial (16S ribosomal RNA gene) and eukaryotic (18S ribosomal RNA gene) eDNA- and eRNA-derived data from benthic communities collected at increasing distances along a transect from an oil production platform (Taranaki, New Zealand). Macro-infauna (visual classification of benthic invertebrates) and physico-chemical data were analyzed in parallel. We tested the effect of removing singleton taxa, and removing taxa not present in the eDNA and eRNA libraries from the same environmental sample (trimmed by shared OTUs), by comparing the impact of the oil production platform on alpha- and beta-diversity of the eDNA/eRNA-based biological assemblages, and by correlating these to the morphologically identified macro-faunal communities and the physico-chemical data. When trimmed by singletons, presence/absence information from eRNA data represented the best proxy to detect changes on species diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, assessment of quantitative beta-diversity from read abundance information of bacteria eRNA did not, contrary to eDNA, reveal any impact from the oil

  1. Metabarcoding monitoring analysis: the pros and cons of using co-extracted environmental DNA and RNA data to assess offshore oil production impacts on benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Lear, Gavin; Ellis, Joanne I; Pochon, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes. A variety of pre-treatment techniques for screening eDNA and eRNA derived operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been employed prior to statistical analyses, including removing singleton taxa (i.e., OTUs found only once) and discarding those not present in both eDNA and eRNA datasets. In this study, we used bacterial (16S ribosomal RNA gene) and eukaryotic (18S ribosomal RNA gene) eDNA- and eRNA-derived data from benthic communities collected at increasing distances along a transect from an oil production platform (Taranaki, New Zealand). Macro-infauna (visual classification of benthic invertebrates) and physico-chemical data were analyzed in parallel. We tested the effect of removing singleton taxa, and removing taxa not present in the eDNA and eRNA libraries from the same environmental sample (trimmed by shared OTUs), by comparing the impact of the oil production platform on alpha- and beta-diversity of the eDNA/eRNA-based biological assemblages, and by correlating these to the morphologically identified macro-faunal communities and the physico-chemical data. When trimmed by singletons, presence/absence information from eRNA data represented the best proxy to detect changes on species diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, assessment of quantitative beta-diversity from read abundance information of bacteria eRNA did not, contrary to eDNA, reveal any impact from the oil

  2. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  3. December 8, 2000. Regional wind energy development. The offshore development potential: European perspectives; 8 decembre 2000. Developpement eolien regional. Le potentiel de developpement offshore: perspectives europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcen Zunzarren, J.A. [Navarre Gvt., Dir. of national development and urbanism (Spain); O' Gallachoir, B. [Cork Univ., Dept. of civil engineering and Environment, Cork (Ireland); Vergnet, M. [Societe Vergnet SA, 45 - Ingret (France); Laumonier, Ch. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Donnat, J.M. [Agence Mediterraneenne de l' Environnement, Contribution du Conseil Regional au Developpement de l' Eolien en Languedoc-Roussillon, 34 - Montpellier (France); Stenvald Madsen, P. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Thomas-Bourgneuf, G. [Direction du Service Maritime et de Navigation du Languedoc-Roussillon (France); Bonnefoi, S. [Cabinet Bonnefoi (France); Thoury, Ph. [Commission Environnement du Comite Regional des Peches Languedoc-Roussillon (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    This second day of colloquium was organized around two topics: the regional development of wind power and the feasibility of offshore wind farms in Europe. The regional aspect was illustrated with the presentation of the Spanish, Irish and French experience (programs, means, results, role of local authorities, public opinion). A round table was organized about the local environmental impacts of wind power development. The offshore aspect was illustrated with the presentation of projects in Denmark and France. The legal and fiscal aspects of offshore projects were considered too. (J.S.)

  4. The impact of leadership development on GP mental health commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Emma; Fenge, Lee-Ann; Rosenorn-Lanng, Emily

    2017-07-03

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the learning needs of general practitioners (GPs) involved in commissioning mental health provision in England, and offer an evaluation of a leadership and commissioning skills development programme for Mental Health Commissioners. Design/methodology/approach Retrospective mixed method, including online mixed method survey, rating participants' knowledge, skills, abilities, semi-structured telephone interviews and third-party questionnaires were used. Results were analysed for significant differences using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. Open-ended responses and interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Findings Indicative results showed that participants perceived significant impacts in ability across eight key question groups evaluated. Differences were found between the perceived and observed impact in relation to technical areas covered within the programme which were perceived as the highest scoring impacts by participants. Research limitations/implications The indicative results show a positive impact on practice has been both perceived and observed. Findings illustrate the value of this development programme on both the personal development of GP Mental Health Commissioners and commissioning practice. Although the findings of this evaluation increase understanding in relation to an important and topical area, larger scale, prospective evaluations are required. Impact evaluations could be embedded within future programmes to encourage higher participant and third-party engagement. Future evaluations would benefit from collection and analysis of attendance data. Further research could involve patient, service user and carer perspectives on mental health commissioning. Originality value Results of this evaluation could inform the development of future learning programmes for mental health commissioners as part of a national approach to improve mental health provision.

  5. Potential for Jobs and Economic Development from Offshore Wind in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-02

    In California's future scenarios, energy demand increases with population growth and productivity. Decision-makers will have to make choices about which energy resources to utilize, and offshore wind offers one option for carbon-free electricity with the potential for increased local jobs. This presentation discusses results from an NREL report, Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios. Presenter Suzanne Tegen describes the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model and its results for two offshore wind scenarios in California. She discusses different assumptions and how they affect the scenarios.

  6. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Liming, E-mail: lmwu@scdc.sh.c [Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336 (China); Center for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia); Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia [Center for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  7. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  8. Global Production: The Case of Offshore Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1997-01-01

    of software is no exception.In this paper, we present a newly started research project on offshore program-ming, that is the practice of sending software development “offshore,” to India or other low wage areas. The project focuses on the organisation of offshore program-ming and, particularly, on the role...

  9. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  10. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...

  11. Campus Sexual Violence: The Impact of Disclosure on Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Katelin B.

    2018-01-01

    A mixed methodological approach was used to examine the impact of disclosure characteristics on mental health among individuals who have experienced campus sexual violence occurring at Christian and non-religiously affiliated universities. After completing an online survey, a sample of 97 participants qualified for the study. No disclosure and…

  12. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  13. Impact of diabetes continuing education on health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a continuing education (CE) program on the attitudes of health care professionals (HCPs) towards diabetes care in Yemen. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was carried out in Mukalla City, Hadramout, Yemen and was offered to all physicians, pharmacists, and nurses ...

  14. The impact of a modified World Health Organization surgical safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of a modified World Health Organization surgical safety checklist on maternal ... have shown an alarming increase in deaths during or after caesarean delivery. ... Methods. The study was a stratified cluster-randomised controlled trial ... Training of healthcare personnel took place over 1 month, after which the ...

  15. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for

  16. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  17. Interannual and seasonal variability in short-term grazing impact of Euphausia superba in nearshore and offshore waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. M.; Quetin, L. B.; Haberman, K. L.

    1998-11-01

    Our focus in this paper is the interaction between macrozooplanktonic grazers and primary producers, and the interannual and seasonal variability in the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (Palmer LTER) study region from Anvers Island to Adelaide Island. Short-term grazing estimates are calculated by integrating (1) theoretical and experimental estimates of ingestion rates in response to the standing stock of phytoplankton, and (2) field measurements of phytoplankton standing stock and grazer biomass. Field data come from three austral summer cruises (January/February of 1993, 1994, and 1995) and one sequence of seasonal cruises (summer, fall and winter 1993). The relative and absolute abundance of the dominant macrozooplankton grazers, Euphausia superba and Salpa thompsoni, varied by at least an order of magnitude on the spatial and temporal scales observed. Mean grazing rates ranged from 0.4 to 9.0 μg chlorophyll m -2 h -1 for the Antarctic krill and salp populations over the three summer cruises. This leads to variability in the flow of carbon from the primary producers through the grazers on the same scales. Temporal and spatial variability in grazing impact and faecal pellet production are high.

  18. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient, two-dimensional, discrete-element, far-field model for thermal impact analysis of power plant discharges in coastal and offshore regions. Part I. General description of the mathematical model and the results of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.

    1975-02-01

    A far-field mathematical model is presented for numerical simulation of short-time (within tidal cycle) transient, two-dimensional temperature distributions in large coastal and offshore regions resulting from the condenser cooling water discharges of power plants. The Eulerian FLIDE (fluid-in-discrete-element) formulation employs the integral forms of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy in variable-sized discrete elements that span the specific flow region. The contributions of vertical variations of the velocity components and temperature are rigorously incorporated in the development of depth-averaged, two-dimensional energy transport fluxes by spatially integrating the conservation equations over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete elements. The general mathematical formulation considers completely arbitrary, transient oceanic flow conditions, which include periodic tidal, geostrophic, and wind-induced currents, as locally specified inputs to the model. The thermal impact of a hypothetical, multiunit generating station in a coastal region is analyzed where the oceanic flow conditions are assumed to be strictly periodic tidal currents within any appreciable net drift of sufficient duration to remove the heated effluent. The numerical simulation indicates that the periodic flow conditions cause considerable variations in the temperature distributions during the day and the tidal cycles, which result in severe recirculation and re-entrainment of the heated water between the intakes and the discharges of the different units. This leads to a gradual, long-term increase of the temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the discharge structures and also in the far-field zone. (U.S.)

  20. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  1. Scour around an offshore windturbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwersheimer, W.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2007-01-01

    During the construction of the first Dutch offshore wind farm prototype measurements were performed. These measurements were aimed to monitor the behaviour of the granular filter layer of the scour protection around the mono-piles upon which the wind turbines are founded. These measurements were

  2. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2014-01-01

    The general research question guiding this thesis is: What are the organizational consequences of offshoring? Increasingly firms are becoming caught up by the “harsh realities of offshoring” (Aron and Singh, 2005: 135). Many firms have begun to realize that managing an increasingly globally dispe...

  3. Getting the Most from Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... and network orchestration....

  4. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  5. A Review of the impact of the health literacy status of patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    health, economic and social impacts; it will also discuss the implications for ... Key words: Low health literacy, healthcare impact, health outcomes. .... mouth every 6 hours as needed”. To test ... media and many more need to collaborate to take.

  6. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella R. J.; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions: Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.......Aims: Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health...... policy. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used...

  7. [Mental health impact of stalking in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2006-08-01

    Using data from the Mannheim stalking study, the present report analyses gender differences with regard to various mental health indicators and potential mediator effects of stalking victimization. Furthermore, we were interested in whether the impact of stalking on mental health was comparable for men and women. The study included a postal survey of 675 community residents on the experience of intruding harassment and on mental health indicators. In the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-D, Lowe et al. 2001), women scored higher on most of the subscales (depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, stress, psychosocial impairment) than men. Furthermore, more women fulfilled criteria for at least one threshold or subthreshold mental disorder syndrome according to DSM-IV, and more women were under psychotropic medication. However, the identified associations were completely mediated by the higher prevalence of stalking victims in women. In contrast, the associations of stalking victimization with poor mental health, psychosocial functioning, and use of medication were largely comparable across gender.

  8. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal...... in an HIA performed for the recently adopted Hungarian anti-smoking policy which introduced a smoking ban in closed public places, workplaces and public transport vehicles, and is one of the most effective measures to decrease smoking-related ill health. METHODS: A comprehensive, prospective HIA...... to decrease the prevalence of active and passive smoking and result in a considerably positive effect on several diseases, among which lung cancer, chronic pulmonary diseases, coronary heart diseases and stroke have the greatest importance. The health gain calculated for the quantifiable health outcomes...

  9. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  10. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris-Roxas, Ben; Harris, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  11. Impact of organisational change on mental health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-08-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems. More studies of long-term effects are required including relevant analyses of confounders.

  12. Sulfur impacts on forest health in west-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, D.G.; Stadt, J.J.; Mallett, K.I.; Volney, W.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate forest health and tree growth in relation to sulfur deposition in mature and immature lodgepole pine and mature trembling aspen. Soil samples were taken in forests near two sour gas processing plants in west-central Alberta. The soil sample sites were classified into high, medium and low deposition classes. The impact of sulfur deposition on soil and foliar chemistry, tree growth, and forest health was evaluated. The analysis of tree growth, using radial increments, revealed no impact associated with the sulfur deposition class. The only indicators of extensive sulfur impacts on major forest communities detected to date are elevated sulfur concentrations in the surface organic horizon and foliage, the proportion of healthy lodgepole pines, and a depression in the annual specific volume increment. No evidence of widespread forest decline has been found. 42 refs., 35 tabs., 29 figs

  13. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  14. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  15. Offshore concrete structures; Estructuras Offshore (mar adentro) de Hormigon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shipbuilding industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  16. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. McCallum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability. Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral. Results: There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space, and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values. Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Conclusions: Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool.

  17. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary; Koppe, Bart; McFarland, Christine; Butler, Katherine; Ollson, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral). There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space), and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values). Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics) without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  19. Place shaping to create health and wellbeing using health impact assessment: health geography applied to develop evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Alyson; Curtis, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    In a political milieu where there is pressure towards localised and participative decisionmaking, and an environment of global recession and environmental degradation, it is crucial that population health considerations inform strategic decisions. The paper puts forward 'place shaping to create health and wellbeing' as a strategic tool, drawing on ideas that are fundamental in health geography, and argues that this is an important emerging application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), as part of evidence-based practice. These views developed primarily from case study work in the North East of England aiming to enhance health and wellbeing in a population with significant health disadvantages. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A summary of LED lighting impacts on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Ticleanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lighting can affect the health of people in buildings. This goes beyond the safety aspects of providing enough illumination to see by; lighting affects mood and human circadian rhythms, while poor lighting can cause glare, headaches, eyestrain, aches and pains associated with poor body posture or, in extreme cases, skin conditions and various types of sight loss. These aspects ought to be considered by designers and building owners and occupiers in order to improve the lit environment and use adequate lighting and lighting controls that meet the recommendations of codes and standards. Various types of lighting can have different impacts depending on their spectral, optical and electrical characteristics. This paper discusses potential impacts of LED lighting on human health, and is based on a recent BRE review of research investigating the most typical effects of lighting on human health.

  1. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  2. Metabolomics in Sepsis and Its Impact on Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Bauer, Pia; Reumann, Matthias; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis, with its often devastating consequences for patients and their families, remains a major public health concern that poses an increasing financial burden. Early resuscitation together with the elucidation of the biological pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms with the use of "-omics" technologies have started changing the clinical and research landscape in sepsis. Metabolomics (i.e., the study of the metabolome), an "-omics" technology further down in the "-omics" cascade between the genome and the phenome, could be particularly fruitful in sepsis research with the potential to alter the clinical practice. Apart from its benefit for the individual patient, metabolomics has an impact on public health that extends beyond its applications in medicine. In this review, we present recent developments in metabolomics research in sepsis, with a focus on pneumonia, and we discuss the impact of metabolomics on public health, with a focus on free/libre open source software. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Health and safety impacts of renewable, geothermal, and rusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.; Anderson, K.B.; Deibler, P.M.; Gleick, P.H.; Mintzer, I.M.; Morris, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The public may view many renewable energy sources as having no direct public impacts because they produce no pollutants during normal operation. However, these energy technologies produce health impacts during their fabricatin and construction, and also through the materials-supply sectors required to support them. This survey of the health risks associated with renewable energy technologies concludes that some of the renewable options have particular promise for reducing health and environmental costs per unit of energy delivered to well below levels associated with the use of oil and coal; Holdren and his co-authors feel that few, if any, pose the indirect threats of fossil fuels and nuclear fission. 46 references, 7 tables

  4. Offshore: Economic Deterrent or Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Turuev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The downside of investment's addition rate in Russia, lack of capital investments result from "poor investment attractiveness". As a result, the companies' financial imbalance together with high investments risks lead to capital outflow from the country by virtue of offshores. Along with negative aspects connected with "financial oases" many advantages are given to the business community: lessening of tax payments, monetary privacy and confidentiality of operations. Taking in consideration the above and also the existence of specific international agreements concerning the avoidance of double taxation and offshore zones, the banner of the latter appears to be quite difficult and would divest the global economy of an important segment of global economic growth. The author performed a SWOT analysis of the role and the importance of offshores in international economy. Tolerant coexistence of local and global economic interests seems to be achievable by implementing a distinct circumspect and complex plan of measures aimed at the raise of the investment attractiveness of a country, for which the creation of "Skolkovo" and new Institutes for market development would not be sufficient. Transparent and oriented on business stability and safety provision of monitor and regulatory system, data interflow, improvement of prudential control on financial markets operations - are parts of measures that have to be accomplished in order to solve and exclude the problems associated with offshores. But the author also appeals to not forgetting that besides the offshores exists a number of such issues directly related to the outflow of capital as lowering of inflationary pace, enlargement of direct investment flow-in, support of social peace, which have to be handled for the purposes of improvement of domestic investment climate of countries with developing economy.

  5. Climate change and food security: health impacts in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R; Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B A; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate food production, monitor food quality and safety, and

  6. The impact of biomedical innovation on longevity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R Lichtenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have expressed the view that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. This article describes the methodologies and findings of a number of studies based on observational data that have sought to measure the impact of biomedical innovation on the longevity and health of Americans and other populations during recent decades. Most of these studies have examined the impact of innovation in pharmaceuticals, the most research-intensive medical good or service. Two measures of medical innovation that have been used are the mean vintage of the medical goods or procedures used by an individual or population, and the number of distinct products (e.g. drugs available for treating a condition. Longevity (e.g. time till death is the health outcome that has been analyzed the most, but several studies have studied the impact of medical (i.e. pharmaceutical innovation on the ability of people to work or engage in activities of daily living. Some studies have been based on cross-sectional patient-level data. Others have been based on longitudinal, region-level data; they have investigated whether regions (e.g. states undergoing more rapid medical innovation have exhibited larger improvements in health. And some studies have been based on longitudinal, disease-level data; they have investigated whether the medical conditions undergoing more rapid innovation have exhibited larger gains in health outcomes. Innovation related to some specific major diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer has been investigated, but the overall impact of innovation related to other major diseases (e.g. diabetes has not.These studies provide considerable support for the hypothesis that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. It would be desirable to apply these methods to data from developing countries.

  7. Health impact assessment in planning: Development of the design for health HIA tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Ann; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Krizek, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    How can planners more systematically incorporate health concerns into practical planning processes? This paper describes a suite of health impact assessment tools (HIAs) developed specifically for planning practice. Taking an evidence-based approach the tools are designed to fit into existing planning activities. The tools include: a short audit tool, the Preliminary Checklist; a structured participatory workshop, the Rapid HIA; an intermediate health impact assessment, the Threshold Analysis; and a set of Plan Review Checklists. This description provides a basis for future work including assessing tool validity, refining specific tools, and creating alternatives.

  8. The health cost of energy. The health impacts of the different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of impacts of the different energy sources on public health. After a discussion of general aspects regarding this issue, the author addresses the identification and assessment of risks. While referring to different statistical data, he discusses the impacts of accidents in terms of dead, injured or evacuated people. He also addresses health impacts during a normal operation of power plants, i.e. in the case of nuclear plants (issue of exposure to various levels of radiation at the different steps of fuel cycle), of carbon-based plants (health risks and impacts during coal extraction, due to CO 2 emissions and to other toxic emissions, due to atmospheric pollution, identified risks, modelling attempts, assessment of a loss in life expectancy), and of other energies. While acknowledging that there are still many unknowns to assess these health impacts, the author compares these assessments. A summarized version of this article is proposed, in which the author briefly comments data regarding severe accidents related to energy production, discusses health consequences of electric power production and use, and makes a distinction between the most and less hazardous energies as far as public health is concerned

  9. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  10. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co......-sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how common offshoring risks are perceived and alleviated when adopting the co...

  11. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  12. Health Care Facilities Resilient to Climate Change Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Paterson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events and create risks that will impact health care facilities. Health care facilities will need to assess climate change risks and adopt adaptive management strategies to be resilient, but guidance tools are lacking. In this study, a toolkit was developed for health care facility officials to assess the resiliency of their facility to climate change impacts. A mixed methods approach was used to develop climate change resiliency indicators to inform the development of the toolkit. The toolkit consists of a checklist for officials who work in areas of emergency management, facilities management and health care services and supply chain management, a facilitator’s guide for administering the checklist, and a resource guidebook to inform adaptation. Six health care facilities representing three provinces in Canada piloted the checklist. Senior level officials with expertise in the aforementioned areas were invited to review the checklist, provide feedback during qualitative interviews and review the final toolkit at a stakeholder workshop. The toolkit helps health care facility officials identify gaps in climate change preparedness, direct allocation of adaptation resources and inform strategic planning to increase resiliency to climate change.

  13. Offshoring and financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    During the 20th century all economic structures underwent the impact of two epochal phenomena, the communications revolution and the financialization of economy. As a consequence of the never ending technological progress, the first has repeatedly reduced the friction of distance, provoking a radical change in the map of locational advantages. The result was a new model of international distribution of production that projected its effects to the core of business management, triggering a disi...

  14. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Michelle; Hargrove, William L; Tomaka, Joe; Korc, Marcelo

    2017-06-13

    This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1) 84% for health services; (2) 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3) 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident's health through improved access to: (1) health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2) education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3) economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1) long distances to travel; (2) difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3) poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast Foods and their Impact on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashakiran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eat healthy and live healthy’ is one of the essential requirements for long life. Unfortunately, today’s world has been adapted to a system of consumption of foods which has several adverse effects on health. Lifestyle changes has compelled us so much that one has so little time to really think what we are eating is right Globalisation and urbanisation have greatly affected one’s eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as ‘Junk foods. Research into the possible health hazards on consumption of such high calorie foods has given an insight to avoid them, but unfortunately measures taken are not aseffective as they need to be. Diseases like coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus have seen a profound rise in developing countries and such unhealthy junk food consumption is one of the notable factors to its contribution. This global problem of consuming junk food on a large scale and its impact on health needs emphasis and health education which can greatly contribute to itslimited consumption and switching over to healthy eating habits for the better living. knowledge highlighting about the eating habits,nutritional aspects, quality of unhealthy foods, their health impact and preventive measures should be given to create awareness and render health education for a change towards good eating practices. Junk food and its impact on health have been reviewed from variousresources and have been systematically presented, so as to emphasize its ill effects and measures to be adapted towards healthy living.

  16. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Del Rio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Health Impact Assessment (HIA informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1 84% for health services; (2 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident’s health through improved access to: (1 health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2 education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3 economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1 long distances to travel; (2 difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3 poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  17. Paying for the Piper. Capital and labour in Britain's offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfson, C.; Foster, J.; Beck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This book makes the first serious appraisal of the current offshore safety regulatory regime instituted after Piper Alpha, and of the oil industry's attempts to contain subsequent unwelcome regulatory interference. It concludes that, as yet, offshore safety is little or not at all improved. The fraught history of trade unionism in the offshore industry and the largely successful strategies of employers to sustain a virtually union-free environment is also examined. The conflict over health and safety offshore has been inextricably bound up with the sometimes brutal struggle over union rights as the workforce has attempted to achieve a collective voice in the reform of safety and production standards. Paying for the Piper shows how the offshore unions have attempted to alter the unfavourable balance of class forces shaped by some of the world's most powerful concerns. (author)

  18. Nonconsensual clinical trials: a foreseeable risk of offshoring under global corporatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores the connection of offshoring and outsourcing to nonconsensual global pharmaceutical trials in low-income countries. After discussing reasons why the topic of nonconsensual offshored clinical trials may be overlooked in bioethics literature, I suggest that when pharmaceutical corporations offshore clinical trials today, nonconsensual experiments are often foreseeable and not simply the result of aberrant ethical conduct by a few individuals. Offshoring of clinical trials is structured so that experiments can be presented as health care in a unique form of outsourcing from the host country to pharmaceutical corporations. Bioethicists' assessments of the risks and potential benefits of offshore corporate pharmaceutical trials should therefore systematically include not only the hoped for benefits and the risks of the experimental drug but also the risk that subjects will not have consented, as well as the broader international consequences of nonconsensual experimentation.

  19. A Study on Estimating the Next Failure Time of Compressor Equipment in an Offshore Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangJe Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The offshore plant equipment usually has a long life cycle. During its O&M (Operation and Maintenance phase, since the accidental occurrence of offshore plant equipment causes catastrophic damage, it is necessary to make more efforts for managing critical offshore equipment. Nowadays, due to the emerging ICTs (Information Communication Technologies, it is possible to send health monitoring information to administrator of an offshore plant, which leads to much concern on CBM (Condition-Based Maintenance. This study introduces three approaches for predicting the next failure time of offshore plant equipment (gas compressor with case studies, which are based on finite state continuous time Markov model, linear regression method, and their hybrid model.

  20. Offshore hydrocarbon releases statistics, 1996. For the period 1.10.92 to 31.3.96 inclusive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Data on offshore hydrocarbon release incidents, which occurred between 1 October 1992 and 31 March 1996 and which were voluntarily reported to the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive are included in this report. It aims to provide data from the Hydrocarbon Releases Database for the offshore industry to use in its Offshore Safety Cases, and especially in cases where quantified risk assessment (QRA) is involved. (UK)

  1. Do nurses' personal health behaviours impact on their health promotion practice? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Muireann; Wills, Jane; Sykes, Susie

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing expectation in national and international policy and from professional bodies that nurses be role models for healthy behaviours, the rationale being that there is a relationship between nurses' personal health and the adoption of healthier behaviours by patients. This may be from patients being motivated by, and modelling, the visible healthy lifestyle of the nurse or that nurses are more willing to promote the health of their patients by offering public health or health promotion advice and referring the patient to support services. An integrated systematic review was conducted to determine if nurses' personal health behaviour impacted on (1) their health promotion practices, and (2) patient responses to a health promotion message. Medline, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A narrative synthesis was conducted. 31 studies were included in the review. No consistent associations were noted between nurses' weight, alcohol use, or physical activity level and their health promotion practice, although smoking appeared to negatively impact on the likelihood of discussing and engaging in cessation counselling. Nurses who reported confidence and skills around health promotion practice were more likely to raise lifestyle issues with patients, irrespective of their own personal health behaviours. The two studies included in the review that examined patient responses noted that the perceived credibility of a public health message was not enhanced by being delivered by a nurse who reported adopting healthy behaviours. Although it is assumed that nurses' personal health behaviour influences their health promotion practice, there is little evidence to support this. The assertion in health care policy that nurses should be role models for healthy behaviours assumes a causal relationship between their health behaviours and the patient response and adoption of public health messages that is not borne out by the research evidence. Copyright

  2. Crisis in the health sector: Impact on nurses' working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Lázaro, Alberto; Blanch-Ribas, Josep M; Roldán-Merino, Juan Francisco; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Ana María

    In a context of economic crisis and policies to reduce the public deficit, the budgets of the Catalan Health Institute (CHI) were cut by 15.33% between 2010 and 2014. To assess the perceived impact on nurses' work conditions of measures to contain health spending. The study design was descriptive and transversal. A sample of 1,760 nurses from the province of Barcelona answered a questionnaire on the perceived impact of health spending containment measures implemented in their workplace during the early years of the crisis. Among the main aspects of the perceived impact of these measures, 86.6% of the nurses identified a pay cut and an increase in the following relevant parameters of their working conditions: number of hours worked (66.7%), final ratio of treated patients (35.2%), task complexity and workload (75.3%), rotation through various departments (31.5%), work shifts (21.4%) or work areas (23.4%), job insecurity (58.4%) and loss of employment by dismissal (6.6%) or non-renewal of contract (9%). The perceived impact of the crisis showed a triple negative component: Pay cut, work overload and job insecurity. As a combined effect of this multiple trend, the nurses acknowledged a deterioration in their working conditions and quality of working life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Health Impacts of Climate Change-Induced Subzero Temperature Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Maria-Monika; Log, Torgrim

    2017-07-20

    General fire risk and the special risk related to cold climate cellulosic drying processes are outlined. Four recent subzero temperatures fires are studied with respect to health impacts: a wooden village fire, a single wood structure fire, a wildland urban interface (WUI) fire and a huge wildland fire. The health impacts range from stress related to loss of jobs, psychological effects of lost possessions, exposure to smoke and heat as well as immediate, or delayed, loss of lives. These four fires resulted in 32 fatalities, 385 persons hospitalized for shorter or longer periods, 104 structures lost and 1015 km² of wildland burned north of, and just south of, the Arctic Circle. It is shown that the combination of subzero temperature dry weather, strong winds, changing agricultural activities and declining snowpack may lead to previously anticipated threats to people and the environment. There are reasons to believe that these fires are a result of the ongoing climate changes. Risk impacts are discussed. Rural districts and/or vulnerable populations seem to be most affected. Training methods to identify and better monitor critical fire risk parameters are suggested to mitigate the health impacts of a possibly increasing number of such fires.

  4. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens

  5. Assessing Health Impacts within Environmental Impact Assessments: An Opportunity for Public Health Globally Which Must Not Remain Missed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the member states of the United Nations 190 of 193 have regulated Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA which is a systematic process to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental impacts of industry development projects before these occur. However, the routine and comprehensive assessment of health impacts within EIAs remains underdeveloped. Focusing, as an example, on the risks to global health from the global shift in the mining industry towards Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC, this viewpoint details why connecting with EIA is an essential task for the health system. Although existing knowledge is out of date in relation to global practice we identify how health has been included, to some extent, in High Income Country EIAs and the institutional requirements for doing so. Using arguments identified by industry themselves about requiring a ‘social license to operate’, we conclude that EIA regulations provide the best current mechanism to ensure health protection is a core aspect in the decision making process  to approve projects.

  6. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  7. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  8. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  9. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  10. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  11. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  13. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  14. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  15. Health impacts of power-exporting plants in northern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, Allen; Chandru, Santosh; Mendoza-Domínguez, Alberto; Russell, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, rapid population and economic growth on the U.S.–Mexico border has spurred a dramatic increase in electricity demand. In response, American energy multinationals have built power plants just south of the border that export most of their electricity to the U.S. This development has stirred considerable controversy because these plants effectively skirt U.S. air pollution regulations in a severely degraded international airshed. Yet to our knowledge, this concern has not been subjected to rigorous scrutiny. This paper uses a suite of air dispersion, health impacts, and valuation models to assess the human health damages in the U.S. and Mexico caused by air emissions from two power-exporting plants in Mexicali, Baja California. We find that these emissions have limited but nontrivial health impacts, mostly by exacerbating particulate pollution in the U.S., and we value these damages at more than half a million dollars per year. These findings demonstrate that power-exporting plants can have cross-border health effects and bolster the case for systematically evaluating their environmental impacts. - Highlights: ► We estimate the health effects of emissions from Mexican electric power plants exporting to the U.S. ► The plants have limited but nontrivial effects, mostly from particulate pollution in the U.S. ► We value these damages at more than half a million dollars per year. ► Hence, power-exporting plants can have significant cross-border health effects.

  16. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; hide

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  18. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, N E; Nam, K M; Reilly, J M; Paltsev, S; Prinn, R G; Webster, M D; Wu, S

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  19. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  20. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    contrast, in other parts of the world, and in particular in the Gulf of Mexico, tropical storms are likely to trigger severe direct damage to structures, resulting in platform capsizing, sinking or grounding. The in-depth analysis of the incident records also showed that the natural event was often just the triggering cause of the accident, which was frequently accompanied by contributing factors (e.g. corrosion, fatigue, wrong procedures, etc.). Under these circumstances, not only extreme storms, but also storms with moderate intensity can trigger incidents. Due to the high density of offshore structures and the unique environmental conditions promoting fatigue and corrosion, the North Sea is the area with the highest number of incidents recorded in Europe, as well as the area with the highest number of incidents at semi-submersible units in the world. About 4% of all reported global Natech events at offshore infrastructures involved casualties, and 2.6% for the European incident subset. Hazardous materials releases were documented for 21 events in Europe, resulting in fires and hydrocarbon spills polluting the sea. Furthermore, a surprisingly high number of severe events occurred during towing which highlights the impact of natural hazards on the safety of offshore transfer operations.